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Year : 2006  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 285-286

Effect of Asteracantha longifolia on haematological parameters in rats

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar-470003, India

Correspondence Address:
A Singhai
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar-470003
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.27028

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How to cite this article:
Pawar R S, Jain A P, Kashaw S, Singhai A. Effect of Asteracantha longifolia on haematological parameters in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2006;38:285-6

How to cite this URL:
Pawar R S, Jain A P, Kashaw S, Singhai A. Effect of Asteracantha longifolia on haematological parameters in rats. Indian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2006 [cited 2023 Sep 25];38:285-6. Available from: https://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2006/38/4/285/27028

Anaemia is a common nutritional disorder, mainly caused by iron deficiency. Asteracantha longifolia Nees (Family Acanthaceae) is a source of the ayurvedic drug, 'Kokilaaksha,' and the Unani drug, Talimakhana. Asteracantha longifolia is useful in treating diseases of the blood. [1] The aim of the study was to investigate petroleum ether extract plant leaves of Asteracantha longifolia on haematological parameters in anaemic rats. The study was performed with due permission from the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (Registration No. 397/01/ab/CPCSEA). Male albino rats (90-110 g) of either sex, maintained under standard conditions, were used. The fresh leaves of Asteracantha longifolia were authenticated at the Department of Botany, Dr. H.S. Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar (MP). The powdered leaves (600 g) were extracted in the Soxhlet apparatus for 18 h with petroleum ether (60-80oC). One gram of petroleum ether extract was mixed with 10 ml of groundnut oil.[2]

The LD 50 study was performed using albino rats (90-110 g) of either sex. The test animals were divided into six groups of six rats in each group. The drugs were administered i.p., according to body weight. Groups I, II, III, IV, V and VI received petroleum ether extract in doses of 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 and 1500 mg/kg, respectively. Groups I, II, III were found to be healthy after seven days. In Group IV, one rat died after a day of extract administration while the remaining five died after three days. In Group VI, three albino rats died after 24 h, while two died after three days. The LD 50 studies revealed that albino rats tolerated a considerably high dose of petroleum ether extract (1000 mg/kg, body weight, i.p.), without any manifestations.

A haematological study was performed using Swiss albino rats (90-110 g) of either sex. The test animals were divided into five groups of six rats in each group. Group I was kept as the control group (administered vehicle only), Group II was the cyclophosphamide (CP) control group (3 mg/kg, body weight, i.p.). Group III was given petroleum ether extract alone (500 mg/kg, body weight, i.p.), Group IV was given CP (3 mg/kg) and petroleum extract at dose of 250 mg/kg, body weight, i.p. and Group V was treated with CP (3 mg/kg) and 500 mg/kg, body weight, i.p. of petroleum ether extract.

Haematological parameters were evaluated in the anaemic animal model. The animals were maintained in standard conditions (temperature, relative humidity, light/day cycles) and given a normal diet and water ad libitum . Anaemia was induced by cyclophosphamide (3 mg/kg, body weight) given i.p. for seven days. On the seventh day, blood samples were collected from the retro-orbital plexus vein of the rats' eyes in vials containing EDTA as the anticoagulant. These samples were evaluated for haematological parameters (erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, haemoglobin count and haematocrit value) using haematology cell counter (ERMA, Japan), repeatedly (five times) to check the reproducibility of results. A significant lowering in blood parameters was observed. After seven days, cyclophosphamide was withdrawn from all groups and the groups were treated with petroleum ether extract of A. longifolia once a day, at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight continuously up to 15 days.

Blood was collected on the 22nd day and evaluated for haematological parameters.[3],[4] All values are expressed as mean + SEM. The data were statistically analysed using the one-way ANOVA, followed by the Dunnett's test. [Table - 1]

The cyclophosphamide (CP) control group (Group II) showed significant ( P >0.05) decrease in blood parameters as compared to the vehicle control group (Group I), without drug treatment. The comparison of Group II with Groups III, IV and V exhibited a significant ( P <0.05) increase in haematological parameters after seven days. Cyclophosphamide-induced anaemia in Group II was not restored to normal counts even after the discontinuation of the drug after seven days. Upon continuation of petroleum ether extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg, body weight, respectively, for the next 15 days there was a significant ( P <0.05) improvement in haematological parameters in Groups III, IV and V as compared to Group II.

In rats, CP has a bone marrow suppressive effect and induces aplastic anaemia. CP treatment (3 mg/kg, body weight, i.p.) resulted in the significant lowering of haematological parameters on the seventh day. All the haematological indices were restored to almost normal counts after continuous administration of the extract. These investigations validate the use of the leaves of this plant, in the Indian system of medicine, for haematopoietic activity. In the present work, we have not studied the toxic effects caused by the extract. We aimed at investigating the haematopoietic activity of the plant extract and the results of the present study lead to the conclusion that A. longifolia has great potential as a haematopoietic agent.

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1.Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants, Periodical Export. New Delhi, 1987.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Mazumdar UK, Gupta M, Maiti S, Mukherjee D. Antitumor activity of Hygrophila spinosa on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and sarcoma-180 induced mice. Indian J Exp Biol 1997;35:473-7.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  
3.Mazumdar UK, Gupta M, Maiti S. Effect of petroleum ether extract from Hygrophila spinosa on haematological parameters and hepatorenal functions in mice. Indian J Exp Biol 1996;34:1201-3.  Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]  
4.Pedrazzi AHP, Rodrigues ER, Zanardo-Filho A, Franco JJ. Haematological evaluation of "Carqueja" ( Baccharis trimera ) infusion . Fitoterapia 1997;38: 26-8.  Back to cited text no. 4    


[Table - 1]

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