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   2006| July-August  | Volume 38 | Issue 4  
 
 
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RESEARCH PAPER
Pharmacological evaluation of the extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus flowers on anxiolytic activity in mice
SD Ambavade, NA Mhetre, VD Tate, SL Bodhankar
July-August 2006, 38(4):254-259
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27021  
Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the anxiolytic activity of petroleum ether, alcohol and water extracts, obtained from the flowers of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn, in mice. Materials and Methods: Elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT) and foot-shock induced aggression (FSIA) were the screening tests used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the extracts on mice. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) served as the standard anxiolytic agent. Results: The animals receiving extracts or diazepam (1 mg/kg) showed an increase in the time spent, percent entries and total entries in the open arm of the EPM; increased ambulation, activity at centre and total locomotion in the OFT; and decreased fighting bouts in the FSIA, suggesting anxiolytic activity. Petroleum ether extract (10 mg/kg), alcoholic extract (10 mg/kg) and water extract (30 mg/kg) resulted in prominent activity in the mice. Petroleum ether extract (10 mg/kg) resulted in more prominent anxiolytic activity in the EPM and OFT than ethanolic or water extracts, but was less than that produced by diazepam (1 mg/kg). Conclusion: Petroleum ether extract of S. indicus flowers produces prominent anxiolytic activity in mice.
  15,476 995 20
Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of the methanol extract of Ficus benghalensis roots in rats
SY Gabhe, PA Tatke, TA Khan
July-August 2006, 38(4):271-275
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27024  
Objective: To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of the aerial roots of Ficus benghalensis (Family Moraceae). Materials and Methods: Various extracts of the aerial roots of Ficus benghalensis were evaluated for potential immunomodulatory activity, using the in vitro polymorphonuclear leucocyte (human neutrophils) function test. The methanol extract was evaluated for immunomodulatory activity in in vivo studies, using rats as the animal model. The extracts were tested for hypersensitivity and hemagglutination reactions, using sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as the antigen. Distilled water served as a control in all the tests. Results: The successive methanol and water extracts exhibited a significant increase in the percentage phagocytosis versus the control. In the in vivo studies, the successive methanol extract was found to exhibit a dose related increase in the hypersensitivity reaction, to the SRBC antigen, at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg. It also resulted in a significant increase in the antibody titer value, to SRBC, at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg in animal studies. Conclusion: The successive methanol extract was found to stimulate cell mediated and antibody mediated immune responses in rats. It also enhanced the phagocytic function of the human neutrophils, in vitro.
  9,833 848 19
EDITORIAL
Environmental pharmacology: A new discipline
SZ Rahman, RA Khan
July-August 2006, 38(4):229-230
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27017  
  9,969 324 3
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in human disease
VA Javiya, JA Patel
July-August 2006, 38(4):243-253
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27020  
Increasing attention has been focused on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the past decade. Compelling data have begun to unite work from various arenas, such as epidemiology and vascular biology. Clinical trials with synthetic PPAR agonists have exhibited therapeutic benefits in treating various chronic diseases like atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. The PPARs, a family of nuclear receptors (NRs), are a set of three receptor sub-types encoded by distinct genes. They function as lipid sensors to regulate a broad range of genes in many metabolically active tissues. The discovery of PPAR-specific ligands has led to a significant advancement in our understanding of the structure of these receptor proteins and molecular mechanisms of their ligand dependent activation. Herein, we have tried to delineate the role of PPARs as molecular targets for the development of new drugs to treat human metabolic diseases.
  7,353 782 14
RESEARCH LETTER
Effect of Asteracantha longifolia on haematological parameters in rats
RS Pawar, AP Jain, S Kashaw, A Singhai
July-August 2006, 38(4):285-286
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27028  
  7,372 354 5
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Glucagon like peptide-1: A new therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus
SK Patel, RK Goyal, IS Anand, JS Shah, HU Patel, CN Patel
July-August 2006, 38(4):231-237
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27018  
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous peptide secreted from the gut in response to the presence of food. GLP-1 and its longer acting analog exendin-4 have multiple synergistic effects on glucose dependent, insulin secretion pathways of the pancreatic β-cell and on plasticity in neuronal cells. Recently the development of these peptides as a novel therapeutic strategy for non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus and associated neuropathy has been the focus of much interest. Here we describe the biological actions of GLP-1 and its related analogs.
  6,885 694 2
Drugs and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
SK Das, DM Vasudevan
July-August 2006, 38(4):238-242
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27019  
Health complications associated with obesity include diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and associated co-morbidities including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Additionally, NASH has been associated with several drugs. Though steatohepatitis is a rare form of drug induced liver disease, it has generated great interest in the recent past. Oral hypoglycemic agents, lipid lowering agents, antihypertensives, and antiobesity medication underlie a significant proportion of well-recognized hepatotoxicity. While some medications have predictable toxicity, many more are associated with idiosyncratic reactions. The toxic mechanism appears to involve mitochondrial injury, impaired β -oxidation, generation of reactive oxygen species and ATP depletion. If a drug is suspected, it is probably prudent to stop this medication.
  7,159 343 4
RESEARCH PAPER
In vitro antioxidant properties of Salvia verbenaca L. hydromethanolic extract
S Khlifi, Y El Hachimi, A Khalil, N Es-Safi, A Belahyan, R Tellal, A El Abbouyi
July-August 2006, 38(4):276-280
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27025  
Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Salvia verbenaca L. towards fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids) and human, low density lipoproteins (LDL) peroxidation. Materials and Methods: Lipid peroxidation was carried out in the presence of the S. verbenaca L. hydromethanolic extract (10 and 100 g of extract/ml). CuSO4 (10 M) was used as the oxidation initiator. Conjugated dienes (CD) formation, oxygen consumption and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation were assessed to monitor the antioxidant properties of the plant extract. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at 50 g/ml was used as a standard antioxidant. The quantification of total polyphenolic compounds was carried out, according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The hydromethanolic extract of S. verbenaca showed a significant antioxidant effect at 100 g/mL. A strong inhibition of oxygen consumption (92%, P <0.001) and CD formation of LDL peroxidation (92%, P <0.001) as well as TBARS formation of linolenic acid oxidation (93%, P <0.001) were observed. The quantitative analysis revealed that the extract used contained a high amount of phenolic compounds, suggesting a possible role of these products in the observed antioxidant properties. Conclusion: S. verbenaca could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants.
  6,810 475 9
RESEARCH LETTER
Venom of a hill centipede Scolopendra viridicornis inhibits growth of human breast tumor in mice
T Bhagirath, B Chingtham, Y Mohen
July-August 2006, 38(4):291-292
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27031  
  6,699 244 2
RESEARCH PAPER
The effect of Hypericum perforatum extract against the neurochemical and behavioural changes induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in mice
M Mohanasundari, S Sethupathy, M Sabesan
July-August 2006, 38(4):266-270
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27023  
Objective: Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE), known for its antidepressant effect, has been explored in the present study for its protective role against MPTP induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Mice were treated with 20 mg/kg of MPTP, four injections i.p., at 2 h intervals within 24 h. HPE was administered at different doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg (p.o) in different groups once a day for seven days and the dose on the first day was given 30 min prior to first MPTP injection. Striatal dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, antioxidant status were analysed. The behavioural changes were studied using the rotarod test, hang test and narrow beam test. Results: HPE significantly ( P <0.05) improved the behavioural activities, striatal neurotransmitter levels and striatal antioxidant status in a dose dependent manner and significantly ( P <0.05) reduced TBARS levels. Conclusion: HPE possesses significant antioxidant activity and renders neuroprotection which was more pronounced at the dose of 300 mg/kg against MPTP induced neurotoxicity.
  5,632 549 2
MOLECULES OF THE MILLENNIUM
Ranolazine: A novel partial inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation for angina
KN Mahesh Kumar, S Sandhiya
July-August 2006, 38(4):302-304
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27040  
  5,598 441 1
RESEARCH LETTER
Emerging resistance to carbapenems in hospital acquired Pseudomonas infection: A cause for concern
Shashikala , R Kanungo, S Srinivasan, Sheela Devi
July-August 2006, 38(4):287-288
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27029  
  5,540 438 7
Implementation and results of an adverse drug reaction reporting programme at an Indian teaching hospital
Padma G.M Rao, B Archana, J Jose
July-August 2006, 38(4):293-294
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27032  
  4,307 462 3
RESEARCH PAPER
The effects of cyclophosphamide alone and in combination with ascorbic acid against murine ascites Dalton's lymphoma
BM Nicol, SB Prasad
July-August 2006, 38(4):260-265
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27022  
Objective : To evaluate the therapeutic activity of cyclophosphamide alone and in combination with ascorbic acid against murine ascites Dalton's lymphoma. Materials and Methods: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an anticancer drug with immunosuppressive activity, while ascorbic acid (AA) is an antioxidant. Ascites Dalton's lymphoma (DL) was maintained by intraperitoneal (i.p.) transplantation of tumor cells in Swiss albino mice. Tumor transplanted mice were divided into four groups. Group-I mice received normal saline only and served as control. Group-II mice were given 1% ascorbic acid through drinking water from the 5th to the 10th day. Group-III mice were injected i.p. with a single dose of CP (200 mg/kg) on the 10th day of tumor transplantation. Group IV mice received 1% ascorbic acid from the 5th day onwards and, then, a single dose of CP, i.p., on the 10th day of tumor transplantation. In groups III and IV, after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of CP treatment the liver, kidneys, spleen, and tumor tissue were collected for biochemical determinations. In group II, which received AA only from the 5th to the 10th day, the same tissues were collected on the 10th day of tumor transplantation. The changes in reduced glutathione (GSH) and carbohydrate in tumor cells as well as the liver, kidney, and spleen of tumor-bearing mice in relation to the antitumor activity of CP alone or in combination with AA were evaluated. The quantitative changes in sialic acid level of DL cells under these treatment conditions were also determined. Results: AA and CP combination in tumor-bearing mice was found to be more effective against DL as it caused a 257% increase in life span compared with control, while it was 106% with AA and 188% with CP alone (ANOVA, P < 0.001). The reduced glutathione (GSH) level increased in DL cells with tumor growth. Compared with CP alone, the combination treatment (AA + CP) resulted in a more pronounced effect causing decreases in non-protein thiol (NPSH) as well as sialic acid levels in DL cells (ANOVA, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The drug-mediated lowering of GSH levels in DL cells may be involved in the cytotoxicity due to CP (group-III) as well as AA + CP combination (group-IV). An overall decrease in the sialic acid content of DL cells after combination treatment may also play a role to bring about alterations in the tumor cells, cell-cell interaction and enhanced tumor regression.
  4,337 322 8
CORRESPONDENCE
Orphan diseases and drugs
D Badyal
July-August 2006, 38(4):299-300
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27036  
  3,842 395 2
Is enalapril and losartan combination irrational?
VR Tandon
July-August 2006, 38(4):295-296
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27033  
  3,620 219 2
RESEARCH LETTER
Effect of acute and chronic treatment of losartan potassium on tail-flick response in mice
PV Pandi, AN Nagappa
July-August 2006, 38(4):281-282
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27026  
  3,137 265 -
Effects of tamoxifen therapy on the endometrium in postmenopausal patients of breast cancer
S Gupta, VR Tandon, B Kapoor, A Gupta, GD Gupta, V Khajuria
July-August 2006, 38(4):289-290
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27030  
  3,214 182 -
Effect of single dose thalidomide on stress induced rise of plasma corticosterone in rats
CR Patil, SB Bhise, MS Bhatia
July-August 2006, 38(4):283-284
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27027  
  3,022 231 -
CORRESPONDENCE
Reply
CS Gautam, S Aditya
July-August 2006, 38(4):296-298
  2,396 178 1
Antiinflammatory activity of leaf and leaf callus of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.
S Ahmad
July-August 2006, 38(4):301-301
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27038  
  2,161 266 -
Reply
KK Sharma, K Sahaya, PK Mediratta
July-August 2006, 38(4):296-296
  2,235 153 -
WEB-WISE
Institute for one world health
J Singh
July-August 2006, 38(4):305-306
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27041  
  2,200 121 -
CORRESPONDENCE
Reply
GK Randhawa
July-August 2006, 38(4):300-300
  1,600 104 -
Reply
S Balian
July-August 2006, 38(4):301-301
  1,556 120 -
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