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Figure 3: Phase-contrast microscopic appearance of cultured vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) exposed to various udenafi l concentrations. Confluent cells exposed to (a) 0 μmol/l udenafi l, (b) 1 μmol/l udenafi l, and (c) 10 μmol/l udenafi l for 24 h displayed dose-dependent cytopathic changes. In 100 μmol/l udenafi l (d), most of the cells were detached. In 1 mmol/l udenafi l (e), there were few adherent cells. Scale bars, 50μm

Figure 3: Phase-contrast microscopic appearance of cultured vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) exposed to various udenafi l concentrations. Confluent cells exposed to (a) 0 μmol/l udenafi l, (b) 1 μmol/l udenafi l, and (c) 10 μmol/l udenafi l for 24 h displayed dose-dependent cytopathic changes. In 100 μmol/l udenafi l (d), most of the cells were detached. In 1 mmol/l udenafi l (e), there were few adherent cells. Scale bars, 50μm