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In This Article
 »  Abstract
 » Introduction
 » Discovery of Endocan
 » Structure of Endocan
 »  Physiological Fu...
 »  Regulation of En...
 »  Marker of Endoth...
 »  Marker of Tumor ...
 »  Endocan as Progn...
 »  Marker of Inflam...
 » Diagnostic Assays
 » Future Prospect
 » Conclusion
 »  References
 »  Article Tables

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 Table of Contents    
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 46  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 579-583

Endocan: A novel circulating proteoglycan

1 Department of Microbiology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, India
2 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, India

Date of Submission04-May-2014
Date of Decision24-Aug-2014
Date of Acceptance17-Oct-2014
Date of Web Publication18-Nov-2014

Correspondence Address:
Arunava Kali
Department of Microbiology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.144891

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 » Abstract 

Endocan is a novel endothelium derived soluble dermatan sulfate proteoglycan. It has the property of binding to a wide range of bioactive molecules associated with cellular signaling and adhesion and thus regulating proliferation, differentiation, migration, and adhesion of different cell types in health and disease. An increase in tissue expression or serum level of endocan reflects endothelial activation and neovascularization which are prominent pathophysiological changes associated with inflammation and tumor progression. Consequently, endocan has been used as a blood-based and tissue-based biomarker for various cancers and inflammation and has shown promising results.

Keywords: Cancer, endocan, endothelial cell-specific molecule, proteoglycan

How to cite this article:
Kali A, Shetty KR. Endocan: A novel circulating proteoglycan . Indian J Pharmacol 2014;46:579-83

How to cite this URL:
Kali A, Shetty KR. Endocan: A novel circulating proteoglycan . Indian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2023 Sep 26];46:579-83. Available from: https://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2014/46/6/579/144891

 » Introduction Top

Proteoglycans (PGs) are proteins which have glycosaminoglycan chains covalently linked to its protein core. [1] Several types of PG are found in extracellular matrices (ECM) of connective tissues where providing structural support is their main biological action. [2] During last decade, a variety of biologically active moieties have been identified in vascular endothelium. Endocan is a novel PG secreted by vascular endothelium. In contrast to the larger PG molecules of ECM, endocan has essentially distinct biological functions. Both the protein core and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) of endocan have been implicated in interactions with ECM components, cell surface proteins, intracellular molecules, as well as soluble mediators which in turn regulates cell differentiation, migration, and adhesion. Current research suggests that endocan might have the key role in inflammation, healing, and tumorigenesis. [1],[3] Neovascularization associated with an inflammatory or a malignant process consistently displayed elevated serum level and higher expression of endocan on affected tissue. Moreover, recently, it was also found to be expressed on malignant cells. [4] This review highlights the current applications and future prospects of endocan in research and patient care.

 » Discovery of Endocan Top

In 1996, Lassalle et al. first reported identification of a new human endothelial cell-specific molecule (ESM) cloned from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cDNA library. [5] They demonstrated the presence of homologous genes with highly conserved regions in primates and other mammals. They also suggested its potential implications in vascular cell biology, inflammation, and lung physiology. A single gene (ESM) containing three exons and two intervening introns located in long arm of chromosome five encodes endocan. Owing to its highly restricted distribution to vascular endothelial cells, this molecule was initially named as ESM-1. Further research confirmed that ESM-1 belongs to the PGs family and consequently termed as endocan. Although initially endocan expression was considered to be restricted to lung tissue only, later it was detected in cultured endothelial cells from microvasculature of skin and adipose tissue as well as from coronary and pulmonary arteries. [6],[7]

 » Structure of Endocan Top

Like other members of PGs family, endocan also contains a protein core and saccharide moiety covalently linked to it. [1] The protein core is composed of 165 amino acids. Endocan acquires one single dermatan sulfate (DS) side chain attached to serine 137 of protein core during posttranslational modification. [2] The protein core possesses two distinct domains, namely, N-terminal cysteine-rich domain of 110 amino acids and C-terminal domain of 55 amino acids free of cysteine. The N-terminal 110 amino acids also contain an endothelial growth factor (EGF)-like domain and a phenylalanine-rich region. Endocan to some extent displays sequence homology with insulin-like growth factor binding protein, β2 integrin, fibrillin-1, laminin-β2, and procollagen-α2. [1]

Endocan is distinct from other members of PGs family in several aspects. Endocan lacks significant homologies with other extracellular PGs. In contrast to the large PG molecules with several GAG chains, it has a molecular mass of only 20 kDa and contains a single DS chain. [5] Furthermore, endocan is basically a secretory molecule, rather than an ECM component for providing structural support to cells. [8] The DS of endocan consists of about 32 disaccharide units. Both nonsulfated and disulfated units are present in higher proportion in endocan than other naturally occurring DS PG. [2]

 » Physiological Functions and Binding Properties of Endocan Top

Endocan can take part in molecular interactions with wide range of biologically active moieties which are essential for regulation of biological processes such as cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and neovascularization.

In acute infection, vascular endothelium and leucocyte express a set of adhesion molecules which play major role in leucocyte migration out of the blood vessels to the site of infection. [9] Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) secreted from macrophage stimulate expression of E- and P-selectins and integrin ligands like intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on endothelium of small blood vessels adjacent to the inflamed site. [9] During the process of activation in response to infection, leukocytes acquire ligands for E- and P-selectins and high affinity integrins, namely, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1). As a result of binding of selectins to their ligand, circulating leukocyte stats rolling along the endothelial surface and the binding of LFA-1 to ICAM-1 initiates the process of leucocyte transmigration and homing to site of infection in peripheral tissues. The binding of protein core of endocan with LFA-1 has negative effect on LFA-1 interaction with endothelial ICAM-1. [10] Consequently, endocan inhibits migration and homing of leucocytes. [10],[11]

Endocan has been implicated in development of vascular tissue in health and disease. A group of specialized cells known as the "tip cells" located at the growing end of a developing blood vessel act as sensor and mediate vascular growth. [12] Other cells (stalk cells) which merely constitute the vessel have no significant role in determining the growth. Endocan expression was preferentially more in tip cells in comparison to stalk cells. [12] Recent evidence suggests that endocan expression is associated with neovascularization of tumor, angiogenic switch in stem cells and endothelial-mesenchymal transition process like arterial wall remodeling. [13],[14],[15]

The mitogenic property of endocan has been described in several studies. Pro-angiogenic factors (vascular EGF [VEGF] and fibroblast growth factor-2 [FGF-2]) which stimulate endocan expression are also found up-regulated in diverse group of malignancies. [1],[16],[17],[18] Endocan has been shown to potentiate the mitogenic effect of VEGF on endothelial cells and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor on human embryonic kidney cells in in vitro studies. [17],[19],[20] It is evident from these studies that endocan in association with other mediators promotes cell proliferation and thus may have a vital role in wound repair and tumor progression.

 » Regulation of Endocan Top

Although the exact regulatory mechanism of endocan production is not well-established, recent studies suggest that a number of signaling pathways and bioactive mediators are involved. The expression of endocan is up-regulated by VEGF-A, VEGF-C, IL-1, TNF-α, transforming growth factor-β1, and FGF-2, whereas phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) and interferon-γ cause down-regulation. [1],[5],[13],[20]

The interaction of VEGF with its receptor and the downstream intracellular signaling pathway has been investigated frequently. VEGF binding to VEGF receptor induces receptor dimerization and trans-phosphorylation of intracellular tyrosine moieties (Tyr951, Tyr1175, and Tyr1214). [21] This in turn causes activation of the kinase and leads to induction of signaling cascades i.e. extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-1/2 pathway, protein kinase B (AKT/PKB)/PI3K pathway, p38 MAPK pathway, PKC/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, and focal adhesion kinase pathway. [22] Among these, PKC/NF-κB pathway was found to induce endocan mRNA expression, whereas, PKB/PI3K pathway had the opposite effect. [1] This was supported by the observation that PI3K inhibitor and PKC activator increased the basal level of endocan mRNA, while PKC inhibitor blocked its expression in in vitro endothelial cell culture. [4] Silencing of endocan expression by siRNA has been used to study various biological effects of VEGF mediated by endocan. Endothelial cells displayed lack of VEGF-induced proliferation and migration upon endocan siRNA silencing and addition of recombinant endocan protein resulted in restoration of these functions. [23] This confirms the vital role of endocan in VEGF induced mitogenic and migratory effects on vascular endothelium.

 » Marker of Endothelial Activation Top

Although endocan was primarily described as a soluble circulating DSPG secreted by HUVECs, a wide panel of human endothelial cells was found to express it in in vitro culture. [6],[7] However, endothelial cells from brain, heart, pancreas, or liver etc., highly vascular organs had no detectable endocan protein or transcript in various studies. [5],[7] On the other hand, activated endothelium associated with inflammation or tumor progression displays several fold increase in endocan mRNA. [3] Highly vascular tumors such as glioblastoma and liposarcoma have been associated with a 30-fold increase in endocan gene expression. [24] Recently, microarray analysis has revealed that during angiogenesis tip cells specifically express endocan in much high level in comparison to rest of the vasculature. [25] These findings are in accordance with low level expression of endocan in established vasculature with resting endothelial cells. Hence, endocan expression can be employed to differentiate activated endothelium from its dormant counterpart. Frahm et al. successfully utilized endocan immunoreactivity as a method for identifying newly formed and nonfunctional blood vessels in the mouse brain. [26] This may have a potential use in diagnosis of human diseases associated with neovascularization.

 » Marker of Tumor Angiogenesis, Invasion, and Tumor Progression Top

Tumor progression is the final phase in tumor development, characterized by accelerated growth, invasiveness, and spread of the tumor cells. In contrast to tumor promotion where the key event is survival and clonal expansion of the cells with malignant potential, in tumor progression, a subset of cancer cells accumulate further genetic alterations and give rise to tumor heterogeneity. [27] These cells have increased growth rate, altered phenotypic characters, and are highly invasive and metastatic. Angiogenesis is an essential event in tumor progression as it supplies oxygen and nutrients to actively proliferating tumor cells. During tumor progression, a tumor which rapidly grows in size, eventually becomes hypoxic. This activates the hypoxia-inducible factor signaling, resulting in VEGF secretion from both tumor cells and tumor-associated stromal cells in an attempt to ensure tumor's oxygen requirements. The vascular growth promoting action of VEGF is mediated by endocan. Several studies have reported that tumor vessels of highly vascularized cancer like lung, brain, colon, liver, kidney, pituitary cancer have marked expression of endocan [Table 1]. [1],[13],[28],[29]
Table 1: Probable diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications of endocan

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It is evident from recent studies on carcinogenesis using in vitro cell cultures that endocan gene expression is closely associated with two of major events in tumor progression, that is, angiogenic switch and the vascular mimicry of tumor cells. [1] In case of angiogenic switch, tumor cells send signals for new blood vessels and develop into an aggressive tumor with dissemination from a dormant and localized phenotype. [24] The ESM-1 gene has been described as the molecular signature associated with angiogenic switch in various human cancers. [24],[30] Tumors with pronounced endocan expression are usually highly vascularized, fast-growing, aggressive, and have a poor prognosis. Glioblastoma and liposarcoma are the classic example. In contrast to glioblastoma, low-grade gliomas of brain are poorly vascularized, less invasive, and do not express endocan. [13]

On the other hand, vascular mimicry is attributed to plasticity of tumor cells. A fraction of cancer cells, in addition to expression of endothelium-associated genes, may transform themselves into patterned, three-dimensional tubular networks which could transport blood, plasma and red cells. [31] Vascular mimicry phenomenon was first described by Maniotis et al. [32] They noted that aggressive uveal melanomas had the potential to metamorphose into vascular channels in order to acquire a blood supply. However, unlike normal angiogenesis, these channels lack endothelial lining and are highly patterned into loops and networks. [32] Similar findings in prostate, bladder, breast, ovary, and brain cancer have been reported by various authors. [1],[33] Endocan was found up-regulated in these aggressive cancers.

 » Endocan as Prognostic Marker of Cancer Top

Apart from early diagnosis of cancer, several authors also found circulating endocan level as a reliable prognostic molecular signature in various cancers. Grigoriu et al. studied the endocan mRNA expression by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction in nonsmall cell lung tumors compared with healthy lung tissue. [34] This study revealed that endocan mRNA expression was significantly increased in lung tumors and was positively correlated with both survival and time to tumor progression. Yu et al. reported up-regulation of endocan by Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. [35] Patients with raised serum endocan had a shorter survival than nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who had undetectable serum endocan.

Endocan-microvessel density (endocan-MVD) is a novel approach for microscopic quantification of the density of capillaries/mm 2 in tumor using immunohistochemical staining with anti-endocan monoclonal antibodies. [1] Huang et al. found that a high endocan-MVD was associated with shorter survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients after curative hepatectomy. [36] A similar finding has been reported in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. [37]

 » Marker of Inflammation and Sepsis Top

Sepsis and inflammation have associated endothelial dysfunction ranging from vasodilation, edema to coagulopathy, ischemia, and organ failure. Since inflammatory mediators (IL-1, TNF-α) induce endocan expression, blood levels of this soluble PG may closely reflect the presence and severity of inflammation as well as the response to therapy. De Freitas Caires et al. have recently described elevated blood levels of cathepsin G-cleaved endocan in patients with sepsis. This 14 kDa circulating protein (p14) is the fragment of endocan specifically cleaved by cathepsin G, a neutrophil-derived serine protease. [38] They developed an immunoassay for p14 endocan fragment and found that 20 out of 55 severe septic patients had increased plasma levels of p14, whereas in the control subjects p14 was undetectable. [38] In another study, Scherpereel et al. observed that circulating endocan level in blood was related to the severity of sepsis and also reflected outcome of the patient. [8]

Endocan also has diagnostic and prognostic implications in pulmonary diseases. A recent study reported that plasma endocan was superior to C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in evaluating the severity of community-acquired pneumonia and had better correlation with pneumonia severity scores such as pneumonia severity index, CURB-65, and APACHE II scores. [39] In a single-center prospective case-control study involving 24 cases and 24 controls, a low serum endocan on admission was found to be an independent predictor of subsequent development of acute lung injury in major trauma patients. [40] Guzel et al. highlighted the association between circulating endocan level and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). [41] Endocan level was significantly higher in submassive (469.41 ng/l) and the massive PTE groups (719.18 ng/l) than the control group (192.77 ng/l).

 » Diagnostic Assays Top

Endocan is a novel blood-and tissue-based biomarker. Endocan mRNA provides an estimate of ESM-1 gene expression in vivo and in vitro. Gene expression studies established that endocan is one of the most overexpressed genes in tip cells and vascular networks in various types of cancer. [1],[15] Immunohistochemistry has been used as a tissue-based tool to detect endocan in various cancers. Immuno-labeling with monoclonal antibody revealed marked expression of endocan in glioblastoma in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells. [13] Whereas, the cerebral cortex distant from the tumors and the endothelial cells in low-grade gliomas were mostly nonimmuno-reactive for endocan. A sandwich ELISA test has been developed to determine the level of circulating endocan in blood. [10] Recently, ELISA commercial kit is also available for detection of endocan and its cathepsin G cleaved product in blood for both diagnostic and research purpose. [42]

 » Future Prospect Top

The treatment of cancer has undergone revolutionary changes with identification of newer targets and anticancer molecules. Conventional anticancer drugs lack specificity and indiscriminately affect all rapidly dividing cells resulting in immunosuppression, intestinal disturbance, and hair loss. Anti-angiogenic agents specifically target vascular growth, they preclude these adverse effects. In most cancers, angiogenesis is VEGF mediated. Hence, use of anti-VEGF agents is the most established method. However, some cancers may acquire resistance to VEGF blockade. [27] Since endocan is induced by VEGF in endothelial cells, tumor angiogenesis is associated with elevated endocan and therapeutic VEGF blockade results in a drastic reduction in endocan level. [17] Hence, endocan has a prospect of being considered as a biomarker for selection of patients for angiogenesis-directed therapies and in monitoring the therapeutic response. [1] Furthermore, antibody against the protein core of endocan may have promising role as anti-angiogenic agents as an alternative to anti-VEGF agents. [18]

 » Conclusion Top

Endocan is unique endothelium-derived circulating PGs. Recent advances in biomarker research have uncovered its newer implications in health and disease. Not only early detection of cancer, monitoring serum endocan could have the essential role as prognostic marker in cancers, sepsis, inflammation, and acute lung disorders. Endocan signaling pathway itself provides a valid target for antiangiogenic therapy. Moreover, it may be employed as key molecular signature for selection of patients and monitoring therapeutic response to various anticancer and antiangiogenic agents.

 » References Top

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Amirmohammad Khalaji, Amir Hossein Behnoush, Yasmin Mohtasham Kia, Parsa Alehossein, Pegah Bahiraie, Yuri Battaglia
PLOS ONE. 2023; 18(8): e0289710
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8 Investigation of Serum Endocan Levels and Age in Critical Inflammatory Conditions
Chrysi Keskinidou, Alice G. Vassiliou, Edison Jahaj, Zafeiria Mastora, Nikolaos Athanasiou, Anastasia Roumpaki, Stamatios Tsipilis, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Stylianos E. Orfanos, Anastasia Kotanidou
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2023; 24(12): 10135
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Elevated Circulating Endocan Levels Are Associated with Increased Levels of Endothelial and Inflammation Factors in Postprandial Lipemia
Serap Ozer Yaman, Fulya Balaban Yucesan, Cihan Orem, Birgul Vanizor Kural, Asim Orem
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2023; 12(4): 1267
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10 Systemic Cytokines in Retinopathy of Prematurity
Po-Yi Wu, Yuan-Kai Fu, Rey-In Lien, Ming-Chou Chiang, Chien-Chung Lee, Hung-Chi Chen, Yi-Jen Hsueh, Kuan-Jen Chen, Nan-Kai Wang, Laura Liu, Yen-Po Chen, Yih-Shiou Hwang, Chi-Chun Lai, Wei-Chi Wu
Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2023; 13(2): 291
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11 The Effect of Plasma Endocan and Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine Levels on Endothelial and Cardiac Functions in Children with Beta-Thalassemia Major
Utku Aygünes, Ümmügülsüm Can, Melih Timuçin Dogan, Merter Keçeli, Hatice Koçak Eker
Güncel Pediatri. 2022; 20(1): 78
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12 Contemporary Biomarkers in Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis: Moving beyond D-Dimers
Androniki Gkana, Androniki Papadopoulou, Maria Mermiri, Eleftherios Beltsios, Dimitrios Chatzis, Foteini Malli, Antonis Adamou, Konstantinos Gourgoulianis, Georgios Mavrovounis, Ioannis Pantazopoulos
Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2022; 12(10): 1604
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13 Plasma Endocan as a Biomarker of Thrombotic Events in COVID-19 Patients
Camille Chenevier-Gobeaux, Morgane Ducastel, Jean-François Meritet, Yassine Ballaa, Nicolas Chapuis, Frédéric Pene, Nicolas Carlier, Nicolas Roche, Tali-Anne Szwebel, Benjamin Terrier, Didier Borderie
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(19): 5560
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14 P2Y2R-Mediated PAK1 Activation Is Involved in ESM-1 Overexpression in RT-R-MDA-MB-231 through FoxO1 Regulation
Hana Jin, Hye Jung Kim
Cancers. 2022; 14(17): 4124
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15 The relationship between pregnancies complicated with fetal growth restriction and umbilical cord blood endocan concentrations
Çagdas Özgökçe, Kazim Uçkan, Ayfer Meral
Turkish Journal of Biochemistry. 2022; 0(0)
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16 Assessment of serum endocan levels in patients with beta-thalassemia minor
Nijat Khanmammadov, Mehmet Zorlu, Omer Faruk Ozer, Cumali Karatoprak, Muharrem Kiskaç, Mustafa Çakirca
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira. 2022; 68(2): 147
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17 Serum Endocan Levels and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Behçet’s Syndrome
Eman Mostafa Nassef, Hemmat Ahmed Elabd, Basma Mohamed Mohamed Ali El nagger, Hala Mohamed Elzomor, Hend Gamal Kotb, Seham Sabry, Boshra Ahmed Zaghloul, Asmaa S Hassan, Eman El Sayed Mohamed
International Journal of General Medicine. 2022; Volume 15: 6653
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18 Current Insights on the Role of Irisin in Endothelial Dysfunction
Eder Luna-Ceron, Adrian M. González-Gil, Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor
Current Vascular Pharmacology. 2022; 20(3): 205
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19 Prognostic and Diagnostic Value of Endocan in Kidney Diseases
Elisabeth Samouilidou, Virginia Athanasiadou, Eirini Grapsa, Franca Anglani
International Journal of Nephrology. 2022; 2022: 1
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20 Serum endocan levels in children with rheumatic aortic insufficiency: can it differentiate bicuspid aortic valve disease from rheumatic heart disease?
Fuat Laloglu, Esra Laloglu, Naci Ceviz, Muhammet Akif Güler
Cardiology in the Young. 2022; : 1
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21 Increasing circulating ESM-1 and adhesion molecules are associated with earlystage atherosclerosis in OSA patients:A cross-sectional study
Haili Sun, Yunhui Du, Lichuan Zhang, Huahui Yu, Xiaolu Jiao, Qianwen Lv, Fan Li, Yu Wang, Qiuju Sun, Chaowei Hu, Linyi Li, Huina Zhang, Zhiyong Du, Yanwen Qin
Sleep Medicine. 2022;
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22 Fibroblast growth factor-2 bound to specific dermal fibroblast-derived extracellular vesicles is protected from degradation
Isabelle Petit, Ayelet Levy, Soline Estrach, Chloé C. Féral, Andrea Gonçalves Trentin, Florent Dingli, Damarys Loew, Jieqiong Qu, Huiqing Zhou, Clotilde Théry, Céline Prunier, Daniel Aberdam, Olivier Ferrigno
Scientific Reports. 2022; 12(1)
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23 Changes in Endocan and Dermatan Sulfate Are Associated with Biomechanical Properties of Abdominal Aortic Wall during Aneurysm Expansion and Rupture
Susanne Metschl, Lukas Bruder, Valentina Paloschi, Katharina Jakob, Benedikt Reutersberg, Christian Reeps, Lars Maegdefessel, Michael Gee, Hans-Henning Eckstein, Jaroslav Pelisek
Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2022;
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24 Evaluation of arterial stiffness and serum endocan levels in patients with primary aldosteronism with new-onset hypertension and long-term hypertension
M. Can, M. Kocabas, H. Ç. Burgucu, Z. Yarar, Y. Karadeniz, M. Karaköse, F. H. Yerlikaya, M. Kulaksizoglu, F. Karakurt
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2022;
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25 Therapeutic Effects of Boric Acid in a Septic Arthritis Model Induced by Escherichia coli in Rats
Kadri Yildiz, Mustafa Makav, Yasemin Adali, Menekse Bulut
Biological Trace Element Research. 2022;
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26 Proteoglycan Endocan: A multifaceted therapeutic target in Cancer
Ke-Fan Pan, Yi-Chieh Yang, Wei-Jiunn Lee, Kuo-Tai Hua, Ming-Hsien Chien
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer. 2021; : 188672
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27 Arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness, endocan and A disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I motif 9 levels and their relationship with disease activity in acromegaly patients with and without cardiovascular risk facto
Mustafa Can, Muhammet Kocabas, Melia Karakose, Fatma Humeyra Yerlikaya, Yakup Alsancak, Kultigin Turkmen, Mustafa Kulaksizoglu, Feridun Karakurt
Endocrine Practice. 2021;
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28 The combination of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 and fibroblast growth factor 21 exhibits better prediction of renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
L.-H. Chang, C.-M. Hwu, C.-H. Chu, Y.-C. Lin, C.-C. Huang, J.-Y. You, H.-S. Chen, L.-Y. Lin
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2021; 44(12): 2609
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29 Are Endocan Plasma Levels Altered in Preeclampsia?
Ana Cristina dos Santos Lopes, Suellen Rodrigues Martins, Luci Maria SantAna Dusse, Melina de Barros Pinheiro, Patrícia Nessralla Alpoim
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2021; 43(03): 232
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30 Endocan as a potential biomarker of disease severity and exacerbations in COPD
Erdal In, Mutlu Kuluöztürk, Teyfik Turgut, Aysegül Altintop Geçkil, Nevin Ilhan
The Clinical Respiratory Journal. 2021; 15(4): 445
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31 The circulatory small non-coding RNA landscape in community-acquired pneumonia on intensive care unit admission
Hina N. Khan, Aldo Jongejan, Lonneke A. Vught, Janneke Horn, Marcus J. Schultz, Aeilko H. Zwinderman, Olaf L. Cremer, Marc J. Bonten, Tom Poll, Brendon P. Scicluna
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 2021; 25(16): 7621
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32 The significance of endocan immunohistochemical expression in chronic plaque psoriasis
Asmaa Gaber Abdou, Mostafa Hammam, Eman Saad, Reem Ahmed Abdelaziz Hassan
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. 2021;
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33 Analysis of Inflammatory Mediator Profiles in Sepsis Patients Reveals That Extracellular Histones Are Strongly Elevated in Nonsurvivors
Tanja Eichhorn, Ingrid Linsberger, Lucia Lauková, Carla Tripisciano, Birgit Fendl, René Weiss, Franz König, Gerhard Valicek, Georg Miestinger, Christoph Hörmann, Viktoria Weber, Settimio Rossi
Mediators of Inflammation. 2021; 2021: 1
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34 Inhalation of particulate matter containing free radicals leads to decreased vascular responsiveness associated with an altered pulmonary function
Ashlyn C. Harmon, Alexandra Noël, Balamurugan Subramanian, Zakia Perveen, Merilyn H. Jennings, Yi-Fan Chen, Arthur L. Penn, Kelsey Legendre, Daniel B. Paulsen, Kurt J. Varner, Tammy R. Dugas
American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2021; 321(4): H667
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35 Neural Tissue Homeostasis and Repair Is Regulated via CS and DS Proteoglycan Motifs
Anthony J. Hayes, James Melrose
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 2021; 9
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36 Targeting Endothelial Cell-Specific Molecule 1 Protein in Cancer: A Promising Therapeutic Approach
He Zhang, Yi-Wen Shen, Li-Jun Zhang, Jin-Jiao Chen, Hui-Ting Bian, Wen-Jie Gu, Hong Zhang, Hong-Zhuan Chen, Wei-Dong Zhang, Xin Luan
Frontiers in Oncology. 2021; 11
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37 Endocan (ESM-1) levels in gingival crevicular fluid correlate with ICAM-1 and LFA-1 in periodontitis
Mahmure Ayse Tayman, Canan Önder, Sivge Kurgan, Muhittin Abdulkadir Serdar, Meral Günhan
Brazilian Oral Research. 2021; 35
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38 Direct interaction of ß-catenin with nuclear ESM1 supports stemness of metastatic prostate cancer
Ke-Fan Pan, Wei-Jiunn Lee, Chun-Chi Chou, Yi-Chieh Yang, Yu-Chan Chang, Ming-Hsien Chien, Michael Hsiao, Kuo-Tai Hua
The EMBO Journal. 2021; 40(4)
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39 Inherited Proteoglycan Biosynthesis Defects—Current Laboratory Tools and Bikunin as a Promising Blood Biomarker
Walid Haouari, Johanne Dubail, Christian Poüs, Valérie Cormier-Daire, Arnaud Bruneel
Genes. 2021; 12(11): 1654
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40 Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases and Vascular Function: The Concept of Autoimmune Atherosclerosis
Ahmed M. Hedar, Martin H. Stradner, Andreas Roessler, Nandu Goswami
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(19): 4427
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41 The relationship of the serum endocan level with the CHA2DS2-VASc score in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation
Gökhan Ceyhun
The Egyptian Heart Journal. 2021; 73(1)
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42 The Role and Validity of Diagnostic Biomarkers in Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis
Patience Mwesigye, Fizza Rizwan, Niazy Alassaf, Rizwan Khan
Cureus. 2021;
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43 Metformin Had Potential to Increase Endocan Levels in STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice
Elmira Zolali, Sevda Shayesteh, Reza Rahbarghazi, Haleh Vaez, Hamid Reza Heidari, Alireza Garjani
Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020; 26(2): 133
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44 Plasma Endocan as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Event in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis
Jin Sug Kim, Gang Jee Ko, Yang Gyun Kim, So Young Lee, Dong Young Lee, Kyung Hwan Jeong, Sang Ho Lee
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(12): 4086
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45 The Role of Endocan in Selected Kidney Diseases
Magdalena Nalewajska, Klaudia Gurazda, Malgorzata Marchelek-Mysliwiec, Andrzej Pawlik, Violetta Dziedziejko
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(17): 6119
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46 Analysis of Endocan Levels in Hypertensive Patients as Risk Factors of Chronic Kidney Disease
Suryani Jamal, Uleng Bahrun, Ibrahim Abdul Samad, Fitriani Mangarengi, Hasyim Kasim, Ilham Jaya Patellongi
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Endocan and Lumican in Relation to Cardiometabolic Risk in a Pediatric Overweight and Obese Cohort: A Cross-Sectional Study
Anca Balanescu, Ioana Florentina Codreanu, Valentina Daniela Comanici, Iustina Violeta Stan, Eugenia Balanescu, Paul Balanescu
BioMed Research International. 2020; 2020: 1
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48 The tumour microenvironment of pituitary neuroendocrine tumours
Pedro Marques, Ashley B. Grossman, Márta Korbonits
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 2020; 58: 100852
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49 Circulating Proteoglycan Endocan Mediates EGFR-Driven Progression of Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer
Yi-Chieh Yang, Ke-Fan Pan, Wei-Jiunn Lee, Jer-Hwa Chang, Peng Tan, Chia-Chi Gu, Wei-Min Chang, Shun-Fa Yang, Michael Hsiao, Kuo-Tai Hua, Ming-Hsien Chien
Cancer Research. 2020; 80(16): 3292
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50 Prediction and identification of novel HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes from endocan
Gaohai Shao, Qingjun Liu, Ling Yang, Guibo Feng, Wang Zhao, Zhongyan Huang, Zhao Yang
Journal of Inflammation. 2020; 17(1)
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51 Endothelial dysfunction in neuroprogressive disorders—causes and suggested treatments
Gerwyn Morris, Basant K. Puri, Lisa Olive, Andre Carvalho, Michael Berk, Ken Walder, Lise Tuset Gustad, Michael Maes
BMC Medicine. 2020; 18(1)
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52 ß2-Microglobulin, Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin, and Endocan Values in Evaluating Renal Functions in Patients with ß-Thalassemia Major
Petek Uzay Cetinkaya, Fatih Mehmet Azik, Volkan Karakus, Bulent Huddam, Nigar Yilmaz
Hemoglobin. 2020; 44(3): 147
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53 Role of ascitic endocan levels in the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in decompensated cirrhosis
Xianmei Wu, Junli Luo, Wenxiang Huang, Bei Jia, Tao Luo
Biomarkers. 2020; 25(4): 360
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54 Aberrant glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis by tumor suppressor EXTL2 deficiency promotes liver inflammation and tumorigenesis through Toll-like 4 receptor signaling
Satomi Nadanaka, Taishi Hashiguchi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
The FASEB Journal. 2020; 34(6): 8385
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55 Systemic Endothelial Activation Is Associated With Early Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Children With Extrapulmonary Sepsis*
Jane E. Whitney, Binqing Zhang, Natalka Koterba, Fang Chen, Jenny Bush, Kathryn Graham, Simon F. Lacey, Jan Joseph Melenhorst, David T. Teachey, Janell L. Mensinger, Nadir Yehya, Scott L. Weiss
Critical Care Medicine. 2020; 48(3): 344
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56 Endocan as a predictor of increased cardiovascular risk during the menopausal transition period
Sükrü Yildiz, Cihan Kaya, Asuman Gedikbasi, Hüseyin Cengiz, Ismail Alay, Emine Öztürk, Aysun Fendal Tunca, Levent Yasar
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2020; 301(6): 1553
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57 ESM-1 promotes adhesion between monocytes and endothelial cells under intermittent hypoxia
Haili Sun, Huina Zhang, Kun Li, Hao Wu, Xiaojun Zhan, Fang Fang, Yanwen Qin, Yongxiang Wei
Journal of Cellular Physiology. 2019; 234(2): 1512
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58 Enhanced Function of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells Through ESM1 Signaling
Marta Vilà-González, Sophia Kelaini, Corey Magee, Rachel Caines, David Campbell, Magdalini Eleftheriadou, Amy Cochrane, Daiana Drehmer, Marianna Tsifaki, Karla O'Neill, Edoardo Pedrini, Chunbo Yang, Reinhold Medina, Denise McDonald, David Simpson, Anna Zampetaki, Lingfang Zeng, David Grieve, Noemi Lois, Alan W. Stitt, Andriana Margariti
STEM CELLS. 2019; 37(2): 226
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59 Relationship between Plasma Endocan Level and Clinical Outcome of Chinese Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
Peter Yam-Kau Poon, Jack Kit-Chung Ng, Winston Wing-Shing Fung, Kai-Ming Chow, Bonnie Ching-Ha Kwan, Philip Kam-Tao Li, Cheuk-Chun Szeto
Kidney and Blood Pressure Research. 2019; 44(5): 1259
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60 Maternal Serum Endocan Concentration in Pregnancies Complicated by Intrauterine Growth Restriction
Agata Szpera-Gozdziewicz, Katarzyna Kosicka, Tomasz Gozdziewicz, Mariola Krzyscin, Przemyslaw Wirstlein, Anna Siemiatkowska, Franciszek Glowka, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Grzegorz H. Breborowicz
Reproductive Sciences. 2019; 26(3): 370
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61 Relevance of Endothelial Cell-Specific Molecule 1 (Endocan) Plasma Levels for Predicting Pulmonary Infection after Cardiac Surgery in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: The Endolung Pilot Study
Andréa Perrotti, Camille Chenevier-Gobeaux, Fiona Ecarnot, Benoit Barrucand, Philippe Lassalle, Enrica Dorigo, Sidney Chocron
Cardiorenal Medicine. 2018; 8(1): 1
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