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   1978| October-December  | Volume 10 | Issue 4  
 
 
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RESEARCH PAPER
Anti-inflammatory activity of gossypin of bioflavonoid isolated from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn
NS Parmar, MN Ghosh
October-December 1978, 10(4):277-293
. The anti-inflammatory activity of gossypin has been studied in comparison with the standard nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agent phenylbutazone against various experimental models of inflammation and increased vascular permeability. It was found to significantly reduce the rat paw , oedema and the increased vascular permeability induced by various phlogistic agents. It produced significant inhibition of the accumulation of pouch fluid and granulation tissue formation in the carrageenin induced granuloma pouch in rats which could be attributed to the decreased formation of collagen tissue. The migration of leucocytes and the formation of pleural exudates were also significantly reduced after pretreatment with gossypin in carrageenin and turpentine induced pleurisy in rats. It was also found effective against the adjuvant and formalin induced chronic arthritis in rats. Though it was less potent as compared to pheoylbutazone, it possessed a greater margin of safety as evident from the acute toxicity studies
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  3,142 433 -
Drug induced by catalepsy as influenced by apomorphine, methamphetamine, atropine, imipramine, cyproheptadine and promethazine
S Bala, N Chawla, KN Garg
October-December 1978, 10(4):271-275
. The cataleptic states were produced in rats by morphine, chlorpromazine, trifluoperazine, thioridazine and haloperidol. Morphine catalepsy was readily antagonised by apomorphine but was not blocked by atropine. Methamphetamine, imipramine and atropine significantly antagonised the neuroleptic induced catalepsy. Promethazine could only antagonise the catalepsy induced by haloperidol and thioridazine. The anticataleptic effects of atropine and cyproheptadine against all cataleptogens used were insignificant.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,289 119 -
Antifilarial activity of levamisole hydrochloride on Setaria cervi
KC Singhal, PN Saxena
October-December 1978, 10(4):309-314
. Levamisole hydrochloride in low concentration (5 ng/mI) stimulated the movements of the whole worm as well as of the nerve-muscle complex of Setario cervi suspended in an isolated organ bath. At higher concentration (25 ng/mI) the response was biphasic consisting of initial stimulation followed by irreversible paralysis. The initial stimulant effect is not due to release of ACh as it is not blocked by prior addition of d-tubocurarine to the bath fluid. Levamisole in 5 x 25 mg/kg daily dose caused disappearance of microfilariae from the peripheral circulation in 7 of the 8 rats treated: The drug at this dose level had some macrofilaricidal action as well. A higher dose of 5 x 50 mg/kg daily caused complete disappearance of microfilariae from peripheral circulation of all the rats and produced a significant lethal effect on the adult worms The antifilarial efficacy of the drug needs evaluation in domestic animals and men.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,280 90 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Preliminary and pharmacological and anticestodal screening of Curcurbita maxima
LC Lahon, HN Khanikor, N Ahmad, AR Gogoi
October-December 1978, 10(4):315-317
. Preliminary pharmacological screening with crude extract of Cucurbita maxima seeds revealed that it produces positive inotropic effect on frog heart and a slight transient rise in mean arterial blood pressure in dog which was not dose dependent.Study of electrocardiogram in dog revealed elevation of 'QRS' complex and decrease in heart rate. The extract as well as the powdered seeds of C. maxima were found to be least effective against Raillietina cesticillus in domestic fowl.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,138 162 -
RESEARCH PAPER
Effect of betel nut constituents on sulfhydryl metabolism
NM Shivapurkar, SV Bhide
October-December 1978, 10(4):257-264
. In order to study the effect of different constituents of betel nut on sulfhydryl metabolism. betel nut aqueous extract, polyphenol fraction and arecoline, an important alkaloid of betel nut were injected i.p. to Swiss mice. Glutathione, protein-SH and protein-SH+S-S contents were measured in liver, lung, kidney and muscle tissues. Tannic acid was injected as a standard polyphenol for comparison. Betel nut aqueous extract, polyphenol fraction and tannic acid increased glutathione content while arecoline decreased the same in almost all the tissues. All the test substances decreased the protein-SH content in majority of the tissues studied.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,198 99 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Toxicological investigation of dichlorvas in chicks
NV Naidu, KS Reddy, A Janardhan, MK Murthy
October-December 1978, 10(4):323-326
. Dichlorvos (2-2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate), an organic phosphate insecticide, has been tested for its acute and subacute oral toxicity in White Leghorn male chicks. LD50 values calculated by the graphic method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon was 6.45 mg per kg with 5.10 and 8.06 as 95% confidence limits. Seven-day old chicks could not tolerate levels of 500 ppm (0.05%) of dichlorvos in the diet and responded by weight loss and mortality.There was a significant depression of brain cholinesterase activity in all the treated groups fed with 50, 100 and 500 ppm of dichlorvos.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,136 93 -
RESEARCH PAPER
Morphine induced subsensitivity to acetylcholine in smooth muscle
PDMV Turlapaty, S Jayasundar, S Ramaswamy
October-December 1978, 10(4):295-300
. Morphine depressed the contractile responses of guineapig ileum to acetylcholine (ACh) in a graded and time-dependent manner. This action of morphine was specific since it did not alter the contractile responses to histamine and potassium chloride. Naloxone, a specific morphine antagonist, failed to prevent morphine-induced subsensitivity to ACh indicating that the action of morphine is not mediated through opiate receptors. High calcium decreased significantly the degree of morphine-induced subsensitivity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,152 71 -
RESEARCH PAPER
Pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone in undernutrition
C Adithan, IS Gandhi, S Chandrasekar
October-December 1978, 10(4):301-308
. Pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone were studied in normal healthy volunteers and under-nourished patients. After a single oral dose of phenylbutazone, multiple venous blood samples were drawn and the concentrations of phenylbutazone in the plasma were determined as a function of time, and pharmacokinetic analysis was done. The mean plasma half-life was found to be significantly lower in undernourished subjects as compared to normal healthy volunteers. Both mean apparent volume of distribution (aVd/kg) and mean metabolic clearance rate were found to be significantly higher in the undernourished group which are indicative of increased extravascular distribution as well as more rapid hepatic metabolism in them. The area under curve was also found to be significantly reduced in them. Our results suggest that undernourished subjects may require administration of phenylbutazone at more frequent intervals.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,112 105 -
BOOK REVIEW
Quantum Pharmacology
WG Richards
October-December 1978, 10(4):327-328
. Dichlorvos (2-2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate), an organic phosphate insecticide, has been tested for its acute and subacute oral toxicity in White Leghorn male chicks. LD50 values calculated by the graphic method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon was 6.45 mg per kg with 5.10 and 8.06 as 95% confidence limits. Seven-day old chicks could not tolerate levels of 500 ppm (0.05%) of dichlorvos in the diet and responded by weight loss and mortality.There was a significant depression of brain cholinesterase activity in all the treated groups fed with 50, 100 and 500 ppm of dichlorvos.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,120 96 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
A convenient method for evaluation of dermal irritant effect on rabbits
RK Srivastava, MB Deshmukh, SK Sharma
October-December 1978, 10(4):319-322
. A convenient method has been evolved to assess the dermal irritant effect of drugs and chemicals with low level of irritancy in conscious and unrestrained rabbits. Selected areas on either flank of rabbits were closely shaven and were painted with 20% formalin as primary irritant. Subsequently, pieces of cotton lint impregnated with the solutions of the test compounds encased in 'pill boxes' were placed in contact with the skin and 0.25 ml of a 0.5% sterile solution of Evans blue was injected intravenously. Intensity of blue colour developed in the treated areas was taken as the index of degree of dermal irritancy.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,067 82 -
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