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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 49  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 93-97

Anesthetic efficacy of ketamine–diazepam, ketamine–xylazine, and ketamine–acepromazine in Caspian Pond turtles (Mauremys caspica)

1 Department of Aquatic Animal Health and Diseases, Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
3 Department of Stebicef, University of Palermo, Via Archirafi, 18, 90123 Palermo, Italy
4 Department of Environmental Science and Policy, Caspian Sea Ecology Research Center, Sari, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Luigi Inguglia
Department of Stebicef, University of Palermo, Via Archirafi, 18, 90123 Palermo
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.201023

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Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of different anesthetic drug combinations on the Caspian Pond turtles (Mauremys caspica). Subjects and Methods: Three groups of the Caspian Pond turtles (n = 6) were anesthetized with three different drug combinations. Initially, a pilot study was conducted to determine the best drug doses for the anesthetization of the turtles, and according to these results, ketamine–diazepam (120 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride [5%] and 2 mg/kg diazepam [5%]), ketamine–acepromazine (120 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride [5%] and 1 mg/kg acepromazine [1%]), and ketamine–xylazine (120 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride [5%] and 1 mg/kg xylazine [2%]) were injected intramuscularly. The onset times of anesthetization and the recovery time were measured. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using one-way analysis of variance followed by t-tests, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the mean of the onset times of anesthesia and recovery time among the three drug combinations depending on the treatment used. The onset of anesthesia of the animals treated with the ketamine–diazepam combination was 60% and 42% shorter, for male and female turtles, respectively, compared to that obtained with the ketamine–acepromazine combination and 64% (male turtles) and 50% (female turtles) shorter than that obtained with the ketamine–xylazine combination. Further, the recovery time, in male turtles, was 17% shorter in animals treated with the first drug combination than those treated with the ketamine–acepromazine combination and 37% shorter than those treated with the ketamine–xylazine combination. The recovery time, in female turtles, did not seem to be significantly different among treatments. Conclusions: The study showed that the ketamine–diazepam drug combination is the anesthetic combination with the fastest onset time and shortest recovery time.


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