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| RESEARCH ARTICLE
|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 303-308
Effect of aqueous extract of Achillea millefolium on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice
Reza Vazirinejad1, Fateme Ayoobi1, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi2, Mohammad M Eftekharian3, Ali Darekordi4, Mahdi Goudarzvand5, Gholamhossein Hassanshahi2, Mohammad Mohsen Taghavi6, Behzad Nasiri Ahmadabadi1, Derek Kennedy7, Ali Shamsizadeh1
1 Department of Physiology, Physiology-Pharmacology Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
2 Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Rafsanjan, Iran
3 Molecular Medicine Research Center, Faculty of Para Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran
5 Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
6 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
7 School of Biomolecular and Physical Science, Eskitis Institute for Cell and Molecular Therapies, Griffith University Nathan, Queensland, Australia
Objective: Achillea millefolium (A. millefolium) is widely used as an anti-inflammatory remedy in traditional and herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated the effect of an aqueous extract from A. millefolium on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and on the serum cytokine levels in C57BL/6 mice.
Materials and Methods: EAE was induced in 63 C57BL/6 mice weighing 20-25 g (8 weeks old). Following immunization, the treatment protocol was initiated by using different doses of an aqueous extract from A. millefolium (1, 5, and 10 mg/mouse/day). Histopathologic assessments were performed by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and luxol fast blue (LFB) staining. Behavioral disabilities were recorded by a camera. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: On average, mice developed classical behavioral disabilities of EAE, 13.2 ± 1.9 days following immunization. Treatment of mice with A. millefolium led to delay the appearance of behavioral disabilities along with reduced severity of the behavioral disabilities. Treatment with A. millefolium prevented weight loss and increased serum levels of TGF-β in immunized mice with MOG35-55. EAE-induced mice, which were treated with A. millefolium, had less cerebral infiltration of inflammatory cells.
Conclusion: The results demonstrated that treatment with aqueous extract of A. millefolium may attenuate disease severity, inflammatory responses, and demyelinating lesions in EAE-induced mice. In addition, following treatment with A. millefolium, serum levels of TGF-βwere increased in EAE-induced mice.
Department of Physiology, Physiology-Pharmacology Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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