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Year : 2006  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 111--114

Antiovulatory and abortifacient potential of the ethanolic extract of roots of Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl in rats

Raju Koneri1, R Balaraman2, CD Saraswati1,  
1 Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vokkaligara Sangha Campus,K R Road, Bangalore 560004, India
2 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Technology, M.S. University of Baroda, Baroda, India

Correspondence Address:
Raju Koneri
Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vokkaligara Sangha Campus,K R Road, Bangalore 560004
India

Abstract

Objective: To study the antiovulatory and abortifacient activity of the ethanolic extract of roots of Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl. Materials and Methods: Female Wistar albino rats (150 to 200 g) with at least three regular estrous cycles were administered ethanolic extracts of roots of Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl. at two doses 250 and 500 mg/kg orally for 15 days. Control group received vehicle (tween 80 1%, p.o. daily). Animals were sacrificed on 16th day. One ovary was subjected to histopathological studies and the other for biochemical studies. Abortifacient study was done in another set of three groups of animals. The extracts at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg were administered orally through gastric gavage from the day 6 to day15 of pregnancy (the period of organogenesis). The animals were laparotomised under light ether anesthesia and semi- sterile conditions on day 19th of pregnancy. Both horns of the uterus were observed for the number of implantation sites, resorptions, dead and alive foetus. Results: Highly significant (P<.001) decrease in the duration of estrous cycle and metaestrous phase and increase in proestrous phase was seen, but diestrous phase was unchanged in both 250 and 500 mg treated group when compared to untreated group. Significant decrease in the ovarian weight and a highly significant increase in serum cholesterol with 250 mg/kg dose were seen. Histology of ovary showed an increase in preovulatory and atretic follicles. Ethanolic extract showed a dose dependent abortifacient effect in pregnant rats during organogenesis period. At 250 mg/kg ethanolic extract did not show any abortifacient activity but reduced the number of viable foetus and resorptions with no change in the foetal weight when compared with control group. At 500 mg/kg ethanolic extract showed highly significant (P< 0.001) abortifacient activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract at both doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed antiovulatory activity. It is abortifacient at 500 mg/kg but not at 250 mg/kg.



How to cite this article:
Koneri R, Balaraman R, Saraswati C D. Antiovulatory and abortifacient potential of the ethanolic extract of roots of Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl in rats.Indian J Pharmacol 2006;38:111-114


How to cite this URL:
Koneri R, Balaraman R, Saraswati C D. Antiovulatory and abortifacient potential of the ethanolic extract of roots of Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl in rats. Indian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2006 [cited 2021 Jan 20 ];38:111-114
Available from: https://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2006/38/2/111/24616


Full Text

 Introduction



Synthetic estrogens and progesterones, in combination or alone, are extensively used as contraceptives. Although they are highly effective, they are associated with high incidence of side effects. Therefore, the search for new antifertility molecules with minimal side effects continues. Many plant preparations are used to control fertility.[1],[2] The extracts and the dried fruits and leaves of Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl were shown to have antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties. [3],[4],[5] Roots are used by the natives of north interior Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh to treat gynecological ailments and to induce abortions. However, scientific study has not been conducted to validate these effects . Therefore, this study examined antiovulatory and abortifacient activities of the ethanolic extract of roots of Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl.

 Material and Methods



Plant collection and preparation of the extract

Fresh roots of Momordica cymbalaria were collected from Gadag district, Karnataka. They were identified and authenticated by a botonist in the Department of Botany, Bangalore University, Bangalore. A specimen sample of the same was preserved at the herbarium of the Department of Botany, with the voucher no. 18122003, for future reference.

The roots were isolated and chopped into small pieces. Next, they were dried under shade at room temperature for seven days. The dried roots were powdered, passed through sieve (coarse 10/44), and extracted with 95% v/v ethanol using Soxhlet extractor.[6] The combined extracts were concentrated at 40o C to obtain dark brownish yellow residue. The yield obtained from this process was found to be 21.5 % w/w.

Animal

Colony bred female adult albino rats of Wistar strain (150-200 gm) were maintained under controlled standard animal house conditions. They had access to standard rat feed and water ad libitum. All the animal procedures were performed according to the CPCSEA norms. The Institutional Animal Ethics Committee approved the experimental procedures. The acute oral toxicity study was performed using the up and down procedure (OPPT guidelines).

Antiovulatory activity

Vaginal smear from each rat was examined daily for 15 days, and those rats exhibited three regular cycles[7] were included in the study. The selected rats were divided into three groups of six animals each. Drugs and vehicle were started in the estrous phase and administered orally, daily for 15 days. Group I received vehicle only (1%Tween 80, p.o. daily) and served as control. Groups II and III received ethanolic extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. The 15-day treatment was to cover three regular estrous cycles. Vaginal smear from each animal was observed every morning between 9-10 A.M. On the 16th day, 24 hours after the last treatment, the animals from each group were sacrificed. Ovaries and uteri were dissected out, freed from extra deposition, and weighed on a sensitive balance (Precisa, XB series). One ovary from each animal was processed for biochemical analysis of cholesterol. The other ovary was fixed in 10% formalin buffer for histological study.

Abortifacient activity

The female rats were caged with male rats of known fertility in the ratio of 2:1 in the evening of proestrous. They were examined the following morning for the presence of sperms. Rats exhibiting thick clumps of spermatozoa in the vaginal smear were separated, and that day was designated as day one of pregnancy. The pregnant rats were divided into three groups of six animals each. Group I received vehicle only (1%Tween 80, p.o. daily) and served as control. Group II and group III received ethanolic extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. daily, respectively. The extracts were administered orally through gastric gavage from the 6th to the 15th day of pregnancy (period of organogenesis). The animals were laparotomised under light ether anesthesia on the 19th day of pregnancy. Both horns of the uterus were observed for the number of im-plantation sites, resorptions, and dead and alive fetuses.[9],[10],[11]

The results are expressed as meanąSEM. The statistical significance between groups was analysed using the one-way ANOVA test and the Tukey Kramer multiple comparison post-test. P Momordica cymbalaria produces temporary inhibition of ovulation. The result of administration of extract to the pregnant rats during organogenesis shows that the extract is abortifacient only at the higher dose of 500 mg. These findings could explain the traditional use of Momordica cymbalaria as abortifacient and antiovulatory[Figure 1].

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