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   2013| September-October  | Volume 45 | Issue 5  
    Online since September 6, 2013

 
 
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Effect of carvedilol on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in a rat model of myocardial infarction: A role for toll-like receptor 4
Qingwei Liu, Jianhua Zhang, Yan Xu, Ying Huang, Changhao Wu
September-October 2013, 45(5):458-463
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117729  PMID:24130379
Objectives: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is crucial in cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by myocardial infarction (MI) and carvedilol has been reported to have anti-apoptotic effects. We hypothesized that the effects of this agent are in part mediated through TLR4 signaling pathways. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 rats were randomized to the following groups before surgery: sham-operated group (n = 8), MI group (n = 10) and three carvedilol-treatment groups (n = 30, 2 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg). Sham and MI groups were given vehicle and carvedilol groups received different dose carvedilol, by direct gastric gavage for 7 days. On the 4 th day of drug or vehicle administration, MI model was produced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. On day 3 after MI, apoptosis was assessed by TdT-UTP nick-end assay; the levels of expression of Bax, Bcl-2, TLR4 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in infarcted myocardium were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results: Carvedilol ameliorated MI-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel, carvedilol also decreased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2, the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB induced by MI. The extent of apoptosis and Bax-Bcl-2 ratio was strongly correlated with the TLR4 levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that the short-term administration of carvedilol can significantly alleviate cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the infarcted myocardium probably by inhibiting the excessive expression of TLR4 and NF-κB induced by infarction.
  4 2,226 157
DRUG WATCH
Pregabalin hypersensitivity in a patient treated for postherpetic neuralgia
Arvind Bamanikar, Swati Dhobale, Suneet Lokwani
September-October 2013, 45(5):522-523
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117748  PMID:24130391
Drug hypersensitivity syndrome is characterized by fever, skin rash and internal organ involvement. It is commonly seen with aromatic group of anticonvulsants viz. phenytoin, carbamazepine and phenobarbitone. Here, we report a case of hypersensitivity reaction to pregabalin, used for treating postherpetic neuralgia.
  2 3,105 126
Heart failure induced by itraconazole
Hizir Okuyan, Cihan Altin
September-October 2013, 45(5):524-525
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117751  PMID:24130392
Itraconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent. It rarely leads to adverse the cardiovascular effects, especially heart failure. We present here a case of a 60-year-old female patient with itraconazole induced heart failure.
  2 1,623 131
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Exploring selective serotonergic modulation involved in the anticonvulsant effect of Ficus religiosa fig extract
Rajesh Kumar Goel, Damanpreet Singh
September-October 2013, 45(5):537-538
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117768  PMID:24130399
  2 2,148 93
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Effects of nano and conventional Zinc Oxide on anxiety-like behavior in male rats
Mozhgan Torabi, Mahnaz Kesmati, Hooman Eshagh Harooni, Hosein Najafzadeh Varzi
September-October 2013, 45(5):508-512
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117784  PMID:24130388
Objectives: Current drug therapies for psychological disorders, such as anxiety, are not as effective as expected, and it has been shown that zinc supplements, such as zinc oxide (ZnO), can influence anxiety. ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among the most used nanomaterials produced and applied in many products. Materials and Methods: This study investigated the effects of ZnO NPs in comparison with conventional ZnO (cZnO) on anxiety-like behaviors. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into groups: Control (receiving saline 0.9%), ZnO NPs (5, 10, 20 mg/kg), and cZnO (5, 10, 20 mg/kg). All drugs were dispersed in saline 0.9%, and 30 minutes after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of drugs, elevated plus maze apparatus was used to evaluate anxiety. Results: ZnO NPs (5 mg/kg) and cZnO (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly increased the percentage of time spent in open arm (open arm time % OAT) compared with the control group (P < 0.05). This indicates the anxiolytic effect of such components; in addition, ZnO NPs (20 mg/kg) reduced locomotor activity (P < 0.05). Serum zinc concentration increased by both anxiolytic dose of components (from 1.75 ± 1.07 (mg/l) in control group to 5.31 ± 0.53 (mg/l) in ZnO NPs (5 mg/kg) and 10.38 ± 0.90 (mg/l) in cZnO (10 mg/kg) groups). Also, all doses increased serum pH (from 7.3 ± 0.05 in control group to 8.1 ± 0.05 in ZnO NPs (5 mg/kg) and 8.05 ± 0.01 in cZnO (10 mg/kg) groups and kept them constant after 24 hours. Conclusion: Results indicate that the anxiolytic effect of ZnO NPs is much higher than its conventional form, but the introduction of ZnO NPs, as a new drug for treatment of anxiety disorder, needs further investigations.
  2 2,282 176
Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats
Swarnamoni Das, Lalit Kanodia, Apurba Mukherjee, Abdul Hakim
September-October 2013, 45(5):453-457
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117728  PMID:24130378
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida (EEPF) was prepared by percolation method. Acute toxicity test was done by using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. Albino rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Groups A and B received 3% gum acacia. Groups C and D received EEPF 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 5-aminosalisylic acid 100 mg/kg BW respectively. Colitis was induced by transrectal administration of 4% acetic acid on 5 th day. All animals were sacrificed after 48 h of colitis induction and distal 10 cm of the colon was dissected. Colon was weighed for disease activity index (DAI) and scored macroscopically and microscopically. Biochemical assessment of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was done in colonic tissue homogenate and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in serum. Results: P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in DAI, macroscopic and microscopic lesion score as well as significant (P < 0.05) improvement in MPO, MDA, CAT, and SOD level as compared to Group B. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property.
  2 3,918 261
Antitumor and antioxidant status of Terminalia catappa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice
Naitik B Pandya, Prakash Tigari, Kotresha Dupadahalli, Hemalatha Kamurthy, Rama Rao Nadendla
September-October 2013, 45(5):464-469
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117754  PMID:24130380
Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antitumor and antioxidant status of ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa leaves against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The leaves powder was extracted with Soxhlet apparatus and subjected to hot continuous percolation using ethanol (95% v/v). Tumor bearing animals was treated with 50 and 200 mg/kg of ethanol extract. EAC induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells 1 × 10 6 cells/mice. The study was assed using life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological parameters, volume of solid tumor mass and status of antioxidant enzymes such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were also determined. Results: Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were found 354.02 and 51.67 mg/g extract. Oral administration of ethanol extract of T. catappa (50 and 200 mg/kg) increased the life span (27.82% and 60.59%), increased peritoneal cell count (8.85 ± 0.20 and 10.37 ± 0.26) and significantly decreased solid tumor mass (1.16 ± 0.14 cm 2 ) at 200 mg/kg as compared with EAC-tumor bearing mice (P < 0.01). Hematological profile including red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin (11.91 ± 0.47 % g) and protein estimation were found to be nearly normal levels in extract-treated mice compared with tumor bearing control mice. Treatment with T. catappa significantly decreased levels of LPO and GSH, and increased levels of SOD and CAT activity (P < 0.01). Conclusion: T. catappa exhibited antitumor effect by modulating LPO and augmenting antioxidant defense systems in EAC bearing mice. The phenolic and flavonoid components in this extract may be responsible for antitumor activity.
  2 4,586 203
Effect of sequential versus standard Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy on the associated iron deficiency anemia in children
Hamed Said Ali Habib, Hussam Aly Sayed Murad, Elamir Mahmoud Amir, Taher Fawzy Halawa
September-October 2013, 45(5):470-473
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117757  PMID:24130381
Objectives: Helicobacter pylori infection may be associated with low iron stores and iron deficiency anemia. Eradication of infection by the standard 10-day therapy (a proton pump inhibitor [PPI], clarithromycin and amoxicillin; each given orally, twice daily) is decreasing. The sequential 10-day therapy (a PPI and amoxicillin; each given orally twice daily for 5 days; followed by a PPI, clarithromycin and tinidazole; each given orally twice daily for another 5 days) may achieve higher eradication rates. This study was designed to investigate, which eradication regimen; sequential or standard; more effectively improves the associated iron status and iron deficiency in children. Materials and Methods: Children (12-15 years) with H. pylori active infection (positive H. pylori immunoglobulin G and urea breath test [UBT]) were subjected to measurement of serum ferritin and then randomized into two groups to receive standard and sequential eradication therapy. Six weeks after completing therapy, UBT was performed to check eradication and serum ferritin was measured to estimate affection by therapy. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, IBM, NY, USA) was used for analysis. Results: H. pylori eradication rates of sequential versus standard therapy were non-significantly different. Serum ferritin non-significantly differed between the two therapy groups and in the same group before and after treatment. Conclusions: There is no significant difference in H. pylori eradication rates between sequential and standard therapies in children. Moreover, no significant relationship was found between eradication therapy and serum ferritin. Further studies enrolling more markers of iron deficiency are required to precisely assess this relationship.
  2 3,432 189
DRUG WATCH
Anti B cell targeted therapy for autoimmune hemolytic anemia in an infant
Darshak Makadia, Sirisha Rani Siddaiahgari, MS Latha
September-October 2013, 45(5):526-527
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117755  PMID:24130393
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an immune mediated destruction of erythrocytes, which has a good prognosis in children. It is known to have chronic, remitting or relapsing course, especially in infants and adolescents. Treatment of refractory or relapsing AIHA is a challenge as the other aim of the treatment is to avoid prolonged exposure to steroids or other immunosuppressants in small children. Rituximab is used in patients who are non-responsive to conventional treatment such as steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and transfusion therapy. It has varying therapeutic success rate. We report a case of AIHA in a 4-month-old infant who had ill-sustained response to conventional therapy, but responded to rituximab.
  1 3,275 106
Hypersensitivity due to ceftriaxone mimicking measlesin a child
Russelian Arulraj, Chandrasekaran Venkatesh, Nanda Chhavi, Palanisamy Soundararajan
September-October 2013, 45(5):528-529
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117756  PMID:24130394
Ceftriaxone is a commonly used antibiotic in children for various infections like respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection and enteric fever. Hypersensitive reactions following ceftriaxone therapy are uncommon but are potentially life-threatening. The rash can resemble viral exanthems and may lead to a delay in the recognition and prompt treatment. Here we report a 7-year-old boy who presented with fever and rash with emphasis on recognizing ceftriaxone hypersensitivity and its management.
  1 2,047 124
Ceftriaxone-induced hemolysis
Vivek S Guleria, Nitin Sharma, Sagar Amitabh, Velu Nair
September-October 2013, 45(5):530-531
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117758  PMID:24130395
Immune hemolytic anemia is a rare adverse effect of ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, which is a commonly used antibiotic. We describe a 60-years-old lady, a case of community-acquired pneumonia, who developed severe hemolysis after the first dose of ceftriaxone. Her hemoglobin dropped from 9.6 g /dl to 5.5 g /dl. However, she improved after discontinuation of the drug and blood transfusion. This report serves as a reminder to medical fraternity that life-threatening hemolysis can rarely follow administration of ceftriaxone.
  1 1,984 139
Fluvoxamine induced oculogyric dystonia and manic switch in a patient with obsessive compulsive disorder
Sai Krishna Tikka, Shobit Garg, Basudeb Das
September-October 2013, 45(5):532-533
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117760  PMID:24130396
Fluvoxamine has a similar spectrum of adverse effects as compared to other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However, fluvoxamine induced oculogyric dystonia is a rare instance in clinical practice. In this report, we present a case of obsessive compulsive disorder that developed oculogyric dystonia during the course of fluvoxamine mono-therapy and subsequently had a manic switch.
  1 2,669 84
EDITORIAL
Being an editor: Process, predicaments, and privilege
Varsha J Patel
September-October 2013, 45(5):427-428
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117717  PMID:24130373
  1 2,153 280
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Ethanolic extract of Piper betle Linn. leaves reduces nociception via modulation of arachidonic acid pathway
Soumita De, Niteeka Maroo, Piu Saha, Samik Hazra, Mitali Chatterjee
September-October 2013, 45(5):479-482
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117766  PMID:24130383
Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the peripheral analgesic effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) along with establishing its putative mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice after pre-treatment (1 h) with different doses of PBE were injected 0.8% (v/v) acetic acid i.p.; the onset and number of writhes were noted up to 15 min. To evaluate the mechanism of action, the murine peritoneal exudate was incubated with PBE for 1 h, followed by exposure to arachidonic acid (AA) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Results: PBE in a dose dependent manner significantly reduced acetic acid induced writhing response in mice (P < 0.001). In peritoneal exudates, PBE significantly inhibited AA induced generation of ROS, P < 0.01. Conclusions: The present study indicates that PBE has promising analgesic activity, worthy of future pharmacological consideration.
  1 1,945 151
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
The ideal zinc preparation in the management of acute diarrhea in children
Thirunavukkarasu Arun Babu
September-October 2013, 45(5):539-539
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117769  PMID:24130400
  - 2,344 122
Research ethics for young researchers
Antony Gomes, Archita Saha, Poulami Datta, Aparna Gomes
September-October 2013, 45(5):540-541
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117775  PMID:24130401
  - 1,736 201
Experimental evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of Oyster mushroom Pleurotus florida
Smita D Sontakke, Rohan Hire, Someshwar Rayasum
September-October 2013, 45(5):541-542
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117777  PMID:24130402
  - 2,290 110
Author's reply
Aditya Ganeshpurkar, Gopal Rai
September-October 2013, 45(5):542-542
  - 775 63
Prescribing practices in private health facilities in Delhi (India)
Vandana Roy, Usha Gupta, Monica Gupta, Arun Kumar Agarwal
September-October 2013, 45(5):534-535
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117762  PMID:24130397
  - 2,285 135
Bedaquiline: A new drug approved for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
Shashank Deoghare
September-October 2013, 45(5):536-537
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117765  PMID:24130398
  - 3,283 358
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Sexually transmitted diseases putative drug target database: A comprehensive database of putative drug targets of pathogens identified by comparative genomics
Vijayakumari Malipatil, Shivkumar Madagi, Biplab Bhattacharjee
September-October 2013, 45(5):434-438
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117719  PMID:24130375
Objective: Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are the serious public health problems and also impose a financial burden on the economy. Sexually transmitted infections are cured with single or multiple antibiotics. However, in many cases the organism showed persistence even after treatment. In the current study, the set of druggable targets in STD pathogens have been identified by comparative genomics. Materials and Methods: The subtractive genomics scheme exploits the properties of non-homology, essentiality, membrane localization and metabolic pathway uniqueness in identifying the drug targets. To achieve the effective use of data and to understand properties of drug target under single canopy, an integrated knowledge database of drug targets in STD bacteria was created. Data for each drug targets include biochemical pathway, function, cellular localization, essentiality score and structural details. Results: The proteome of STD pathogens yielded 44 membrane associated proteins possessing unique metabolic pathways when subjected to the algorithm. The database can be accessed at http://biomedresearchasia.org/index.html. Conclusion: Diverse data merged in the common framework of this database is expected to be valuable not only for basic studies in clinical bioinformatics, but also for basic studies in immunological, biotechnological and clinical fields.
  - 4,205 241
Antipsychotics in children and adolescents with schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Siddharth Sarkar, Sandeep Grover
September-October 2013, 45(5):439-446
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117720  PMID:24130376
Objective: To systematically review the efficacy and tolerability data of antipsychotics in children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Pubmed, Google scholar and Psych Info were searched to identify studies published in peer-reviewed English language journals. All studies evaluating the efficacy of antipsychotics in children and adolescents with schizophrenia and having 3 or more participants were included. Of the studies identified, only randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. Data was analysed using effect size calculation as per Cohen's d. Fifty published studies were identified which reported use of antipsychotics in children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Of these, 15 randomized controlled studies were included in meta-analysis. Results: Evidence suggests that both first generation antipsychotics (FGA) and second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are better than placebo (effect size [ES] 2.948, confidence interval [CI] 1.368 to 4.528, sample size 31; and ES 0.454, CI 0.414 to 0.542, sample size 1308 respectively). However, FGAs seemed to be inferior to SGAs (ES -0.363, CI -0.562 to -0.163, sample size of 243) and clozapine is superior to all other antipsychotics (ES 0.848, CI 0.748 to 0.948, and sample size 85) in treatment of schizophrenia in children and adolescents. The extrapyramidal side effects are more common with FGAs while metabolic adverse effects are more common with SGAs. Conclusion: FGAs and SGAs are effective in the treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Clozapine apparently is the most effective antipsychotic in this condition.
  - 3,959 300
Efficacy and safety of anti-tuberculosis drugs in HIV-positive patients: A prospective study
Jigar D Kapadia, Chetna K Desai, Manish N Solanki, Asha N Shah, RK Dikshit
September-October 2013, 45(5):447-452
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117723  PMID:24130377
Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of anti-tuberculosis drugs in HIV-positive patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: As a part of an ongoing study of opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-positive patients, drug treatment in patients suffering from tuberculosis was assessed to determine its efficacy and safety. Based on prevalence data for last three years, a purposive sampling of study population was carried out in this observational, prospective, single centre study. Tuberculosis (TB) was the most common OI observed. The selected patients were followed up for a period of one year to evaluate the clinical course and outcome of OIs, and the efficacy and safety of drugs used was checked. Results: Tuberculosis was observed in 89 out of 134 enrolled patients. These included 79 adults and 10 children. Males (66.2%) were commonly affected. Extra pulmonary TB (73%) was the most common manifestation with abdominal TB observed in 55 (61.7%) patients. All patients were treated in accordance with the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) guidelines as recommended by National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), India. Outcome of TB was assessable in 70 patients. Majority (82.8%) of the patients were cured, while 12 patients (17.1%) died during the course of treatment. A total of 149 ADRs were observed in 67 (75.2%) patients. Majority of ADRs (n = 147) were non-serious and did not warrant a change in therapy. Discoloration of urine was the most common ADR observed. Conclusion: TB is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-positive patients with abdominal TB being the most common manifestation. RNTCP and NACO guidelines are adhered to in these patients. Anti-tuberculosis drugs are well tolerated and effective in majority of the patients.
  - 3,586 448
Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats
Rajesh S Pawar, Pradeep K Chaurasiya, Harish Rajak, Pradeep K Singour, Fedelic Ashish Toppo, Ankit Jain
September-October 2013, 45(5):474-478
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117759  PMID:24130382
Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds.
  - 3,516 312
Panaxquin quefolium diolsaponins dose-dependently inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by downregulating proto-oncogene expression
Zhihao Wang, Yingkai Wang, Xuezhong Zhao
September-October 2013, 45(5):483-489
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117772  PMID:24130384
Objectives: Panax quinquefolium saponins (PQS) potentially prevent atherosclerosis in vivo. The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in coronary heart disease and restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Here, we investigated the potential effect of Panax quinquefolium diolsaponins (PQDS), a subtype of PQS, on angiotensin II (AngII)-induced VSMC proliferation. Materials and Methods: Isolated rat VSMCs were identified by immunocytochemical analysis. Cell proliferation was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The cell cycle and proliferation index were analyzed using flow cytometry. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of proto-oncogenes was evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Over 98% of cultured VSMCs were immunopositive for anti-α-smooth muscle actin. AngII promoted cell proliferation, whereas PQDS significantly suppressed VSMC growth in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, PQDS suppressed AngII-induced proliferation of VSMCs by arresting the Gap 0/Gap 1 phase. Down-regulated mRNA expressions of proto-oncogenes occurred after PQDS application. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that PQDS may reduce AngII-stimulated VSMC proliferation by suppressing the expression of proto-oncogenes. These results may provide insights for the development of novel traditional Chinese medicines to prevent atherosclerosis.
  - 2,525 68
An evaluation of the protective role of α-tocopherol on free radical induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity due to chromium in rats
Rajendran Balakrishnan, Chitturi Sree Venkat Satish Kumar, Matukumalli Usha Rani, Mylaram Kistaiah Srikanth, Gopu Boobalan, Alla Gopala Reddy
September-October 2013, 45(5):490-495
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117778  PMID:24130385
Aim: To avert the health problems induced by many environmental pollutants, available antioxidants have been evaluated. The present study was aimed to investigate whether α-tocopherol could protect the hexavalent chromium (Cr VI)-induced peroxidation in the liver and kidney and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 Wistar adult female rats were equally divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control while Groups 2 and 3 were administered K 2 Cr 2 O 7 (10 mg/kg b.wt. s.c. single dose). In addition to (Cr VI), Group 3 also received α-tocopherol (125 mg/kg, daily) by oral gavage for 14 days. Group 4 was maintained as α-tocopherol control (dose as above). At the end of 14 days, blood samples were drawn for hematology. Subsequently, all the rats were sacrificed to collect liver and kidney samples for assay of tissue peroxidation markers, antioxidant markers and functional markers and histopathology. Results: Administration of chromium (Cr VI) in Group 2 significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione along with significant (P < 0.05) increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in the liver and kidney as compared with other groups. The functional markers in serum such as total protein was decreased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas other functional markers viz. alanine transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were increased significantly (P < 0.05) in Group 2 as compared with the other groups. Significant (P < 0.05) decrease in hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and total leukocyte count were observed in Cr VI treated Group 2 rats. Prominent pathological changes were observed in the liver and kidney of Group 2. Co-treatment with α-tocopherol in Group 3 rats significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the Cr VI induced changes. The parameters in the study in Group 4 did not differ as compared with Group 1. Conclusions: α–tocopherol exhibited protective effect against Cr VI-induced damage to the liver and kidney by inhibition of lipid peroxidation owing its antioxidant activity.
  - 3,070 144
Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center
Shobha Churi, Lovin Abraham, M Ramesh, MG Narahari
September-October 2013, 45(5):496-501
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117781  PMID:24130386
Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephone service, internet and online services) to provide poison information services. The poison information services provided by the center were recorded in documentation forms. The documentation form consists of numerous sections to collect information on: (a) Type of population (children, adult, elderly or pregnant) (b) poisoning agents (c) route of exposure (d) type of poisoning (intentional, accidental or environmental) (e) demographic details of patient (age, gender and bodyweight) (f) enquirer details (background, place of call and mode of request) (g) category and purpose of query and (h) details of provided service (information provided, mode of provision, time taken to provide information and references consulted). The nature and quality of poison information services provided was assessed using a quality assessment checklist developed in accordance with DSE/World Health Organization guidelines. Statistical Analysis: Chi-Square test (χ2 ). Results: A total of 419 queries were received by the center. A majority (n = 333; 79.5%) of the queries were asked by the doctors to provide optimal care (n = 400; 95.5%). Most of the queries were received during ward rounds (n = 201; 48.0%), followed by direct access (n = 147; 35.1%). The poison information services were predominantly provided through verbal communication (n = 352; 84.0%). Upon receipt of queries, the required service was provided immediately (n = 103; 24.6%) or within 10-20 min (n = 296; 70.6%). The queries were mainly related to intentional poisoning (n = 258; 64.5%), followed by accidental poisoning (n = 142; 35.5%). The most common poisoning agents were medicines (n = 124; 31.0%). The service provided was graded as "Excellent" for the majority of queries (n = 360; 86%; P < 0.001), followed by "Very Good" (n = 50; 12%) and "Good" (n = 9; 2%). Conclusion: The poison information center provided requested services in a skillful, efficient and evidence-based manner to meet the needs of the requestor. The enquiries and information provided is documented in a clear and systematic manner.
  - 3,486 142
Chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity
Ramesh K Nitharwal, Hasit Patel, Manvendra Singh Karchuli, Rajesh Ramesh Ugale
September-October 2013, 45(5):502-507
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117783  PMID:24130387
Objective: Although cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating agent, is used in the treatment of cancer owing to its broad-spectrum efficacy, its metabolites exhibit severe undesired toxicities in normal cells. The present study was aimed to investigate the chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Rodents were orally pre-treated with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) for five consecutive days. On 5th day, these animals were injected with CP (50 mg/kg i.p) and sacrificed after 24 hrs. for the evaluation of oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, micronucleus formation, and chromosomal aberrations. Results: We found that the CP significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased catalase and glutathione (GSH) levels in brain, and it was significantly reversed by Coccinia indica extract (400 and 600 mg/kg). Further, pre-treatment with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, 600 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced micronuclei formation and incidence of aberrant cells. We also found that the CP-induced increase in the serum biomarker enzymes like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alkaline aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced by Coccinia indica extract. Conclusion: Thus, the present results indicate the protective effect of Coccinia indica extract against CP-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, as well as hepatotoxicity.
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Cardioprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Urtica parviflora Roxb. against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats
Nishith Ranjan Barman, Subhangkar Nandy, Rana Datta, Prasanna Kumar Kar
September-October 2013, 45(5):513-516
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117782  PMID:24130389
Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Urtica parviflora Roxb. in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Materials and Methods: U. parviflora Roxb. (350 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, p.o) was administered for 15 days in rats. MI was induced with a single dose of ISO (200 mg/kg, s.c.) on the 14 th and 15 th day. At the end of the experimental period (i.e., on the day 16), serum and heart tissues were collected and total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein, triglyceride and malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and body weight were determined. Results: Administration of ISO in control rats showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase serum cholesterol alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the levels of heart tissues as compared with respective control groups. Rats treated with U. parviflora significantly (P < 0.01) decreased ALT, AST, ALP, LDL and TC. Moreover, there was an increased CAT and GSH levels in rat treated with U. parviflora Roxb. as compared with the control group. Conclusion: U. parviflora (350 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) is effective in controlling serum LDL levels and reduced cardiac complication in experimentally induced MI in rats.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Clinical pharmacology training in India: Status and need
Nilima A Kshirsagar, Sagar S Bachhav, Laxmikant A Kulkarni, Vijaykumar
September-October 2013, 45(5):429-433
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117718  PMID:24130374
Clinical pharmacologists undertake many tasks, and this makes defining a curriculum challenging. This is especially so under the changing circumstances in developing countries, where clinical pharmacology has an expanding role. The clinical pharmacologist may be responsible for conducting ethical clinical trials, supporting the needs of the generic drug industry, providing access to safe, effective and affordable medicines, guiding their rational use, achieving millennium development goals, and supervising medicines management standards for hospital accreditation. Clinical pharmacologists, including those in developing countries, have a great opportunity to contribute to public health and the growth of pharmaceutical industry, but at present, less clinical research is undertaken and fewer clinical trials are done than might be expected. Here we review clinical pharmacology training in India, consider the needs of different professionals contributing to clinical research and medicines utilization, and suggest ways in which current programs can be modified and new programs started. The conclusions are relevant to clinical pharmacology in both the developing and the developed world.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION
Histological changes in the liver of fetuses of pregnant rats following citalopram administration
Zeynab Mohammadi, Mahnaz Azarnia, Ghadireh Mirabolghasemi, Abdolhossein Shiravi, Zohreh Mohammadi
September-October 2013, 45(5):517-521
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.117726  PMID:24130390
Objective: Depression is a dilapidating disorder, which may occur during pregnancy. Citalopram is an antidepressant drug often prescribed to pregnant women. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether maternal administration of citalopram affects fetal liver histology. Materials and Methods: Pregnant Wistar albino rats were treated with citalopram (10 or 20 mg/kg/day). A control group received no treatment. Rat fetal liver samples were obtained on day 18 of gestation and evaluated morphologically and histologically. Results: Statistical evaluation of data showed that there were no differences in liver weight and relative liver weight between control and citalopram treatment groups. Liver histology changes (such as increases in the number of Kupffer cells and lymphocytes) were seen in the fetuses of the group receiving a high dose of citalopram during gestation. Degeneration of hepatocytes was not seen and the megakaryocyte number did not change significantly in the citalopram treated groups. Conclusion: This study showed that citalopram administration during gestation may have some adverse effects on the phagocytic cell population in the fetal liver of rats.
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