|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 414-418
Antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of Tragopogon longirostis var. longirostis, an edible wild plant in Turkey
Department of Medical Services and Techniques, Vocational School of Health Sciences, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla, Turkey
|Date of Submission||26-Jun-2014|
|Date of Decision||26-Jun-2014|
|Date of Acceptance||12-Jun-2015|
|Date of Web Publication||21-Jul-2015|
Dr. Nurdan Sarac
Department of Medical Services and Techniques, Vocational School of Health Sciences, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Objectives: The ethanolic extract of Tragopogon longirostis var. longirostis, a wild edible plant in Anatolia was isolated, and its antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic properties were investigated.
Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by the inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, total AA, and phenolic compounds. The mutagenic and antimutagenic activities were investigated by Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test.
Results: The IC 50 value for DPPH radicals was 7.84 ± 0.603 mg/mL. The total AA increased with an increase in the concentration of the extracts (1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/mL), containing linoleic acid emulsion. The total phenolic content was 284.71 ± 5.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract. The results showed that the ethanolic extract can be considered safe, because it does not have any mutagenic effect at the tested concentrations. As a result, the ethanolic extract of the leaves exhibited antimutagenic effects at 2.5, 0.25, and 0.025 mg/plate concentrations.
Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study of the antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of T. longirostis var. longirostis. These activities are an important topic in the food industry, as well as in the medical field.
Keywords: Ames, radical scavenging, Salmonella typhimurium
|How to cite this article:|
Sarac N. Antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of Tragopogon longirostis var. longirostis, an edible wild plant in Turkey. Indian J Pharmacol 2015;47:414-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Sarac N. Antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of Tragopogon longirostis var. longirostis, an edible wild plant in Turkey. Indian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 Aug 8];47:414-8. Available from: https://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2015/47/4/414/161267
| » Introduction|| |
Turkey has many plant genetic resources, some of which are wild edible plants. They are used for different purposes such as natural food, tea, and herbal medicine.  Wild edible plants are important constituents of traditional diets in Turkey and especially in Southern Anatolia. Some of these plants have not been screened for their antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities. Thus, these informations are necessary to validate the traditional uses of the plants, and may be used to establish antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic databases and find out new natural drugs.
The aerial parts of the young samples of Tragopogon are used as a vegetable and known as teke sakali and yemlik in Turkey.  Some species of Tragopogon are used in traditional medicine.  The aerial parts of T. longirostis var. longirostis are used against some gastrointestinal disorders.  In literature, the aerial parts of this plant used for worm treatment. 
Natural antioxidants from plant materials have been shown to increase the antioxidant capacity of the plasma and reduce the risk of certain diseases such as cancer, heart diseases, and stroke.  The reason of this beneficial effect of antioxidants from plants could be their protective effects by counter acting reactive oxygen species. 
Like natural antioxidants, natural antimutagens from edible and medicinal plants are of particular importance because they may be useful for human cancer prevention and have no undesirable xenobiotic effects on living organisms.  Herbal remedies and phytotherapy drugs, containing active principles are currently developed to protect against electrophile (e.g., free radical) attack on DNA and its widespread outcomes such as aging and cancer. 
Recently, there has been considerable interest in the antioxidant activity (AA),  mutagenicity  and antimutagenicity  of medicinal and edible plants.
As far as we know, no literatures on the mutagenic, and antimutagenic effects of T. longirostis var. longirostis have been published. Thus, this is the first study of T. longirostris var. longirostris to evaluate mutagenic, and antimutagenic activity in order to use in phytomedicine.
| » Materials and Methods|| |
The young samples of T. longirostis var. longirostis naturally growing plants belonging to the Asteraceae family were collected from Mugla region, Turkey. The plant samples were air-dried at room temperature for later analysis.
Preparation of the Ethanolic Extract
The air dried and powdered plant samples were extracted with ethanol (Merck) using the Soxhlet apparatus. The extract was evaporated and then extracted in ethanol/water (1:1, v/v), and then kept in small sterile opac bottles under refrigerated conditions until used.
typhimurium TA98 and TA100 were used for the mutagenity and antimutagenity tests. The strains were analyzed for their histidine requirement, biotin requirement, the combination of both, rfa mutation, excision repair capability, the presence of the plasmid pKM101, and spontaneous mutation rate according to Mortelmans and Zeiger.  Working cultures were prepared by inoculating nutrient broth with the frozen cultures, followed by an overnight incubation at 37°C with gentle agitation. 
Determination of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity
Antioxidant activity of the extract was determined based on its ability to react with the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical.  Fifty microliter of the extract (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/mL in ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)) was added to 5 mL DPPH solution (0.004%) in ethanol. After incubation at room temperature for 30 min, the absorbance of each solution was determined at 517 nm. Percentage of inhibition and the concentration of sample required for 50% scavenging of the DPPH free radical (IC 50 ) were determined. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid were used as a control.
Total antioxidant activity by the β-carotene-linoleic acid method
The total AA of the ethanolic extract of T. longirostis var. longirostis was evaluated by the β-carotene-linoleic acid model.  About 0.5 mg of the β-carotene in 1 mL of chloroform, 25 μL of linoleic acid, and 200 mg of Tween-40 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate) were mixed together. The chloroform was completely evaporated using a vacuum evaporator and the resulting solution was diluted with 100 mL of oxygenated water. A volume of 2.5 mL aliquots of this mixture were transferred into different tubes containing 0.5 mL of samples at 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/mL concentrations in ethanol/water (1:1, v/v). The same procedure was repeated with the positive control BHT, ascorbic acid, and a blank. The emulsion system was incubated for up to 2 h at 50°C. The measurement of absorbance was continued until the color of β-carotene disappeared in the control. After this incubation period, the absorbance of the mixtures was measured at 490 nm. All determinations were performed in triplicate.
The bleaching rate (R) of β-carotene was calculated using the following formula. R = ln (a/b)/t where, ln = natural log, a = absorbance at time 0, b = absorbance at time t (120 min). The AA was calculated in terms of percent inhibition relative to the control using the formula AA = [(R Control -R Sample )/R Control ] × 100. Antioxidative activities of the extracts were compared with those of BHT and ascorbic acid at 0.5 mg/mL.
Determination of total phenolic compounds
The phenolic constituent of the extract was determined by the method involving the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and gallic acid as standard. , Two hundred microliter of extract solution containing 0.1 mg extract was added to a test tube. Then, 100 μL of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was added, and the tube was shaken vigorously. After 3 min, a 2 mL solution of Na 2 CO 3 (0.5%) was added, and the mixture was allowed to stand for 2 h with intermittent shaking. Absorbance was measured at 760 nm.
Content of phenolic compounds was determined as mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of extract (mg/g GAE extract) using the following linear equation based on the calibration curve: A = 0.0265C, R 2 = 0.993 where A is the absorbance and C gallic acid equivalents.
Mutagenic and Antimutagenic Activity
Viability assays and determination of test concentrations
Cytotoxic doses of the T. longirostis var. longirostis ethanolic extract was determined by the method of Mortelmans and Zeiger.  The toxicity of ethanolic extract toward S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 was determined as described in detail elsewhere. , These tests confirmed that there was the normal growth of the background lawn, spontaneous colony numbers within the regular range, and no significant reduction in cell survival. Thus, for the concentrations and conditions reported here, notoxicity or other adverse effects were observed.
Mutagenicity and Antimutagenicity Tests
In this study, the plate incorporation method was used to assess the results of mutagenicity and antimutagenicity assays.  The known mutagens 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (4-NPD) (3 μg/plate) S. typhimurium TA98 and sodium azide (NaN 3 ) (8 μg/plate) for S. typhimurium TA100 were used as positive controls and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v) was used as negative control in mutagenicity and antimutagenicity tests.
In the mutagenicity test performed with TA98 and TA100 strains of S. typhimurium, 100 μL of the overnight bacterial culture, 100 μL of test compounds at different concentrations (2.5, 0.25, and 0.025 mg/plate), and 500 μL of phosphate buffer were added to 2 mL of the top agar containing 0.5 mM histidine/biotin. The mixture was poured onto minimal glucose plates. Histidine independent revertant colonies and viable cells were scored on plates after incubation at 37°C for 48 or 72 h.
In the antimutagenicity test performed with the same strains, 100 μL of the overnight bacterial culture, 100 μL of mutagen, 100 μL of test compounds at different concentrations (2.5, 0.25, and 0.025 mg/plate), and 500 μL of phosphate buffer were added to 2 mL of the top agar containing 0.5 mM histidine/biotin. The mixture was poured onto minimal glucose plates. Histidine independent revertant colonies and viable cells were scored on plates after incubation at 37°C for 48 or 72 h.
The plate incorporation method was used to assess the results of mutagenicity and antimutagenicity assays.  For the mutagenicity assays, the mutagenic index was calculated for each concentration, which is the average number of revertants per plate divided by the average number of revertants per plate with the negative control.
For the antimutagenicity assays, the % inhibition was calculated according the formula given below.
(% Inhibition = [1-T/M] ×100)
Where T is the number of revertants per plate in the presence of mutagen, and the test sample, and M is the number of revertants per plate in the positive control. The antimutagenic effect (% inhibition) between 25-40% was defined as moderate antimutagenicity, 40% or more as strong antimutagenicity, and 25% or less inhibition as no antimutagenicity. 
| » Results|| |
The free radical-scavenging capacity of the corresponding extract measured by DPPH assay, and the IC 50 values of the extract, BHT, and ascorbic acid are shown in [Table 1]. Lower IC 50 value indicates higher AA.
|Table 1: Free radical scavenging capacities of the ethanolic extract of T. longirostris var. longirostris and standards measured in DPPH assay |
Click here to view
Total antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extract of T. longirostis var. longirostis, according to the β-carotene-linoleic acid method, are shown in [Table 2]. When screened for its radical scavenging and total antioxidant properties, the ethanolic extract of T. longirostis var. longirostis provided dose-dependent results in different assays. The results indicate that the radical-scavenging activity of BHT and ascorbic acid were higher than that of the extract.
|Table 2: Antioxidant activity (%) of the ethanolic extract of T. longirostis var. longirostis in the β-carotene-linoleic acid test system |
Click here to view
In this study, the phenolic content of the ethanolic extract of T. longirostis var. longirostis was found to be 284.71 ± 5.6 mg GAE/g extract. The data obtained from this part show a correlation with those obtained from the β-carotene-linoleic acid test system.
The ethanolic extract of T. longirostis var. longirostis, which was tested at three different concentrations including 0.025, 0.25, and 2.5 mg/plate, did not exhibit any mutagenic effect in the mutagenicity assays performed with S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 (data not shown).
The possible antimutagenic potential of the extract was examined against 4-NPD and NaN 3 in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100, respectively. The results were evaluated by using standard plate incorporation method and summarized in [Table 3].
|Table 3: The antimutagenicity assay results of the ethanolic extract of T. longirostis var. longirostis for S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 bacterial strains |
Click here to view
In the antimutagenicity assays performed with TA98 and TA100 strains, the extract exhibited antimutagenic effects at 2.5, 0.25, and 0.025 mg/plate concentrations. The strongest antimutagenic activity was observed at 2.5 mg/plate concentration against S. typhimurium TA 98 strain. The results showed that only one concentration (0.025 mg/plate) of the extract did not have any antimutagenic effect against S. typhimurium TA 98. The antimutagenic activity of the extract was determined as being dose dependent.
| » Discussion|| |
The DPPH-scavenging capacity of the extract may be mostly related to its phenolic content. The DPPH radical is a model that is widely used to evaluate the antioxidant property of plant extracts.  DPPH is a stable nitrogen-centered free radical, the color of which changes from violet to yellow on reduction by the process of hydrogen or electron donation. Substances that are able to perform this reaction can be considered antioxidants, and, therefore, radical scavengers. 
Phenolic compounds in plant extracts significantly contribute to their antioxidant potential because of their unique structure. Phenolics are composed of one or more aromatic rings bearing single or multiple hydroxyl groups and are, therefore, potentially able to quench free radicals by forming resonance stabilized phenoxyl radicals. 
In recent years, antioxidants derived from natural resources, mainly from plants have been intensively used to prevent oxidative damages. These have some advantages over synthetic ones; for example, they can be obtained easily and economically, and have slight or negligible side effects. 
Cancer is considered as one of the main causes of mortality throughout the industrial world in the present century. Scientists believe that damage to the genetic material changes in DNA sequence and continuity, mutation in genes and other genetic changes in chromosomal structures play important roles in carcinogenesis.  The use of antimutagens and anticarcinogens in everyday life is the most effective procedure for preventing human cancer and genetic disease. 
Antimutagenic properties elicited by plant species have a full range of prospective applications in human health. Herbal remedies and phytotherapy drugs, containing active principles are currently being developed to protect against an electrophile (e.g., free radical) attack on DNA and its widespread outcomes such as aging and cancer. The occurrence rate of cancer is increasing worldwide, and the determination of chemopreventive or chemoprophylaxis compounds is important in the effort to reduce the risk of cancer. A plant extract indicating antimutagenicity is not necessarily an anticarcinogen; however, it is an indication of possible candidates for such purposes. 
| » Conclusions|| |
The results of this study indicated that the ethanolic extract of T. longirostis var. longirostis, an edible plant in Anatolia, possessed high AA
>in vitro and can be an easy, accessible source of natural antioxidants. The ethanolic extract, which was investigated in the present study, can be considered safe at the tested concentrations, and the extract exhibited important antimutagenic properties.
Financial Support and Sponsorship
Conflicts of Interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| » References|| |
Özen T. Antioxidant activity of wild edible plants in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. Grasas Y Aceites 2010;61:86-94.
Baytop T. Treatment with Herbs in Turkey: Past and Present (in Turkish). Istanbul: Istanbul University Press; 1999.
Kilic O, Bagci E. An ethnobotanical survey of some medicinal plantsin Keban (Elazýğ-Turkey). J Med Plant Res 2013;7:1675-84.
Cakýlcýoglu U, Sengun MT, Turkoglu I. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants of Yazýkonak and Yurtbasý districts of Elazýg province, Turkey. J Med Plant Res 2010;4:567-72.
Prior RL, Cao G. Antioxidant Phytochemicals in Fruits and Vegetables: Diet and Health Implications. Hortscience 2000;35:588-92.
Wong C, Li H, Cheng F. A systematic survey of antioxidant activity of 30 Chinese medicinal plants using the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Food Chem 2006;97:705-11.
Negi PS, Jayaprakash GK, Jena BS. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of pomegranate peel extracts. Food Chem 2003;80:393-7.
Ghazali R, Abdullah R, Ramli N, Rajab NF, Ahmad-Kamal MS, Yahya NA. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of Mitragyna speciosa Korth extract using Ames test. J Med Plant Res 2011;5:1345-8.
Al-Hashimi AG. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa
L. extracts. Afr J Food Sci 2012;6:506-11.
Gulluce M, Agar G, Baris O, Karadayi M, Orhan F, Sahin F. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of hexane extract of some Astragalus
species grown in the eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Phytother Res 2010;24:1014-8.
Mortelmans K, Zeiger E. The Ames Salmonella
/microsome mutagenicity assay. Mutat Res 2000;455:29-60.
Oh HT, Kim SH, Choi HJ, Chung MJ, Ham SS. Antioxidative and antimutagenic activities of 70% ethanol extract from masou salmon (Oncorhynchus masou
). Toxicol In Vitro
Yamasaki K, Hashimoto A, Kokusenya Y, Miyamoto T, Sato T. Electrochemical method for estimating the antioxidative effects of methanol extracts of crude drugs. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1994;42:1663-5.
Jayaprakasha GK, Rao LJ. Phenolic constituents from the lichen Parmotrema stuppeum
(Nyl.) Hale and their antioxidant activity. Z Naturforsch C 2000;55:1018-22.
Slinkard K, Singleton VL. Total phenol analyses: Automation and comparison with manual methods. Am J Enol Vitic 1977;28:49-55.
Chandler SF, Dodds JH. The effect of phosphate, nitrogen and sucrose on the production of phenolics and solasodine in callus cultures of Solanum
laciniatum. Plant Cell Rep 1983;2:205-8.
Santana-Rios G, Orner GA, Amantana A, Provost C, Wu SY, Dashwood RH. Potent antimutagenic activity of white tea in comparison with green tea in the Salmonella
assay. Mutat Res 2001;495:61-74.
Yu Z, Xu M, Santana-Rios G, Shen R, Izquierdo-Pulido M, Williams DE, et al.
A comparison of whole wheat, refined wheat and wheat bran as inhibitors of heterocyclic amines in the Salmonella
mutagenicity assay and in the rat colonic aberrant crypt focus assay. Food Chem Toxicol 2001;39:655-65.
Maron DM, Ames BN. Revised methods for the Salmonella
mutagenicity test. Mutat Res 1983;113:173-215.
Ebrahimzadeh MA, Pourmorad F, Hafezi S. Antioxidant Activities of Iranian Corn Silk. Turk J Biol 2008;32:43-9.
Dehpour AA, Ebrahimzadeh MA, Nabavi SF, Nabavi SM. Antioxidant Activity of Methanol Extract of Ferula asafoetida
and its essential oil composition. Grasas Y Aceites 2009;60:405-12.
Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic Biol Med 1996;20:933-56.
Onay-Uçar E, Karagöz A, Arda N. Antioxidant activity of Viscum album
ssp. album. Fitoterapia 2006;77:556-60.
Shams A, Mehrabian S, Irian S. Assessing the antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activities of virgin olive oil and purified olive oil samples treated with light and heat using the Ames test. Int J Microbiol Res 2012;4:173-7.
Kim SY, Shon YH, Lee JS, Kim CH, Nam KS. Antimutagenic activity of soybeans fermented with basidiomycetes in Ames/Salmonella
test. Biotechnol Lett 2000;22:1197-202.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]
|This article has been cited by|
||Caffeic acid protects human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells from H2O2-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity
| ||Sanja Kostic, Aleksandra Vilotic, Andrea Pirkovic, Dragana Dekanski, Suncica Borozan, Mirjana Nacka-Aleksic, Svetlana Vrzic-Petronijevic, Milica Jovanovic Krivokuca |
| ||Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2022; : 112993 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol and aqueous extracts of Sargassum wightii
| ||Sradhasini Rout, Bandana Rath, Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Ishani Rath, Anjan Kumar |
| ||Journal of Herbmed Pharmacology. 2021; 11(1): 75 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Gundelia tournefortii EkstraktlarininAMES/mikrozom Testi ile Antimutajenitesinin Belirlenmesi ve Antimikrobiyal Aktivitesi
| ||Fatma Esen SARIGÜLLÜ ÖNALAN, Hatice Aysun MERCIMEK TAKCI, Filiz UÇAN TÜRKMEN |
| ||Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences. 2021; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||In-vitro antioxidant, antimutagenic and cancer cell growth inhibition activities of Rhododendron arboreum leaves and flowers
| ||Vandana Gautam, Anket Sharma, Saroj Arora, Renu Bhardwaj, Ajaz Ahmad, Bilal Ahamad, Parvaiz Ahmad |
| ||Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2020; 27(7): 1788 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|