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September-October 2018
Volume 50 | Issue 5
Page Nos. 225-286

Online since Friday, December 14, 2018

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EDITORIAL  

Developing and sustaining India's capacity for preclinical drug discovery p. 225
David I Lewis, Bhagirath K Patel, B Dinesh Kumar, Bikash Medhi
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_641_18  
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RESEARCH ARTICLES Top

Effect of Vaccinium macrocarpon on MK-801-induced psychosis in mice p. 227
Disha Shukla, Rajesh A Maheshwari, Kirti Patel, R Balaraman, Ashim Kumar Sen
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_74_17  
OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to investigate the effect of aqueous cranberry extract (ACE) on MK-801-induced psychosis in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MK-801-treated mice were administered ACE (1 and 2 g/kg, p.o.) for 14 days. Various behavioral parameters and neurochemical estimations such as dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and glycine as well as markers of oxidative stress such as nitrite levels were measured. RESULTS: Psychosis-induced mice showed a significant elevation of immobility time in forced swim test, locomotor activity, and reduction in time of permanency in rota-rod test, escape latency time in Cook's pole test while treatment with ACE showed a significant alteration in above-mentioned behavioral parameters in MK-801-induced psychosis. Moreover, MK-801-induced psychosis in the mice showed a significant increase in DA, 5-HT, and NA levels and decrease in GABA, glutamate, and glycine levels in the brain. In contrast, treatment with ACE at both doses remarkably altered the neurochemical parameters. In addition, ACE-treated mice showed a substantial reduction in acetylcholinesterase, D-amino acid oxidase enzyme activity, and nitrite levels which were elevated by the administration of MK-801. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with ACE once for 14 days (1 and 2 g/kg) significantly ameliorated the behavioral symptoms in experimentally induced psychosis by virtue of neuromodulation and decreased oxidative stress.
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Efficacy of melatonin on sleep quality after laparoscopic cholecystectomy p. 236
Vaibhav Vij, Divya Dahiya, Lileswar Kaman, Arunanshu Behera
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_250_18  
CONTEXT: Postoperative sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances were associated with prolonged postoperative convalescence, respiratory, and cardiovascular morbidity. Sleep disturbances have been shown to be due to decreased levels of circulating melatonin after surgery. If this sleep pattern and circadian rhythm are recycled, outcome after surgery could be improved. AIMS: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of melatonin on the quality of sleep in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Hundred patients of LC participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial. Patients were randomized equally into Group A who received 6 mg melatonin tablets 45 min before sleep for 3 days after surgery and Group B who received placebo. RESULTS: Melatonin usage results in decrease in sleep latency (SL) as compared to placebo (13.6 ± 14.95 vs. 20.10 ± 16.18 min, P = 0.04). There was also increased total sleep duration (TSD) on postoperative day (POD) 1 (P = 0.004) and POD 2 (P = 0.001) in Group A. There was a decrease in daytime naps and night awakenings after surgery in Group A though it was not significant statistically. Subjective assessment of sleep on visual analog scale showed reduced sleep scores (P = 0.001 on POD 1 and 2) and decreased pain (P = 0.02 on POD 1) in Group A. Statistically significant difference was not observed in fatigue or general well-being among groups. CONCLUSIONS: Results in this study could demonstrate that melatonin as a single agent could improve the quality of sleep after LC by decreasing SL and increasing TSD.
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In silico approach to study the metabolism and biological activities of oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes p. 242
Sankar Jamuna, Ashokkumar Rathinavel, Sakeena Sadullah Mohammed Sadullah, Sivasitambaram Niranjali Devaraj
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_36_17  
OBJECTIVES: Over the past three decades, numerous studies have focused on the biological activities of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) in the prevention of many diseases such as neurodegeneration, atherosclerosis, tumorigenesis, and microbial infections. OPC has redox-active metabolites which could modulate the intracellular redox equilibrium to maintain the antioxidant homeostasis. This redox-modulating efficiency of OPC could provide new insights into therapeutic approaches that could reduce the burden of cardiovascular diseases. The main objective of this study was to explore the biological and metabolic activities of OPC using in silico approaches. METHODS: To validate the above objective, chemoinformatic tools were used to predict the metabolism of OPC after ingestion, based on both the ligand and structure of the constituent compounds. RESULTS: OPC showed possible sites for Phase I metabolism by cytochrome P450, and the metabolites obtained thereafter may be responsible for its biological activities. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity properties showed efficient absorption, distribution, and metabolism of OPC, without toxicity. CONCLUSION: Thus, from the results obtained, OPC could be strongly recommended as a cardioprotective drug.
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Antidiabetic potential of active fraction obtained from methanolic extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens: A possible herbal remedy p. 251
Mallu Srujana, Ranjana Ramesh, Lakshmi Devi Nanjaiah
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_24_18  
OBJECTIVES: Ichnocarpus frutescens is a common plant used by tribal people and in Ayurveda for its high medicinal value. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether I. frutescens has any persuasive medicinal property to manage diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initially, male albino Wistar rats were given intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin-nicotinamide to induce diabetes, followed with the administration of active fraction obtained from the methanolic extract of I. frutescens for the next 28 consecutive days. Glibenclamide (25 mg/kg) was used as positive control. RESULTS: According to the results obtained, active fraction at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity, which was evident with reduced blood glucose level up to 58.84%. The active fraction also showed improvement in serum lipid profile as well as regeneration of pancreatic β-cells in diabetic rats. Concurrent histopathological studies reinforce the effect of active fraction in healing pancreas, thus justifying the possible mechanism of its antidiabetic activity. CONCLUSION: The results of the present investigation lead credence to the use of I. frutescens in ameliorating the diabetic condition.
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A comparative randomized study on effect of vaginally administered glyceryl trinitrate placebo on cervical ripening prior to induction of labor in overdue pregnancies p. 260
Özlem Dülger, Bulat Aytek Sik, Yilda Arzu Aba
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_182_18  
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of local glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) application during labor compared with a placebo group. METHODS: The study consisted of 70 pregnant women with overdue pregnancies who presented to the hospital for labor induction between January 2009 and January 2011 in the Obstetrics Clinic of Istanbul Süleymaniye Gynecology and Obstetrics Education and Training Hospital. Vaginal suppositories-containing GTN (36/70) or placebo (34/70) was administered to the participants in a randomized fashion. The placebo and GTN involving vaginal ovules used in the study were prepared in the Pharmacy Department of Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy. Maternal effects during labor, rates of normal vaginal and C/S deliveries, the interval between the initial medication and delivery, and amount of total oxytocin used were compared between the GTN and placebo groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the GTN and placebo groups regarding bishop scores, the interval between medication and delivery, delivery types, indications for cesarean section, and complications including hyperstimulation, tachysystole, uterine rupture, placental abruption, and uterine atony (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that there were no differences between GTN and placebo regarding their effect on cervical ripening in overdue pregnant women.
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Oxaceprol versus tramadol for knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial p. 266
Kaushik Mukhopadhyay, Parasar Ghosh, Partha Ghorai, Avijit Hazra, Amal Kanti Das
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_633_16  
OBJECTIVES: To assess efficacy and safety of oxaceprol, a hydroxyproline derivative with putative mechanism of action different from traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, in comparison to tramadol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A parallel group, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted with ambulatory patients over 50 years age suffering from knee osteoarthritis causing pain of at least moderate intensity. Patients were randomized to receive either oxaceprol 200 mg thrice daily or tramadol 50 mg thrice daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was symptom relief as assessed by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) version 3.1 for pain, stiffness, and physical function. Responder rate (50% pain relief), patient's Clinical Global Impression (CGI), and rescue medication use were other outcomes measured. Vital signs, routine blood counts, tests of hepatorenal function and treatment-emergent adverse events were recorded for safety assessment. RESULTS: From 91 patients recruited, 43 on oxaceprol and 36 on tramadol were evaluable. The WOMAC scores declined significantly from baseline in each arm but remained comparable between groups throughout the 12-week study period. The CGI ratings and 50% responder rates were also comparable at the final visit. Differences in dose up-titration and rescue medication requirements were statistically nonsignificant. So also were the adverse event counts. Compliance was satisfactory in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy and tolerability of oxaceprol were comparable to tramadol, and the drug can be considered as an alternative to low-potency opioids in the management of knee osteoarthritis.
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A retrospective analysis of reporting of adverse drug reactions to oncology drugs: An experience from a national center of clinical excellence p. 273
Pramod Kumar Sharma, Arup Kumar Misra, Ajay Gupta, Surjit Singh, Puneet Dhamija, Puneet Pareek
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_544_17  
INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a public health problem which constitutes one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In India, only a few studies reported cancer chemotherapy-induced ADRs. The objectives of the present study were to assess the organ system involved, frequency, severity, and preventability of the ADRs occurred. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on ADRs of retrospective cohorts were extracted from the filled ADR forms received from the department of radiation oncology. Descriptive statistic was used to summarize and analyze the available data, namely patient demography, causality, severity, and preventability of the event. RESULTS: A total of 191 chemotherapy-induced ADR reports were received from 164 patients during the period March 2015 to August 2017. Almost three-fourth of the ADRs occurred in patients who were receiving regimens involving multiple drugs. Taxanes, alkylating agents, and platinum compounds were the common drug groups involved. The skin (n = 90) was the most frequently involved organ with alopecia and hyperpigmentation as most common manifestations. The severity (Hartwig and Siegel) and preventability scales (Modified Schumock and Thornton) indicated that most reactions were mild (54.45%) in nature and the majority of them were preventable. More than two-third (69%) of the reactions were related “possible” to the suspected drug as determined by the World Health Organization causality assessment. CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy-related ADRs among cancer patients are worrisome. It has a negative impact on patient quality of life and in addition increases cost of therapy. It is found that timely reporting of chemotherapy-related ADRs and having an effective ADR monitoring system in place ensure preventability of the ADRs in many cases. Oncologists, Radiotherapists and Onco-surgeons should be actively involved in ADR reporting (Onco-Pharmacovigilance) and exchange constructive information, update and educate each other about appropriate use of anticancer drugs. Onco-pharmacovigilance is the need of the hour and could be of immense value in reducing morbidity and mortality if practiced with utmost importance.
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Ten units intravenous oxytocin over 2–4 h is as effective as 30 units over 8–12 h in preventing postpartum hemorrhage after cesarean section: A randomized controlled trial p. 279
Maria Cecilia, Reeta Vijayaselvi, Ramandeep Bansal, Latha Lakshmi, Ruby Jose
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_419_18  
OBJECTIVES: Currently, recommended high-dose oxytocin regimen for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) following cesarean delivery (CD) is associated with maternal side effects frequency of which is greater with a higher cumulative dose and rapid administration of oxytocin. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of single-dose intravenous oxytocin over 2–4 h (total = 10 units) with oxytocin maintenance infusion for 8–12 h (total = 30 units) in postoperative CD women for the prevention of PPH. METHODS: The current double-blinded randomized controlled trial was carried out in a tertiary care institute in Southern India. The primary outcome measures included the following: (a) the need for additional uterotonics to control PPH and (b) significant deterioration of vital signs as assessed by pulse rate and blood pressure in the postoperative period. The secondary outcome measures were as follows: (a) significant difference (≥10% between preoperative and postoperative packed cell volume) and (b) need for blood transfusion. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Two hundred and seventy-one women were randomized into Group A (oxytocin = 10 units; n = 135) and Group B (oxytocin = 30 units; n = 136). Both the groups were comparable with regard to demographic characteristics. There was no difference in any of primary or secondary outcome measures in the two groups. Thus, low-dose oxytocin regimen is as effective as high-dose oxytocin regimen in the prevention of PPH in postoperative CD women.
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DRUG WATCH Top

Rare occurrence of hand-foot syndrome due to paclitaxel: A rare case report p. 284
Pritam S Kataria, Pradip P Kendre, Apurva A Patel, Nahush Tahiliani, Vijay Bhargav, Honey Parekh
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_547_17  
Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is a relatively frequent adverse reaction to certain anticancer drugs. HFS is a type of dermatitis which has been most commonly described with 5-fluorouracil and capecitabine. However, HFS with paclitaxel is rare and has been reported sparingly in the literature. A 52-year-old male patient with recurrent carcinoma of the buccal mucosa was started on palliative chemotherapy regimen, injection paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) in combination with injection carboplatin. On post-chemotherapy day 13, the patient started developing pain, dysesthesia followed by bullae formation, and desquamation over palms and soles. Clinically, the patient had Grade 3 HFS characterized by symmetrical, tender skin lesions over the dorsal aspect of palms, and soles with desquamation necessitating interruption of treatment. Therefore, this case has been presented to be cognizant with this rare form of side effect with one of the most commonly used drug in oncology.
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