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   1993| October-December  | Volume 25 | Issue 4  
 
 
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SHORT COMMUNICATION
Interference of adulterants in thin layer chromatography method for drugs of abuse
Jain Raka
October-December 1993, 25(4):240-242
Urine screening for determining illicit drug use has become a necessary adjunct to treat drug addicts. Some of the laboratories use thin layer chromatography (TLC) for screening drugs of abuse in urine. Six adulterants viz. sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, liquid detergent soap (Labolene), bleacing powder, vinegar, ascorbic acid, gave false negative results for morphine, diazepam and phenobarbital drug assays when screened by TLC. Of the three drugs tested, morphine was found to be most sensitive to all adulterants. Adulterants interfered at lower concentration for morphine assay when analysed by TLC methodology than the reported EMIT technique.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,662 160 -
Comparative evaluation of orally and transdermally administered omeprazole against experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats
MSP Sastry, PV Diwan
October-December 1993, 25(4):234-236
Antiulcer and cytoprotective activity of orally and transdermally administered omeprazole was evaluated and compared in 3 different experimental gastric ulcer models, viz., indomethacin, aspirin + pylorus ligation induced ulcers and 0.6 N HCI induced gastric ulcers and mucosal damage in rats. Omeprazole (5 mg) was administered either orally as enteric coated granules or transdermally as 1% ointment. Ulcerogenecity was significantly reduced after oral and transdermal administration of omeprazole except after its oral administration in aspirin induced ulcers in pylorus ligated rats. Omeprazole produced significantly greater antiulcer activity after transdermal administration in all the models. The results of this study thus indicate a superior antiulcer profile for omeprazole after transdermal administration in rats as compared to the orally given drug.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,441 246 -
RESEARCH PAPER
Comparative study of imipramine, maprotiline, fluvoxamine, trazodone and alprazolam in some animal models of depression
SN Pal, PC Dandiya
October-December 1993, 25(4):204-208
Antidepressants were compared for their behavioural effects in some animal models of depression. The results were interpreted for a better insight into the underlying mechanisms as well as for a rank ordering of the models. It is concluded that the model of depression involving inescapable foot shock, if considered together with the forced swimming test or the tail suspension test, can more efficiently screen putative antidepressants.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,392 248 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Disposition kinetics of metronidazole in cow calves
SK Bhavsar, JK Malik
October-December 1993, 25(4):246-248
Disposition kinetics of metronidazole was investigated in cow calves following single oral administration (20 mg/kg). The peak plasmaconcentration (5.45 0.09 'g/ml) of metronidazole was achieved at 30 min which decreased to 0.79 0.06 'g/ml at6 h. Absorption and elimination half-lives were 0.11 0.02 and 3.06 0.14 h, respectively. The therapeutic plasma concentration of metronidazole (2 2 'g/ml) was maintained from 5 min to 3 h after drug administration.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,456 133 -
Effect of taurine on triton WR 1339 induced hyperlipidaemia in rats
VM Gandhi, MJ Mulky
October-December 1993, 25(4):237-239
The effect of taurine on the triton WR 1339 induced hyperlipidaemia was studied in rats. A single injection of triton (350 mg/kg., i.p.) produced significant increase in serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration. Taurine administered twice (1 g/kg., oral) to the triton induced hyperlipidemic rats produced significant decrease in serum cholesterol (P < 0.01) and triglyceride concentrations (P < 0.001). The livers of rats treated with taurine showed no significant differences with those of normal rats whereas the rats treated with triton alone showed increase in liver weight and its lipid content.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,357 202 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Role of hypertension control in diabetes - mellitus and the agents of choice
RK Goyal, TP Gandhi, MC Satia
October-December 1993, 25(4):181-187
Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are the chronic conditions which frequently coexist and can affect individual health care needs. Hypertension appears to be critically important in a diabetic patient, not only because of its increased prevalence, but also because it accelerates both the micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus. In a therapeutic approach, the treatment with antihypertensive agents in a diabetic subject should not only be efficacious and well tolerated, but should reverse or prevent diabetes induced alterations in lipid levels, cardiovascular changes, and progress of renal failure. Moreover metabolic control of diabetes mellitus should not be affected by these agents. For this reason, new and improved antihypertensive drugs with multiple actions are of particular interest. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have a good therapeutic potential for the treatment of hypertension in diabetic patients. Centrally acting agents clonidine and vasodilator, prazosin, also appear to be promising but more studies are warranted for these two drugs. Cardioselective b-blockers should be used with caution and only in low to moderate doses. More studies are required to provide the rationale basis for the use of antihypertensives for the treatment of hypertensive diabetics,
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,247 257 -
RESEARCH PAPER
Modification of disposition kinetics of oxytetracycline by paracetamol and endotoxin - induced fever in goats
S Manna, TK Mandal, AK Chakraborty
October-December 1993, 25(4):199-203
Disposition kinetics of oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg, i.v) in the absence/presence of paracetamol (50 mg/kg, i.v) in both afebrile and endotoxin-induced febrile conditions were studied in female Black Bengal goats. Fever was induced and maintained for 12 h by injecting Escherichia coli endotoxin (0.2 'g/kg, i.v) initially and repeating it at half the dose (0.1 'g/kg) 5h later. The disposition kinetics of oxytetracycline was described by a two compartment open model. The concentrations of oxytetracycline atone (83.60 0.80 'g/ml) in afebrile condition at 0.03 hr post- drug administration was higher from the corresponding values of febrile alone (48.30 1.60 'g/ml) and combined therapy (72.60 4.90 'g/ml; 52.0 1.O 'g/ml). Fever alone decreased the concentration of oxytetracycline in blood-The t1/2(() value (5.95 h) was maximum in afebrile paracetamol group followed by febrile alone (4.08 h), febrile paracetamol (3.16 h) and afebrile alone groups (2.78 h) in sequence. The Vd(area) was higher in presence of paracetamol at both afebrile and febrile states as well as febrile alone. The paracetamol did not interfere with the protein binding of oxytetracycline.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,311 122 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Measurement of physiologic parameters from isolated perfused rat heart by a computerised system
BV Venkataraman, SA Dulchavsky, S Dutta
October-December 1993, 25(4):193-198
This report details a field study of a computer-based system for the recording of physiologic parameters with descriptive records of calibration, storage, and printout of waveform data obtained from an isolated rat heart preparation. Conventional analogue data of developed tension and left ventricular pressure were recorded, respectively, by using a strain gauge and pressure transducer coupled to a multi-channel, strip chart recorder. Simultaneously, the preamplified polygraph signals were linked to a CODAS analogue to digital conversion system and an IBM compatible laptop computer for continuous data acquisition. Because this CODAS preamplification system is equipped with a built-in excitation capability, the system has also been used to process analogue signals directly from a strain gauge and a pressure transducer independent of a multi-channel electromechanical recorder. The superior storage and data acquisition, playback, signal derivitization and statistical analysis capabilities of the computer-based system are discussed. In addition, since this portable computer-based analogue to digital recording system can function independently of a costly preamplification system such as the traditional multichannel chart recorders, because it contains built-in transducer excitation means, this system has potential cost saving and data processing advantages for use in applications where budgetary constrains are paramount.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,198 145 -
RESEARCH PAPER
Studies on the antihypertensive effect of abana in rats
R Balaraman, N Hingorani, SP Rathod
October-December 1993, 25(4):209-214
Treatment with Abana (3 g/kg/day, p.o) for 3 weeks, reduced the blood pressure of unilaterally nephrectomized DOCAsalt-treated hypertensive rats. Similar reduction in blood pressure was also observed in the CdCl2 (1 mg/kg/day, i.p. for two weeks) treated hypertensive rats. The pressor response to adrenaline and noradrenaline (1 and 2 'g/kg) was reduced by chronic administration of Abana in these hypertensive animals. However, Abana (3 g/kg/day, p.o) administered to normotensive female albino rats for 3 weeks did not alter the mean blood pressure and the pressor response to adrenaline and noradrenaline (1 and 2 'g/kg). The vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in isolated aortic strip and portal vein was also reduced by the chronic administration of Abana in the hypertensive rats. It is concluded that the antihypertensive effect of Abana might be due to its alteration of cation transport into the cell.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,115 156 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Medetomidine - A new selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist
BV Venkataraman, MA Nagarani
October-December 1993, 25(4):188-192
Medetomidine, an imidazoline derivative is a lipophilic compound with selective (2-adrenoceptor agonist activity. It has a negligible binding affinity for dopaminergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, opiate, adenosine and benzodiazepine receptors. Various in vivo experiments show dose-dependent hypotensive, bradycardia, sedative, anxiolytic, mydriatic, hypothermic and analgesic effects. In general it is more potent than the other an-agonists in central and peripheral actions on (2-adrenoceptors. Effects of medetomidine can be antagonised by prior, simultaneous or subsequent administration of an-antagonists. In human trials it is shown to be well tolerated and the drug may also have therapeutic applications in humans.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,115 155 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Effect of beta-agonist terbutaline on body composition of under-nourished Wistar rats
G Jaisri, PS Shetty
October-December 1993, 25(4):243-245
Effects of twice daily administration of a beta-agonist terbutaline on body composition of growing Wistar rats were evaluated in well nourished (WN) male pups of small litters and compared with pre-weaning nutritionally deprived (PND) pups of large litters. Carcass analysis at 21 days of age showed increased cardiac weights in WN pups on terbutaline treatment. The lipid content of treated rats, both WN and PND, were significantly reduced with no changes in the total protein content of the carcass. Non-specific beta-agonists like terbutaline influence the lipid and not the protein content of both well-nourished and undernourished growing male rats.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,146 91 -
RESEARCH PAPER
IgG.subclass response to cell - and egg grown influenza vaccines in human volunteers
Ahmeida ETS Ben, R Jennings, CW Potter
October-December 1993, 25(4):215-219
The immunogenicity of two inactivated influenza A (H1 N1) vaccines which were derived either as tissue culture strains in MDCK cells or eggs from virus grown from a single clinical specimen was assessed in a comparative study. An ELISA was used to measure serum IgG and IgG subclass antibody responses in grouped volunteers receiving the vaccines. Both types of vaccines were able to stimulate production of IgG and IgG subclass antibody response, predominantly IgG1 and to a lesser extent lgG3. The results suggest that despite the antigenic differences of the two vaccine virus strains used in this study similar IgG responses were evoked.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,078 91 -
Studies on post-receptor mechanisms in smooth muscle preparations
AA Mehta, KC Dave, RK Goyal
October-December 1993, 25(4):228-233
The possible role of calmodulin and phosphatidyl- inositol cycle which are finally involved in the excitation- contraction coupling, has been explored using W7 [N- (aminohexyl)-5-chloro-l-naphthalene sulphonamide], a specific calmodulin antagonist and lithium chloride(LiCI), the inositol monophosphatase inhibitor. Noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PHE), indanidine (IND), 5- hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (Ach) produced dose dependent contractions of rat anococcygeus muscle and rat vas deferens. The responses to all the agonists were significantly reduced in the presence of LiCl (7.7 x IO-7 M) with the reduction-in maxima in both the preparations except that of DA in rat vas deferens. In the presence of W7 (6.8 x 10-7M), the responses to all the agonists except DA and Ach were significantly inhibited in rat anococcygeus muscle whereas, in rat vas deferens responses to none of the agonists were altered. The data supports the involvement of calmodulin as well as phosphatidyl inositol cycle in rat anococcygeus muscle. In rat vas deferens, calmodulin does not seem to be involved, however, involvement of phosphatidyl inositol cycle cannot be ruled out in this preparation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,060 86 -
A study of prevalence of tardive dyskinesia in psychiatric outpatient population
R Chandrasekaran, V Sivakumar, SS Shreeram
October-December 1993, 25(4):220-223
Tardive dyskinesia is an extrapyramidal syndrome seen in patients who are on long term neuroleptic treatment. A total of 166 outpatients who were on neuroleptic treatment for a minimum period of six months were evaluated for tardive dyskinesia and the risk factors were analysed. The prevalence of tardive dyskinesia was 11.6% and in none of the cases was it found to be severely disabling. The study identified high neuroleptic dose and use of depot preparation as risk factors in tardive dyskinesia.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,014 96 -
Evidence for alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist activity of hydralazine
MC Satia, RK Goyal
October-December 1993, 25(4):224-227
Hydralazine (5.08 x 10-5 M to 1.5 x 10-3M ) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of field stimulation evoked responses on rat anococcygeus muscle and vas-deferens. This was antagonized competitively by yohimbine. On estrogen primed rat uterus, hydralazine produced a dose-dependent relaxation which was competitively blocked by yohimbine and propranolol but not by cimetidine. The responses to hydralazine were significantly inhibited by reserpine pre-treatment (5mg/kg, i.p., 24 h. before). Our data suggests alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist activity of hydralazine.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,020 82 -
LETTER
Modification of hypoglycemic action of glibenclamide by doxycycline in albino rats
IS Thokchom, BD Rajkumari
October-December 1993, 25(4):251-251
Full text not available  [PDF]
  858 116 -
ERRATA
Book Reviews and Errata
IJP
October-December 1993, 25(4):252-253
1. The effect of ambient temperature (Ta) on rectal temperature (Tr) of rats during rest and physical exercise and of antipyretics on exercise-induced hyperthermia in rats and rabbits has been investigated. 2. Body temperature increases with increase in Ta. 3. Physical exercise increases body temperature and the thermal equilibrium reached is proportional to exercise. Increase in Ta causes greater hyperthermia during exercise. 4. The exercise hyperthermia is not due to an elevation in body temperature set-point as aspirin and indomethacin do not block exercise-induced hyperthermia as they do the pyrogen fever. 5. The rise in body temperature is the limiting factor for the continuation of exercise.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  864 78 -
LETTER
Impact of inclusion of clinical projects in undergraduate teaching
AK Kela, VL Mehta
October-December 1993, 25(4):249-250
Full text not available  [PDF]
  821 117 -
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