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   1994| October-December  | Volume 26 | Issue 4  
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Effect of diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata on antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation
IB Koul, A Kapil
October-December 1994, 26(4):296-300
In the present study, the effect of the diterpenes i.e., andrographolide (I), andrographiside (II) and neoandrographolide (Ill) from Andrographis paniculata was investigated on the hepatocellular antioxidant defense system in CCl4 - treated mice. lntraperitoneal administration of the diterpenes at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt for 7 days caused a significant elevation in different components of cellular antioxidant defense and reduction in lipid peroxidation, revealing that the antioxidant action may play a role in the antihepatotoxic activity of the diterpenes. A comparison with silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective agent, showed that Ill was as effective as silymarin (SM) with respect to its effect on reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the intoxicated animals, whereas in II treated group only antilipoperoxidant response was as prominent as that of SM treated group.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  2,915 537 22
Modulatory effects of alcohol ingestion on the toxicology of heavy metals
SJS Flora, SN Dube
October-December 1994, 26(4):240-248
Heavy metal exposure is one of the primary concern in most of industrial developing countries. Metabolism and toxicity of heavy metals may be influenced by alcoholism. Experimental evidences suggest that ethanol could enhance the absorption of metals in the body and alcoholics may be more susceptible to metal intoxication. There are number of clinical evidences which suggest alcoholism as one of the possible factors responsible for determining individual susceptiblity to metal poisoning. Ethanol could stimulate the absorption of metals from the intestinal mucosa thereby increasing its accumulation in the major organs particularly liver and kidneys. There has been a certain amount of interest in the possible role of ethanol in modulating metal intoxication. While, number of recent investigations clearly suggest the modulatory role of ethanol on lead toxicity. There are conflicting reports available on the effects of ethanol ingestion on the toxicity of various other metals particularly cadmium and mercury. Further, the available literature also do not provide an exact mechanism of ethanol action in affecting metal toxicity. Few recent studies points to nutritional deficiencies caused by ethanol ingestion to be responsible for increased metal intake. This article summarises the available literature on ethanol - metal interaction and also points out scope for future research which may elucidate the exact mechanism of such interaction.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  2,153 248 8
A non-invasive method for screening hepatoprotective drugs against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity
D Visweswaram, Rao P Rajeswara, S Satyanarayana
October-December 1994, 26(4):301-303
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) a pharmacological tool to produce liver damage reduced the urinary excretion of ascorbic acid in rats. Silymarin and extract of Pamarus (shown to be hepatoprotective substances) prevented the CCl4 induced reduction of ascorbic acid excretion in urine. The results indicate that the measurement of ascorbic acid excretion can be used as a non-invasive test for screening protective substances against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,958 420 -
Drug utilization of antimicrobials in the in-patient setting of a tertiary Hospital
MV Srishyla, MA Nagarani, BV Venkataraman
October-December 1994, 26(4):282-287
Antimicrobial prescribing pattern was surveyed in the in-patient setting of a 800-bedded tertiary hospital. The prescribing was assessed on the basis of type of use, speciality, site of infection, route of administration and the antimicrobial agent used. The study sample included 556 in-patients at the St. John's Medical College Hospital, Bangalore. The study showed that 56% of in-patients were prescribed antimicrobial agents and 44% of them received a combination of antimicrobials. In all, 36 different antimicrobial agents were prescribed. Gentamicin (17%), metronidazole (9%) and ciprofloxacin (8%) were the most commonly used agents. Lower respiratory tract infection was the most common. The type of use was empirical in 34%, directed in 27% and prophylactic in 32% of the prescriptions. Of the prophylactic prescriptions, 80% were for surgical prophylaxis and 61% of these were administered by oral route. Also, the duration of administration exceeded 72 hours in 92% of the patients prescribed antimicrobials for surgical prophylaxis. The study findings called for a review of antimicrobial prescribing practices.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1,720 535 8
Fluoroquinolones: antimicrobial agents of the 90s.
AK Sharma, R Khosla, AK Kela, VL Mehta
October-December 1994, 26(4):249-261
The development of fluoroquinolones in early 1980s was a breakthrough in the treatment of infectious diseases. The basic structure of fluoroquinolone consists of quinolone carboxylic acid. The modifications at various positions in structure have resulted in a series of potent compounds having wide spectrum of activity which includes gram negative and gram positive organisms, mycobacterium, chlamydia etc. They act by selective inhibition of bacterial DNA gyrase enzyme. These compounds have proved their utility in the treatment of various infections viz., U.T.I, acute bacterial diarrhoea1 diseases, gonorrhoea, chanchroid, S.typhi infection and various other systemic infections. They also have good prophylactic role in surgery and in immunocompromised patients. Compared to other antimicrobial agents, resistance to fluoroquinolones is not common and in addition, they have fewer and mild side effects like g.i.t disturbances (most frequent), mild CNS reactions (headache, dizziness, sleepiness) and hypersensitivity reactions. The bioavailability of fluoroquinolones is decreased with concomitant administration of antacids, iron salts, ranitidine and pirenzipine. Some of the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enoxacin) significantly raise the plasma levels of theophylline and caffeine. Although a large number of fluoroquinolones have been developed in the recent past, yet there is need for compounds which have broader spectrum of activity, higher potency, better CNS/CSF penetration and better patient tolerability.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1,568 336 17
A Simple and improved perfusion apparatus for isolated hearts
Md N Inamdar, BV Venkataraman, Md A Aleem
October-December 1994, 26(4):262-265
A perfusion apparatus for mechanical and slectrophysiological studies on isolated mammalian hearts is described. The apparatus consists of a water jacketed perfusion set up with a thermostatically controlled moist chamber. The apparatus facilitates perfusion of physiological salt solution (PSS) either under constant hydrostatic pressure or at constant volume. PSS with different drugs or ions could be readily and easily changed without any risk of air bubbles and keeps the heart beating for hours. The apparatus also provides better physiological situation compared to the conventional Langendorff perfusion heart technique. The apparatus is particularly useful for both research and teaching.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1,645 257 6
Therapeutic potential of thiamine in lead toxicity-a clinical study
Kumar B Dinesh, Moinuddin Khan Md, K Krishnaswamy
October-December 1994, 26(4):277-281
Occupational exposure to lead is hazardous and hence requires to be prevented and treated. The use of sensitive biochemical markers such as erythrocytic ALAD and renal tubular lysosomal enzyme NAG are gaining importance as early parameters to detect exposure to lead and sub-clinical toxicity. The monocasters, occupationally exposed to lead continuously for 1 O-l 5 Years had significant high blood lead levels (44.1( l.3 (g/dl). imoaired ALAD activitv (227 ( 57 nmole/hr/ml)-coupled with increased % stimulation in vitro (239( 72) and elevated enzymuria (NAG activity 11.9 ( 0.8 (mol/g creatinine) as compared to normal subjects indicating sub-clinical toxicity of sofl tissues. Thiamine, a vitamin which has sulphahydryl group was assessed as chelator of lead from tissues. Wii the administration of thiamine there was a significant reduction in blood lead levels (33.2(1.8 (g/dl), and reversion in basal ALAD activity (281 ( 33 nmol/hr/ml) and in vitro % stimulation (154 (7.0) in a span of 12 months. The results indicate the beneficial effect of thiamine in the treatment of chronic subclinical lead toxicity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1,688 154 4
Studies on the antiproliferative effect of some naturally occurring bioflavonoidal compounds against human carcinoma of larynx and Sarcoma-180 cell lines
V Elangovan, Ramamoorthy Nalini, S Balasubramanian, N Sekar, S Govindasamy
October-December 1994, 26(4):266-269
In vitro effects of bioflavonoids namely quercetin, (+) catechin, luteolin and rutin against human carcinoma of larynx (HEp-2) and sarcoma-l 80 (S-l 80) cell lines were studied. It was observed that the flavonoid luteolin inhibited the proliferation of these cells and the inhibiiory concentration (IC50) was found to be 21 (g/ml which was closely equal to plumbagin (10( g), an anticancer drug. At 28 (g/ml concentration, quercetin showed 50% cell death in HEp-2 cells and in S-l 80, the inhibition was less. Depletion of glutathione in the cells coupled with loss of cell viability was observed in the luteolin treated cultures. Further, [3H] thymidine uptake studies revealed a decline in DNA synthesis in the presence of luteolin.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1,499 256 10
Determination of buprenorphine and its N-dealkylated metabolite in urine TLC densitometry
Jain Raka
October-December 1994, 26(4):288-291
A densitometric method was developed for determination of buprenorphine and its N-dealkylated metabolite (norbuprenorphine) in urine. The procedure involves acid hydrolysis followed by liquid - liquid extraction. The extracted residue was subjected to thin - layer chromatography and separation was achieved in two different solvent systems, Quantitation was done by scanning the sprayed plate at 500 nm using densitometer. The detection limit of the method is 0.5 (g\ ml. The method is simple, rapid, reproducible and suitable for analysis of urine samples taken from abusers of buprenorphine.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,339 163 -
Effect of BR-16A on alpha-2 adrenergic, dopamine autoreceptor and dopamine postsynaptic receptor functioning
C Andrade, Raj Tony, HB Udaya, Chandra J Suresh
October-December 1994, 26(4):292-295
BR-16A is a herbal preparation with possible neuropsychiatric effects; preclinical work has found it to facilitate cognition and diminish both anterograde and retrograde amnesia induced by electroconvulsive shocks. The present study sought to assess whether BR-16A affects adrenergic and dopaminergic functioning in the brain. Adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats which received BR-l 6A (200 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for one month were challenged with clonidine (100 (g/kg s.c.), apomorphine (2 mg/kg, 100 (g/kg or 50 (glkg, s.c.) or saline in separate factorial design experiments. Following the challenge, motility of the animals was assessed using a small open field. BR-l 6A did not influence hypomotility induced by clonidine agonism at alpha-2 adrenergic receptors nor by low dose apomorphine agonism at dopamine autoreceptors. However, BR 16A did augment high dose apomorphine-induced dopamine postsynaptic receptor-mediated hypermotility. These results suggest that BR-l6A does not interfere with alpha-2 adrenergic and dopamine autoreceptor functioning, and that it enhances dopamine postsynaptic receptor activity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1,328 149 6
Lack of genotoxicity of omeprazole in chromosomal aberration and sisterChromatid exchange assays using cultured human lymphocytes in vitro
TS Kumaravel, Lakshmi Karthika, P Balakrishnamurthy
October-December 1994, 26(4):304-306
Omeprazole was tested in chromosomal aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays using cultured human lymphocytes in vitro. While CA is a standard battery of test system in mutagenicity studies, SCE is considered to be the most simple reliable and sensitive index of DNA damage/repair. Omeprazole was found to be non toxic in both these tests.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,176 164 -
Effects of chronic terbutaline and abana pretreatments on beta-adrenoceptor mediated relaxant responses of guinea-pig isolated trachea
P Bhattacharya, JD Bhatt, KG Hemavathi, OD Gulati
October-December 1994, 26(4):270-276
Effects of chronic pretreatment with Abana (a herbomineral formulation) on beta-adrenoceptor mediated guinea-pig isolated tracheal relaxation was studied. Chronic terbutaline (TER) pretreatment in the guinea-pig significantly reduced the contractile response of the isolated tracheal chain preparation to pilocarpine (PILO; 3.68 X lO-6) while the response to KCI (1.78 X 102M) was not modified. The maximal relaxant responses to isoprenaline (ISO), TER and aminophylline (AMINO) were significantly depressed in PILO-contracted isolated tracheal chain preparations but were not modified in KCI-contracted preparations. Chronic Abana pretreatment significantly depressed the contractile response to PlLO and significantly enhanced that to KCI. The maximal relaxations to the three relaxant drugs were not modified in PILO-contracted preparations while in KCI contracted preparations an increased sensitivity was observed. Chronic pretreatment with Abana plus TER caused marked depression of the contractile responses of the preparation to PILO; while KCI induced contractions were not modified. The maximal relaxations to the three relaxant drugs were markedly depressed in PILO-contracted preparations which were not significantly different from those in the chronic TER-pretreated group. In KCI-contracted preparations maximal relaxations by ISO, TER and AMINO were not modified. It is concluded that chronic Abana pretreatment in the guinea-pig does not affect either beta-adrenoceptor mediated tracheal relaxation or the decreased responsiveness of the tracheal smooth muscle induced by chronic TER pretreatment.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1,079 94 4
Acute effect of intravenous ethanol on electrocardiogram of rabbit
Parkash Parveen
October-December 1994, 26(4):307-308
Full text not available  [PDF]
  929 80 -
Effect of imipramine and centpropazine on electrocardiogram in Patients on major depression
MP Nargund, KC Gupta
October-December 1994, 26(4):309-310
Full text not available  [PDF]
  904 97 -
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