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   2011| May-June  | Volume 43 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 24, 2011

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Heavy metals and living systems: An overview
Reena Singh, Neetu Gautam, Anurag Mishra, Rajiv Gupta
May-June 2011, 43(3):246-253
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81505  PMID:21713085
Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known.
  21,482 814 26
Promising molecular targeted therapies in breast cancer
Radha Munagala, Farrukh Aqil, Ramesh C Gupta
May-June 2011, 43(3):236-245
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81497  PMID:21713084
In recent years, there has been a significant improvement in the understanding of molecular events and critical pathways involved in breast cancer. This has led to the identification of novel targets and development of anticancer therapies referred to as targeted therapy. Targeted therapy has high specificity for the molecules involved in key molecular events that are responsible for cancer phenotype such as cell growth, survival, migration, invasion, metastasis, apoptosis, cell-cycle progression, and angiogenesis. Targeted agents that have been approved for breast cancer include trastuzumab and lapatinib, directed against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and bevacizumab, directed against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Several other targeted agents currently under evaluation in preclinical and clinical trials include inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), dual EGFR and HER2 inhibitors, VEGF/VEGFR inhibitors, and agents that interfere with crucial signaling pathways such as PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/MEK/ERK; agents against other tyrosine kinases such as Src, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/IGF-receptor (IGFR); agents that promote apoptosis such as Poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors; agents that target invasion and metastasis such as matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors and others. In this review, we highlight the most promising targeted agents and their combination with mainstream chemotherapeutic drugs in clinical trials.
  14,694 852 3
Role of zinc in pediatric diarrhea
Chaitali Bajait, Vijay Thawani
May-June 2011, 43(3):232-235
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81495  PMID:21713083
Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS), can reduce the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes for up to three months. The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF recommend daily 20 mg zinc supplements for 10 - 14 days for children with acute diarrhea, and 10 mg per day for infants under six months old, to curtail the severity of the episode and prevent further occurrences in the ensuing -two to three months, thereby decreasing the morbidity considerably. This article reviews the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of zinc supplementation in pediatric diarrhea and convincingly concludes that zinc supplementation has a beneficial impact on the disease outcome.
  7,508 705 6
Effect of piperine in the regulation of obesity-induced dyslipidemia in high-fat diet rats
Shreya S Shah, Gaurang B Shah, Satbeer D Singh, Priyanshi V Gohil, Kajal Chauhan, Khyati A Shah, Mehul Chorawala
May-June 2011, 43(3):296-299
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81516  PMID:21713094
Objective: The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of piperine in obesity-induced dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for the first eight weeks, to develop obesity-induced dyslipidemia. Later on piperine (40 mg / kg) and sibutramine (5 mg / kg) were administered for three weeks along with the continuation of HFD to two separate groups, which served as the test and standard groups, respectively. Body weight, food intake, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, and HDL were measured at the end of the fourth, eighth (before treatment), and eleventh (after treatment) week, while the fat mass was measured at the end of the eleventh week in the normal, HFD-control, test, and standard groups. Results: Supplementing piperine with HFD significantly reduced not only body weight, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, and fat mass, but also increased the HDL levels, with no change in food intake. Conclusion: The above results suggest that piperine possesses potential fat reducing and lipid lowering effects, without any change in food appetite, at a small dose of 40 mg / kg. The mechanism of action for such an activity needs to be determined. However, looking to structural similarity with the presently known Melanocortin-4 (MC-4) agonists, involvement of MC-4 receptors in its activity can be guessed.
  5,130 377 10
Antiulcer and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Passiflora foetida L.
R Sathish, Alok Sahu, K Natarajan
May-June 2011, 43(3):336-339
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81501  PMID:21713043
Passiflora foetida L. (Passifloraceae), a widely growing perennial climber, has been used in traditional medicine for treating many ailments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extract of P. foetida (EEPF) whole plant on gastric ulcer. The antiulcer effects of EEPF at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses were evaluated on ethanol and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models. The antioxidant parameters and histological changes in gastric tissue of ulcer rats were also determined in both the models. P. foetida treatment significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the ulcer index and significantly (P < 0.01) increased the gastric pH of both ethanol and aspirin-induced ulcer rats. P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.01) reduction in lipid peroxidation and increase in reduced glutathione levels. The observations confirm that EEPF whole plant has antiulcer and antioxidant activities.
  4,458 419 5
In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Celosia argentea leaves
SO Malomo, A Ore, MT Yakubu
May-June 2011, 43(3):278-285
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81519  PMID:21713091
Objective: The aqueous extract of Celosia argentea var. cristata L. leaves at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) was investigated against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. The in vitro antioxidant of the extract was evaluated using ammonium thiocyanate, reducing power, and membrane stabilizing models. Materials and Methods: For the in vivo study, 30 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighing 138.02 ± 7.02 g were completely randomized into 6 groups (A-F) of 5 animals each. Animals in groups A and B received 0.5 ml of distilled water and the same volume containing 8 mg/kg b.w. of Cd, respectively, for 7 days orally. Animals in groups C, D, E, and F were treated like those in group B except that they received 100 mg/kg b.w. of ascorbic acid, and 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, in addition to Cd. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids (0.61%), saponins (2.93%), cardiac glycosides (0.21%), cardenolides (0.20%), phenolics (3.26%), and flavonoids (2.38%). A total of 10 mg/ml of the extract inhibited linoleic acid oxidation by 67.57%. The highest reducing power was 100 mg/ml as against 10 mg/ml for ascorbic acid. In addition, 2 mg/ml of the extract produced a membrane stabilizing activity of 63.49% as against 77.46% for indomethacin. Compared with the distilled water control group, the administration of Cd alone significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the alkaline phosphatase activity of the rat liver and brain. This decrease was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the serum enzyme. The simultaneous administration of the extract and Cd produced an enzyme activity that compared favorably (P > 0.05) with the animals that received Cd and ascorbic acid. In addition, the reduction in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of the liver and brain of the animals, serum uric acid, albumin and bilirubin, and also the increase in the serum malondialdehyde content in animals treated with Cd alone was attenuated by the extract; the values compared well (P > 0.05) with those simultaneously administered with Cd and ascorbic acid. Conclusion: Overall, the results indicated that the aqueous extract of C. argentea leaves attenuated Cd-induced oxidative stress in the animals, with the best result at 400 mg/kg b.w. The antioxidant activity of the extract may be attributed to the phenolic and flavonoid components of the extract. The induction of antioxidant enzymes and scavenging of free radicals may account for the mechanism of action of the extract as an antioxidant.
  3,684 499 5
Hepatoprotective activity of Leptadenia reticulata stems against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats
Amit Kumar Nema, Abhinav Agarwal, Varsha Kashaw
May-June 2011, 43(3):254-257
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81507  PMID:21713086
Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of stems of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight. and Arn. in carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The toxicant CCl 4 was used to induce hepatotoxicity at a dose of 1.25 ml/kg as 1 : 1 mixture with olive oil. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of L. reticulata stems were administered in the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/day orally for 7 days. Silymarin (50 mg/kg) was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of these extracts was evaluated by the assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, serum protein, and histopathological studies of the liver. Results: Treatment of animals with ethanolic and aqueous extracts significantly reduced the liver damage and the symptoms of liver injury by restoration of architecture of liver as indicated by lower levels of serum bilirubin and protein as compared with the normal and silymarin-treated groups. Histology of the liver sections confirmed that the extracts prevented hepatic damage induced by CCl 4 showing the presence of normal hepatic cords, absence of necrosis, and fatty infiltration. Conclusion: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stems of L. reticulata showed significant hepatoprotective activity. The ethanolic extract is more potent in hepatoprotection in CCl 4 -indiced liver injury model as compared with aqueous extract.
  3,630 516 1
Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum flowers against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models
Neeraj Verma, Anil P Singh, G Amresh, PK Sahu, Ch V Rao
May-June 2011, 43(3):291-295
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81518  PMID:21713093
Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (Family: Ericaceae) in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver damage in preventive and curative models. Materials and Methods: Fraction at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days in CCl 4 -treated groups (II, III, IV, V and VI). The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ -GT), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, hepatic malondialdehyde formation, and glutathione content. Result and Discussion: The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of SGOT, SGPT, SALP, γ-GT, and bilirubin due to CCl 4 treatment were restored toward normal in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of GST and glutathione reductase were also restored toward normal. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl 4 -intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity on post-treatment against CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that ethyl acetate fraction has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl 4 -induced hepatic damage in rats.
  3,685 289 9
Effect of alcohol on blood glucose and antioxidant enzymes in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats
KR Shanmugam, K Mallikarjuna, K Sathyavelu Reddy
May-June 2011, 43(3):330-335
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81504  PMID:21713042
Objective: Diabetes mellitus affects every organ in the man including eyes, kidney, heart, and nervous system. Alcohol consumption is a widespread practice. As the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on diabetic state have been little studied, this study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of alcohol in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, the rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 in each group): normal control (NC), alcohol treatment (At), diabetic control (DC), diabetic plus alcohol treatment (D + At), diabetic plus glibenclamide treatment (D + Gli). Alcohol treatment was given to the diabetic rats for 30 days. During the period the blood glucose levels, and body weight changes were observed at regular intervals. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assayed in the liver and kidney tissues. Results: The blood glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.001) elevated and body weight significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in alcohol-treated diabetic rats. SOD and CAT activities were decreased and the MDA level increased significantly (P < 0.001) in alcohol-treated diabetic rats. Histopathological studies showed that alcohol damages the liver and kidney tissues in diabetic rats. Conclusion: These finddings concluded that the consumption of alcohol in diabetic rats worsens the condition. So the consumption of alcohol by diabetic subjects may be potentially harmful.
  3,610 328 4
Drug use in pregnancy: Knowledge of drug dispensers and pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Appolinary Kamuhabwa, Rashida Jalal
May-June 2011, 43(3):345-349
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81503  PMID:21713045
More than 90% of pregnant women take prescription or non-prescription drugs at some time during pregnancy. In general, unless absolutely necessary, drugs should not be used during pregnancy because many of them are harmful to the fetus. Appropriate dispensing is one of the steps for rational drug use; so, it is necessary that drug dispensers should have relevant and updated knowledge and skills regarding drug use in pregnancy. To assess the knowledge of drug dispensers and pregnant women regarding drug use in pregnancy, focusing on four commonly used drugs that are teratogenic or cause unwanted effects to the fetus and babies. The study was conducted in two parts: consumers' perception and providers' practice. It was a cross-sectional study involving visits to 200 private retail community pharmacies (as simulated client) within Temeke, Ilala and Kinondoni municipals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The second part of the study was conducted at the antenatal clinics of the three municipal hospitals in Dar es Salaam. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from pregnant women. In total, 200 pregnant women were interviewed. Out of 200 drug dispensers, 86 (43%) were willing to dispense artemether-lumefantrine (regardless of the age of pregnancy), 56 (29%) were willing to dispense sodium valproate, 104 (52%) were willing to dispense captopril and 50 (25%) were willing to dispense tetracycline. One hundred and thirty-three (66.5%) pregnant women reported that they hesitated to take medications without consulting their physicians, 47 (23.5%) indicated that it was safe to take medications during pregnancy, while 123 (61.5%) mentioned that it was best to consult a doctor, while 30 (15%) did not have any preference. Sixty-three (31.5%) women reported that they were aware of certain drugs that are contraindicated during pregnancy. It is evident that most drug dispensers have low knowledge regarding the harmful effects of drugs during pregnancy. Drug dispensing personnel should be considered part of the therapeutic chain and, if appropriately trained, they will play a very important role in promoting rational use of medicines.
  3,413 199 2
Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea
Poonam G Daswani, S Brijesh, Pundarikakshudu Tetali, Tannaz J Birdi
May-June 2011, 43(3):340-344
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81502  PMID:21713044
To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) heat labile toxin (LT), heat stable toxin (ST) and cholera toxin (CT) was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT and action of LT. The decoction of C. rotundus does not have marked antimicrobial activity and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen.
  3,375 195 4
Acceptability and safety profile of oral and sublingual misoprostol for uterine evacuation following early fetal demise
Devendra Singh Kushwah, Beenu Kushwah, Mohd Tariq Salman, VK Verma
May-June 2011, 43(3):306-310
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81513  PMID:21713096
Background: It has been established that sublingual (SL) route of misoprostol has a great potential to be developed for medical abortion, but there is dearth of evidence to reveal satisfaction rate and safety profile among patients of oral and SL routes. Thus, this study was conducted to provide an insight into the acceptability and safety profile of the same. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was carried out by giving 200 mg mifepristone orally, followed by administration of 600 ΅g misoprostol orally to 50 women and sublingually to 50 women. The primary endpoints of study were measurements of acceptability and safety profile parameters (average blood loss, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hot flushes, fever) of both the groups. The secondary endpoints of the study were number of doses required for complete abortion, success rate and the induction to evacuation interval in both the groups. Results: SL route of administration was more acceptable than the oral route (P = 0.009). Average blood loss was higher in the oral group than in the SL group (P = 0.001). Amongst the side effects, 34% in the SL group and 52% in the oral group had nausea (P = 0.264), 22% in the SL group and 44% in the oral group had vomiting (P = 0.031), 48% in the SL group and 86% in the oral group had diarrhea (P < 0.05), hot flushes were presented by 24% in the SL group and 50% in the oral group (P < 0.05), fever was presented by 20% in the SL group and 44% in the oral group (P < 0.05), and the number of cases aborted with only one dose was higher (86%) in the SL group as compared to 63% in the oral group (P = 0.004). The evacuation (success) rates were 92% in the SL group and 84% in the oral group (P = 0.218) and the mean ± SD induction to evacuation intervals in the SL and oral groups were 5.6 ± 4.54 hours and 9.44 ± 5.61 hours, respectively (P = 0.0002). Conclusion: The SL route had fewer undesirable effects, was more satisfactory, required less number of doses and was more acceptable to the patient compared to the oral route.
  3,284 254 2
Alcoholic leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus regulates carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
BC Koti, Aparna Gore, A. H. M. Thippeswamy, A. H. M. Viswanatha Swamy, Rucha Kulkarni
May-June 2011, 43(3):286-290
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81520  PMID:21713092
Objective: The present investigation was undertaken to explore the possible mechanisms of Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Control and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats received different treatments; orally control (vehicle), 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (PAEE) and 600 μg/kg of glibenclamide (standard) for 15 days. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism were measured in the liver. Results: Diabetic control rats showed a significant elevation (P < 0.001) in fasting blood glucose on successive days of the experiment as compared with their basal values, which was maintained over a period of 2 weeks. Daily oral treatment with PAEE showed a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the blood glucose levels on successive days of the experiment as compared with their basal values. The most pronounced antihyperglycemic effect was obtained with the dose of 400 mg/kg. PAEE shows a dose-dependent reduction in gluconeogenic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-disphosphatase. After 15 days of treatment with PAEE, glycolytic enzymes like phosphoglucoisomerase resulted in a significant increase with a concomitant significant decrease in the activities of aldolase. On the other hand, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was significantly improved in diabetic rats on administration of PAEE; the 400 mg/kg dose of PAEE elicited a more potent effect compared with the 200 mg/kg dose. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study provide evidence of the antidiabetic activity of PAEE, mediated through the regulation of carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities.
  3,203 320 1
Adverse drug reaction profile of oseltamivir in Indian population: A prospective observational study
Ashish P Anovadiya, Manish J Barvaliya, Rajesh A Shah, Vishal M Ghori, Jayesh J Sanmukhani, Tejas K Patel, CB Tripathi
May-June 2011, 43(3):258-261
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81509  PMID:21713087
Objectives: To analyze the pattern of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of oseltamivir and its comparison with available data. Materials and Methods: Suspected or confirmed cases of H1N1 influenza A on therapeutic regimen and close contacts of cases H1N1 influenza A on prophylactic regimen of oseltamivir were included. Data were collected by personal interview after obtaining written informed consent. Causality, severity, and preventability assessments were done by using Naranjo's scale, modified Hartwig and Siegel's scale, and modified Schumock and Thornton Scale, respectively. Data were expressed in proportions. Frequency of ADRs in therapeutic and prophylactic groups were compared with phase III trial of oseltamivir by using Chi-square test. Results: Total 294 patients were interviewed. In prophylactic group, 107 of 257 (41.63%) and in therapeutic, group 23 of 37 (62.16%) developed ADRs. ADRs reported in therapeutic group was significantly (P = 0.029) higher as compared with prophylactic group. Frequently observed ADRs in both the groups were gastritis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea weakness, sedation, loneliness, sadness, headache, and abdominal pain. Naranjo's algorithm showed all ADRs in probable category in prophylactic group, 27.78% probable and 72.22% possible reactions in therapeutic group. Severity assessment showed 76% mild and 24% moderate reactions in therapeutic group, 89% mild and 11% moderate reactions in prophylactic group. Severity of ADRs was significantly higher in therapeutic group. Most of ADRs were in nonpreventable category, except gastritis, nausea and vomiting were in definitely preventable category. Conclusion: Oseltamivir is well tolerated in Indian population. Gastrointestinal side effects are most common and preventable.
  2,889 369 -
A comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of traditional and automated dosing/blood sampling systems using gabapentin
Bijay Aryal, Kim Tae-Hyun, Kim Yoon-Gyoon, Kim Hyung-Gun
May-June 2011, 43(3):262-269
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81512  PMID:21713088
Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of gabapentin as determined by traditional manual blood sampling and by using an automated dosing/blood sampling technique in awake and freely moving rats using combined liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Materials and Methods: PK comparisons were conducted by allocating rats into two groups; an automated dosing/blood sampling (ADI/ABS) group (IV study, n = 6 and intragastric study, n = 6) and a manual group (IV study, n = 6 and oral study, n = 6). A series of blood samples from carotid artery were taken at specified times and analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Various PK parameters like area under curve (AUCinf), maximum concentration, time to reach maximum concentration, terminal half life, distribution volume at the steady state, and total clearance were calculated and the two study groups were compared with respect to these parameters. Results: Significant differences in PK parameters were observed between the manual group and the ADI/ABS group and respective bioavailability were measured (46.82 ± 19.45% and 61.54 ± 21.23%, respectively) which is 1.31-fold difference (P = 0.0051, P<0.05). Conclusion: The described ADI/ABS method was found to be a useful drug development tool for accelerating the pace of preclinical in vivo studies and for obtaining reliable and accurate PK parameters even from single animals as it minimized interanimal and physiological variations.
  3,070 183 3
Effects of citral, a naturally occurring antiadipogenic molecule, on an energy-intense diet model of obesity
Tamonud Modak, Abhilash Mukhopadhaya
May-June 2011, 43(3):300-305
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81515  PMID:21713095
Objectives: Retinaldehyde inhibits adipogenesis, increases metabolic rate, reduces weight gain, and improves tolerance to a glucose load. We assessed the effects of citral - an inhibitor of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (the primary enzyme metabolizing retinaldehyde), on body weight, glucose tolerance, fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels, metabolic rate, adipocyte size, and morphology in a diet-induced model of obesity. Materials and Methods: Out of the 5 groups of 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, 4 were maintained on an energy-intense, palatable, diet for a period of - 42 days, while 1 served as the control. After obesity had been induced, 3 groups were treated with daily doses of citral (10, 15, and 20 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 28 days. They were then subjected to metabolic experiments. Body weight, fasting plasma glucose, glucose tolerance to an intraperitoneal glucose load, metabolic rate, and adipocyte size were assessed. Results: Citral-treated groups showed a dose-dependent reduction in body weight gain. They significantly had lower fasting glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance, lower fasting plasma glucose, higher metabolic rate, and smaller adipocytes after drug administration. Conclusion: The findings suggest that citral increased energy dissipation (and also reduced lipid accumulation) consequently preventing and ameliorating diet-induced obesity. In addition it improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. In the current scenario of increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes, citral may prove as novel agent in its management.
  2,937 232 1
The temporal and challenging faces of integration in medical education: The fate of pharmacology
Francis I Achike
May-June 2011, 43(3):227-231
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81492  PMID:21713082
  2,726 407 2
Role of the Rosa canina L. leaf extract as an antidiarrheal drug in rodents
Rajesh J Mandade, Avijit Choudhury, Amol Harsulkar, Ravikiran Wakade
May-June 2011, 43(3):316-319
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81510  PMID:21713098
Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of the leaf extract of Rosa canina L. against experimental diarrhea induced by castor oil in rodents. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of Rosa canina L. (30 and 60 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to two groups of mice (five animals per group) in order to evaluate the activity of the extract against the castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice. Two other groups received normal saline and diphenoxylate (5 mg/kg) as positive control. The effect of the extract on intestinal transit and castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation (enteropooling) was assessed. The effects of the extract on the isolated rabbit jejunum and on the isolated rat ileum were studied. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaf extract of Rosa Canina L. revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, and volatile oil. Intraperitoneal LD50 of the extract was found to be 455.19 ± 23 mg/kg in mice. The antidiarrheal effect of the methanolic extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous pendular movement of the isolated rabbit jejunum and inhibited acetylcholine-induced contraction of the rat ileum. A dose-dependent decrease in gastrointestinal transit was observed with extracts (30 and 60 mg/kg), which also protected mice against castor oil-induced diarrhea and castor oil-induced fluid accumulation, respectively. Conclusions: The presence of some of the phytochemicals in the leaf extract may be responsible for the observed effects, and also the basis for its use in traditional medicine as an antidiarrheal drug.
  2,831 205 3
In vitro evaluation on the antioxidant capacity of triethylchebulate, an aglycone from Terminalia chebula Retz fruit
Xiuping Chen, Fangyun Sun, Lifeng Ma, Jinhua Wang, Hailin Qin, Guanhua Du
May-June 2011, 43(3):320-323
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81508  PMID:21713099
Objectives: To evaluate the antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities of triethylchebulate (TCL), an aglycone isolated from the fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz. Materials and Methods: Microsomes, mitochondria and red blood cells (RBCs) were isolated from rat liver. The antioxidant capacities were evaluated by determining the inhibitory effects of TCL on lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced RBCs hemolysis and RBCs autoxidative hemolysis. The free-radical scavenging activities were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and 2´,7´-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH 2 -DA) assay. Result: TCL significantly inhibited FeSO 4 /Cys-induced microsomes lipid peroxidation and protected both H 2 O 2- -induced RBCs hemolysis and RBCs auto-hemolysis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, TCL demonstrated potent DPPH free-radical scavenging ability with IC 50 at 2.4×10 -5 M. In addition, TCL also moderately suppressed azide-induced mitochondria ROS formation. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that TCL was a strong antioxidant and free-radical scavenger, which might contribute to the anti-oxidative ability of Terminalia chebula Retz.
  2,797 218 2
Pharmacodynamic interaction study of Allium sativum (garlic) with cilostazol in patients with type II diabetes mellitus
AA Mateen, P Usha Rani, M. U. R. Naidu, E Chandrashekar
May-June 2011, 43(3):270-274
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81514  PMID:21713089
Aim: Garlic is available as an over-the-counter herbal supplement and is known to have antiplatelet properties. Because of scarcity of clinical data regarding the safety of concomitant use of garlic supplements and anticoagulants, we tried to evaluate the effects of coadministration of single and multiple doses of garlic and cilostazol on platelet aggregation. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, open label, placebo-controlled, crossover study of type II diabetic patients, where 14 patients were enrolled and 10 completed the study. The patients were administered 600 mg aged garlic extract, 100 mg cilostazol, 600 mg aged garlic extract, and cilostazol or placebo for seven days as per prior randomization schedule. Blood samples for platelet aggregation and bleeding time and clotting time were collected before and 2, 4, and 6 hours after single-dose drug administration and after seven days of treatment. Results: After single- and multiple-dose administration of garlic, there was a significant inhibition of platelet aggregation at 2 hours, whereas with cilostazol, the inhibition was significant at all the three time points tested, with 4 hours showing maximum inhibition. Coadministration of garlic and cilostazol in single and multiple doses for seven days did not produce any significant change in the antiplatelet activity of the individual drugs. Conclusions: Coadministration of aged garlic extract and cilostazol did not enhance the antiplatelet activity compared with individual drugs. Large randomized trials are needed to further evaluate the possible interaction of garlic in higher doses and in combination with other antiplatelet activity drugs.
  2,739 270 1
Acute hepatic failure due to yellow phosphorus ingestion
Anupama Mauskar, Kunal Mehta, Leena Nagotkar, Preeti Shanbag
May-June 2011, 43(3):355-356
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81500  PMID:21713048
We report a case of three year old girl, who was brought to hospital for accidental consumption of rat-poison (3% phosphorus). The patient was asymptomatic for first 48 hours. Later on she developed the symptoms of hepatic failure. She was managed conservatively and was discharged after 14 days.
  2,791 171 -
Nitric oxide modulation in protective role of antidepressants against chronic fatigue syndrome in mice
Anil Kumar, Ruchika Garg, Vaibhav Gaur, Puneet Kumar
May-June 2011, 43(3):324-329
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81506  PMID:21713041
Background and Objective: The present study was designed to elucidate the possible nitric oxide (NO) mechanism in the protective effect of antidepressants using mice model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Materials and Methods: Male albino laca mice were forced to swim for each 6 min session for 7 days and immobility period was measured on every alternate day (1 st , 3 rd , 5 th , 7 th ). After 7 days various behavioral tests (locomotor, mirror chamber, and plus maze tests for anxiety) were performed and biochemical estimations (lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels, GSH (reduced glutathione), and catalase activity) in mice brain were performed. Animals were pretreated with citalopram (5 and 10 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 and 20 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. Results: The present study showed that continued forced swimming for 7 days caused chronic fatigue-induced anxiety-like behavior as assessed in mirror chamber, plus maze tests, and impairment in locomotor activity followed by oxidative damage (as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels, depleted reduced glutathione, and catalase activity) in animals. Seven days pretreatment with citalopram (5 and 10 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly improved behavioral and biochemical alterations. Further, L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME,5 mg/kg) and methylene blue (MB, 10 mg/kg) pretreatment with citalopram (5 mg/kg) or imipramine (10 mg/kg) potentiated their protective effect. However, l-arginine (100 mg/kg) pretreatment with citalopram (5 mg/kg) or imipramine (10 mg/kg) reversed their protective effect as compared with their effect per se (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study suggests that protective effect of citalopram and imipramine might be due to its NO modulation against chronic fatigue induced behavioral and biochemical alterations.
  2,597 250 3
Pre and post-interventional pattern of self medication in three common illnesses in staff of a tertiary hospital
S Bang, Smita Sontakke, Vijay Thawani
May-June 2011, 43(3):275-277
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81517  PMID:21713090
Objective: To find the pattern of self medication in three common illnesses (diarrhea, sore throat, common cold) in nonmedical staff of a tertiary care teaching hospital and to study the effect of IEC. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out in 100 randomly selected nonmedical staff members. Participants were interviewed by a semi structured questionnaire to obtain information about practice of self medication in the three illnesses. In the second phase participants were educated about proper self medication using Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) intervention. In post test the same information was obtained from the participants using the same questionnaire. Pre and post intervention data was compared to see whether intervention has resulted in any change in the pattern of self medication. Results: For all the three diseases the use of medicines including anti microbials did not decrease significantly after intervention. During post test significantly more number of participants were aware about warning symptoms of the disease and precautions to be taken in children and pregnant women. Even during pre intervention many participants were aware about non-pharmacological measures to be adopted in the treatment of these diseases which increased after intervention, though not significantly. Conclusion: It is possible to improve self medication practices for the treatment of common illnesses if appropriate IEC intervention is adopted. This requires that all related stakeholders should intensify efforts to educate the general public and ensure appropriate use of OTC medicines.
  2,367 246 -
Improvement in endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with N-acetylcysteine and atorvastatin
Jyothsna Kudaravalli
May-June 2011, 43(3):311-315
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81511  PMID:21713097
Objective: To study the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and atorvastatin on endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two SLE patients and age, sex-matched 10 healthy control subjects were studied. The patients were between 17 and 65 years of age and positive for diagnostic tests, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Photoplethysmogram (PPG) detects the changes in the amount of light absorbed by hemoglobin, which reflects changes in the blood volume. Pulse wave analysis was performed at rest, 30 s, 90 s after shear stress, and 10 min after 300 μm of salbutamol inhalation. Results: Stiffness index (SI) of patients before the treatment was 8.46±2.78 cm/s and of controls was 6.07±1.4 cm/s (P = 0.002) and that of reflection index (RI) was 73±13 for patients and 65±7 for controls (P = 0.001). The percentage change in RI after salbutamol inhalation for controls and patients were -16±6 and -7±4 (P = 0.001), respectively, indicating the presence of endothelial dysfunction. The percentage decrease in RI after salbutamol inhalation was from -2.36±0.76 to ?7.92±1.46 in patients treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, P = 0.007). The percentage decrease in RI after salbutamol inhalation was from ?6.36΁1.21 to -9.92±1.21 in patients treated with atorvastatin (P = 0.05). This indicated the improvement in endothelial function. There was decrease in C-reactive protein (CRP) from 1.03±0.72 mg/dL to 0.52±0.22 mg/dL and that of malondialdehyde (MDA) from 11.20±4.07 nmol/mL to 8.81±2.79 nmol/mL with N-acetylcysteine treatment (P < 0.05). The CRP was decreased from 1.11±0.92 mg/dL to 0.440.16 mg/dL (P = 0.05) and that of MDA was decreased from 9.37±3.29 nmol/mL to 8.51±3.27 nmol/mL after treatment with atorvastatin. It showed improvement in oxidative stress with these treatments. Conclusion: The presence of arterial stiffness indicated endothelial dysfunction. There was reduction in RI and SI with treatment of N-acetylcysteine and atorvastatin suggesting improvement in endothelial dysfunction. There was decrease in CRP (a marker of inflammation) and MDA after treatment with N-acetylcysteine suggesting improvement in endothelial dysfunction. There was reduction in CRP after treatment with atorvastatin, suggesting improvement in endothelial function. Improvement in endothelial dysfunction is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents.
  2,184 152 1
Changing trend in the use of antimicrobials over ten years in a tertiary care hospital
Vishal Bansal, Bikash Medhi, Vinu Jose, P Pandhi
May-June 2011, 43(3):365-367
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81496  PMID:21713057
  2,119 212 -
Ageusia as a side effect of clopidogrel treatment
Kamilia Ksouda, Hanen Affes, Boutheyna Hammami, Zouheir Sahnoun, Rim Atheymen, Serria Hammami, Khaled Mounir Zeghal
May-June 2011, 43(3):350-351
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81498  PMID:21713046
Clopidogrel is prescribed in cardiac and extracardiac vascular diseases. It is generally well tolerated; however, few cases of taste disorders have been reported. We present a case of clopidogrel-induced ageusia notified in Sfax pharmacovigilance center on March 13, 2009. A 46-year-old patient developed ageusia with decreased appetite five weeks after starting clopidogrel. Other etiologies including ear nose throat (ENT) examination were ruled out. Five months after reduction of clopidogrel dose, ageusia partially decreased. Clopidogrel was strongly suspected as a causal drug. According to the French imputation method, score of imputability was considered as plausible (C2S2) I2. Physiopathology of this side effect is not yet understood. However, it seems to be a reversible and dose-related event. Although it is not life-threatening, loss of taste can have significant effect on the quality of life of patients.
  2,165 150 2
Immune reconstitution and inflammatory syndrome due to disseminated tuberculosis in a case of human immunodeficiency virus 2 infection
M. V. S. Subbalaxmi, A Krishna Prasad, M Shetty, VR Srinivasan
May-June 2011, 43(3):352-354
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81499  PMID:21713047
We present a case of human immunodeficiency virus 2 (HIV- 2) infection with acquired immune deficiency syndrome with immune reconstitution and inflammatory syndrome due to disseminated tuberculosis. We address here the drug interactions between antiretroviral therapy and antituberculous treatment (ATT), choice of ATT, and duration of ATT when rifampicin is omitted as in our case. Though this problem is encountered rarely, we felt that it is important to report the issue to counter drug resistance in tuberculosis and HIV.
  2,054 124 -
Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of telmisartan and enalapril in patients of mild to moderate essential hypertension
Lekha Saha
May-June 2011, 43(3):360-360
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81489  PMID:21713052
  1,645 180 1
Effect of potassium channel openers on intraocular pressure in rabbits
Jyoti Kaushal, MC Gupta, Sarita Goyal, Savita Verma
May-June 2011, 43(3):357-358
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81486  PMID:21713049
  1,646 128 -
Biogenerics: Are we ready to take safety challenges in India?
Salil Budhiraja, Raghuram Akinapel
May-June 2011, 43(3):362-363
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81493  PMID:21713055
  1,506 234 -
Polypill--Friend or Foe?
Rakesh Kumar Rishi
May-June 2011, 43(3):361-362
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81491  PMID:21713054
  1,525 172 -
Empirical use of antituberculosis drugs should not be equated to their inappropriate and indiscriminate use
Ramesh Kumar
May-June 2011, 43(3):363-364
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81494  PMID:21713056
  1,494 115 -
Are drugs prescribed rationally and according to standard guidelines in India?
Ravindra S Beedimani
May-June 2011, 43(3):358-359
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81487  PMID:21713050
  1,368 136 1
Authors' reply
Pramod B Akat, Tushar R Bapat, Mangala B Murthy, Vitthal B Karande, Shreyas R Burute
May-June 2011, 43(3):360-361
  1,205 101 -
Authors' reply
Somu Shivbalan, M Sathiyasekeran, K Thomas
May-June 2011, 43(3):359-359
  1,046 87 -
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