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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 48  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 617--623

Pain on propofol injection: Causes and remedies

Kalindi Anil Desousa 
 Department of Anaesthesia and SICU, Changi General Hospital, Simei, Singapore

Correspondence Address:
Kalindi Anil Desousa
Department of Anaesthesia and SICU, Changi General Hospital, Simei
Singapore

Pain on propofol injection (POPI) is a minor problem that all anesthetists face every day. Introduction of several new formulations and hundreds of clinical trials have failed to find its remedy with just one intervention in all patients. This article highlights the causes of POPI and interventions that are used to eliminate this pain in current practice. Relevant articles from Medline and Embase databases were searched and included in this descriptive review with the following conclusions: (1) POPI is due to irritation of venous adventitia leading to release of mediators such as kininogen from kinin cascade. (2) When two or more drugs or measures are used, the incidence of POPI decreases considerably. Hence, the approach to eliminating POPI should be multimodal. (3) Any regimen that includes a drug having local anesthetic effect combined with central sedative/analgesic and rapid injection into a large vein should definitely reduce the risk of POPI to negligible levels.


How to cite this article:
Desousa KA. Pain on propofol injection: Causes and remedies.Indian J Pharmacol 2016;48:617-623


How to cite this URL:
Desousa KA. Pain on propofol injection: Causes and remedies. Indian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2017 Jul 25 ];48:617-623
Available from: http://www.ijp-online.com/article.asp?issn=0253-7613;year=2016;volume=48;issue=6;spage=617;epage=623;aulast=Desousa;type=0