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| RESEARCH ARTICLE
|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 108-115
In vivo anticlastogenic effect of silymarin from milk thistle Silybum marianum L.
Sirajudheen Anwar1, Hafez R Madkor2, Nafees Ahmed3, Mohamed E Wagih4
1 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Albaha University, Albaha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Biochemistry , Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, Egypt
3 School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan lagoon selatan, Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
4 Canadian Academy of Sciences, Toronto, Ontario M5S1Z6, Canada
OBJECTIVE: Silymarin, extracted from the seeds of Silybum marianum L. (Milk thistle), is traditionally used for treating various illnesses such as diabetes, cancer, inflammation, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and renal problems. Acute cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies have been reported with ambiguous outcomes; however, its relevant anticlastogenic potential is not yet evaluated. This study was aimed to evaluate in vivo subacute anticlastogenic properties of silymarin to validate its use as a medicinal agent.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Silymarin was isolated from seeds of milk thistle. Various genotoxicity bioassays of silymarin were performed using mice. First, the bone marrow cell proliferation was estimated by calculating mitotic index. Second, the chromosomal abnormalities in mice bone marrow cells were studied. Third, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPE) test and in vivo activation of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were carried out in mice bone marrow cells. Finally, primary spermatocytes were analyzed to estimate genotoxic effect of silymarin on germ cells.
RESULTS: We found that silymarin is capable of inducing a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in cell proliferation of bone marrow cells. There is no increase in chromosomal aberrations following silymarin treatments. Results clearly showed that it significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased the MPE. Likewise, it was found to be a negative inducer of SCEs. It decreased in total abnormal metaphase, SCEs, MPE, and aberrant diakinesis.
CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that silymarin has a strong anticlastogenic activity upon mice genome in somatic and germ cells, indicating its safe use as a medicinal substance. Furthermore, it is not only safe but also has protective effect from clastogens.
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Albaha University, Albaha
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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