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   2002| November-December  | Volume 34 | Issue 6  
 
 
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RESEARCH PAPER
Anti-hyperglycaemic activity of cassia Kleinii leaf extract in glucose fed normal rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rats
V Babu, T Gangadevi, A Subramoniam
November-December 2002, 34(6):409-415
Objective: The efficacy of ivermectin pour on formulation (Ivomec pour on) against gastrointestinal nematodiasis in cattle ( Bos indicus), its effect on the blood parameters and the live weight gain of the host was investigated. Methods: The cattle harbouring the gastrointestinal nematodes were treated with ivermectin pour on formulation at the dose rate of 500 (g/kg body weight topically along the back line. The faecal samples and blood parameters were investigated at day 0,7,14, 21 and 28 post treatment, and live body weight gain was evaluated at day 0 and 28 post treatment. Results: Ivermectin pour on formulation was found to be 100% effective against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. After 28 days of treatment both haemoglobin and PCV values were significantly increased while ESR was significantly decreased after 14 days of treatment. Body weight of cattle was increased by 6.25% after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal nematodiasis in cattle can be treated successfully with ivermectin pour on formulation. The drug has direct influence on blood parameter and live weight gain of the treated animals. Ivermectin may be useful as an anthelmintic of continued relevance.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  27 2,201 510
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Some new concepts in antibacterial drug therapy
KK SharmA, H Sangraula, PK Mediratta
November-December 2002, 34(6):390-396
Objective: The efficacy of ivermectin pour on formulation (Ivomec pour on) against gastrointestinal nematodiasis in cattle ( Bos indicus), its effect on the blood parameters and the live weight gain of the host was investigated. Methods: The cattle harbouring the gastrointestinal nematodes were treated with ivermectin pour on formulation at the dose rate of 500 (g/kg body weight topically along the back line. The faecal samples and blood parameters were investigated at day 0,7,14, 21 and 28 post treatment, and live body weight gain was evaluated at day 0 and 28 post treatment. Results: Ivermectin pour on formulation was found to be 100% effective against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. After 28 days of treatment both haemoglobin and PCV values were significantly increased while ESR was significantly decreased after 14 days of treatment. Body weight of cattle was increased by 6.25% after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal nematodiasis in cattle can be treated successfully with ivermectin pour on formulation. The drug has direct influence on blood parameter and live weight gain of the treated animals. Ivermectin may be useful as an anthelmintic of continued relevance.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]
  8 1,517 0
Insulin delivery systems: Present trends and the future direction
P Tyagi
November-December 2002, 34(6):379-389
0bjective:To study the gastric secretory changes induced by antiulcer property of captopril and the role of prostaglandins in them. Methods: The effect of single dose of captopril and famotidine on different gastric parameters like ulcer index, pH. total acidity, mucopolysaccharide content and surface tension of gastric juice was studied by pyloric ligation alone and after pretreatment with ibuprofen. Results: Captopril and famotidine caused significant reduction in ulcer index and gastric acid secretion (p<0.01) when compared to saline control group. Both of them did not show any effect on mucus content and surface tension of gastric juice. Concurrent administration of ibuprofen reduced the anti-ulcer effect of captopril significantly (P<0.01) and nullified the acid secretion inhibitory effect of captopril. However, the anti-ulcer and acid secretion inhibitory effects of famotidine were not altered by pretreatment with ibuprofen. Conclusion: Captopril may act through prostaglandins to inhibit gastric acid secretion and this effect of captopril on acid secretion may be the mechanism involved in its anti-ulcer effect.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  7 1,537 299
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Inhibitory activity of diospyrin derivatives against Leishmania major parasites in vitro
B Hazra, J Golenser, O Nechemiya, S Bhattacharyya, T Azzam, A Domb, S Frankenburg
November-December 2002, 34(6):422-427
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a long-lasting enhancement of synaptic function induced by a brief high-frequency tetanus. Excitatory amino acids (EAA), particularly glutamate and aspartate are a topic of increasing research interest with regard to their proposed involvement in the pathogenesis of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, some of which are associated with a loss of learning and memory abilities. LTP of excitatory synaptic transmission is a candidate for the neural mechanism underlying learning and memory. LTP has certian properties and characteristics that coincide with voltage-dependent properties of N-methyl-D aspartate (NMDA) receptor. In hippocampal CA1 area, there are at least two forms of LTP, one is NMDA receptor-dependent LTP, and the other is NMDA receptor-independent LTP. Excitatory pathways that utilize NMDA receptors are also involved in the initiation of seizures and their propagation. These NMDA-induced convulsions can be reversed by anticonvulsant drugs or NMDA antagonists. There are reports suggesting that a significant number of people with epilepsy have cognitive difficulties and impaired memory. Some epileptic patients show memory dysfunctions associated with chronic anticonvulsant therapy. Some anticonvulsant drugs which interfere with NMDA receptor system directly or indirectly, possibly influence the expression of LTP. Long-term depression (LTD) is also being considered as a candidate mechanism for memory formation in hippocampus. LTP and LTD also share a few common features. Some areas which remain to be explored include:- Will LTP and the NMDA receptor turn out to be the true molecular foundations of human memory? To what extent the link between LTP and NMDA systems mediate epilepsy ?
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  6 1,257 175
MOLECULES OF THE MILLENNIUM
Nootropics
R Balaraman, J Shingala
November-December 2002, 34(6):439-440
Objective: To investigate the direct and the indirect effects of flt3 ligand (FL) on hematopoiesis. Methods: Mononuclear cells from human cord blood were plated in methylcellulose medium containing different cytokines for inducing hematopoietic colony formation. Dendritic cells were induced from the mononuclear cells with a cytokine cocktail with or without recombinant human soluble FL (rhFL; 100ng/ ml). The flt3 receptors on the surface of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (ECV) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The proliferation of ECV stimulated by FL was measured with the microculture tetrazolium assay. We also measured the level of FL in the supernatant of ECV cultures. Results: RhFL stimulates colony formation from cord blood when used as sole stimulant. FL in combination with other cytokines increased colony formation significantly. The number of DC was approximately 2.5 times higher when rhFL was used. RhFL stimulates the proliferation of ECV on which flt3 receptors is expressed. Furthermore, ECV secretes FL and this effect is augmented by tumor necrosis factor-?(?(TNF( ) and reduced by glucocorticoid. Conclusions: FL enhances hematopoietic colony formation and DC proliferation from human cord blood cells. FL not only stimulates the proliferation of ECV, but it is also secreted by ECV. It appears that FL may act as an autocrine growth cytokine of endothelial cells.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  5 2,301 251
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Effect of cigarette smoking on cataract: Antioxidant enzymes and constituent minerals in the lens and blood of humans
KN Sulochana, R Punitham, S Ramakrishnan
November-December 2002, 34(6):428-431
0bjective:To study the gastric secretory changes induced by antiulcer property of captopril and the role of prostaglandins in them. Methods: The effect of single dose of captopril and famotidine on different gastric parameters like ulcer index, pH. total acidity, mucopolysaccharide content and surface tension of gastric juice was studied by pyloric ligation alone and after pretreatment with ibuprofen. Results: Captopril and famotidine caused significant reduction in ulcer index and gastric acid secretion (p<0.01) when compared to saline control group. Both of them did not show any effect on mucus content and surface tension of gastric juice. Concurrent administration of ibuprofen reduced the anti-ulcer effect of captopril significantly (P<0.01) and nullified the acid secretion inhibitory effect of captopril. However, the anti-ulcer and acid secretion inhibitory effects of famotidine were not altered by pretreatment with ibuprofen. Conclusion: Captopril may act through prostaglandins to inhibit gastric acid secretion and this effect of captopril on acid secretion may be the mechanism involved in its anti-ulcer effect.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  5 2,065 237
Effect of unpredictable stress on cognition and brain acetylcholinesterase activity in adult and aged mice
A Das, D Rai, M Dikshit, G Palit, C Nath
November-December 2002, 34(6):416-421
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a long-lasting enhancement of synaptic function induced by a brief high-frequency tetanus. Excitatory amino acids (EAA), particularly glutamate and aspartate are a topic of increasing research interest with regard to their proposed involvement in the pathogenesis of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, some of which are associated with a loss of learning and memory abilities. LTP of excitatory synaptic transmission is a candidate for the neural mechanism underlying learning and memory. LTP has certian properties and characteristics that coincide with voltage-dependent properties of N-methyl-D aspartate (NMDA) receptor. In hippocampal CA1 area, there are at least two forms of LTP, one is NMDA receptor-dependent LTP, and the other is NMDA receptor-independent LTP. Excitatory pathways that utilize NMDA receptors are also involved in the initiation of seizures and their propagation. These NMDA-induced convulsions can be reversed by anticonvulsant drugs or NMDA antagonists. There are reports suggesting that a significant number of people with epilepsy have cognitive difficulties and impaired memory. Some epileptic patients show memory dysfunctions associated with chronic anticonvulsant therapy. Some anticonvulsant drugs which interfere with NMDA receptor system directly or indirectly, possibly influence the expression of LTP. Long-term depression (LTD) is also being considered as a candidate mechanism for memory formation in hippocampus. LTP and LTD also share a few common features. Some areas which remain to be explored include:- Will LTP and the NMDA receptor turn out to be the true molecular foundations of human memory? To what extent the link between LTP and NMDA systems mediate epilepsy ?
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  3 1,525 144
RESEARCH PAPER
In vitro study of interaction between vecuronium and roxatidine acetate at neuromuscular junction
S Choksi, CB Tripathi, JD Bhatt, KK Shah, KG Hemavathi
November-December 2002, 34(6):400-408
Objective: The effects of Bonny light crude oil on the smooth and skeletal muscles contraction and pain were investigated. Methods: Analgesic effect of Bonny light crude oil was tested in mice using acetic acid (0.75%)- induced writhing model. Its effects on histamine-, and Ach-induced smooth muscle contraction were studied in guinea pig ileum. The effects of crude oil on Ach-induced contraction of rat duodenum and frog rectus abdominis muscle were also studied. Results: The crude oil caused complete inhibition of histamine - induced smooth muscle contraction, while producing only a partial inhibition of the acetylcholine - induced contraction. It had no effects on the acetylcholine-induced skeletal muscle contraction, but showed good analgesic effect comparable to aspirin. Conclusion: The Bonny light crude oil possesses inhibitory action on smooth muscle contraction induced by histamine, and analgesic property.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  2 1,276 124
LETTER
An unusual adverse effect of Tinidazole
VM Jose, V Sarafudheen
November-December 2002, 34(6):434-435
Objective: The efficacy of ivermectin pour on formulation (Ivomec pour on) against gastrointestinal nematodiasis in cattle ( Bos indicus), its effect on the blood parameters and the live weight gain of the host was investigated. Methods: The cattle harbouring the gastrointestinal nematodes were treated with ivermectin pour on formulation at the dose rate of 500 (g/kg body weight topically along the back line. The faecal samples and blood parameters were investigated at day 0,7,14, 21 and 28 post treatment, and live body weight gain was evaluated at day 0 and 28 post treatment. Results: Ivermectin pour on formulation was found to be 100% effective against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. After 28 days of treatment both haemoglobin and PCV values were significantly increased while ESR was significantly decreased after 14 days of treatment. Body weight of cattle was increased by 6.25% after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal nematodiasis in cattle can be treated successfully with ivermectin pour on formulation. The drug has direct influence on blood parameter and live weight gain of the treated animals. Ivermectin may be useful as an anthelmintic of continued relevance.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1 1,348 111
BOOK REVIEW
Basic Concepts in Pharmacology- A Student's Survival Guide
CH Shashindran
November-December 2002, 34(6):443-443
Objective: The efficacy of ivermectin pour on formulation (Ivomec pour on) against gastrointestinal nematodiasis in cattle ( Bos indicus), its effect on the blood parameters and the live weight gain of the host was investigated. Methods: The cattle harbouring the gastrointestinal nematodes were treated with ivermectin pour on formulation at the dose rate of 500 (g/kg body weight topically along the back line. The faecal samples and blood parameters were investigated at day 0,7,14, 21 and 28 post treatment, and live body weight gain was evaluated at day 0 and 28 post treatment. Results: Ivermectin pour on formulation was found to be 100% effective against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. After 28 days of treatment both haemoglobin and PCV values were significantly increased while ESR was significantly decreased after 14 days of treatment. Body weight of cattle was increased by 6.25% after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal nematodiasis in cattle can be treated successfully with ivermectin pour on formulation. The drug has direct influence on blood parameter and live weight gain of the treated animals. Ivermectin may be useful as an anthelmintic of continued relevance.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,907 132
CORRESPONDENCE
Adverse reactions to henna
Hazra Avijit
November-December 2002, 34(6):436-437
Objective: To investigate the direct and the indirect effects of flt3 ligand (FL) on hematopoiesis. Methods: Mononuclear cells from human cord blood were plated in methylcellulose medium containing different cytokines for inducing hematopoietic colony formation. Dendritic cells were induced from the mononuclear cells with a cytokine cocktail with or without recombinant human soluble FL (rhFL; 100ng/ ml). The flt3 receptors on the surface of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (ECV) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The proliferation of ECV stimulated by FL was measured with the microculture tetrazolium assay. We also measured the level of FL in the supernatant of ECV cultures. Results: RhFL stimulates colony formation from cord blood when used as sole stimulant. FL in combination with other cytokines increased colony formation significantly. The number of DC was approximately 2.5 times higher when rhFL was used. RhFL stimulates the proliferation of ECV on which flt3 receptors is expressed. Furthermore, ECV secretes FL and this effect is augmented by tumor necrosis factor-?(?(TNF( ) and reduced by glucocorticoid. Conclusions: FL enhances hematopoietic colony formation and DC proliferation from human cord blood cells. FL not only stimulates the proliferation of ECV, but it is also secreted by ECV. It appears that FL may act as an autocrine growth cytokine of endothelial cells.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,409 101
Medline and key words: Myths and reality
DKR Sahu
November-December 2002, 34(6):438-438
Objective: To investigate the direct and the indirect effects of flt3 ligand (FL) on hematopoiesis. Methods: Mononuclear cells from human cord blood were plated in methylcellulose medium containing different cytokines for inducing hematopoietic colony formation. Dendritic cells were induced from the mononuclear cells with a cytokine cocktail with or without recombinant human soluble FL (rhFL; 100ng/ ml). The flt3 receptors on the surface of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (ECV) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The proliferation of ECV stimulated by FL was measured with the microculture tetrazolium assay. We also measured the level of FL in the supernatant of ECV cultures. Results: RhFL stimulates colony formation from cord blood when used as sole stimulant. FL in combination with other cytokines increased colony formation significantly. The number of DC was approximately 2.5 times higher when rhFL was used. RhFL stimulates the proliferation of ECV on which flt3 receptors is expressed. Furthermore, ECV secretes FL and this effect is augmented by tumor necrosis factor-?(?(TNF( ) and reduced by glucocorticoid. Conclusions: FL enhances hematopoietic colony formation and DC proliferation from human cord blood cells. FL not only stimulates the proliferation of ECV, but it is also secreted by ECV. It appears that FL may act as an autocrine growth cytokine of endothelial cells.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,119 84
EDITORIAL
Plagiarism III
B Gitanjali
November-December 2002, 34(6):377-378
Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 996 152
LETTER
Quality of prescribing for asthma: Ratio of inhaled corticosteroids to bronchodilators
Murthy N Shiva, V Srinivasa, AD Mendonca, C Kulkarni
November-December 2002, 34(6):432-433
Objective: The efficacy of ivermectin pour on formulation (Ivomec pour on) against gastrointestinal nematodiasis in cattle ( Bos indicus), its effect on the blood parameters and the live weight gain of the host was investigated. Methods: The cattle harbouring the gastrointestinal nematodes were treated with ivermectin pour on formulation at the dose rate of 500 (g/kg body weight topically along the back line. The faecal samples and blood parameters were investigated at day 0,7,14, 21 and 28 post treatment, and live body weight gain was evaluated at day 0 and 28 post treatment. Results: Ivermectin pour on formulation was found to be 100% effective against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. After 28 days of treatment both haemoglobin and PCV values were significantly increased while ESR was significantly decreased after 14 days of treatment. Body weight of cattle was increased by 6.25% after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal nematodiasis in cattle can be treated successfully with ivermectin pour on formulation. The drug has direct influence on blood parameter and live weight gain of the treated animals. Ivermectin may be useful as an anthelmintic of continued relevance.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,306 115
WEB WISE
RxLIST
Singh Jatinder
November-December 2002, 34(6):441-442
Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,349 98
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