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   2016| October  | Volume 48 | Issue 7  
    Online since November 2, 2016

 
 
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EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Competency-based medical education: An overview and application in pharmacology
Nilima Shah, Chetna Desai, Gokul Jorwekar, Dinesh Badyal, Tejinder Singh
October 2016, 48(7):5-9
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193312  PMID:28031599
Competency-based medical education (CBME) is gaining momentum across the globe. The Medical Council of India has described the basic competencies required of an Indian Medical Graduate and designed a competency-based module on attitudes and communication. Widespread adoption of a competency-based approach would mean a paradigm shift in the current approach to medical education. CBME, hence, needs to be reviewed for its usefulness and limitations in the Indian context. This article describes the rationale of CBME and provides an overview of its components, i.e., competency, entrustable professional activity, and milestones. It elaborates how CBME could be implemented in an institute, in the context of basic sciences in general and pharmacology in particular. The promises and perils of CBME that need to be kept in mind to maximize its gains are described.
  8,365 547 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Blended learning for reinforcing dental pharmacology in the clinical years: A qualitative analysis
Prashanti Eachempati, KS Kiran Kumar, KN Sumanth
October 2016, 48(7):25-28
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193315  PMID:28031603
Objectives: Blended learning has become the method of choice in educational institutions because of its systematic integration of traditional classroom teaching and online components. This study aims to analyze student’s reflection regarding blended learning in dental pharmacology. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College among 3rd and 4th year BDS students. A total of 145 dental students, who consented, participate in the study. Students were divided into 14 groups. Nine online sessions followed by nine face-to-face discussions were held. Each session addressed topics related to oral lesions and orofacial pain with pharmacological applications. After each week, students were asked to reflect on blended learning. On completion of 9 weeks, reflections were collected and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Qualitative analysis was done using thematic analysis model suggested by Braun and Clarke. Results: The four main themes were identified, namely, merits of blended learning, skill in writing prescription for oral diseases, dosages of drugs, and identification of strengths and weakness. In general, the participants had a positive feedback regarding blended learning. Students felt more confident in drug selection and prescription writing. They could recollect the doses better after the online and face-to-face sessions. Most interestingly, the students reflected that they are able to identify their strength and weakness after the blended learning sessions. Conclusions: Blended learning module was successfully implemented for reinforcing dental pharmacology. The results obtained in this study enable us to plan future comparative studies to know the effectiveness of blended learning in dental pharmacology. Key message: Blended learning can be successfully integrated into undergraduate pharmacology education in dentistry. This could provide a favorable transition from the pre-clinical to clinical years with enhanced flexibility, location convenience and time efficiency. The next generation of blended learning courses should enhance the function of the internet as an absolute repository for all teaching and learning activities and minimize or even replace the number of classroom settings with online video-based features.
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Effectiveness of flipped classroom with Poll Everywhere as a teaching-learning method for pharmacy students
Kumar Shiva Gubbiyappa, Ankur Barua, Biswadeep Das, CR Vasudeva Murthy, Hasnain Zafar Baloch
October 2016, 48(7):41-46
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193313  PMID:28031607
Objectives: Flipped classroom (FC) is a pedagogical model to engage students in learning process by replacing the didactic lectures. Using technology, lectures are moved out of the classroom and delivered online as means to provide interaction and collaboration. Poll Everywhere is an audience response system (ARS) which can be used in an FC to make the activities more interesting, engaging, and interactive. This study aims to study the perception of undergraduate pharmacy students on FC activity using Poll Everywhere ARS and to study the effectiveness of FC activity as a teaching-learning tool for delivering complementary medicine module in the undergraduate pharmacy program. Materials and Methods: In this nonrandomized trial on interrupted time series study, flipped class was conducted on group of 112 students of bachelor of pharmacy semester V. The topic selected was popular herbal remedies of the complementary medicine module. Flipped class was conducted with audio and video presentation in the form of a quiz using ten one-best-answer type of multiple-choice questions covering the learning objectives. Audience response was captured using web-based interaction with Poll Everywhere. Feedback was obtained from participants at the end of FC activity and debriefing was done. Results: Randomly selected 112 complete responses were included in the final analysis. There were 47 (42%) male and 65 (58%) female respondents. The overall Cronbach’s alpha of feedback questionnaire was 0.912. The central tendencies and dispersions of items in the questionnaire indicated the effectiveness of FC. The low or middle achievers of quiz session (pretest) during the FC activity were three times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1–8.9) at the risk of providing neutral or negative feedback than high achievers (P = 0.040). Those who gave neutral or negative feedback on FC activity were 3.9 times (95% CI = 1.3–11.8) at the risk of becoming low or middle achievers during the end of semester examination (P = 0.013). The multivariate analysis of “Agree” or “Disagree” and “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” was statistically significant. Conclusion: This study provides insight on how the pharmacy students learn and develop their cognitive functions. The results revealed that the FC activity with Poll Everywhere is an effective teaching-learning method. Key message: Flipped classes (FC) drive active learning among the participants, resulting in better performance in students. FC for pharmacy students enabled instructors to engage the learners and helpthem towards self-directed learning. FC supported the fact that the quality (not necessarily the quantity) of student-teacher interaction was a compelling force in improving student performance.
  2,327 92 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Knowledge, awareness and practice of ethics among doctors in tertiary care hospital
Surjit Singh, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Bharti Bhandari, Rimplejeet Kaur
October 2016, 48(7):89-93
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193320  PMID:28031617
Introduction: With the advancement of healthcare and medical research, doctors need to be aware of the basic ethical principles. This cross-sectional study is an attempt to assess the knowledge, awareness, and practice of health-care ethics among health-care professionals. Materials and Methods: After taking written informed consent, a standard questionnaire was administered to 117 doctors. No personal information was recorded on the questionnaire so as to ensure the confidentiality and anonymity of participants. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Results: Statistically significant difference observed between the opinions of consultant and senior resident (SRs) on issues like, adherence to confidentiality; paternalistic attitude of doctors (doctors should do their best for the patient irrespective of patient’s opinion); doctor’s decision should be final in case of disagreement and interest in learning ethics (P < 0.05). However, no difference reported among them with respect to patient wishes, informing patient regarding wrongdoing, informing close relatives, seeking consent for children and patients’ consent for procedures. Furthermore, no significant difference observed between the two with respect to the practice of health-care ethics. Surprisingly, the response of clinical and nonclinical faculty did not differ as far as awareness and practice of ethics were concerned. Conclusion: The significant difference is observed in the knowledge, awareness, and practice of ethics among consultants and SRs. Conferences, symposium, and workshops, on health-care ethics, may act as a means of sensitizing doctors and thus will help to bridge this gap and protect the well-being and confidentiality of the patients. Such an effort may bring about harmonious change in the doctor-patient relationship. Key message: An awareness among healthcare providers of the ethics in medical care is lacking. Conferences, symposium and workshops etc. on healthcare ethics may add knowledge, awareness and practice of ethics among resident doctors at par with consultants. These efforts may ensure the protection of well-being and confidentiality of patients.
  2,074 129 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Introducing objective structured practical examination as a method of learning and evaluation for undergraduate pharmacology
Kirti Vishwakarma, Mukesh Sharma, Prithpal Singh Matreja, Vishal Prakash Giri
October 2016, 48(7):47-51
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193317  PMID:28031608
Objective: Assessment method can influence student learning. Use of objective structured practical examination (OSPE) has been reported in various institutes with great benefits. We evaluated OSPE for the assessment of practical skills in pharmacology examination for undergraduate medical students and compared it with conventional practical examination (CPE). Materials and Methods: After sensitizing the 2nd year MBBS students to OSPE, the students were divided into four batches with twenty students in each batch. Students were assessed by attending five OSPE stations, each for duration of 5 min. The effectiveness was assessed through a student’s feedback questionnaire and was checked for its reliability by Cronbach’s alpha. The result of OSPE was compared with that of CPE of the same batch. Results: Cronbach’s alpha of the feedback questionnaire was 0.71, with high internal consistency. The feedback given was categorized into three domains: cognitive, psychomotor, and affective, and an assessment was also done for its further use. In cognitive domain, 74% of the students felt that the questions asked and the syllabus taught were well correlated. In psychomotor domain, 81% agreed that it is excellent for assessing the applied part of the subject. Seventy percent of students opined that it was associated with lesser stress than CPE. On overall assessment, 76% rated this methodology as good/satisfactory and 23% as excellent in terms of better scoring. There was a significant difference in the mean score between the results of OSPE and CPE (P < 0.001, df = 158, confidence interval = 95%). Conclusion: OSPE is a feasible and skill enhancing tool for the assessment in pharmacology examinations for undergraduate students. Key message: OSPE (Objective structured Practical Examination) is a feasible, meaningful and skill enhancing tool for assessment in pharmacology for undergraduate students. There are several benefits of OSPE as an assessment method including objectivity and uniformity in assessment of students.
  1,939 123 -
Opinion of stakeholders on existing curriculum for postgraduate (MD) course in Pharmacology: A survey
Dinesh K Badyal, Sujit R Daniel
October 2016, 48(7):19-24
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193316  PMID:28031602
Objectives: To survey the opinion about various curricular components of Doctor of Medicine (MD) pharmacology curriculum in India by stakeholders, including faculty and students. Materials and Methods: An online survey was done to evaluate the various curricular components of MD pharmacology curriculum being used in India. A total of 393 respondents including faculty, MD students, and other stakeholders completed the survey. The survey was developed using SurveyMonkey platform and link to survey was E-mailed to stakeholders. The results were expressed as percentages. Results: There was a balanced representation of respondents from various designations, teaching experience, regions, and age groups. Most of the respondents (83%) were aware of the MD pharmacology curriculum. However, they reported that it is more inclined to knowledge domain. About half of respondents (53%) said that animal experiments are being used. The most common teaching methods mentioned are seminars (98.5%), journal clubs (95%), and practical exercises by postgraduates (73%), but there is less use of newer methods (25%) in theory and less of clinical pharmacology exercise (39%) in practical classes. The log books are maintained but not assessed regularly. Internal assessment is sparingly used. Conclusion: The MD pharmacology curriculum needs to be made uniform at the national level and updated to include the newer methods in teaching-learning and assessment. There should be sharing of newer methods at a common platform implemented at the national level. Key message: Emerging trends in pharmacology and therapeutics and the changing career avenues for pharmacologists brings forth a need for uniformity in curricular components of M.D. (Pharmacology) course in India. The uniformity in the curriculum is currently lacking and needs to be revamped to suit the contemporary needs.
  1,869 180 -
Role-play as an educational tool in medication communication skills: Students’ perspectives
SH Lavanya, L Kalpana, RM Veena, VD Bharath Kumar
October 2016, 48(7):33-36
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193311  PMID:28031605
Objectives: Medication communication skills are vital aspects of patient care that may influence treatment outcomes. However, traditional pharmacology curriculum deals with imparting factual information, with little emphasis on patient communication. The current study aims to explore students’ perceptions of role-play as an educational tool in acquiring communication skills and to ascertain the need of role-play for their future clinical practice. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based study was done in 2nd professional MBBS students. A consolidated concept of six training cases, focusing on major communication issues related to medication prescription in pharmacology, were developed for peer-role-play sessions for 2nd professional MBBS (n = 122) students. Structured scripts with specific emphasis on prescription medication communication and checklists for feedback were developed. Prevalidated questionnaires measured the quantitative aspects of role-plays in relation to their relevance as teaching–learning tool, perceived benefits of sessions, and their importance for future use. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Results: The role-play concept was well appreciated and considered an effective means for acquiring medication communication skills. The structured feedback by peers and faculty was well received by many. Over 90% of the students reported immense confidence in communicating therapy details, namely, drug name, purpose, mechanism, dosing details, and precautions. Majority reported a better retention of pharmacology concepts and preferred more such sessions. Conclusions: Most students consider peer-role-play as an indispensable tool to acquire effective communication skills regarding drug therapy. By virtue of providing experiential learning opportunities and its feasibility of implementation, role-play sessions justify inclusion in undergraduate medical curricula. Key message: Peer-role play as a teaching learning method to teach medication-communication skills to undergraduate pharmacology students needs to be explored. Students' perspectives of the positive impact of these sessions in acquiring counselling skills may guide future educational interventions in this regard.
  1,927 106 -
Assessment of knowledge and perceptions toward generic medicines among basic science undergraduate medical students at Aruba
P Ravi Shankar, Burton L Herz, Arun K Dubey, Mohamed A Hassali
October 2016, 48(7):29-32
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193309  PMID:28031604
Objective: Use of generic medicines is important to reduce rising health-care costs. Proper knowledge and perception of medical students and doctors toward generic medicines are important. Xavier University School of Medicine in Aruba admits students from the United States, Canada, and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD) program. The present study was conducted to study the knowledge and perception about generic medicines among basic science MD students. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted among first to fifth semester students during February 2015. A previously developed instrument was used. Basic demographic information was collected. Respondent’s agreement with a set of statements was noted using a Likert-type scale. The calculated total score was compared among subgroups of respondents. One sample Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used to study the normality of distribution, Independent samples t-test to compare the total score for dichotomous variables, and analysis of variance for others were used for statistical analysis. Results: Fifty-six of the 85 students (65.8%) participated. Around 55% of respondents were between 20 and 25 years of age and of American nationality. Only three respondents (5.3%) provided the correct value of the regulatory bioequivalence limits. The mean total score was 43.41 (maximum 60). There was no significant difference in scores among subgroups. Conclusions: There was a significant knowledge gap with regard to the regulatory bioequivalence limits for generic medicines. Respondents’ level of knowledge about other aspects of generic medicines was good but could be improved. Studies among clinical students in the institution and in other Caribbean medical schools are required. Deficiencies were noted and we have strengthened learning about generic medicines during the basic science years. Key message: Use of generic medicines reduces the cost of treatment and promotes rational use of medicines. Generic medicines are widely used in developed countries. Medical students as future doctors have an important role in promoting use of generic medicines. Knowledge gaps with regard to use of these medicines exist and must be corrected through appropriate education.
  1,839 138 -
Introducing structured viva voce examination in medical undergraduate pharmacology: A pilot study
DC Dhasmana, Suman Bala, Rajendra Sharma, Taruna Sharma, Saurabh Kohli, Neeraj Aggarwal, Juhi Kalra
October 2016, 48(7):52-56
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193308  PMID:28031609
Objective: Viva voce examination is an important tool of evaluation in medical examinations marred by high subjectivity. Gross subjectivity in viva voce assessment can be reduced by structuring it. Materials and Methods: The marks obtained in theory and viva voce (traditional viva voce examination [TVVE]) of I sessional, II MBBS students were compared and a huge disparity was identified. A structured viva voce examination (SVVE) was then proposed and experimented as an objective and standardized alternative. Sets of equitable question cards for SVVE were prepared, each having eight questions with two parts each, arranged successively with increasing difficulty, domains of learning, and appropriate marks. The percentage variation in scoring in viva versus theory marks was calculated for both TVVE and SVVE, and students were grouped as Group I (+100 to +51%); Group II (+50 to −50%); Group III (−51 to −100%); Group IV (−101 to −150%); Group V (−151 to −200%); and Group VI (< −200%) variation, as? inappropriate, appropriate, inappropriate, erroneous, more erroneous and most erroneous respectively. Student’s feedback on the SVVE was also obtained. Results: In TVVE (n = 128), the students distributed were:none,17.2%, 23.4%, 22.7%, 11.7% and 25% in Group I, II, III, IV, V, and VI in contrast to SVVE (n = 107) as 7.5%, 57.9%, 19.6%, 6.5%, 5.6%, and 2.8%, respectively. Marked disparity of TVVE was annulled with SVVE. Student’s feedback was quite encouraging with 83% overall acceptability and almost 66% preferred SVVE. Conclusion: SVVE was more realistic as compared to TVVE. Most of the students favored this approach. Key message: Structured viva voce examination (SVVE) is better and more realistic than traditional viva voce examination (TVVE). SVVE reduces subjectivity of viva, adds to uniformity in assessment and assesses higher domains of learning and communication.
  1,788 134 -
Role of concept map in teaching general awareness and pharmacotherapy of HIV/AIDS among second professional medical students
Suman Bala, DC Dhasmana, Juhi Kalra, Saurabh Kohli, Taruna Sharma
October 2016, 48(7):37-40
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193323  PMID:28031606
Objective: Medical students as future doctors will play an important role in caring for HIV-infected patients. This study assessed and evaluated the existing level of knowledge of MBBS students about HIV/AIDS given through lecture delivery methods and by use of concept map (CM). Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 150 professional MBBS students of tertiary care hospital. A pretest was conducted by giving 10 multiple choice questions (MCQ) of general awareness and 15 questions regarding pharmacotherapy of HIV/AIDS. In between pre- and post-test, a session of 1-week integrated teaching module was organized. After completion of integrated teaching, 2 h session of CM on general awareness and pharmacotherapy of HIV/AIDS was taken. A posttest was conducted using MCQs and problem-based question (PBQ) to assess the effect of integrated teaching and CM on their knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Feedback was also taken from the students to regarding their views about CM. Results: There was a significant increase in student’s score in MCQ test after integrated teaching than pretest (P < 0.05). There was also significant improvement in PBQ score after CM than that of after integrated teaching (P < 0.05). Students’ perception about the effectiveness of CM was positive. Conclusion: CM can make a significant improvement in the knowledge of medical students and were motivated and developed interest in the subject. Key message: Concept maps can be useful tool as add on to lectures and to summarise the topic in an effective way. Concept mapping can make a significant improvement in the knowledge of medical students. The learners get motivated and develop interest in the subject.
  1,771 109 -
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Medical curriculum and pharmacology: An appraisal
PSRK Haranath
October 2016, 48(7):10-13
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193328  PMID:28031600
Pharmacology was introduced with Western Medical Education in India in 1900s. RN Chopra was the first Professor of Pharmacology along with patient care in School of Tropical Medicine Calcutta. Now Pharmacologists do not have clinical care nor give laboratory services to hospitals. Medical Education advanced in the West in 1960s with more emphasis on Integrated Teaching and Student Self-study and less on didactic lectures. System Based Learning and Problem Based Learning reduced importance of individual subjects. Medical Council of India (MCI) has mandatory regulations with no major changes in the last 5 decades. Universities and Medical institutions have no freedom in teaching programs. In Pharmacology didactic lectures dominate teaching. Practicals started with Dispensing Pharmacy were later replaced with Experimental Pharmacology. At present after restrictions on animals for study practicals are converted to Theoretical Exercises on Prescription writing and Incompatibilities. Students study mostly before examinations with little influence of yearlong teaching. Suggestions in line with Western Countries: Reduce the course of Pharmacology to 6 months. Examinations should be completely Internal with frequent tests by Internal Examiners. MD (Therapeutics) course may be introduced to teach Pharmacology in first semester. MCI rules to be only advisory and not mandatory. Teaching Institutions should form an independent Association and have freedom in teaching programs. A Nonofficial National Board of Medical Examination has to be formed to conduct an Entrance Test for admissions to Medical College and a National test for each graduate before registration.
  1,762 114 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Poetry in teaching pharmacology: Exploring the possibilities
Juhi Kalra, Satendra Singh, Dinesh Badyal, Purnima Barua, Taruna Sharma, Dinesh Chandra Dhasmana, Tejinder Singh
October 2016, 48(7):61-64
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193325  PMID:28031611
Objectives: To explore poetry as a tool for active learning in linking knowledge and affective domains and to find if correlating learning with imagination can be used in “assessment for learning.” Materials and Methods: After taking a conventional lecture on Asthma, a creative writing assignment in the form of poetry writing was given to the students. Different triggers were given to the students to channelize their thought pattern in a given direction that was linked to specific areas of academic relevance. Students were asked to reflect on this learning experience and the faculty was asked to evaluate the student assignment on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: Most student groups scored well in the “overall assessment” of creative assignments and were rated as good or fair by the faculty. Students reflections were very informative and revealed that more than 90% of the students liked the exercise and many were too exuberant and liberal with emotional reactions that breathed positive. Around 5% students found the exercise average and another 5% found it very childish. Conclusion: Poetry writing turned out to be like a simulation exercise that linked academic knowledge, creativity, and the affective domain in an assumed scenario, rehearsed in free locales of mind. The metaphorical transition embedded in its subtle creation helped assess deeper understanding of the subject and the logical sequence of thought pattern. Key message: Poetry writing is like a simulation exercise that links academic knowledge, creativity and the affective domain in an assumed scenario, rehearsed in free locales of mind in the teaching of pharmacology. The richness of these student-generated creative projects indicates a need for reflective learning activities to be combined with subjective experiences, early in training.
  1,700 105 -
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Undergraduate pharmacology curriculum at an international medical college in India
Vasudha Devi, Vishal Bhat, Ganesh K Shenoy
October 2016, 48(7):14-18
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193322  PMID:28031601
Pharmacology is an important aspect of rational therapeutics. There has been a long-standing need for a change in the undergraduate medical curriculum of pharmacology. A review of literature throws up different approaches to improve the curriculum and to provide more importance to conceptualization and relevance to clinical practice. This article describes the undergraduate pharmacology curriculum which is revised to meet the needs of our unique status as an international medical college in India. We highlight how our curriculum prepares the students for future clinical practice by inculcating higher cognitive skills and soft skills. This article also provides a model for program evaluation and also challenges faced by our department while executing the planned curriculum.
  1,664 129 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Temporal trends in pharmacology publications by pharmacy institutes: A deeper dig
Parloop Amit Bhatt, Zarana Patel
October 2016, 48(7):74-77
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193329  PMID:28031614
Objective: Publications in Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) are the face of contemporary pharmacology practices followed in health-care profession - a knowledge-based profession. It depicts trends in terms of quantity (proportions), quality, type (preclinical/clinical), thrust areas, etc., of pharmacology followed by biomedical community professions both nationally and internationally. This article aims to establish temporal trends in pharmacology research by pharmacy institutes in light of its publications to IJP from 2010 to 2015. Methodology: The website of IJP was searched for publications year and issue wise for contributing authors from pharmacy institutions and analyzed for types of publications, their source and the categories of research documented in these publications. Results: A total of 1034 articles were published, of which 189 (18%) articles were published by pharmacy institutes, of which 90% (n = 170) were contributed from pharmacy institutes within India whereas 10% (n = 19) from international pharmacy institutes. 75% of these were research publication, the majority of which (65%) were related to preclinical screening of phytochemical constituents from plants. Conclusion: With multi and interdisciplinary collaborations in pharmacy profession the trend needs to improve toward molecular and cellular pharmacology and clinical studies. Key message: Publication in IJP complements teaching and training, research and clinical service offered by biomedical community. Temporal Trends in pharmacology publications in IJP by pharmacy institutes infers that research by pharmacy institutes needs to be more science oriented with well-defined objectives leading to molecular and cellular pharmacology. With the increased responsibility and scope of pharmacy profession in health care, contributions in clinical studies stand as the need of the hour.
  1,558 54 -
EDITORIAL
Revisiting and innovating pharmacology education
Chetna Desai
October 2016, 48(7):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193330  PMID:28031597
  1,438 171 -
GUEST EDITORIAL
Pharmacology education in India: Challenges ahead
Dinesh Kumar Badyal
October 2016, 48(7):3-4
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193327  PMID:28031598
  1,447 154 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Effectiveness of student-led objective tutorials in pharmacology teaching to medical students
Kriti Arora, Nayana Kamalnayan Hashilkar
October 2016, 48(7):78-82
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193321  PMID:28031615
Objectives: Current teaching in pharmacology is passive with less emphasis on clinical application. There is a need to incorporate newer instructional designs into pharmacology. Student-led objective tutorial (SLOT) is one of the novel designs to enhance interest among learners, provide opportunities for group learning, and facilitate self-directed learning. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of SLOTs over conventional tutorials (CTs) in pharmacology and to obtain feedback from the students regarding their perceptions about it. Subjects and Methods: The regular batch of MBBS 2nd professional in pharmacology was randomly divided into two groups. Five topics from central nervous system (CNS) were selected. One group received SLOT as the instructional strategy, whereas the other group went through CTs. At the end of the module, a written test was conducted to assess the effectiveness of both strategies. The students provided feedback regarding their experience using a prevalidated questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: The mean scores of both the groups were analyzed using Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the mean scores of the end of the module test. However, the overall passing percentage was significantly higher in the intervention group (P = 0.043). A total of 45.71% students favored it as a future tutorial method and expressed that SLOT enhanced their ability to learn independently. Conclusion: SLOT is an effective teaching–learning method to teach pharmacology to medical undergraduates. It enhances interest among learners and increases the ability to learn independently. Key message: Student led objective tutorial (SLOT) serve as critical determinants for self-learning and improve analytical skills of students. It enhances interest among learners, provide opportunities for group learning and facilitate self-directed learning. SLOT can be introduced as an interactive teaching learning strategy in pharmacology.
  1,505 90 -
Implementation of a module to promote competency in adverse drug reaction reporting in undergraduate medical students
Raakhi Kaliprasad Tripathi, Sharmila Vinayak Jalgaonkar, Pankaj V Sarkate, Nirmala Narayan Rege
October 2016, 48(7):69-73
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193314  PMID:28031613
Objectives: Underreporting and poor quality of adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports pose a challenge for the Pharmacovigilance Program of India. A module to impart knowledge and skills of ADR reporting to MBBS students was developed and evaluated. Materials and Methods: The module consisted of (a) e-mailing an ADR narrative and online filling of the “suspected ADR reporting form” (SARF) and (b) a week later, practical on ADR reporting was conducted followed by online filling of SARF postpractical at 1 and 6 months. SARF was an 18-item form with a total score of 36. The module was implemented in the year 2012–2013. Feedback from students and faculty was taken using 15-item prevalidated feedback questionnaires. The module was modified based on the feedback and implemented for the subsequent batch in the year 2013–2014. The evaluation consisted of recording the number of students responding and the scores achieved. Results: A total of 171 students in 2012–2013 batch and 179 in 2013–2014 batch participated. In the 2012–2013 batch, the number of students filling the SARF decreased from basal: 171; 1 month: 122; 6 months: 17. The average scores showed improvement from basal 16.2 (45%) to 26.4 (73%) at 1 month and to 27.3 (76%) at 6 months. For the 2013–2014 batch, the number (n = 179) remained constant throughout and the average score progressively increased from basal 10.5 (30%) to 27.8 (77%) at 1 month and 30.3 (84%) at 6 months. Conclusion: This module improved the accuracy of filling SARF by students and this subsequently will led to better ADR reporting. Hence, this module can be used to inculcate better ADR reporting practices in budding physicians. Key message: Use of an e-module for training students in ADR reporting skills was effective. The performance of students in filling ADR forms accurately increased, with a lesser number of students making mistakes. The module can be used to inculcate competency in ADR reporting in future health care professionals.
  1,458 92 -
Use of prelecture assignment to enhance learning in pharmacology lectures for the 2nd year medical students
Marya Ahsan, Ayaz Khurram Mallick
October 2016, 48(7):65-68
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193326  PMID:28031612
Objectives: Majority of teaching hours allotted by the Medical Council of India in pharmacology are utilized in the form of didactic lecture. Although these lectures are an excellent tool to deliver the information to a large group of students, it usually ends up as a one-sided teaching session with most students being the passive listeners. To make these lectures interesting and effective, we introduced the students to prelecture assignment (PLA) in the form of clinical case before the delivery of the lecture. Methods: This prospective educational trial was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology with undergraduate medical students in their 2nd year of their professional course. They were divided into two groups of 75 each. Group A was provided the PLA before the lecture. Group B students directly attended the lecture, sans the PLA. Multiple-choice questions-based test was conducted 2 days after the lecture. Students who failed to complete the assignment and were absent from the lecture and test were excluded from the study. Feedback from the students was obtained after the lecture. The scores in the test and responses were compiled and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results were expressed in percentages and as mean ± standard deviation as applicable. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty-six students from Group A and 42 from Group B appeared for the test. The students who were given PLA scored better. They felt more confident in answering and understood the topic better than the students of other group. Conclusion: PLA is a useful teaching-learning tool. The pharmacology lectures are interactive, interesting, and easy to understand with this tool. Key message: Pre lecture assignment (PLA) can help in making pharmacology lectures interactive, thought provoking, interesting and easy to understand. PLAs give learners an opportunity to identify the misconceptions of the students and thus build the lecture around those key points instead of making the lecture a one-way traffic of information.
  1,458 76 -
Student-led objective tutorials in Pharmacology: An interventional study
Anupama Sukhlecha, Shilpa P Jadav, Tushar R Gosai, Divakar Balusamy
October 2016, 48(7):83-88
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193310  PMID:28031616
Objectives: Students learn in a better way if they are involved in active learning. Hence, the study was designed to introduce student-led objective tutorials (SLOTs) as an alternative to conventional tutorials (CTs) in pharmacology and to compare SLOT and CT on outcomes such as improved score in tests, active involvement of students, and faculty requirement of each. Materials and Methods: Didactic lectures taken on a topic in pharmacology were followed by a preintervention test for a batch of the 2nd year medical undergraduates. They were allotted either in SLOT or CT group. For a SLOT session, students of Group A (interventional group) were divided into teams and each team prepared five multiple choice questions on the given topic in PowerPoint format, which were presented to other teams and audience. The proceedings were facilitated by two lecturers. Group B undertook CT (controls). A postintervention test was then taken for both groups. Feedback was sought from students and teachers on SLOT. Results: The total marks for the test were 20. The mean marks in Group A improved by 31% (from 5.1 to 11.2). In Group B, they improved by 11% (from 5 to 7.2). Academic performance following SLOT was better than CT. Students (63%) favored SLOT as it stimulated their interest in the topic, improved self-learning skills, and teamwork. The teachers also favored SLOT for similar reasons. Conclusion: SLOT leads to greater satisfaction and better performance in tests. SLOT is an effective alternative to CT to promote active learning among students through group work. It helps overcome the logistic difficulties due to faculty shortage. Key message: SLOT is an effective alternative to conventional tutorials to promote active learning among students through group work. It helps overcome logistic difficulties due to faculty shortage.
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The need for a comprehensive medication safety module in medical education
Sujith John Chandy
October 2016, 48(7):57-60
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193324  PMID:28031610
Objective: A rising number of medicines and minimal emphasis on rational prescribing in the medical curriculum may compromise medication safety. There is no focused module in the curriculum dealing with factors affecting safety such as quality, medicines management, rational use, and approach to adverse effects. Creating awareness of these issues would hopefully plant a seed of safe prescribing and encourage pharmacovigilance. A study was therefore done to determine the need for such a module. Method: A quasi-experimental pre-post module study. Medical students (n = 88) completing pharmacology term were recruited after informed consent. A questionnaire containing 20 questions on various themes was administered and scored. Subsequently a module was developed and relevant safety themes taught to the students. After one month, the questionnaire was re-administered. Results: The pre module score was 9.52/20. Knowledge about the various themes, adverse effects, medication management, quality issues and rational use were similar though poor knowledge was evident in specific areas such as clinical trials, look alike-sound alike medicines (LASA) and medicine storage. The post module score was 12.24/20. The improvement of score was statistically significant suggesting the effectiveness of the module. Conclusion: The relatively poor knowledge and improvement with a specific educational module emphasizes the need of such a module within the medical curriculum to encourage safe use of medicines by Indian Medical Graduates (IMG). It is hoped that the policy makers in medical education will introduce such a module within the medical curriculum. Key message: Students have a relatively poor knowledge of medication safety issues. There is a need for specific learning modules in the area of medication safety within the medical curriculum and also in continuing medical education programs.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Status of animal experiments in teaching pharmacology to undergraduate students
Dheeraj Kumar Singh, Pratap Shankar, Arpita Singh, Preet Lakhani, Sachin Tutu, Amod Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Dixit
October 2016, 48(7):97-98
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193318  PMID:28031619
  1,330 102 -
Learning pharmacology by metaphors: A tale of aminoglycosides
Gurudas Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar Khilnani, Rekha Thaddanee
October 2016, 48(7):94-97
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.193319  PMID:28031618
  1,186 101 -
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