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   1994| January-March  | Volume 26 | Issue 1  
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Prospects and perspectives of natural plants products in medicine
SS Gupta
January-March 1994, 26(1):1-12
A vast majority of population particularly those living in villages depend largely on herbal medicines. Scientific data on a good number of medicinal plants investigated has been well documented. However, only very few drugs of plant origin could reach clinical use and the National Formulary could not adopt even a dozen of plant medicines. For this reason, a special effort is needed for development of herbal drugs having therapeutic utility. This article discusses in a broader perspectives several plants reported to have anti-asthmatic, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antifertility, antidiabetic and antiviral effects.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  37 4,861 1,688
Hepatoprotective activity of “jigrine” on liver damage caused by alcohol, Carbontetrachloride and paracetamol in rats
Kapur Vivek, KK Pillai, SZ Hussian, DK Balani
January-March 1994, 26(1):35-40
Jigrine is an Unani polypharmaceutical herbal formulation containing 1 4 medicinal plants, The effects of oral pretreatment with Jigrine (0.5 ml and 1 .O ml/ kg for 7 days ) were studied on hepatic damage induced by alcohol (40% alcohol 2.0 ml/ 100 g, po. for 21 days) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (1 :1 in groundnut oil, 0.1 ml/Kg, SC. on 20th day) and also with paracetamol (750 mg/kg, ip.) in rats. Biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, serum bilirubin, plasma prothrombin time and tissue lipid peroxides were estimated to assess the liver function. Alcohol - CCl4 and paracetamol treatment produced an increase in serum transaminases, bilirubin, plasma prothrombin time and lipid peroxides in liver. These effects were progressively reduced by pretreatment doses of "Jigrine". These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The activity of Jigrine was also comparable to Liv - 52,a known Ayurvedic hepatoprotective formulation. The study confirms the hepatoprotective activity of Jigrine and Liv - 52 and attributes it to the antioxidant property of the formulations.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  31 4,743 979
Effect of Cissus quadrangularis in accelerating healing process of experimentally fractured radius-ulna of dog: A preliminary study
DK Deka, LC Lahon, J Saikia, A Mukit
January-March 1994, 26(1):44-45
A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn (CQ) on the healing process of experimentally fractured radius-ulna of dog. CQ treated animals revealed faster initiation of healing process than the control animals on radiological and histopathological examinations. The treated group also revealed a decrease in serum calcium level to a greater extent than the control group. Healing was almost complete on 21 st day of fracture in the treated animals and remained incomplete in the control animals. No significant alteration of serum calcium level was observed on 21 st day of fracture in both the groups.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  14 7,553 590
Effect of picroliv and silymarin on liver regeneration in rats
Srivastava Savita, AK Srivastava, Srivastava Sudhir, GK Patnaik, BN Dhawan
January-March 1994, 26(1):19-22
Picroliv and silymarin are known to provide significant protection against liver damage in rats by hepatotoxic chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol, galactosamine and thioacetamide. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of picroliv and silymarin on partially hepatectomized liver of rats utilising macromolecular levels, DNA, RNA synthesis and mitotic figure as indices of regeneration. The levels of DNA, RNA, protein and cholesterol increased in the regenerating liver of rats being maximum at 46 and 120 hours post partial hepatectomy (PPH). DNA and RNA synthesis increased being maximum at 24 hour PPH as indicated by the tritiated thymidine and uridine incorporation studies. Later on mitoticfigure also showed an increasing trend in the residual liver. They were further enhanced when the animals were pretreated with picroliv or silymarin. These results suggest that these agents stimulate liver regeneration in the early stages.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  11 3,306 360
Gastric antiulcer activity of calcium channel blockers in rats
SM Jain, NS Parmar, DD Santani
January-March 1994, 26(1):29-34
This study has been undertaken to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) such as verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem against experimentally induced gastric ulcers. The parameters studied include volume of gastric secretion, free and total acidity, pepsin activity, ulcer index, gastric wall mucus content, dissolved mucosubstances of gastric juice such as total carbohydrates (total hexose, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid) and protein content of gastric juice using aspirin plus pylorus ligation (PL) model. CCBs significantly increased total carbohydrates of gastric juice. The protein content of gastric juice was significantly decreased. Thus a rise was observed in TC:PR ratio. Insoluble gastric wall mucus content was found to be increased in presence of CCBs. These results suggest that CCBs may act through prevention of gastric mucosal damage thereby strengthening the mucosal barrier
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  10 1,961 397
Involvement of oxygen free radicals in cardioprotective effect of rutin a naturally occurring flavonoid
Chopra Kanwaljit, Singh Manjeet
January-March 1994, 26(1):13-18
The ability of a flavonoid, rutin to inhibit the infarct size in rat heart was assessed. Anaes-thetised rats were subjected to coronary artery ligation for 72 h and infarct size was measured macroscopically using TTC staining. Systolic blood pressure and ECG were monitored. Rutin (30 mg/kg, i.p.) administered thirty minutes after CAL markedly reduced the infarct size and prevented the loss of "R" wave. However, drug treatment did not alter the heart rate and systolic blood pressure of animals. Rutin reduced coronary artery ligation - induced increase in serum malonyldialdehyde levels. In addition, rutin in vitro and in vivo demonstrated an inhibition of rat PMN-evoked and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. Moreover rutin significantly prevented the loss of glutathione peroxidase activity recorded 48 and 72 h after coronary artery ligation. The capacity of rutin to impair the generation of reactive oxygen species may be responsible for its beneficial effect to limit myocardial infarct size in rats.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  9 2,068 275
Prescription audit in an Indian hospital setting using the DDD (Defined Daily Dose) concept
MV Srishyla, Krishnamurthy Mahesh, MA Nagarani, Clare Sr Mary, C Andrade, BV Venkataraman
January-March 1994, 26(1):23-28
A prescription audit was undertaken in an Indian hospital setting to evaluate the feasibility of data acquisition methods and to determine the frequency of prescribing of four commonly used groups of drugs, viz., cardiovascular drugs (CVS drugs), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs including analgesics and antipyretics (NSAIDs), drugs acting on central nervous system (CNS drugs) and drugs used in acid peptic disease (APD drugs). An attempt was made to relate prescription data to age and sex of the patients. Mean ( SD drugs per prescription was 2.17 (1.22. The frequency of prescribing of NSAIDs, CNS drugs, CVS drugs and APD drugs was24.52% (624/2545) 13.36% (340/2545), 0.25% (21012545) and7.51% (19112545) respec-tively. The prescribing frequency of NSAlDs was higher in females than in males (p= 0.03). Frequency of prescribing of CVS drugs increased with age for both sexes (P < 0.0001). In the 31-40 age group, prescribing frequency of CVS drugs was significantly higher in males than in females (p= 0.003) while it was vice versa with NSAlDs (p= 0.04). There was significant though irregular difference in the prescribing frequency of NSAlDs (p= 0.05) and of CNS drugs (p= 0.0003) in males of different age groups. In males, the prescribing frequency of APD drugs was significantly lower in the below-20 age groups as compared with the above-20 age groups (p= 0.02). This study illustrates the feasibility and usefulness of conducting prescription audit in an Indian hospital setting employing internationally accepted methods of monitoring drug utilization.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  6 5,905 1,082
Anti-inflammatory activity of niosome encapsulated diclofenac sodium in arthritic rats
Naresh RA Raja, GK Pillai, N Udupa, G Chandrashekar
January-March 1994, 26(1):46-48
Synthetic analogues of liposomes prepared from non-ionic surfactants, known as niosomes, have been used as vesicular drug carriers. Diclofenacsodium has been entrapped in niosomes comprising Tween 85 and Tween 85-poloxamer F 108 mixture. Anti- inflammatory efficacy of these niosomes were compared with that of free diclofenac sodium in adjuvant induced arthritic rats. It was found that the niosomal diclofenac sodium formulations prepared by employing a 1:l combination of Tween 85 and poloxamer F 108 elicits a better and consistent anti-inflammatory activity for more than 72 hours after administration of a single dose.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  6 3,704 783
ELISA as diagnostic tool - prospects and implications
S Visalakshi, S Mohan
January-March 1994, 26(1):90-91
Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,124 117
Abstracts of research papers presented in the XXVI Annual Conference of Indian Pharmacological Society
January-March 1994, 26(1):63-89
Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,035 685
Hyperthermic effect of scorpion venom
BG Patel, MI Bhatt, KC Dave
January-March 1994, 26(1):57-58
Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,092 92
Effect of aureofungin on reproductive processes in albino rats
Shanbhag Veena, JN Dhuley, PH Raman, AM Mujumdar, SR Naik
January-March 1994, 26(1):59-60
Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,167 91
Further studies on the analgesic activity of compound 103/4
IS Thokchom, P Sisodia, P Pentiah
January-March 1994, 26(1):61-61
Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 4,418 109
Bronchodilator effects of sublingual nifedipine in allergic bronchial Asthma
Abraham Elsie, Deodhar Mariamma, MV Natu, VK Satija
January-March 1994, 26(1):62-62
Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,276 130
Effect of yohimbine in congestive cardiac failure
GB Shah, RK Goyal
January-March 1994, 26(1):41-43
The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of yohimbine in congestive cardiac failure. In anesthetized dogs propranolol significantly reduced the left ventricular pressure (L.V.P) and rate of cardiac contractility (+ dp/dtmax). Yohimbine successfully reversed the propranolol induced decrease in L.V.P and + dp/dtmax. Yohimbine was also found to bring back the propranolol induced decrease in carotid artery blood flow-rate. Yohimbine administration, however, did not alter propranolol induced change in blood pressure or heart rate. Administration of propranolol was associated with high mortality in control animals whereas this was significantly prevented after yohimbine administration. Our data suggest that yohimbine has beneficial effects in congestive cardiac failure.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,736 120
Reduced phosphoinositide levels in endosulfan treated rat brain
A Subramoniam, VK Khanna, J Mohindra, PK Seth
January-March 1994, 26(1):49-51
The influence of the insecticide, endosulfan on the levels of phosphoinositides in rat brain was studied. Single oral administration of endosulfan (15 mg/kg) to rats, after 4 hrs, reduced phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), without any significant effect on phosphatidylinositol4-phosphate (PIP). On the other hand, daily administration of endosulfan (15 mg/kg) for 16 days caused a marked reduction in the levels of PIP2 and PI and a moderate reduction in PIP. These effects of endosulfan were restored to near normal levels 2 weeks after cessation of the treatment. When the dosage was reduced from 15 to 5 mg/kg daily endosulfan administration for 16 days slightly reduced the levels of PI - without any significant influence on the levels of PIP and PIP2. These studies suggest possible involvement of phosphoinositide messenger system in the neurotoxicity of endosulfan.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,434 108
Antagonistic effects of several adrenergic blocking agents on ventricular Tachycardia induced by benzene and adrenaline in rat
GP Thomas, MUR Naidu, RM Tripathi, RK Tripathi, RK Varma
January-March 1994, 26(1):52-54
Several adrenergic antagonists such as phenoxybenzamine and phentolamine (non-specific alpha), prazosin (alpha1), yohimbine (alpha2), propranolol (non-specific beta with membrane stabilizing action), practolol (cardioselective beta), sotalol (non selective beta with no membrane stabilizing action) and labetalol (non selective beta with alpha1 blocking action) were studied for their effects on ventricular tachycardias induced by benzene and adrenaline in anaesthetised rats. All the alpha and beta adrenergic blocking agents examined showed significant antiarrhythmic effect in this model. The relative potencies of alpha blockers were: prazosin > yohimbine > phenoxybenzamine > phentolamine while that of beta blockers were:labetalol > propranolol > practolol > sotalol.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,556 103
Capillary permeability-increasing effect of Eucalyptus hybrid leaf and a Seseli indicum seed oils in rabbit
SN Sarkar
January-March 1994, 26(1):55-56
The cutaneous capillary permeability - increasing action of the essential oils from leaves of Eucalyptus hybrid and seeds of Seseli indicum was evaluated in Evan's blue-treated rabbits. Both the oils (0.1 ml each) increased the permeability on their intradermal administration and the effect persisted up to a period of 6 hr of observation. This effect of oils may be beneficial for their probable wound healing activity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,668 130
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