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ABSTRACTS
Abstracts of Papers for Poster Sessions

December 2011, 43(7):41-197
  49,333 2,155 -
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Curcumin: A natural antiinflammatory agent
K Kohli, J Ali, MJ Ansari, Z Raheman
May-June 2005, 37(3):141-147
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.16209  
Extensive scientific research on curcumin, a natural compound present in the rhizomes of plant Curcuma longa Linn., demonstrated its antiinflammatory action. Curcumin was found to inhibit arachidonic acid metabolism, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, cytokines (Interleukins and tumour necrosis factor) Nuclear factor-kB and release of steroidal hormones. Curcumin was reported to stabilize lysosomal membrane and cause uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation besides having strong oxygen radical scavenging activity, which was responsible for its antiinflammatory property. In various animal studies, a dose range of 100-200 mg/kg body weight exhibited good antiinflammatory activity and seemed to have negligible adverse effect on human systems. Oral LD50 in mice was found to be more than 2.0 g/kg body weight.
  46,650 2,523 57
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Perception, attitude and usage of complementary and alternative medicine among doctors and patients in a tertiary care hospital in India
Vandana Roy, Monica Gupta, Raktim Kumar Ghosh
March-April 2015, 47(2):137-142
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.153418  PMID:25878370
Aim: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been practiced in India for thousands of years. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of use, perception and attitude of doctors and patients utilizing the same healthcare facility. Methods: This study was conducted among 200 doctors working at a tertiary care teaching Hospital, India and 403 patients attending the same, to determine the extent of usage, attitude and perception toward CAM. Results: The use of CAM was more among doctors (58%) when compared with the patients (28%). Among doctors, those who had utilized CAM themselves, recommended CAM as a therapy to their patients (52%) and enquired about its use from patients (37%) to a greater extent. CAM was used concomitantly with allopathic medicine by 60% patients. Very few patients (7%) were asked by their doctors about CAM use, and only 19% patients voluntarily informed their doctors about the CAM they were using. Most patients who used CAM felt it to be more effective, safer, less costly and easily available in comparison to allopathic medicines. Conclusion: CAM is used commonly by both doctors and patients. There is a lack of communication between doctors and patients regarding CAM, which may be improved by sensitization of doctors and inclusion of CAM in the medical curriculum
  44,311 374 -
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Neonatal streptozotocin-induced rat model of Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A glance
DK Arulmozhi, A Veeranjaneyulu, SL Bodhankar
July-August 2004, 36(4):217-221
Diabetes mellitus is a group of syndromes characterized by hyperglycemia, altered metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and protein and an increased risk of complication of vascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by derangement of insulin secretion and an inability of the peripheral tissues to respond to insulin. In spite of the availability of many animal models for Type 2 diabetes mellitus including genetic and chemically induced, none of them simulate human Type 2 diabetes mellitus. An attempt has been made in the present review, to evaluate the neonatal streptozotocin-induced rat (n-STZ rats) model of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, for its potential advantages as a suitable model over the others. The n-STZ model (with alteration of dose and day of STZ injection) exhibits various stages of Type 2 diabetes mellitus such as impaired glucose tolerance, and mild, moderate and severe glycemia. The cells in n-STZ rats bear a resemblance to insulin secretory characteristics found in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus the n-STZ model can be considered as one of the suitable animal models of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  38,360 2,469 31
EDITORIAL
Intranasal delivery: An approach to bypass the blood brain barrier
S Talegaonkar, PR Mishra
May-June 2004, 36(3):140-147
The blood brain barrier (BBB) represents one of the strictest barriers of in vivo therapeutic drug delivery. The barrier is defined by restricted exchange of hydrophilic compounds, small proteins and charged molecules between the plasma and central nervous system (CNS). For decades, the BBB has prevented the use of many therapeutic agents for treating Alzheimer's disease, stroke, brain tumor, head injury, spinal cord injury, depression, anxiety and other CNS disorders. Different attempts were made to deliver the drug across the BBB such as modification of therapeutic agents, altering the barrier integrity, carrier-mediated transport, invasive techniques, etc. However, opening the barrier by such means allows entry of toxins and undesirable molecules to the CNS, resulting in potentially significant damage. An attempt to overcome the barrier in vivo has focused on bypassing the BBB by using a novel, practical, simple and non-invasive approach i.e. intranasal delivery. This method works because of the unique connection which the olfactory and trigeminal nerves (involved in sensing odors and chemicals) provide between the brain and external environments. The olfactory epithelium acting as a gateway for substances entering the CNS and peripheral circulation is well known. Also, it is common knowledge that viral infections such as common cold, smallpox, measles, and chicken pox take place through the nasopharynx. The neural connections between the nasal mucosa and the brain provide a unique pathway for the non-invasive delivery of therapeutic agents to the CNS. This pathway also allows drugs which do not cross the BBB to enter the CNS and it eliminates the need for systemic delivery and thereby reducing unwanted systemic side effects. Intranasal delivery does not require any modification of therapeutic agents and does not require that drugs be coupled with any carrier. A wide variety of therapeutic agents, including both small molecules and macromolecules can be rapidly delivered to the CNS using this method. The present review discusses the various applications, advantages and limitations of this novel approach.
  35,779 1,669 7
REVIEW ARTICLE
Silymarin: A review of pharmacological aspects and bioavailability enhancement approaches
Nitin Dixit, Sanjula Baboota, Kanchan Kohli, S Ahmad, Javed Ali
July-August 2007, 39(4):172-179
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.36534  
Silymarin, a flavonolignan from the seeds of 'milk thistle' (Silybum marianum), has been widely used from ancient times because of its excellent hepatoprotective action. It is a mixture of mainly three flavonolignans, viz, silybin, silidianin, and silychristine, with silybin being the most active. Silymarin has been used medicinally to treat liver disorders, including acute and chronic viral hepatitis, toxin/drug-induced hepatitis, and cirrhosis and alcoholic liver diseases. It has also been reported to be effective in certain cancers. Its mechanism of action includes inhibition of hepatotoxin binding to receptor sites on the hepatocyte membrane; reduction of glutathione oxidation to enhance its level in the liver and intestine; antioxidant activity; and stimulation of ribosomal RNA polymerase and subsequent protein synthesis, leading to enhanced hepatocyte regeneration. It is orally absorbed but has very poor bioavailability due to its poor water solubility. This review focuses on the various pharmacological activities of silymarin including the clinical trials. For the first time, the review also looks at the formulation work that has been done to enhance its solubility, so as to increase its bioavailability and thus, its hepatoprotective action.
  31,932 2,917 25
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Probiotics: Making a comeback
AK Sharma, P Mohan, BB Nayak
November-December 2005, 37(6):358-365
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.19071  
Probiotics are nonpathogenic microbes used to confer health benefits to the recipient. The derangement of normal body flora has been held responsible for causation of various disorders. Probiotics have been tried in a number of infective and noninfective disorders and found useful, primarily because of their ability to supplement the normal body flora. Their use offers various advantages over-existing antimicrobial agents in being relatively cheap and safe. However, there are few reports of systemic fungemia associated with their use especially, in immunocompromised and severely debilitated patients. They also carry a risk of transferring resistance to other microbes including pathogens. In conclusion, more studies are required to establish their definite place in therapeutics.
  28,787 1,247 3
EDITORIAL
Clinical trials in India: Pangs of globalization
Arun Bhatt
July-August 2004, 36(4):207-208
  27,099 1,410 7
RESEARCH PAPER
Anti-inflammatory and C.N.S. depressant activities of xanthones from Calophyllum inophyllum and Mesua ferrea
C Gopalakrishnan, D Shankaranarayanan, SK Nazimudeen, S Viswanathan, L Kameswaran
July-September 1980, 12(3):181-191
. The xanthones of Calophyllum inophyllum and Mesua Ferrea namely, dehydrocycloguanandin (DCG), calophyllin-B (CPB), jacareubin (JR), 6-desoxy jacareubin (DJR), mesuaxantbone-A (MXA), mesuaxanthone-B (MXB) and euxanthone (EX) were screened for various pharmacological effects in experimental animals. All the xanthones produced varying degrees of C.N.S. depression characterised by ptosis, sedation, decreased spontaneous motor activity, loss of muscle tone, potentiation of pentobarbitone sleeping time and ether anaerthesia in mice and rats.None of the xanthones had any analgesic, antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities. The xanthones did not produce any pharmacological effect in the cardiovascular system of frogs and dogs. All the xanthones exhibited anti inflammatory activity both by intraperitoneal and oral routes in rats as tested by carrageenin induced hind paw oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and granuloma pouch techniques, in normal and adrenalectomised rats. The xanthones did not have any mast cell membrane stabilising effect, and the degranulating effect of compound 48/80, diazoxide and Won-X-100 on rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro war not prevented. JR and DJR exhibited antiulcer activity in rats. The xanthones did not alter the prothrombin time in rats.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  27,436 1,073 14
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Cosmeceuticals: An emerging concept
Harish Dureja, D Kaushik, M Gupta, V Kumar, V Lather
May-June 2005, 37(3):155-159
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.16211  
The use of cosmeceuticals has drastically risen in recent years. This significantly increases the armamentarium of the clinician in improving the treatment of skin, hair, and other conditions. They are at the juncture where wellness meets beauty and growing use by consumers is indicative of their popularity. This article focuses on skin, hair, and other cosmeceuticals and their regulatory aspects.
  26,915 1,321 23
BOOK REVIEW
Principles of Pharmacology by H. L. Sharma and K. K. Sharma
Chetna Desai
March-April 2009, 41(2):94-94
  26,457 1,117 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Therapeutic alternatives from venoms and toxins
Shivaji P Gawade
November-December 2007, 39(6):260-264
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.39143  
The medicinal value of venoms has been known from ancient times. The active principles in venoms have been extensively investigated for their target specificity. Affinity for the primary sites responsible for lethality and efficacy at extremely low concentrations made these agents valuable tools or surrogates for basic biomedical research. The therapeutic effects of these agents are usually achieved by mechanisms that are different from that of conventional therapeutic agents. In the present paper, nonherbal natural therapeutic alternatives approved by the FDA, those that have undergone extensive clinical evaluation and shown promise in preclinical evaluation, or those that are isolated in pure form or subjected for the treatment to venoms are reviewed. These agents are suggested for the treatment of various diseases, including inflammatory, hematological, autoimmune, infectious, cardiovascular, malignant, neuromuscular, and psychotic diseases.
  25,956 1,252 11
REVIEW ARTICLES
Animal use in pharmacology education and research: The changing scenario
Dinesh K Badyal, Chetna Desai
May-June 2014, 46(3):257-265
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132153  PMID:24987170
The use of animals in research and education dates back to the period when humans started to look for ways to prevent and cure ailments. Most of present day's drug discoveries were possible because of the use of animals in research. The dilemma to continue animal experiments in education and research continues with varied and confusing guidelines. However, the animal use and their handling vary in each laboratory and educational institution. It has been reported that the animals are being subjected to painful procedures in education and training unnecessarily. The extensive use of animals in toxicity studies and testing dermatological preparations has raised concerns about the ways animals are sacrificed for these "irrelevant experiments". On the other side of the coin are scientists who advocate the relevant and judicious use of animals in research so that new discoveries can continue. In this review, we discuss the evolution of the use of animals in education and research and how these have been affected in recent times owing to concerns from animal lovers and government regulations. A number of computer simulation and other models have been recommended for use as alternatives to use of animals for pharmacology education. In this review we also discuss some of these alternatives.
  26,077 755 -
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Exploring Indian medicinal plants for antiulcer activity
P Dharmani, Gautam Palit
March-April 2006, 38(2):95-99
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.24613  
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a serious gastrointestinal disorder that requires a well targeted therapeutic strategy. A number of drugs including proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but clinical evaluation of these drugs has shown incidence of relapses, side effects, and drug interactions. This has been the rationale for the development of new antiulcer drugs and the search for novel molecules has been extended to herbal drugs that offer better protection and decreased relapse. Drugs of plant origin are gaining popularity and are being investigated for a number of disorders, including peptic ulcer. The present article reviews the antiulcerogenic and ulcer healing property of Ocimum sanctum , Allophylus serratus , Desmodium gagenticum, Azadirachta indica , Hemidesmus racemosus , Asparagus racemosus, and Musa sapientum. We have highlighted some of the important plants reported for their anti-ulcer and ulcer healing properties, in our laboratory and elsewhere during the last few years. Ayurvedic knowledge supported by modern science is necessary to isolate, characterise, and standardise the active constituents from herbal sources for antiulcer activity.
  24,089 2,290 9
SPECIAL ARTICLE
Reverse pharmacological correlates of ayurvedic drug actions
ADB Vaidya
September-October 2006, 38(5):311-315
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27697  
  23,314 1,961 19
RESEARCH PAPER
The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents
Dayang Fredalina Basri, SH Fan
January-February 2005, 37(1):26-29
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.13851  
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracts from the galls of Q. infectoria at 10 mg/ml were screened against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCTC 12079 serotype O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium NCTC 74 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). The MIC of the extracts were then determined using the twofold serial microdilution technique at a concentration ranging from 5 mg/ml to 0.0024 mg/ml. The MBC values were finally obtained from the MIC microtiter wells which showed no turbidity after 24 hrs of incubation by subculturing method. RESULTS: Out of the six bacterial species tested, S. aureus was the most susceptible. On the other hand, the extracts showed weak inhibitory effect against S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa while there was no inhibition zone observed for E. coli O157. The MIC values of the extracts ranged from 0.0781 mg/ml to 1.25 mg/ml whereas the MBC values ranged from 0.3125 mg/ml to 2.50 mg/ml. The MBC values of aqueous extract against S. aureus and S. typhimurium were higher than their MIC values. The MBC value of acetone extract against S. aureus was also higher than its MIC value. Interestingly, however, the MIC and MBC values of acetone extract against S. typhimurium were the same (1.25 mg/ml). CONCLUSION: The aqueous and acetone extracts displayed similarities in their antimicrobial activity on the bacterial species and as such, the galls of Quercus infectoria are potentially good source of antimicrobial agents.
  22,602 1,066 138
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Regulatory requirements and ICH guidelines on carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals: A review on current status
GB Jena, CL Kaul, P Ramarao
July-August 2005, 37(4):209-222
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.16566  
International regulatory guidelines require that new chemical entities (NCEs) be tested first on animals (preclinical studies) for safety and efficacy before the start of clinical development. Long-term nonclinical studies such as carcinogenicity testing, the subject of the present review, is conducted in tandem with on-going clinical studies. Over the last few years, a number of regulatory changes have occurred in the regulatory requirements of carcinogenicity testing and the use of such data in human risk assessment process. The efforts are to provide a better mechanistic basis in interpretation of standard lifetime and short-term rodent bioassays. The major areas of focus of this review include the basic considerations for the lifetime rodent bioassay, the recommendations of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), and the development and validation of new short-term or alternative models for carcinogenicity testing. The objectives of these guidelines are to avoid the unnecessary use of animals in testing and to provide consistency in world wide regulatory assessments of applications. It will ultimately improve the precision in carcinogenicity testing, minimize the time requirement for such testing, and help to conserve the resources in the process of drug discovery and development.
  21,633 1,349 6
METHODS
Experimental animal models to induce cardiac arrhythmias
LK Bhatt, K Nandakumar, SL Bodhankar
November-December 2005, 37(6):348-357
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.19070  
Cardiac arrhythmias are of different types based on their mechanism and origin. The information gathered from animal studies has been instrumental in devising diagnostic and therapeutic strategies; so different animal models are needed for different types of arrhythmias. The origin and mechanism underlying clinical arrhythmias are of considerable significance, since knowledge of these processes may provide a basis for successful therapy. Various animal models that encompass different types of arrhythmias are reviewed. This review classifies various experimental models according to their origin, which are mainly supraventricular and ventricular. Also included are various transgenic animal models for arrhythmias.
  21,607 1,087 2
RESEARCH PAPER
Preliminary studies on antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of Spilanthes acmella in experimental animal models
A Chakraborty, R KB Devi, S Rita, Kh Sharatchandra, Th I Singh
May-June 2004, 36(3):148-150
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of the aqueous extract of Spilanthes acmella (SPA) in experimental animal models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: SPA was evaluated for antiinflammatory action by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The analgesic activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response in albino mice and tail flick method in albino rats. RESULTS: The aqueous extract of SPA in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg showed 52.6, 54.4 and 56.1% inhibition of paw edema respectively at the end of three hours and the percentage of protection from writhing was 46.9, 51.0 and 65.6 respectively. In the tail flick model, the aqueous extract of SPA in the above doses increased the pain threshold significantly after 30 min, 1, 2 and 4 h of administration. SPA showed dose-dependent action in all the experimental models. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that SPA has significant antiinflammatory and analgesic properties.
  20,676 1,480 28
Hypoglycemic activity of Ficus hispida (bark) in normal and diabetic albino rats
Rajib Ghosh, Kh Sharatchandra, S Rita, IS Thokchom
July-August 2004, 36(4):222-225
OBJECTIVE: To find out the hypoglycemic activity of Ficus hispida Linn. (bark) in normal and diabetic albino rats and to evaluate its probable mechanism of hypoglycemic activity if any. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Albino rats were divided into groups (n=6) receiving different treatments consisting of vehicle, water-soluble portion of the ethanol extract of Ficus hispida bark (FH) (1.25 g/kg) and standard antidiabetic drugs, glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg) and 0.24 units of insulin (0.62 ml of 0.40 units/ml). Blood glucose was estimated by the glucose oxidase method in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats before and 2 h after the administration of drugs. To find out the probable mechanism of action of FH as a hypoglycemic agent, i) the glycogen content of the liver, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, and ii) glucose uptake by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm were estimated. RESULTS: FH showed significant reduction of blood glucose level both in the normal (P<0.01) and diabetic (P<0.001) rats. However, the reduction in the blood glucose level was less than that of the standard drug, glibenclamide. FH also increased the uptake of glucose by rat hemi-diaphragm significantly (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in the glycogen content of the liver (P<0.05), skeletal muscle (P<0.01) and cardiac muscle (P<0.001). The amount of glycogen present in the cardiac muscle was more than the glycogen present in the skeletal muscle and liver. CONCLUSION: FH has significant hypoglycemic activity. Increased glycogenesis and enhanced peripheral uptake of glucose are the probable mechanisms involved in its hypoglycemic activity.
  18,195 1,115 23
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
New uses for old drugs: Novel therapeutic options
Ujala Verma, R Sharma, P Gupta, B Kapoor, G Bano, V Sawhney
September-October 2005, 37(5):279-287
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.16850  
Introducing a new drug to the market now costs an average of US$ 897 million and is a time consuming process. Discovering new uses for the old drugs offers the advantage of providing time tested drugs for the benefit of the patients. Serendipity plays an important role in this. This therapeutic option may provide cost effective treatment, especially for the developing countries with limited resources. This article focuses on the new potential uses of some common drugs. However, these options need to be pursued by more researches so that the potential benefits could be passed on to the patients.
  17,120 1,637 4
CORRESPONDENCE
Teaching undergraduate students appropriate dose calculations in relation to intravenous infusion
DM Parmar, SP Jadav
November-December 2006, 38(6):435-437
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.28216  
  17,840 322 2
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Pleiotropic effects of statins
Vishal Tandon, G Bano, V Khajuria, A Parihar, S Gupta
March-April 2005, 37(2):77-85
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.15106  
The lipid-lowering actions of statins are well known. However, recent studies provide compelling evidence that the clinical benefits of statin therapy may also be attributed to mechanisms independent of their cholesterol-lowering effects. These non-lipid-lowering (pleiotropic) effects of statin therapy are believed to include antiinflammatory actions, property to reverse endothelial dysfunction by decreasing LDL oxidation and increasing nitric oxide bioavailability. Their antioxidant actions, ability to provide plaque stability, favorable coagulation profile, ability to prevent platelet aggregation and normalize sympathetic outflow as well as their antiproliferative and immunosuppressive properties also contribute to the non-lipid-lowering effects. These pleiotropic effects shown by statin therapy offer many advantages over the currently available drugs for dyslipidemias. These additional benefits not only find therapeutic application in cardiovascular disorders but also in many other disease states.
  16,418 1,425 17
BOOK REVIEW
Essentials of Medical Pharmacology
KD Tripathi
April-June 1994, 26(2):166-166
Full text not available  [PDF]
  15,675 2,127 -
RESEARCH PAPER
Open, randomized, controlled clinical trial of Boswellia serrata extract as compared to valdecoxib in osteoarthritis of knee
S Sontakke, V Thawani, S Pimpalkhute, P Kabra, S Babhulkar, L Hingorani
January-February 2007, 39(1):27-29
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.30759  
Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract (BSE) in osteoarthritis (OA) knee with valdecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, prospective, open-label, comparative study the efficacy, safety and tolerability of BSE was compared with valdecoxib in 66 patients of OA of knee for six months. The patients were assessed by WOMAC scale at baseline and thereafter at monthly interval till 1 month after drug discontinuation. Antero-posterior radiographs of affected knee joint were taken at baseline and after 6 months. Results: In BSE group the pain, stiffness, difficulty in performing daily activities showed statistically significant improvement with two months of therapy which even lasted till one month after stopping the intervention. In valdecoxib group the statistically significant improvement in all parameters was reported after one month of therapy but the effect persisted only as long as drug therapy continued. Three patients from BSE group and two from valdecoxib group complained of acidity. One patient from BSE group complained of diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Conclusion: BSE showed a slower onset of action but the effect persisted even after stopping therapy while the action of valdecoxib became evident faster but waned rapidly after stopping the treatment.
  16,008 1,114 20
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