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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 47  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 4-10

Diabetes-associated depression: The serotonergic system as a novel multifunctional target


Department of Pharmacy and, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Deepali Gupta
Department of Pharmacy and, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.150305

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Diabetes associated depression is a largely understudied field which nonetheless carries a significant disease burden. The very low therapeutic efficacy of the existing conventional drugs with poor outcome may be, in part, due to uncertainty of the mechanism involved that clearly explains the existing comorbidity. The main purpose of this review was to address the sophisticated mechanisms of this comorbidity with a view of developing potential novel targets with higher efficacy and specificity. Data were collected from database searches including PubMed, references from relevant English language research/review articles and other official publications. Articles from 1990 to 2013 were included, and a broad search term criteria were followed for data mining so that relevant information was not missed out. Some of the search terms used included; diabetes-induced depression, diabetes and serotonin, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and diabetes and glucocorticoids in diabetes. Neuropathologically, depletion of brain monoaminergic activity specifically the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) system, due to chronically persisting diabetic state may lead to the mood and behavioral complications that further add on worsening the quality life years. The 5-HT system through multifunctional tasks regulates neurogenesis and plasticity and by complex receptor mechanism controls the emotional and behavioral activity. Persisting hyperglycemia leads to impaired neurogenesis, decreased synaptic plasticity, undesired neuro-anatomical alterations, neurochemical deficits, and reduced neurotransmitter activity. The neurotrophic factors and secondary messenger functions affected at molecular and genetic levels indicate the impact of diabetes-mediated dysregulation on neuronal circuits. HPA activity, glycogen synthase kinase 3, and insulin signaling controls were also found to be hampered, interlinked to 5-HT system following diabetic progression.






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