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   2012| July-August  | Volume 44 | Issue 4  
    Online since August 3, 2012

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Experimental evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of simvastatin and atorvastatin
Swapnil R Jaiswal, Smita D Sontakke
July-August 2012, 44(4):475-479
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99311  PMID:23087508
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of atorvastatin and simvastatin in different experimental models in mice and rats. Materials and Methods: Analgesic activity of simvastatin and atorvastatin was assessed in tail flick model in rats (n = 6), where it was compared with aspirin and tramadol and in acetic acid induced writhing in mice (n = 6), where it was compared with aspirin. Anti-inflammatory activity of statins was evaluated using carrageenin induced paw edema and formalin induced arthritis in rats. Results: In the tail flick method, analgesic effect of tramadol was significantly more than the other drugs except at two observation times, when it was comparable to simvastatin and atorvastatin. Effect of simvastatin was found to be comparable to aspirin. In acetic acid induced writhing method, analgesic activity of simvastatin was comparable to that of aspirin while that of atorvastatin was significantly less. In carrageenin induced paw edema in rats, both simvastatin and atorvastatin showed anti-inflammatory activity which was comparable to aspirin. Both the statins exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity (P < 0.01) in formalin induced arthritis model though less than aspirin (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study if substantiated by further experimental and clinical research suggest that simvastatin and atorvastatin may play an adjuvant role, which may be particularly beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, especially when there is coexisting dyslipidemia.
  14 4,654 611
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-induced Steven Johnson syndrome in an HIV-infected patient
Syed Ahmed Taqi, Syed Ahmed Zaki, Angadi Rajasab Nilofer, Lateef Begum Sami
July-August 2012, 44(4):533-535
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99346  PMID:23087524
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is a widely prescribed antimicrobial for the management of several uncomplicated infections. It is commonly used for the treatment and prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in the HIV-infected population. The adverse reaction to TMP/SMX is more frequent and severe in HIV-infected patients as compared to the general population. Here, we report a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) secondary to TMP/SMX. The patient had a generalized cutaneous reaction with involvement of the eyes, oral cavity, and genitals. He had elevated hepatic alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme. TMP/SMX therapy was stopped and supportive treatment was started. His condition improved after eight days of stopping TMP/SMX therapy.
  9 4,669 129
Antidepressant-like activity of anthocyanidins from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers in tail suspension test and forced swim test
Pallavi B Shewale, Rupali A Patil, Yogesh A Hiray
July-August 2012, 44(4):454-457
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99303  PMID:23087504
Aim: Flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn (Malvaceae) popularly known as "China-rose flowers" contain flavonoids. Flavonoids have been found to have antidepressant activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antidepressant activity of flavonoids in H. rosa-sinensis flowers with possible involvement of monoamines. Materials and Methods: Anti-depressant activity of methanol extract containing anthocyanins (MHR) (30 and 100 mg/kg) and anthocyanidins (AHR) (30 and 100 mg/ kg) of H. rosa-sinensis flowers were evaluated in mice using behavioral tests such as tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The mechanism of action involved in antidepressant activity was investigated by observing the effect of extract after pre-treatment with low dose haloperidol, prazosin and para-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA). Results: Present study exhibited significant decrease in immobility time in TST and FST, similar to that of imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) which served as a positive control. The extract significantly attenuated the duration of immobility induced by Haloperidol (50 μg/ kg, i.p., a classical D 2 -like dopamine receptor antagonist), Prazosin (62.5 μg/kg, i.p., an α1 -adrenoceptor antagonist) and p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg, i.p., × 3 days; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) in both TST and FST. Conclusion: It can be concluded that MHR and AHR possess potential antidepressant activity (through dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic mechanisms) and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of CNS disorders and provides evidence at least at preclinical levels.
  9 3,864 346
Analgesic activity of the ethanolic extract of Shorea robusta resin in experimental animals
Tariq Ahmad Wani, Dhirendra Kumar, Raju Prasad, Pawan Kumar Verma, Kaustuk K Sardar, Surendra Kumar Tandan, Dinesh Kumar
July-August 2012, 44(4):493-499
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99322  PMID:23087512
Aim: Shorea robusta (Sal), an important traditional Indian medicinal plant used in various ailments and rituals and the indigenous use of the resin of this plant as a medicament for treatment of various inflammatory conditions is well documented in literature. In the present study, ethanolic extract of S. robusta resin (SRE) was evaluated for its analgesic activity by making use of different central and peripheral pain models. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of SRE was assessed by employing different pain models such as, i) hot plate and tail flick tests for central analgesia, ii) acetic acid- induced writhing (peripheral analgesic model), iii) formalin-induced hind paw licking (both central and peripheral model), iv) carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia (peripheral analgesic model) and v) post-surgical pain (peripheral analgesic model). Results: The extract produced significant central and peripheral analgesic effects, as is evident from increase in reaction time in hot plate and tail flick tests, inhibition in writhing counts in acetic acid-induced writhing test, inhibition of licking time in formalin-induced hind paw licking, increased pain threshold in paw withdrawal latency in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and increased paw withdrawal threshold in post-surgical pain. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate marked antinociceptive effects of SRE.
  9 4,413 292
Acute and sub acute toxicity and efficacy studies of Hippophae rhamnoides based herbal antioxidant supplement
Rashid Ali, Raisuddin Ali, Abhinav Jaimini, Dhruv Kumar Nishad, Gaurav Mittal, Om Prakash Chaurasia, Raj Kumar, Aseem Bhatnagar, Shashi Bala Singh
July-August 2012, 44(4):504-508
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99329  PMID:23087514
Objectives: Present study was carried out to evaluate acute and subacute toxicity and efficacy of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) based herbal antioxidant supplement (HAOS). Materials and Methods: In vivo toxicity studies were performed in male balb 'C' mice by oral administration. Acute toxicity study was done at doses ranging from 2000 to 10 000 mg/ kg while in subacute studies, HAOS was given at doses of 2000, 4000, and 8000 mg/kg body weight. Animals were observed for any toxic sign and symptoms periodically. At completion of study animals were sacrificed; their hematological, biochemical parameters were analyzed and histopathology of vital organs was done. In vivo efficacy studies in human volunteers were done and the levels of vitamin A and Vitamin C in blood samples were analyzed in comparison to a similar commercially available formulation. Results: No mortality and any clinical signs of toxicity were found in HAOS administered group of animals. There were no significant alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters. Histopathological analysis of vital organs showed normal architecture in all the HAOS administered groups. Human studies showed an increase of 32% and 172% in Vitamin A and Vitamin C levels respectively in term of bioavailability. Conclusion: The data obtained indicate no toxicity of this antioxidant supplement up to the highest dose studied. Efficacy in terms of increased bioavailability of vitamin A and C in human volunteers indicates the clinical usefulness of the supplement.
  7 3,596 251
Basic biostatistics for post-graduate students
Ganesh N Dakhale, Sachin K Hiware, Abhijit T Shinde, Mohini S Mahatme
July-August 2012, 44(4):435-442
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99297  PMID:23087501
Statistical methods are important to draw valid conclusions from the obtained data. This article provides background information related to fundamental methods and techniques in biostatistics for the use of postgraduate students. Main focus is given to types of data, measurement of central variations and basic tests, which are useful for analysis of different types of observations. Few parameters like normal distribution, calculation of sample size, level of significance, null hypothesis, indices of variability, and different test are explained in detail by giving suitable examples. Using these guidelines, we are confident enough that postgraduate students will be able to classify distribution of data along with application of proper test. Information is also given regarding various free software programs and websites useful for calculations of statistics. Thus, postgraduate students will be benefitted in both ways whether they opt for academics or for industry.
  6 11,763 1,997
Alloxan: An unpredictable drug for diabetes induction?
Monika Misra, Umme Aiman
July-August 2012, 44(4):538-539
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99348  PMID:23087526
  6 2,412 190
Antibacterial activity of the venom of Heterometrus xanthopus
Umair Ahmed, Malik Mujaddad-ur-Rehman, Nauman Khalid, Sardar Atiq Fawad, Anees Fatima
July-August 2012, 44(4):509-511
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99332  PMID:23087515
Heterometrus xanthopus (Scorpion) is one of the most venomous and ancient arthropods. Its venom contains anti-microbial peptides like hadrurin, scorpine, Pandinin 1, and Pandinin 2 that are able to effectively kill multidrug-resistant pathogens. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-bacterial activity of H. xanthopus venom. Six Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains were tested against 1/100, 1/10, and 1/1 fractions of distilled water diluted and crude venom. 1/100 and 1/10 dilutions were not successful in any of the six bacterial strains studied while the 1/1 dilution was effective on Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 with highest zone of inhibition were obtained on B. subtilis. Crude venom was effective against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 14506, B. subtilis, S. typhimurium, and P. aeruginosa. The most effective results were observed on B. subtilis.
  6 3,407 157
Insulin catalyzes the curcumin-induced wound healing: An in vitro model for gingival repair
Neetu Singh, Vishal Ranjan, Deeba Zaidi, Hari Shyam, Aparna Singh, Divya Lodha, Ramesh Sharma, Umesh Verma, Jaya Dixit, Anil K Balapure
July-August 2012, 44(4):458-462
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99304  PMID:23087505
Objectives: Human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) play a major role in the maintenance and repair of gingival connective tissue. The mitogen insulin with IGFs etc. synergizes in facilitating wound repair. Although curcumin (CUR) and insulin regulate apoptosis, their impact as a combination on hGF in wound repair remains unknown. Our study consists of: 1) analysis of insulin-mediated mitogenesis on CUR-treated hGF cells, and 2) development of an in vitro model of wound healing. Materials and Methods: Apoptotic rate in CUR-treated hGF cells with and without insulin was observed by AnnexinV/PI staining, nuclear morphological analysis, FACS and DNA fragmentation studies. Using hGF confluent cultures, wounds were mechanically created in vitro and incubated with the ligands for 48 h in 0.2% fetal bovine serum DMEM. Results: CUR alone showed dose-dependent (1-50 μM) effects on hGF. Insulin (1 μg/ml) supplementation substantially enhanced cell survival through up-regulation of mitogenesis/anti-apoptotic elements. Conclusions: The in vitro model for gingival wound healing establishes that insulin significantly enhanced wound filling faster than CUR-treated hGF cells over 48 h. This reinforces the pivotal role of insulin in supporting CUR-mediated wound repair. The findings have significant bearing in metabolic dysfunctions, e.g. diabetes, atherosclerosis, etc., especially under Indian situations.
  5 2,808 196
Platycodon grandiflorus alleviates DNCB-induced atopy-like dermatitis in NC/Nga mice
Sang-Joon Park, Hyang-Ae Lee, Jong Woo Kim, Byoung-Seok Lee, Eun-Joo Kim
July-August 2012, 44(4):469-474
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99306  PMID:23087507
Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect of crude extract from Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) roots on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Materials and Methods: To develop atopic dermatitis-like lesions, 200 μl of 0.3% 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitro benzene (DNCB) in acetone/olive oil (3:1) was applied 3 times a week for 2 weeks on the shaved skin of their backs. PG extract was dissolved in saline and orally administrated at concentrations of 300 and 500 mg/kg every day for 2 weeks. The therapeutic effect of PG on AD-like skin lesions was assessed by measuring skin severity scores and epithermal thickness, serum total immunoglobulin (Ig) E, histopathological findings for inflammatory cells including mast cells, macrophage and T cells, and mRNA expression of various cytokines related to the inflammatory and allergic response. The significance of inter-group differences was analyzed using the ANOVA test. Data were considered to be significant when P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. Results: Oral treatment of PG suppressed AD-like skin lesions according to the assessment of skin severity and epithermal thickness in the DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice. This alleviation was further correlated with a reduction of elevated serum total IgE or cytokine mRNA in the PG-treated group compared with vehicle-treated positive group. In addition, infiltrated inflammatory cells decreased on the skin lesions compared with vehicle-treated group. Conclusion: These results suggest that PG may have a potential therapeutic effect for AD via the inhibition of both inflammatory and allergic reaction.
  5 3,472 101
Phase I clinical trials of anticancer drugs in healthy volunteers: Need for critical consideration
Pooja Gupta, Veena Gupta, Yogendra K Gupta
July-August 2012, 44(4):540-542
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99350  PMID:23087528
  4 2,128 200
The in vitro anti-viral potential of Setarud (IMOD™), a commercial herbal medicine with protective activity against acquired immune deficiency syndrome in clinical trials
Rezvan Zabihollahi, Rahele Namazi, Mohammad Reze Aghasadeghi, Azar Farhang Esfahani, Seyed Mehdi Sadat, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi
July-August 2012, 44(4):448-453
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99301  PMID:23087503
Objectives: Setarud (IMOD™) is a herbal medicine with beneficial effect for patients suffering Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and has been approved for IV (intra venues) injection. The beneficial effect of IMOD administration for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient has been proved in previous clinical trials. Here the in vitro inhibitory effect of IMOD against HIV-1, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and murine leukemia viruses (MLV) was evaluated. Materials and Methods: HIV single cycle replication and HSV plaque reduction assays were used to evaluate the anti-viral effect. The level of HIV replication was monitored by p24 capture Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The single round infection [with green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter MLV and HIV], virucidal and time-of-additions (HSV) assays were utilized to determine the mode of anti-viral activity. The toxicity of IMOD for cells was monitored by XTT (sodium 3_-[1 (phenylaminocarbonyl)- 3,4-tetrazolium]-bis (4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzene sulfonic acid) cell proliferation assay kit. Results: IMOD inhibited 50% of HIV-1 and HSV replication (IC 50 ) at 6.5 × 10 -4 and 4.3 × 10 -3 V/V concentrations, respectively. The IC 50 value against HIV-1 and MLV infection were 6 × 10 -4 V/V and 4.9 × 10 -4 V/V. Virucidal assay showed that IMOD reduces the potency of HIV and HSV particles to 41 and 54% of control, respectively. Time-of-addition study revealed that IMOD inhibits the replication of HSV at a stage after penetration of virions to the target cells. Conclusions: Data from this study indicate that IMOD has significant anti-viral activity against HIV, HSV and MLV. Setarud could be subjected to further investigation after isolation of the constituents and determination of the toxic components.
  4 2,491 129
Phenobarbital induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a child
Sumit Gaur, Rupali Agnihotri
July-August 2012, 44(4):531-532
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99344  PMID:23087523
Phenobarbital, an antiepileptic agent has numerous adverse reactions including Stevens- Johnson syndrome (SJS), a rare medical emergency. A 12-year-old male epileptic child with phenobarbital-induced SJS was referred for the management of severe pain in relation to extensively decayed molar tooth and oral mucosal ulcerations. The patient was managed by withdrawal of phenobarbital and palliative treatment of the lesions.
  3 2,624 137
Thyroid disruptors and their possible clinical implications
Mangala Bhaskar Murthy, Bhaskar K Murthy
July-August 2012, 44(4):542-543
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99351  PMID:23087529
  3 1,984 127
Investigation of anthelmintic potential of oyster mushroom Pleurotus florida
Aditya Ganeshpurkar, Santosh Singh Bhadoriya, Priya Pardhi, Gopal Rai
July-August 2012, 44(4):539-540
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99349  PMID:23087527
  3 2,027 110
Nitric oxide in the hippocampal cortical area interacts with naloxone in inducing pain
Zahra K Hafeshjani, Manizheh Karami, Masoomeh Biglarnia
July-August 2012, 44(4):443-447
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99299  PMID:23087502
Objective: Role of nitric oxide (NO) in reversing morphine anti-nociception has been shown. However, the interaction between NO and naloxone-induced pain in the hippocampus is unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of molecule NO in naloxone-induced pain and its possible interaction with naloxone into cortical area 1 (CA1) of hippocampus. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (250-350 g), provided by Pasteur Institute of Iran, were housed two per cage with food and water ad libitum. The animals' skulls were cannulated bilaterally at coordinates adjusted for CA1 of hippocampus (AP: -3.8; L: ±1.8- 2.2: V: 3) by using stereotaxic apparatus. Each experimental group included 6-8 rats. To induce inflammation pain, the rats received subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of formalin (50 μL at 2.5%) once prior to testing. To evaluate the nociceptive effect of naloxone, the main narcotic antagonist of morphine (0.1-0.4 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) 10 min before injection of formalin. Injections of L-arginine, a precursor of NO, and N G -Nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS), intra-CA1, were conducted orderly prior to the administration of naloxone. The pain induction was analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Naloxone at the lower doses caused a significant (P<0.01) pain in the naloxone-treated animals. However, pre-administration (1-2 min) of L-arginine (0.04, 0.08, 0.15, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 μg/rat, intra-CA1) reversed the response to naloxone. But, the response to L-arginine was blocked by pre-microinjection (1-2 min) of L-NAME (0.15, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 μg/rat), whilst, L-arginine or L-NAME alone did not induce pain behavior. Conclusion: NO in the rat hippocampal CA1 area is involved in naloxone-induced nociception.
  3 2,357 211
Effect of anti-tuberculosis therapy on polymorphic drug metabolizing enzyme CYP2C9 using phenytoin as a probe drug
Melvin George, Deepak Gopal Shewade, Saka Vinod Kumar, Chandrasekaran Adithan
July-August 2012, 44(4):485-488
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99314  PMID:23087510
Objectives: Patients on anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) are more prone to drug interactions in the presence of coexisting illnesses which warrant drug therapy. Rifampicin is a strong CYP enzyme inducer while isoniazid is a potent CYP inhibitor. The objective of the study was to find the net effect of one month ATT on CYP2C9 enzyme and to correlate it with respect to the CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: Forty eight newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients were included in the study based on the inclusion-exclusion criteria. Before commencing ATT, they were given a single dose of phenytoin 300 mg as a probe drug for CYP2C9. Blood sample was collected after three hours to carry out CYP2C9 genotyping by PCR-RFLP method. Phenotyping for CYP2C9 enzyme was done by measuring the ratio of phenytoin and its metabolite p-HPPH (para hydroxy phenyl hydantoin) by reverse phase HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method before and after one month of ATT. Results: In the CYP2C9*1*1 genotype, the mean plasma concentrations of phenytoin before and after one month of ATT were 5.2 ± 0.3 μg/ml and 3.5 ± 0.4 μg/ml respectively, a reduction by 33% showing significant induction (P < 0.001). There was also significant decrease in the metabolic ratio after one month of ATT from 23.2 ± 4.8 to 10.1 ± 1.9 (P < 0.001). The metabolic ratio was also observed to reduce significantly ( P < 0.05) when the CYP2C9*1*2, CYP2C9*1*3, and CYP2C9*3*3 data were pooled together. Conclusion: The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2C9 gene does not affect the induction potential of ATT.
  3 2,560 180
Clopidogrel-induced spontaneous pectoral hematoma
Mehmet Akif Cakar, Ibrahim Kocayigit, Ercan Aydin, Hakan Demirci, Huseyin Gunduz
July-August 2012, 44(4):526-527
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99342  PMID:23087521
Clopidogrel is an oral antiplatelet agent used in the treatment of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease and cerebrovascular disease. Gastrointestinal symptomsincluding nausea, diarrhea and constipation are the common side effects ofthis drug. Serious side effects like intracranial hemorrhage and severe neutropenia were also reported but spontaneous pectoral hematoma due to the clopidogrel has not been reported previously. We present a case of large spontaneous pectoral hematoma during clopidogrel therapy in an elderly woman.
  2 2,687 96
Clonazepam in the treatment of essential palatal tremors
Aditya A Pandurangi, Raghavendra B Nayak, Govind S Bhogale, Nanasaheb M Patil, Sameeran S Chate, Sunny Chattopadhaya
July-August 2012, 44(4):528-530
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99343  PMID:23087522
Essential Palatal tremor (EPT) is a rare disorder presenting as unilateral or bilateral rhythmic involuntary movements of the soft palate. There is mention of the utility of benzodiazepines like clonazepam probably because of their gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) agonistic property. But no reports are available for the same. Here we report a 30-year old married female patient who presented with the complaints of pain in the lower part of face, behind the ears, back side of neck and clicking sound in her. General physical examination (GPE) revealed symmetrical rhythmic flapping movements of the soft palate and the uvula. Central nervous system (CNS) examination did not reveal any focal deficits and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal. She was diagnosed as having EPT and treated successfully with clonazepam.
  2 2,079 99
Authorship issues
Chetna Desai
July-August 2012, 44(4):433-434
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99294  PMID:23087500
  2 2,222 310
Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of flower extract Tecoma stans
S Kameshwaran, V Suresh, G Arunachalam, P Royal Frank, V Manikandan
July-August 2012, 44(4):543-544
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99352  PMID:23087530
  2 1,783 161
A quick inexpensive laboratory method in acute paracetamol poisoning could improve risk assessment, management and resource utilization
S.M.D.K. Ganga Senarathna, Shalini S Ranganathan, Nick Buckley, S.S.S.B.D. Preethi Soysa, B. M. Rohini Fernandopulle
July-August 2012, 44(4):463-468
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99305  PMID:23087506
Objectives: Acute paracetamol poisoning is an emerging problem in Sri Lanka. Management guidelines recommend ingested dose and serum paracetamol concentrations to assess the risk. Our aim was to determine the usefulness of the patient's history of an ingested dose of >150 mg/kg and paracetamol concentration obtained by a simple colorimetric method to assess risk in patients with acute paracetamol poisoning. Materials and Methods: Serum paracetamol concentrations were determined in 100 patients with a history of paracetamol overdose using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC); (reference method). The results were compared to those obtained with a colorimetric method. The utility of risk assessment by reported dose ingested and colorimetric analysis were compared. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the history of ingested dose was 0.578 and there was no dose cut-off providing useful risk categorization. Both analytical methods had less than 5% intra- and inter-batch variation and were accurate on spiked samples. The time from blood collection to result was six times faster and ten times cheaper for colorimetry (30 minutes, US$2) than for HPLC (180 minutes, US$20). The correlation coefficient between the paracetamol levels by the two methods was 0.85. The agreement on clinical risk categorization on the standard nomogram was also good (Kappa = 0.62, sensitivity 81%, specificity 89%). Conclusions: History of dose ingested alone greatly over-estimated the number of patients who need antidotes and it was a poor predictor of risk. Paracetamol concentrations by colorimetry are rapid and inexpensive. The use of these would greatly improve the assessment of risk and greatly reduce unnecessary expenditure on antidotes.
  2 4,570 165
A rare case of unilateral gynecomastia during antituberculous chemotherapy with isoniazid
BK Manjunatha Goud, Oinam Sarsina Devi, Bhavna Nayal, RN Devaki
July-August 2012, 44(4):521-522
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99340  PMID:23087519
Gynecomastia refers to enlargement of male breast (s) due to benign proliferation of glandular tissue and is caused by excessive estrogen. The etiology may be pathological, pharmacological, or idiopathic reasons. The present report describes a case of gynecomastia due to isoniazid therapy.
  1 2,482 112
A preliminary assessment of availability and pricing of children's medicines in government hospitals and private retail pharmacies in a district of Andhra Pradesh
Laveesh Ravindran, Mamata Bandyopadhyay, Chiranjib Bagchi, Santanu K Tripathi
July-August 2012, 44(4):536-537
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99347  PMID:23087525
  1 1,682 96
Evaluation of Anxiolytic effect of Erythrina mysorensis Gamb. in mice
Thandaga S Nagaraja, Riaz Mahmood, V Krishna, BS Thippeswamy, VP Veerapur
July-August 2012, 44(4):489-492
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99316  PMID:23087511
Aim and Objectives: To evaluate anxiolytic effect of stem bark ethanol and chloroform extracts of Erythrina mysorensis in mice. Materials and Methods: The anxiolytic activity was examined by using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT), and motor coordination by rotarod test (RRT). Twenty four Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups of six mice each. Group 1 received vehicle (normal saline); group 2 received diazepam (1 mg/kg); groups 3 and 4 received ethanolic and chloroform extract of Erythrina mysorensis, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively. Results: Mice treated with diazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant ( P < 0.001) increase ini the percentage of open arms entries and time spent whereas, in closed arm the number of entries and time spent were significantly ( P < 0.05) decreased. Oral administration of chloroform and ethanol extract of E. mysorensis exhibited significant ( P < 0.05) increase in the number of open arm entries and time spent with significant ( P < 0.05) reduction in number of entries and time spent in the closed arm as compared to group 1. Chloroform and ethanol extracts treated mice also produced significant increase in the number of rearings ( P < 0.05), assisted rearings and number of squares crossed ( P < 0.01). Rotarod test showed significant ( P < 0.01) reduction in motor activity at 45 min with diazepam and E. mysorensis extracts (400 mg/kg) as compared to groups 3 and 1. Conclusion: Erythrina mysorensis possess significant anxiolytic activity in the mice. It can be a promising anxiolytic agent.
  1 2,508 281
Efficacy of oral miltefosine in visceral leishmaniasis in rural West Bengal, India
Pradyumna Patra, Subhasish K Guha, Ardhendu Kumar Maji, Pabitra Saha, Swagata Ganguly, Abhiram Chakraborty, Pratip K Kundu, Sachchidananda Sarker, Krishnangshu Ray
July-August 2012, 44(4):500-503
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99326  PMID:23087513
Context: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as Kala-azar (KA) is a public health problem of tropical and subtropical countries, which infects about 12 million people annually, out of which about 1.5 million are new cases. India contributes a major share of the global burden of VL. For many years leishmaniasis has been treated with pentavalent antimonials. Antimony resistance is a problem in India and in other different geographic areas of the world. Amphotericin B deoxycholate and pentamidine isethionate are effective by parenteral administration and associated with toxicities. The quest for an effective, orally administered, non-toxic and less expensive alternative resulted in the identification of miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine). In India, therapeutic efficacy of miltefosine in VL was assessed by many groups of scientists, mainly from Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. No such data is available from West Bengal. Aims: The present study was designed to observe the efficacy of miltefosine in VL in rural West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 parasitologically proven VL patients participated in the study who received miltefosine in accordance with the National Vector Born Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) of India and were followed up for the following one year. Results: The overall efficacy of the drug was 93% and no significant adverse side effects were observed during the study period. Conclusions: The study concludes that miltefosine is effective, well tolerated, and easily administrable drug in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis at the field levels.
  1 2,644 182
Endosulfan induced early pathological changes in vital organs of rat: A biochemical approach
Sathyavathi Alva, D Damodar, Antony D'Souza, Urban J. A. D'Souza
July-August 2012, 44(4):512-515
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99335  PMID:23087516
Aim: To evaluate the pathogenesis in heart and liver by the early induction of biochemical and antioxidant derangements in rats exposed to endosulfan. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were gavaged with endosulfan (0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg/kg body weight in sunflower oil) for a period of 21 days (single dose at 24 h interval). Control and sunflower oil control groups were also maintained simultaneously. Rats were sacrificed on the 22 nd day posttreatment. Blood samples, heart and liver were collected and different biochemical parameters such as total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, amino acids and antioxidant and lipid peroxidation level were measured. Statistical analysis was carried out by one way ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni' post-hoc test. Results: Endosulfan induced a significant increase in the serum levels of total protein, amino acids, triglyceride, total cholesterol, free fatty acid and phospholipid levels in a dose-dependent manner. In the heart and liver, lipid peroxidation was increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner and the antioxidant levels such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent pattern. Conclusion: Exposure to endosulfan results in a significant derangement in the biochemical parameters with a decrease in antioxidant levels in the heart and liver. This is an early indication of pathogenesis in the vital organs of rats.
  1 2,063 123
Calcium antagonistic activity of Bacopa monniera in guinea-pig trachea
Shabana Channa, Ahsana Dar
July-August 2012, 44(4):516-518
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99336  PMID:23087517
Objective: To demonstrate the calcium antagonistic property of ethanol extract of Bacopa monniera in guinea-pig trachea. Materials and Methods: The dose response curves of CaCl 2 (1 × 10 -5 to 1 × 10 -1 M) were constructed in the absence and presence of ethanol extract of Bacopa monniera (100, 500 and 700 μg/ml) or nifedipine (1 × 10 -6 M) in guinea-pig trachea in calcium free high K + -MOPS-PSS (3-(N-morpholino)-propanesulphonic acid physiological salt solution). The data was analyzed by ANOVA followed by least significant difference test or by Student's 't' test for unequal variance when appropriate. A probability of at least P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The plant extract (500 and 700 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) depressed and shifted the calcium concentration-response curves (1 × 10 -3 - 1 × 10 -1 M) to rightward similar to that of nifedipine. Conclusions: Bacopa monniera extract exhibited calcium channel blocking activity in guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscles that may rationalize its relaxant action on guinea-pig trachea and its traditional use in respiratory disorders.
  1 2,059 112

July-August 2012, 44(4):546-546
Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,026 78
Stavudine induced acute necrotizing pancreatitis with tetany in a pediatric patient
Mahendra K Patel, Manish J Barvaliya, Tejas K Patel, CB Tripathi
July-August 2012, 44(4):523-525
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99341  PMID:23087520
A nine year old female patient presented with complaints of severe colicky abdominal pain, vomiting, and tingling with numbness for 3 days. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis associated with tetany due to anti-retroviral therapy was diagnosed. Stavudine was the probable causal agent. Unfortunately, the patient died due to severity of the reaction. High index of suspicion and early withdrawal of the offending drug may prevent further harm in such cases.
  - 1,872 104
Urine retention in a child treated with oral salbutamol
Enza D'Auria, Marzia Mandelli, Francesco Di Dio, Enrica Riva
July-August 2012, 44(4):519-520
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99338  PMID:23087518
It is known that voiding difficulties can be caused by some drugs, but little is known about the role about the route of administration, especially in children. We report here a case of a 3-year old Italian boy referred to the Pediatric Emergency Unit complaining of two episodes of acute urinary retention, both after therapy with oral salbutamol. In spite of recommendations to use inhaled salbutamol to treat acute wheezing, oral salbutamol is still sometimes used in some settings. Whereas other side effects of systemic salbutamol are described in children, to our knowledge this is the first description of acute urinary retention as an adverse drug reaction to oral salbutamol.
  - 2,142 99
Vasoactive agent buflomedil up-regulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury
Jin-Rong Tang, Le Wu, Jian-Hua Su, Ping Zhang, Long-Bin Yu, Hang Xiao
July-August 2012, 44(4):480-484
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.99312  PMID:23087509
Objectives: To study the effect of Buflomedil on the morphological repair on crush injury of sciatic nerve and also the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Materials and Methods: Rat sciatic nerves were crushed by pincers. All of the 400 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into: Sham-operated; saline; saline + VEGF-antibody; Buflomedil; and Buflomedil + VEGF antibody groups. The expression of VEGF in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), following crush injury to sciatic nerves, was studied by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry. The effects of Buflomedil on expression of VEGF and repair of neural pathology were also evaluated. Results: VEGF mRNA was significantly increased in Buflomedil and Buflomedil + VEGF-antibody groups, compared with other groups. The number of VEGF-positive neurons was significantly increased in the Buflomedil and the saline groups. Besides, Buflomedil also caused less pathological changes in DRGs. Conclusions: The vasoactive agent Buflomedil may decrease the pathological lesion and improve the functional rehabilitation of peripheral nerves, which may correlate to upregulation of the expression of VEGF, following crush injury to the peripheral nerves.
  - 2,100 106
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