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ABSTRACTS
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 46  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 62-113
 

Poster Papers



Date of Web Publication26-Dec-2014

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How to cite this article:
. Poster Papers. Indian J Pharmacol 2014;46, Suppl S1:62-113

How to cite this URL:
. Poster Papers. Indian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Feb 24];46, Suppl S1:62-113. Available from: http://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2014/46/7/62/147688


AIN-1

Ulcerprotective Activity of Phenolic Acids of Macrotyloma Uniflorum (Horsegram) in Rat.

Panda V.S, Laddha A.P*, Swetha Suresh. Prin K. M. Kundnani College of Pharmacy, Mumbai

Objective: The present study evaluates the antiulcer and antioxidant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the seeds of Macrotyloma uniflorum (MUSE) and p-coumaric acid against indomethacin (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) and absolute ethanol (necrotizing agent) induced ulcers in rats. Materials and Method: The seeds of Macrotyloma uniflorum were collected and air dried under shade, powdered mechanically and stored in air tight containers. The powder was extracted using a mixture of ethanol: water (80:20) in a Soxhlet apparatus. MUSE (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) and p-coumaric acid was administered orally to the overnight fasted rats, one hour prior to the absolute ethanol / indomethacin challenge. The ulcer index, gastroprotective potential, antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione levels and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde were determined in rat stomachs of both models. Results: Pre-treatment with MUSE and p-coumaric acid showed a dose-dependent decrease in the ulcer index in both models. MUSE at both doses, and p-coumaric acid elicited significant antioxidant activity by attenuating the ulcer elevated levels of malondialdehyde and restored the ulcer-depleted levels of the antioxidant enzymes and glutathione. Conclusion: MUSE possesses potent antiulcer activity which may be attributed to an underlying antioxidant activity.

AIN-2

An Experimental Study to Investigate the Interactions of Tianeptine with Fluoxetine, Tramadol, Etoricoxib and Amlodipine for its Analgesic Effects in Albino mice


Tejus A, A K Sharma, Navdeep Dahiya

Department of Pharmacology, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India

Objective: To study the interaction of tianeptine with fluoxetine, tramadol, etoricoxib and amlodipine for its analgesic effects. Materials and Methods: Healthy adult albino mice weighing 20-30gms were used in the study. The study was conducted in two phases. In phase I the three doses each of tianeptine (5, 10, 20 mg/kg), fluoxetine (80,160, 320 mg/kg), tramadol (5, 10, 20 mg/kg), etoricoxib (10, 20, 40 mg/kg) and amlodipine (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) were studied for their analgesic effect compared to a control group using tail flick and writhing methods. In phase II the sub-analgesic dose of tianeptine (5 mg/kg) was combined with sub-analgesic doses of fluoxetine (80 mg/kg), tramadol (5 mg/kg), etoricoxib (10 mg/kg) and amlodipine (2.5 mg/kg). The analgesic effect of combination was studied using tail flick and writhing method. Six mice were used to study the effect of each dose of a drug or its combination. All the drugs were administered by oral route. Statistical analysis of the data was done using two-way analysis of variance. Results: Tianeptine at 10 and 20 mg/kg, fluoxetine at 160 and 320 mg/kg, tramadol at 10 and 20 mg/kg, etoricoxib at 20 and 40 mg/kg and amlodipine at 5 and 10 mg/kg had significantly increased reaction time in tail flick method and decreased the acetic acid induced writhing. The study also demonstrated that the combination of sub-analgesic doses of fluoxetine (80 mg/kg), tramadol (5 mg/kg), etoricoxib (10 mg/kg) and amlodipine (2.5 mg/kg) with sub-analgesic dose of tianeptine (2.5 mg/kg) significantly increased reaction time in tail flick method and decreased the acetic acid induced writhing. Conclusion: The result shows that tianeptine, fluoxetine, tramadol, etoricoxib and amlodipine exhibit analgesic activity independently and tianeptine also increases analgesic activity of fluoxetine, tramadol, etoricoxib and amlodipine.

AIN-3

Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Methanolic Root Extract of
Carissa Spinarum

Priyanka Sharma 1,2 , Dheeraj Ahiwar 2

1 Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, India, 2 School of Pharmacy, Chouksey Engineering College, Bilaspur, India

Objective: Ethnopharmacological survey reveals that Carissa spinarum Linn. (Apocynaceae) is used traditionally in the management of inflammation. Though several synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of pain and inflammation, their use is limited due to several adverse effects. The drugs isolated from the medicinal plants gain critical attention in the management of pain and inflammation. Hence, there is a need to justify the analgesia and anti-inflammatory activity of root of Carissa spinarum. Materials and Methods: The fresh and dried roots of C. spinarum were collected, extracted with ethanol and subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Further, the ethanolic extract of root of Carissa spinarum (ECS) was standardized to total phenolic content and flavonoid content and thin layer chromatographic analysis. Male rats were received ECS (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and standard drug indomethacine (10 mg/kg, p.o) for 7 days and on the last day they were compared for the anti-analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in formalin-induced pain and carrageenan-induced inflammation. Results: The thin layer chromatographic analysis revealed that ECS contain rutin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and quercetin. ECS (400 mg/kg) reduced formalin-induced increase in number of licks in rats suggesting its potential analgesic activity. ECS (100 and 200 mg/kg) attenuated carrageenan-induced inflammation in terms of increase in the paw oedema in rats. Conclusion: It can be deduced that ECS possess significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Future studies are required to identify the active compounds for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity and to establish their relevant pharmacological mechanism.

AIN-4

Evaluation of Chronic Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity 0f Freshwater Mollusca


Sangita Bhattacharya 1 , Anjan Adhikari 1 , Pranabesh Chakraborty 2 , Tapas K. Sur 3 , Anup Kumar Das 1 , Pratip Kumar Debnath 4

1 Department of Pharmacology, R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, 2 Bengal School of Technology, Hooghly, West Bengal, India, 3 Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, 4 Gananath Sen Institute of Ayurvidya and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Objective: In traditional Indian medicine natural products are used for a long time for curing various ailments. Scientific knowledge explored chronic inflammation that suggests generation of free radicals which damages DNA and can be found in diseases like cancer, arthritis and neurodegenerative disorders. Bellamya bengalensis a member of Viviparidae family, fresh water mollusca has been widely used in traditional Indian medicine by the tribes for curing ailments like conjunctivitis and gastrointestinal disorders. But there are very few studies for clarification of scientific understanding. Proposed work will study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of soft body extract of Bellamya bengalensis. Materials and Method: The molluscs were collected from Kolkata, West Bengal, India and identified from Zoological Survey of India. The shell was removed and extraction of the soft body was done in Phosphate buffer saline. Protein quantification was followed by in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory study. Analgesic activity was tested in in vivo mice models. Results: The extract of Bellamya bengalensis was found to be safe upto 2 mg/kg body weight in rats and the protein concentration of the extract was 14mg/ml. It exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity . Paw edema was found to be inhibited by 90% in Freund's-induced anti-inflammatory model which was supported by histological result. The extract showed significant analgesic activity (p<0.001) in in vivo mice model. Conclusion: The active ingredient(s) present in Bellamya bengalensis found to be nontoxic, have potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Further investigation may explore a novel compound from animal source.

AIN-5

Anti-arthritic potential of leaves of
Lasia spinosa thwaites - an ethnomedicinal plant of Assam in complete freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rats

Sudarshana Borah*, Bibhuti Bhusan Kakoti, Mritunjay Kumar, Kabita Mahato, Sonjit Das, Prodyut Mondal

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Assam, India

Objective: To study the anti-arthritic potential of leaves of Lasia spinosa Thwaites. - An ethnomedicinal plant of Assam in Freund's Adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Materials and Method: The anti-arthritic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Lasia spinosa Thwaites was done by Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis model at two dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg for 21 days. Paw edema and gain in body weight during arthritis condition was corrected on treatment with hydroalcoholic extract of Lasia spinosa Thwaites and Piroxicam (standard drug). Haematological parameters such as RBC, WBC determinations were estimated. Radiographic and Histopathological analysis of the amputed limbs were carried out to evaluate the extent of arthritic recovery. Rheumatoid factor was also determined to understand the extent of anti-arthritic activity of higher dose of the extract. Results: Lasia spinosa at the higher dose level showed significant reduction in rat paw edema volume and body weight and it could normalize the haematological counts. Diseased rat showed more radiographic score than the drug treated groups. In histopathological study prevention of the inflammatory signs of the rat tibiotarsal joints was significant in 21 days drug treated group. Rheumatoid factor of higher dose of the extract came out to be 10.66±0.230 compared to complete fruend's adjuvant (CFA) induced model as 35.88±0.192 IU/ml. Conclusion: The results of the current investigation suggested that Lasia spinosa Thwaites has potent anti-arthritic activity and it supports the traditional use of this plant as an ethnomedicine in treatment of arthritis.

AIN-6

Silibinin Reduces Amyloidogenesis in An Animal Model of Neuroinflammation


Ritu Joshi, Debapriya Garabadu, Yusuf Hussain, Sairam Krishnamurthy

Neurotherapeutics lab, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, India

Objective: Neuroinflammation is considered as one of the contributor in the amyloidogenesis in several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases. Recently, the protective effect of silibinin has been documented in striatal dopaminergic toxicity. Thus, the present study explores the therapeutic effectiveness of silibinin on neuroinflammation-induced amyloidogenesis. Materials and Method: All male rats received bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5μg/5μl) into lateral ventricles except control group animals, on the first day of the experimental schedule. Control rats received bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of artificial cerebrospinal fluid into lateral ventricles. Silibinin in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. was administered 1 hr before LPS injection and continued for 7 days. Results: On Day-7, silibinin attenuated LPS-induced anxiety in terms of decrease in the percentage in entries and time spent into open arm in elevated plus maze test. Further, silibinin reduced amyloidogenesis in terms of increase in the level of expression of amyloid beta in the hippocampus. Conclusion: Hence, it can be deduced that silibinin could be a potential candidate in the management of neuroinflammation-mediated amyloidogenesis-related disorders.

ANS-1

An Analysis of Correlation and Regression Between the Treatment Outcome Measures in the Medical Management of BPH

Manjunatha R1, H P pundarikaksha1, Madhusudhana H R2

1
Department of Pharmacology, 2 Department of Urology, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India

Objective: To assess the correlation between the treatment outcome measures in the management of symptomatic BPH with alfuzosin, tamsulosin and silodosin. Materials and Methods: 90 subjects with BPH and LUTS were randomized into three groups of 30 each to receive alfuzosin, tamsulosin or silodosin. The study medications were given in the standard dose and the treatment response was monitored during the follow-up visits at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. A correlation and linear regression analysis was performed between the aforementioned outcome measures at each visit. Results: Anexcellent correlation was observed between IPSS and QLS (r >0.7, p < 0.01), however, the correlation was moderate to poor between IPSS and Qmax (r < 0.5) and sub-score of voiding symptoms and Qmax (r <0.5) in all the three study groups at various follow-up visits. Conclusion: Subjective improvement fairly corresponds with symptomatic improvement but, the same is less likely between objective and symptomatic improvements because of various factors which may influence voiding like fullness of bladder, intra-abdominal pressure generated during voiding, voiding conditions, etc. This suggests that Qmax is a less reliable tool in the assessment of treatment effect with α1 blockers. Clinical decisions should be guided primarily by improvements in IPSS and QLS.

ANS-2

Biochemical Evaluation of Cholinergic Activity of Acacia Auriculiformis in Rat Brain


Manjunath Shetty1, ShaliniAdiga2, Shobha Kamath3, Sowjanya3

1
Department of Pharmacology, Melaka Manipal Medical College Manipal Campus, Manipal university, 2 Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College Manipal Campus, Manipal university, 3 Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College Manipal Campus, Manipal university

Objective: This study was planned to evaluate cholinergic activity of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Acacia auriculiformis by estimation of brain Acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) levels in the homogenized mixture of rat hippocampus. Materials and Methods: Thirty male wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=10) and administered two different doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis orally to the study groups (A200 and A400) respectively with rivastigmine (R) -5 mg/kg per oral as positive control. Estimation of brain AChE activity was done by centrifugation of rat brain homogenate followed by Ellman's method. Data was analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test using GraphPadInStat software, version 3.06. Results: The extract produced a dose-dependent inhibition of brain AChE activity, wherein A400 showed to be superior to R group (p< 0.001). A200 not showed significant result. Conclusion: The AChE inhibiting property of Acacia auriculiformisdemonstrated in our study, may contribute to its memory enhancement potential which in future may prove to be a promising option in the treatment of dementia. Further large scale studies are recommended to elucidate its benefits on cognitive function.

BHP-1

Sinapic Acid Alleviates 6-OHDA Induced  Parkinsonism More Details in Sprague Dawley Rats


Jadhav Akash*, Aswar Urmila, Mahajan Umesh, Aswar Manoj

Department of Pharmacology, Sinhgad Institute of Pharmacy, Narhe, Pune, India

Objective: Study was undertaken to evaluate the neurodegenerative defending potential of Sinapic acid (SA) on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rat's model of PD. Materials and Method: PD was developed in Sprague dawley rats with a single intra cerebro-ventricular (icv) administration of 6-OHDA (4 μl) at a rate of 2μl/min. (AP:-2.5, L: +2, DV: -9). The rats were divided into 5 groups and treated with either saline or L-dopa (10 mg/kg, p.o.) + benserazide (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) or SA (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg, p.o.) for three weeks. Locomotion, catalepsy and rotation behavior parameters were carried out on day 0, 7, 14, 21. On day 21 st , blood was withdrawn for estimations of oxidative and inflammatory markers. Animals were then sacrificed and studied for the expression Fos B. Results: 6-OHDA induced PD as evident by the locomotor, catalepsy, and rotational parameters from day 14 onwards (p<0.001). Administration of SA reduced these behavioral changes significantly (p<0.001). 6-OHDA treated animals showed marked rise in the total protein content, NO, LPO and reduced GSH which was reversed by SA in dose dependent manner (p<0.001). The augmented expressions of FosB in SA group were significantly reversed as compared to 6-OHDA control group. Conclusion: The study revealed the beneficial effects of SA against 6-OHDA induced PD which might be attributed to its potent antioxidant effects.

BHP-2

Resveratrol Ameliorates Depressive-Like Behavior in Repeated Corticosterone-Induced Depression in Mice

Athira. K.V 1 , Syed Hamid Ali 1 , Sathish Pitta 1 , Eshvendar Reddy Kasala 1 , Rajaram Mohanrao Madhana 1 , Mangala Lahkar 1,2

1
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, India, 2 Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, India

Objective: To evaluate the effect of resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol of phytoalexin family, found in the skin of red grapes and in other fruits as well as in the roots of Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), on depressive-like behavior induced by chronic corticosterone injections in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice were injected with corticosterone (CORT) chronically for 21 days. Resveratrol and fluoxetine were administered 30 minutes prior to the CORT injection. After 21-days treatment with respective drugs, behavioral and biochemical parameters were estimated. Since brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in antidepressant effect of many drugs, we also evaluated the effect of trans-resveratrol on BDNF in the hippocampus. Results: Three weeks of CORT injections in mice resulted in depressive-like behavior, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Moreover, there was a significant increase in serum corticosterone level and a significant decrease in hippocampus BDNF level in CORT-treated mice. Treatment of mice with resveratrol significantly ameliorated all the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by corticosterone. Conclusion: The results suggest that resveratrol produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-induced depression in mice, which is possibly mediated by increasing BDNF expression in the hippocampus.

BHP-3

Effect of Nimesulide in Reversing Reserpine Induced Depression in Mice

Ahmed A, Lahkar M.

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: To demonstrate the effect of Nimesulide in reversing Reserpine induced depression in mice. Materials and Method: This test was done using 20-25gm of healthy albino mice of either sex in the Department of Pharmacology of Gauhati medical college. They were housed in standard laboratory condition at 25°c. They were fed on standard diet and water ad libitum. Five groups were selected each containing six mice. The groups were Normal Control, Disease Control, Standard (Fluoxetine 10 mg/kg i.p), Nimesulide (2.5 mg/kg i,p) and Nimesulide (5 mg/kg i.p). Reserpine (2 mg/kg i.p) was used to induce depression in all the groups except the Normal Control. After 24 hours the standard and test drugs were given and the mice were subjected to tail suspension test after 30 mins and forced swim test after 1 hour of injecting the drugs. Results: Mean±SEM values were calculated for each group. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and post analysis by Dunnett's test was done. Results were found to be significant (p<.05). The period of immobility was found to be reduced in the test groups in a dose dependent manner as compared to the Disease Control. However, the episodes and the duration of immobility were minimum in the Standard group. Conclusion: Nimesulide has been found to be effective in reversing reserpine induced depression in mice.

BHP-4

Study on the Effect of Venlafaxine on MES (MAXIMAL ELECTROSHOCK) Induced Seizures in Experimental Animals

Banerjee B, Bezbaruah B K,

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: To study the effect of Venlafaxine on MES (MAXIMAL ELECTROSHOCK) induced seizures in albino rats. Materials and Method: The study was done in male adult albino rats (150-200 g). The rats were housed under standard conditions with food and water ad libitum, which was bred in the central animal house Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati. The animals were divided into 4 groups, each containing 6 animals. Hind limb tonic extension (HLTE) (absent or present), duration of HLTE and time taken for regaining righting reflex was taken as parameters. Result: Mean±SEM values were calculated for each group. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and post analysis by Dunnett's test was done. Results were found to be significant (p<.05). Venlafaxine in dose 22.5 mg/kg showed significant protection against MES induced seizures in albino rats compared to the control group but was less significant compared to the standard group. But Venlafaxine in dose 45 mg/kg showed no significant protection against MES induced seizures in albino rats instead it had decreased the threshold of seizure. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated significant anti-convulsant property of Venlafaxine on MES (MAXIMAL ELECTROSHOCK) induced seizures in albino rats but the anti-convulsant property was absent in high doses of Venlafaxine.

BHP-5

Histaminergic Transmission Modulates the Ethanol Induced Anxiety Related Reinforcing Effects

Lokesh Verma and Nishant S. Jain

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences Ggv, Bilaspur, CG

Objective: Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between central histamine transmission and acute ethanol induced anxiolytic effects in rats. Materials and Method: The separate groups of rats were treated with vehicle or histamine precursor, L-histidine or histamine (H 1 or H 2 ) receptor antagonists. These animals after appropriate time were than challenged with vehicle or ethanol (0.5-2.5 g/kg, i.p.) and thirty min thereafter were subjected EPM to assess the anxiety related indices for 5 min. Results: Acute ethanol (0.5-2.5 g/kg, i.p. 8% w/v) treatment induces anxiolytic effect by increasing the open arm indices. In addition, pre-treatment with histamine precursor, L-histidine (0.25-2.5 μg/rat, i.c.v.) significantly potentiated the effect of sub-anxiolytic dose of ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) on EPM. On the other hand, pre-administration of H 1 receptor antagonist, chlorpheniramine (20 μg/rat, i.c.v.) or H 1 receptor antagonist, ranitidine (20 μg/rat, i.c.v.) significantly reduced the ethanol (1.5 g/kg, i.p.) induced increase in open arms behaviour in rats i.e. % OAT and % OAE. Conclusion: Therefore, it is hypothesized that increase in central histaminergic activity by ethanol might contribute to its anxiolytic effect probably via stimulation of H 1 and H 2 receptor. Therefore, the present study suggests a contributory role of histaminergic transmission in the ethanol induce antianxiety effect. Thus, central histaminergic system might be a novel target for the control and management of the alcoholism.

BHP-6

Effect of Resin Extract of Commiphora mukul on Behavioral Aspects of Methimazole Induced Hypothyroidism in Albino Rat.

Mangala Lahkar1 Tikendrajit Sharma2, Mahua Bhaumik Singha3

1
Professor and Head, Department of Pharmacology Gauhati Medical College, 2 Associate Professor, Department of Sharir Rachana, Govt. Ayurvedic College, Guwahati, 3 Lecturer, Institute of Pharmacy, Gauhati Medical College

Objective: The aim of the study is to investigatethe effect of Commiphora mukul extract was evaluated against Methimazole induced Hypothyroidism and associated behavioral disorder. Materials and Method: 36 Albino rats divided in six per group. Commiphora extract in three different doses has been administred. Hypothyroidism induced by solution of 0.02%w/v Methimazole orally. The T3, T4, and TSH has been estimated at beginning, and 2 weeks interval. For behavioral assessment, Swimming Endurance Test, Elevated plus Maze test, Pole Climbing Test has been performed. Result: The levels of thyroid hormones in the animals exposed to Methimazole were lower than control. Methimazole treated gr had significant weight loss which was modified by administration of Levothyroxine and high and medium dose of extract. Swimming time difference is statistically significant between methimazole and three doses of Extract treated Gr. In elevated plus maze test, Methimazole caused a reduction on the number of entries of animals in closed arms and is improved in animals treated with extract. Memory test in Pole Climbing Apparatus shows significant difference in responding time to buzzer signal between high dose of Extract and Methimazole and levothyroxin treated group of animals. Conclusion: -The study is indicative that C.mukul can improve conditions of behavioral disorder in hypothyroidism.

BHP-7

Evaluation of Sensorimotor Changes in a Two Episodic Model of Neonatal Asphyxia in Rats

Puneet K Samiaya, Sairam Krishnamurthy

Neurotherapeutics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Objective: Neonatal asphyxia accounts for behavioral dysfunctions that often manifest as sensorimotor, learning or memory disabilities throughout development and into maturity. The present study investigated the asphyxia induced sensorimotor deficits along with changes in mitochondrial nitrite level in neonatal rats. Materials and Method: Rat pups after 30 h to birth (2 days) were subjected to anoxia of two episodes (10 min in each) at a time interval of 24 h by passing 100% N 2 into an enclosed chamber. Changes in reflex latency was studied 24 h post second anoxic episode whereas changes in nitrite levels were observed 24 h post first and second anoxic exposure. Results: A significant decrease in brain nitrite levels was observed 24 h after second anoxic exposure. There was a loss in sensorimotor activity in terms of increased reflex latency at 24 h after second episode of anoxia. These results indicate that there was a hindrance in subcortical maturation. All the above changes were not observed after the first anoxic exposure. Conclusion: This model may be helpful to evaluate pharmacological intervention for the treatment of neonatal anoxia induced sensorimotor abnormalities.

BHP-8

Gastro-Protective Effect of Silibinin Against Restraint Stress Induced Gastric Ulcers

Rajat vig, Debapriya Garabadu, and Sairam Krishnamurthy

Neurotherapeutics lab, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, India

Objective: To evaluate the anti-stress and gastro protective effects of silibinin against Restraint Stress Induced Gastric Ulcers. Materials and Method: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-stress and gastro protective effects of silibinin in the 4-h restraint model. Omeprazole (10 mg/kg, p.o) and silibinin (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o) were administered to rats for 7 days. On day 7 after stress exposure, ulcer index, plasma corticosterone level, gastric lipid peroxidase (LPO), superoxide dimutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) levels were measured as parameters of the stress and gastro-protective responses. Results: Both, silibinin (200 and 400 mg/kg) and omeprazole significantly decreased ulcer index, plasma corticosterone and LPO levels and increased SOD and CAT levels. Conclusion: Silibinin may be used in the treatment of stress induced gastric ulcers.

BHP-9

Involvement of Monoaminergicsystems in the Antidepressant-Like Effect of α-Asarone in the Tail Suspension Test

Ranjith Kumar Chellian, Vijayapandi Pandy.

Psychopharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia

Objectives: α-asarone, one of the bioactive constituent mainly present in the rhizomes of Acorus calamus Linn (Acoraceae) and Acorus tatarinowii Schott (Araceae). Recently, the antidepressant-like effect of α-asarone was reported, however, the mechanism involved is stillunclear. In the present study, the neuropharmacological mechanism involved in the antidepressant-like effect of α-asaronewere investigated in mice. Materials and Method: The effect of acute administration of α-asarone (10, 15, 20, 30 and 50 mg/kg,i.p.) in mice was assessed for antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test (TST) andthe spontaneous locomotor activity using actimeter. Furthermore, to assess the involvement of monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like activity of α-asarone, the TST for α-asaronewas performedinthe mice pretreated with r-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, a serotonin synthesis inhibitor) and α-methyl-r-tyrosine (AMPT, a catecholamine synthesis inhibitor), respectively. Results: Acute treatment of α-asarone (15 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased the immobility time in the TST, without affecting the locomotor counts in the spontaneous locomotor activity. Interestingly, α-asarone (50 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the immobility time in the TST and significantly decreased the locomotor counts inthe spontaneous locomotor activity. These results demonstrated the biphasic effect ofα-asarone in the TST, that is antidepressant-like effect at lower doses (15 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) and depressive-like effect at higher dose (50 mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, pretreatment with PCPA andAMPTsignificantly reversed the antidepressant-like effect ofα-asarone (20 mg/kg,i.p.), respectively, in the TST. Conclusion: Taken together, these finding suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of α-asaroneis mediated through the involvement of monoaminergic pathways.

BHP-10

Protective Effect of Sinapic Acid on MPTP Induced Parkinsonism

Narvade Ravikumar*, Aswar Urmila, Aswar Manoj

Department of Pharmacology, Sinhgad Institute of Pharmacy, Narhe, Pune, India

Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SA in MPTP induced PD in Wistar rats. Materials and method: PD was developed in Wistar rats with a single bilateral dose of MPTP (1 mg/norstil). These rats were treated with either saline or SA (10, 20, 40 mg/kg, p.o.) or L.dopa (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for four weeks. Locomotion and cognition parameters were carried out on day 0, 7, 14, 21, 28. On day 28 th , blood was withdrawn for estimations of oxidative and inflammatory markers; animals were sacrificed, brain tissues were studied for histopathology. The expression TNF- α, IL-1 β, PERKIN, FosB, and TH were carried out. Result: MPTP was able to induce PD as evident by the locomotor, catalepsy, muscle relaxant and social recognition activities from day 14 onwards (p<0.01) which was reduced by SA dose dependently (p<0.001). The MPTP group showed marked rise in the MPO, LPO and reduced SOD which was reversed by SA dose dependently (p<0.01). The augmented expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, PERKIN, FosB in SA were significantly reversed as compared to MPTP rats. The protective effect of SA in MPTP induced PD is supported by histopathology of brain tissues. Conclusion: The current study indicates that SA is found to be protective in MPTP induced Parkinsonism.

CEL-1

In-vitro Studies of Cytotoxic Potential on Mammary Cancer Cell lines and Antioxidant activity of some naturally occurring Polyphenolic Compounds

Abhishek Kumar, S. Jha, S.P. Pattanayak, Priya Bansal, Dheeraj Sen

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra-835215, Ranchi, Jharkhand

Objectives: The cytotoxic potential of some pharmacologically active naturally occurring flavonoids was tested on MCF-7 cell lines through various in-vitro cell line assays. Further, the potency of these flavonoids to prevent the oxidative DNA damage of pBR322 DNA was studied in-vitro. Materials and Methods: Fisetin (FI), hesperidin (HS) and quercetin-3β-D-glucoside (QG) were studied on various concentrations (25μg, 50 μg and 100 μg) for their toxicity against mammary cancer cell lines (MCF-7) through various cell line toxicity parameters, MTT assay and trypan blue assay. Results and Discussion: All the flavonoids revealed inhibitory activity as cell death in a concentration dependant manner (n=3, p<0.001) and amongst them the death rate as well as effectiveness falls in a pattern of, QG>HS>FI which in overall study, >45% cell death rate was observed in all assays. All flavonoids showed prominent prevention of DNA cleavage as performed through SDS-PAGE on 1% agarose gel against H2O2, and UV induced oxidation. Gel was stained using ethidium bromide (1 mg/ml; 30 min) and photographed on Polaroid-Type 667 positive land film. Analysis was done through image J analysis software. FI, HS, and QG revealed to have DNA protection activity in a concentration dependant manner and effective in a pattern QG>HS>FI. Conclusions: The experimental evidence suggests that these flavonoids might have cytotoxic potential against MCF-7 cell lines as well as DNA cleavage protection activity in a concentration dependant manner leads them to have future perspective of anticancer potential.

CEL-2

In-vitro A nticancer Activity of Chloroform Extract of Nandhi Mezugu (A Siddha Anticancer Formulation) in Different Cancer Cell Lines

Arul Amuthan 1 , K. Narayanan 2 , Praveen K S 2 , Venkata Rao J 2

1
Department of Pharmacology, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, India, 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, India

Background: Nandhimezugu (NM) is an important herbo-metal drug prescribed orally by Siddha physicians for the treatment of different cancers. It is a combination of 51 ingredients and is believed to act in multiple ways. Since no scientific study has been done, current study was undertaken to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of NM in different cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: In vitro cytotoxic activity was evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay in human hepatic cancer cells (HepG2), human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), human colon carcinoma cells (HCT-116) and normal green monkey renal epithelial cells (Vero). Cells were exposed to NM and doxorubicinfor 24 hours. Number of live cells directly affects the color formation, which is estimated colorimetrically by measuring the absorbance at 540 nm to calculate the cytotoxicity (inhibitory concentration - IC50 value) of the drug. Results: The IC50 values of doxorubicin in HepG2, HeLa, MCF-7 and HCT-116 were 1.21, 1.12, 2.8 and 2.8 μg/ml; whereas; in NM, IC50 were 3.56, 67.58, 84.92 and100 μg/ml respectively. Doxorubicin and NM showed IC50 value in Vero cells as 3.1 and 95.81 μg/ml. Conclusion: The study proved high anti-cancer potential of Nandhimezuguagainst hepatic carcinoma cells and also revealed that 26 times higher dose is required to kill normal renal cells compared to hepatic cancer cells. Thus, there is a possibility to have good anticancer effect with less renal toxicity. However, further studies are required to isolate the lead compounds and to explore its anticancer activity.

CEL-3

Naringenin Ameliorates STZ Induced Diabetic Rat Renal Impairment By Down regulation of TGF-β1 and IL-1 via Modulation of Oxidative Stress Correlates With Apoptotic Events

Sritama Banerjee, Urmi Saha, Souvik Roy

Department of Pharmacology, NSHM College of Pharmaceutical Technology, NSHM Knowledge Campus, Kolkata - Group of Institutions, 124, B.L. Saha Road, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of naringenin on oxidative stress, expression of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptotic events in rat renal tissue after streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. Method: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg/kg). Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into six groups with 10 animals each. Naringenin (5mg and 10 mg/kg body weight) were given orally once a day for 10 weeks. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed. Results: Naringenin treatment significantly reduced blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL and triglyceride levels along with reduction in serum creatinine, urea, and albumin. Furthermore, naringenin treatment decreased the elevated tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased the reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) enzyme activities in the kidney tissues. Naringenin treated rats in the diabetic group showed an improved histological appearance. Our data also revealed a significant reduction in the activity of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and reduced expression of TGF-β1 and IL-1 in the glomerulus of naringenin treated rats. Conclusion: Our results suggested that naringenin acts as a protective agent in diabetic renal impairment by altering oxidative stress, expression of TGF-β1, IL-1 and apoptotic events.

CHM-1

Prescribing Pattern of Antimicrobial Drugs in Post-Operative Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Assam


Sonawane K, Das S

Assam Medical College, Department of Pharmacology Dibrugarh, Assam, India

Objective: To study the type and dosage schedule of antimicrobial drugs used in post-operative patients and to estimate the cost of antimicrobial treatment in these patients. Materials and Methods: The case records of post-operative patients admitted in surgical wards of Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh was studied between June to September 2014. Permission was obtained before conducting the study. Patients more than 18 years of age of both sex undergoing major surgeries were included in the study. Patients less than 18years, diabetes, hypertension, tuberculosis were excluded from the study. The demographic data, diagnosis, type of surgery, dosage schedule of antimicrobial drugs used and cost of treatment were recorded as predesigned Performa. Result: There were 250 patients, 117 were males (46%), 133 were females (54%). Cholecystectomy (27.6%), appendectomy (14.4%), genital surgeries (14.4%) and other abdominal surgeries (23.8%) were done. Age group from 20-40 yr recorded as 101(40.4%) were the highest number of patients. Antimicrobial were received Piperacilin-Tazobactum 4.5gm (29.5%), Ceftriaxonesulbactum 1.5gm (13.5%), Imepenam 500mg (3.5%), Meropenam 1gm (1.25%), Amikacin 500mg (13.5%), Metronidazole 100 ml (16.25%), Ceftriaxone 1gm (8.25%). All drugs were administered twice or thrice daily. The average duration of patient in hospital stay was 7 days. Cost of treatment for patient receiving monotherapy as Piperacilin-Tazobactum Rs.474.11 for 7 days, polytherapy with Ceftriaxone-Sulbactum+Piperacilin-Tazobactum+ Amikacin were Rs.454.63, with Meropenam+Piperacilin-Tazobactum+Amikacin Rs.1561.2, with Amikacin+Piperacilin-Tazobactum+Metronidazole Rs.405 for 5 days. Conclusion: Cholecystectomy accounted for the highest number of surgeries and Piperacilin-Tazobactum were the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial drugs for 7 days and the cost of treatment were Rs.474.63.

CLP-1

Drug Utilization in Dermatology in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital- Focus on Psoriasis

Akshil H Mehta*, Preksha A Barot, Supriya D. Malhotra, Varsha J. Patel

Department of Pharmacology, Smt. NHL Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad

Objective:
To study drug utilization pattern of psoriasis, to estimate direct cost of therapy and analyze health related quality of life using DLQI questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Patients attending the Dermatology outpatient department at a tertiary care teaching hospital with newly diagnosed psoriasis by the Dermatologist were enrolled in the study after obtaining written informed consent. For Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire patients above age of 16 years were included in the study. Results: A total 120 patients were enrolled in the study. They received 606 drugs, number of drugs prescribed per patient being 5.05 ± 1.52 (Mean ± SD). Most frequently prescribed drug was liquid paraffin 120(100%) followed by pheniramine maleate 80(66.67%), betamethasone dipropionate + salicylic acid 70(58.33%), halobetasoldipropionate+salicylic acid 58(48.33%) and methotrexate 48(40%). Mean cost of treatment per patient for 15 days was INR 608.7 ± 17.7. The mean DLQI score was 8.95 ± 80.48 (Mean ± SD). The DLQI mean score was apparently high in 20-29 years of age groups as compared to other group using ANOVA test which was clinically significant (P <0.0001). Conclusion: In our study majority of patients were prescribed topical agents for treatment of psoriasis, the disease incurred greater financial burden to the patients and adversely affected patients' quality of life.

CLP-2

Awareness of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (CPT) and Pharmacogenomics among Interns: Effect of Undergraduate Medical Training


Anoosha P Bhandarkar

Department of Pharmacology , Melaka Manipal Medical College , Manipal University, Manipal

Objective: The study aimed at assessing how adequately the undergraduate medical teaching in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (CPT) had prepared interns for safe and rational prescribing and their awareness about the applications of pharmacogenomics. The study also deduced their opinion on possible methods needed to be adopted in undergraduate teaching which could improvise the curriculum in this regard. Materials and Method: The study was conducted at Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad, Karnataka in 85 randomly selected interns who had completed at least 4 major clinical rotations. A structured pre-validated questionnaire was used seeking information about their demographics, confidence to prescribe for common illnesses, experience of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) since the start of their internshipand application-based knowledge on pharmacogenomics. The questionnaire also provided them an opportunity to suggest necessary changes in teaching methods in undergraduate curriculum pertaining to CPT and pharmacogenomics. Results: Interns would confidently prescribe antibiotics (88%), NSAIDS (84%), anti-emetics (65%), drugs for acid peptic disease (55%) and oral hypoglycaemic agents (50%). Only a few of them (10%) had reported ADRs during their clinical rotations. Their knowledge on basics of pharmacogenomics was inadequate (25%). Modules suggested by them which are necessary to be adopted in medical training were: hands-on training in ADR reporting, problem based learning using case scenarios in paediatric and emergency medicine and topics on practical applications of pharmacogenomics. Conclusion: By this study we perceived that there is lack of emphasis on principles of clinical pharmacology and basic applications of pharmacogenomics in their undergraduate medical teaching. This calls for prompt implementation of necessary modification in the teaching methods which can impart knowledge on rational prescribing and emerging trends in pharmacotherapy.

CLP-3

Retrospective Audit of Adverse Transfusion Reactions Following Whole Blood and or Components Transfusion at Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim: A Hemovigilance Study

Dhruva Kumar Sharma, Supratim Dutta, Ena Pradhan, N.N. Bhuyan, Sushrut Varun Satpathy, Amlan Gupta

Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim

Objective: Haemovigilance Programme of India (HvPI) was launched on 10 th Dec 2012 by CDSCO with NIB as the Co-ordinator. Few articles have been published from large centres (metropolitan cities with high end facilities to detect transfusion reactions (TR)). From May 2013 Central Referral Hospital submitted its data to HvPI. Do TR in remote centres with minimal facilities compare with those occurring in higher centres in the metropolis. To find the pattern of T.R among the various departments and various components. Materials and Methods: Data collection in our study corresponds to those that were submitted to HvPI. The hospital complies with the standards laid down by CDSCO and follows the transfusion reaction reporting format as given in the technical manual of CDSCO. The reactions are confirmed clinically and are supported by investigations and final report is submitted to HvPI. Results: During the study period May- 2013 to September- 2014,(1 year 4 months) out of 2,501 whole blood/components issued, 24 T. R were reported (0.95%) out of which reactions with Whole blood and PRBC each comprise (41.7%), FFP comprised (16.7%). Females (66.7%), Males (33.3%). Number of reactions seen in medicine unit was highest (41.7%) followed by Dialysis (20.8), Surgery (20.8), OBG (16.7). Mean volume at which reaction occurred was 167.5 ml (S.E.M=16.3 ml). Highest noted symptom was itching (58.3%), rash (50%), Fever (25%). Highest type of reaction was hypersensitivity (58.3%), FNHTR (25%), anaphylaxis (12.5%). No Haemolytic Transfusion Reaction was reported. Conclusion: With minor differences TR compares with those of higher centres. Details shall be discussed.

CLP-4

Pattern of Adverse Drug Reactions reported at Tripura Medical College and Dr BRAM Teaching Hospital: A Retrospective Descriptive Study

Datta M., Sarkar M. K., Ghosh R., Das L., Sarma TN

Department of Pharmacology, Tripura Medical College and DR BRAM Teaching Hospital, Tripura

Objective: Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) are commonly encountered at hospital set up where poly-pharmacy is practiced. There are several studies that try to identify epidemiology, true incidence in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. To identify the incidence, severity, outcome and causality of the ADR that were reported voluntarily at Tripura medical college and DR. BRAM teaching hospital. WHO -UMC causality scale was used to assess the causality of suspected ADRs. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, descriptive study of all the reported cases of Adverse Drug Reactions that occurred in both outpatients and in patients at Tripura Medical College Hospital in last 9 months (Jan 2014 to September 2014) are included in the study. The reports were analyzed as per the standard guidelines fixed by Pharmacovigilance Programme of India. Results: There were total 65cases reported. Most common occurrence among adults (77%). Majority of the ADR had occurred in males. Commonest route being oral. Commonest form of manifestation was skin and appendages disorder, followed by gastrointestinal and psychiatricand nervous system disorder. Three patients had Steven Johnson's reaction which was life threatening. Maximum cases had mild reaction that recovered eventually after discontinuation of medications. Seven hospitalized cases had life threatening complications that needed intensive care with prolonged hospital stay. Two patients had disability. No case of death reported. Conclusion: More number of cases should have been reported in 9 months. This study indicates that there is increased need of awareness, sensitization among health workers regarding reporting of adverse drug reaction.

CLP-5

Ethnic Differences in Adverse Drug Reactions to Analgesics (NSAIDs) in Sikkim, North East India: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

Namgay Bhutia, Chandrakala Sharma, Sushrut Varun Satpathy, Dhruva Kr. Sharma

Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim

Objective: Study and record adverse drug reactions of analgesics among different ethnic races according to organ systems in adult population of Sikkim. Materials and Method: Data was collected from hospital data sheets and patient interviews in ADR forms circulated by CDSCO and a case record form containing demographic profile. Results: During 18 months study period, 109 cases of adverse drug reactions to analgesics were recorded. Mean ± SD age of patients was 50.38 ± 19.51 yrs. Majority of participants were females (62.38 %), Nepalese community reported with the most frequent ADRs (73. 4 %). Over three-quarter of reactions were mild (72.48 %). Major outcome of reaction was observed as "recovered" with a p value of 0.81. GIT was found to be the most affected organ for both the gender (p= 0.09). Skin involvement was seen most commonly among the Bhutia's and Lepcha's (66.67% and 50% respectively), among Nepalese GIT was most commonly affected (60%). Most common analgesics involved in ADRs was Paracetamol (n=59) followed by Diclofenac, Aceclofenac and Ibuprofen. Causality assessment was made based on Naranjo scale and it was found that all the 109 cases of suspected ADRs were reported as possible. Conclusion: Study of 109 patients concluded that Nepalese community presented with maximum number of ADRs. GIT was the most affected organ and Paracetamol was the most common analgesic involved for maximum number of ADRs.

CLP-6

Evaluation of BMD in post menopausal women and role of intermittent oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation in post menopausal osteoporosis

Neelakkhi Kalita 1 , Bonti Bora 2

1 PGT, 2 Professor and HOD, Department of Physiology, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital

Objective: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in post menopausal women in general population attending Gauhati Medical College and Hospital and the role of intermittent oral calcium and vit D supplementation in postmenopausal subjects with low BMD for three months. Materials and Methods: Since July,2014 BMD of 20 patients was evaluated. BMD of the lumbar spine and hip was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Risk factors for osteoporosis, history of smoking and any fracture were assessed. Mean age of the subjects was 56.06 years while the mean age of attaining menopause was 45.5 years. All were non smokers. Three patients had a fracture history which occurred following fall. All subjects received oral calcium 1000 mg/ day and vit D 400 IU to 1000 IU per day since the day of their inclusion in this study. Results: The mean BMD of lumbar spine (0.804 g/cm 2 ) was found to be comparable with the mean total hip BMD (0.801 g/cm 2 ) at presentation. Mean T- score of spine was - 2.00 while that of proximal femurs was - 1.23 signifying more severe Osteoporosis in spine. In 73.68% of subjects on T-score less than -1.0 (osteopenia) in at least one site was seen. After three months of oral calcium and vit.D supplementation, both spine BMD (0.814g/cm 2 , T-score -1.93 ) and total hip BMD (0.868g/cm 2 , T-score -1.23). Conclusion : Incidence of osteopenia high among general postmenopausal women. Only marginal improvement of BMD occurs after three months of supplementation. Spine showed better improvement of osteopenia.

CLP-7

Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Psychosis Receiving Antipsychotic Drugs

Pem Chuki, AK Gupta and AK Sharma

Department of Pharmacology, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Objectives: (1) To study the incidence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psychosis receiving antipsychotic drugs.(2) To compare the incidence of metabolic syndrome with individual atypical (olanzapine, risperidone, aripiprazole and quetiapine) antipsychotic drug in comparison to conventional (haloperidol) antipsychotic drug. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study conducted in a Tertiary Care Hospital. A total of 100 patients (18 -65 years) who were newly diagnosed to have psychotic disorder without any parameters of metabolic syndrome were enrolled after informed written consent. Twenty patients were prescribed a conventional (Haloperidol) and eighty were prescribed antipsychotic drug (Olanzapine, Risperidone, Aripiprazole and Quetiapine) by the treating psychiatrist. Their baseline parameters were recorded and then followed after sixteen weeks and assessed for the presence of metabolic syndrome using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III). Statistical analysis: Chi square and unpaired t test were used by statistical analysis using a computer. Results: Twenty one (21%) patients were found to develop metabolic syndrome after sixteen weeks of antipsychotic drugs. Conclusion: Olanzapine caused the maximum incidence of metabolic syndrome followed by risperidone with significant increase in waist circumference, fasting blood sugar and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

CLP-8

Body composition comparison in persons with epilepsy on conventional and new antiepileptic drugs

Sudhir Chandra Sarangi, Manjari Tripathi, Ashish Kumar Kakkar, Yogendra Kumar Gupta

a.Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, b.Current affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

Objective: Valproic acid (VPA) is known to affect body weight, and lipid profile. However, evidences regarding effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on the body composition are deficient. This cross-sectional study compared the body composition and lipid profile among subjects on newer and conventional AEDs. Materials and Method: Subjects (n=109) on treatment of conventional and newer AEDs (levetiracetam, lamotrigine and clobazam) for > 6 months were enrolled. Out of these, 70 were on monotherapy: levetiracetam (n=12), VPA (n=16), carbamazepine (n=20) and phenytoin (n=22) and rest on polytherapy. Their body composition [body fat mass, lean dry mass (LDM), total body water (TBW), intra cellular water, extra cellular water (ECW) and basal metabolic rate] was estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer (Quantum X, RJL Systems). Biochemical parameters were also assessed. Results: VPA group had lower percentage of fat mass (27.5±8.4) than levetiracetam group (33.6±5.5, p=0.040). LDM and TBW (as % of body weight) were higher in VPA group (20.2±2.7 and 52.2±6.0, respectively) than levetiracetam group (17.8±2.4 and 48.5±3.8, respectively) (p value 0.024 and 0.056, respectively). Levetiracetam group had no significant difference with tractcarbamazepine, phenytoin and control group. In comparison with control, VPA group had higher LDM and ECW. Conclusion: These alterations in body composition with valproic acid in contrast to other AEDs like levetiracetam, carbamazepine and phenytoin could affect treatment response in epilepsy especially in subjects with already altered body composition status like obese and thin frail patients, which needs to be established by prospective studies.

CLP-9

Self-Medication in Elderly Individuals- Prevalence and Pattern


Zankhana Parmar*, Devang Rana, Varsha J. Patel.

Department of Pharmacology, Smt. NHL Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad.

Objective: Self-medication that is taking medicines without prescription by the doctor is highly prevalent in community. Elderly population is more likely to self medicate due to multiple morbidities. To evaluate prevalence and pattern of use of self medication among elderly individuals. Materials and Method: Study was carried out at tertiary care hospital. Questionnaire which was used in our earlier studies regarding self medication was utilized. After obtaining consent, elderly individuals (≥60 years) reporting for health check up were requested to fill up the questionnaire themselves or were asked to respond to questions verbally incase of illiterate. Questionnaire mainly contained demographic and clinical data and self medication details - frequency, symptoms/disease for self medication, drugs, reasons for self medication, sources of information, awareness regarding risk of self medication. Results: Out of 200 elderly included in study, 177(88.5%) reported self- medication in 6 months recall period. About 60% were male and mean age- 69.64±6.21 [60 to 85] years. About 21% reported frequent self medication. Abdominal pain (16%) and headache (14%) were most common symptoms and diabetes (7%) was most common disease for self medication. Allopathic medicines (55%) mainly paracetamol (13.5%) were most frequently used followed by home remedies (23%) and Ayurvedic (17%). Previous experience with the drug (50%) followed by advertisements (23.2%) were most common source of information. Most common reasons for self- medication were convenience (69.5%) and cost (56%). None of respondents were aware of risks of self-medication. Conclusion: Self-medication is highly prevalent in elderly population who are unaware of risks involved.

CLP-10

DRESS syndrome with vancomycin - a case report

Agnik Pal, Sukalyan Saha Roy, Sukanta Sen, Arunava Biswas, Somnath Mondal, Santanu Kumar Tripathi

Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Introduction: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome (DRESS) is a distinct severe adverse drug reaction characterized by potentially life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction with rash, fever, and internal organ involvement, often hepatitis, occurring most commonly two to eight weeks after initiation of a medication. Case Presentation: A 62-year-old female was admitted in a tertiary care hospital with severe fever, progressive maculopapular skin rash, eosinophilia and acute renal insufficiency. History revealed that she had valvular heart disease, for which prosthetic valve replacement was done about 5 years back and she was treated for Prosthetic valve endocarditis in a private clinic about 1 month back, where treatment was done with vancomycin (2 g/day) due to infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. No drug allergy was reported. Approximately 3 weeks later, she started developing the symptoms. Diagnosis was confirmed using haematological, LFT findings, renal profile and excluding the other causes. According to the RegiSCAR scoring system, our case could be classified as definite DRESS scoring 6 points. There were no lymph nodes enlargements. A cure was achieved the administration of methylprednisolone (1g/day) and antihistaminics. Conclusion: The diagnosis of DRESS is challenging because the pattern of cutaneous eruption and the types of organs involved are various. There is scarcity of published case reports of DRESS with vancomycin in the literature from Indian perspective. Thus, our case report may be an eye-opener as high index of suspicion is warranted in order not to miss this potentially adverse drug reaction.

CLP-11

A Study on the Outcome of DOTS Treatment among newly diagnosed Sputum Smear positive Tuberculosis Patients treated in District Tuberculosis centre (Tuberculosis unit-1), Dibrugarh under RNTCP.

Borah Nabajyoti, 1 Das Swarnamoni, 2 Bhattacharjee D.N 3

1
PGT , 2 Professor and HOD , Dept of Pharmacology, 3 Professor and HOD of Dept of TB and Chest disease, Assam Medical College

Objective: To evaluate the outcome of DOTS treatment among newly diagnosed sputum smear positive Tuberculosis patients treated in District Tuberculosis Centre (Tuberculosis unit-1), Dibrugarh under RNTCP. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted Result: Out of total 1913 cases of newly diagnosed sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients, who have completed treatment, 1832(95.76%) patients were cured and 81(4.24%) patients were failure cases. Among the 81 failure cases 46(56.79%) were male and 35(43.25%) were female and the bacillary count of 49(60.49%) were 3+,15 were 2+, and 14 were1+ and 3 were SC. The highest failure cases were within 21-30 years of age group (34.56%). Conclusion: The study reveals that cure rate of DOTS is high and the 1 st line anti-TB drugs are very effective. The patients having high bacillary count at the start of treatment have high chances of failure.

CLP-12

A Cross Sectional Evaluation of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Niladri Bhattacharjee 1 , Anjan Adhikari 1 , Avijit Chatterjee 2 , Tarit Bhowal 1 , Abhik Saha 1 , Anup Kumar Das 1 .

1 R.G Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata. 2 Dr. B.C. Roy College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Durgapur

Objective: Drugs are beneficial for treating different ailments; but can be harmful any time in the society. Adverse drug reaction (ADRs) is any noxious change, suspected to be due to a drug, occurs even at its therapeutic doses, requires treatment or decrease in dose or indicates caution in the future use of the same drug. ADRs may occur following a single dose or prolonged administration of a drug or result from the combination of two or more drugs. The study of ADRs is the concern of the field known as pharmacovigilance. The study was conducted to investigate the ADR profile of some widely prescribed essential drugs in a tertiary care hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Materials and Method: Present study is a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey. Data related with ADRs were collected for 6 months from different wards of the In Patient and Out Patient Department and statistically evaluated. Results: Total 182 ADRs were collected from 1 st July to 31 st December 2013. 90 % of them were reported by doctors, 10 % by nursing professionals. Results revealed the average age of the patients was 40 years and 51.64 % was male, 48.35 % female. Anti-tubercular drugs were mainly responsible in these reported ADRs. Most common adverse reactions were different types of rashes like Conclusion: Present study evaluated the ADR profile in a tertiary care hospital at Kolkata. Detailed study with causality assessment will enrich the knowledge on harmful effect of drugs, which ultimately ensures the safe medicine.

CLP-13

Assessment of Liver Function Test in Patients of Tubercular Empyema Thoracis Receiving Antitubercular Therapy

Barman Barasha, Bora Bonti, Baishya Reeta

Dept of Physiology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati

Objective: Pulmonary Tuberculosis continues to remain as a major health burden in the developing countries. Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol are usual first-line combination chemotherapy in active tubercular diseases. The former three drugs are well known for their toxic effects on the liver causing elevation of hepatic enzymes of varying degree from a transitory asymptomatic rise in bilirubin and transaminases to acute liver failure. Materials and Methods: This observational study was carried out on 30 serial patients admitted in the Cardiothoracic Surgery Dept of Gauhati Medical College with tubercular empyema thoracis who received Antitubercular therapy during the course of their treatment. Each Patient was analyzed for age, sex, socioeconomic status and symptoms related to liver toxicity and their serum were analyzed for total bilirubin, ALT and AST in Central Clinical Laboratory using AutoAnalyzer. Results: Out of total 30patients,9 (30%) showed abnormal pattern of liver function, i.e. elevation of serum bilirubin, ALT and AST. 8 patients (26.67%) showed mild elevation of bilirubin level (1.1-5.0mg/dl) while in 22 (73.34%) patients level of bilirubin were found to be normal Similarly, 9 (30%) patients were found to have moderate elevation of ALT level. Likewise 14 (46.67%) patients were found to have moderate elevation of AST level; 3 (10%) had slight elevation of AST level; and 13 (43.33%) were found to have normal level. Conclusion: For the treatment of TB , with ATT regimens, a baseline laboratory testing and monitoring system should be adopted before starting treatment which might help to reduce drug induced hepatotoxicity in ATT patients.

CLP-14

Clinical cases follow up study: A strategy to integrate clinical pharmacology teaching in medical undergraduate programme

S.Bharat, R.Bhardwaj, B.Srivastava, S. Gaur, R. Khanchandani

Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Haldwani (Nainital), Uttarakhand, India

Objective: To impart concept of clinical pharmacology knowledge to the undergraduate MBBS second professional students. Materials and Methods: A total of 705 cases were followed up by the undergraduate students during second professional MBBS at Government medical college and hospital, Haldwani. Performa predesigned were allocated to the students during their clinical postings. Each student was expected to fill up to 5-10 cases. Analysis of all the Performa was done based on various parameters using WHO drug use core indicators, National list of essential medicines, Rational use of medicines, etc. Results: A total of 705 cases were evaluated, 350 OPD and 355 IPD cases. 48.79 % were males and 51.21% were females. 33.75% and 23.97% patients were in age group 16-30 years and 30-45 years respectively. The morbidity pattern observed was infectious disease 33.33% and non-infectious 66.67%. Among infectious diseases tuberculosis and acute gastroenteritis were the most frequent. Among the non infectious diseases diabetes mellitus and hypertension were frequent. Most common system involved was CNS, CVS, SKIN and GIT. Total, 3311 number of drugs were prescribed in which 77.4 % was oral drug and 16.3% was Conclusion: The clinical case follow up study can be used as an important strategy to impart knowledge of clinical pharmacology to undergraduates in their formative years of learning. Polypharmacy currently is a trend and importance of rational use of drug is justified to prevent occurance of unwanted ADR and drug interaction.

CLP-15

A comparative study on the efficacy of topical 1% nadifloxacin and 1% adapalene combination therapy with 1% clindamycin and 1% adapalene combination therapy, in mild to moderate acne, in a tertiary care hospital

Moumita Hazra, M Geetha, H S Somashekar, S B Murugesh.

Departments of Pharmacology and Dermatology, J. J. M. Medical College, Davangere, Karnataka, India

Objective: Acne vulgaris causes cosmetic impairment and psychological yrase, DNA topoisomerase IV) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8). Clindamycin, a lincosamide, inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal sub-unit. Due to less data available, this study was taken up, to compare the efficacy of topical combination therapy of Nadifloxacin and Adapalene versus Clindamycin and Adapalene in mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Materials and Method: A prospective, ity of lesions was assessed by Investigator's Global Evaluation Scale. Results: Both groups showed highly significant reduction in total number of lesions from baseline. Significantly greater reduction in lesion counts were observed in Group A than in Group B patients. Conclusion: Topical Nadifloxacin and Adapalene combination therapy was more effective as compared to topical Clindamycin and Adapalene combination therapy, in mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

CLP-16

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Doctors Regarding Pharmacovigilance in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Assam

Dey Sanjoy, Gohain Kalpana

Department of Pharmacology, Assam Medical College

Objective: The study was conducted to assess the current knowledge, attitude and practice of doctors regarding pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting in Assam Medical College and Hospital, a tertiary care hospital of Assam. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross- sectional questionnaire based survey conducted in our hospital. Study was conducted by a preformed structured questionnaire consisting of 20 questions (8 questions on knowledge, 7 on attitude and 5 on practice). Study period was from august2014-september2014. Inclusion criteria for the study was-1) intern doctors2) post graduate students and residents of various departments3) faculty members and consultants of the college. Undergraduate students and staffs were excluded from the study. Results: Out of total 132 questionnaires that were being distributed, 100 of them were being completely filled up and considered for analysis. Among them there were 2 professors,3 assistant professors, 4 registrar, 38 postgraduate residents,7 junior residents and 46 intern doctors. The response rate was 75.8%. 6% doctors didn't know about the term pharmacovigilance.32% doctors experienced ADR during their routine clinical practices. The ADR reporting was observed only in 3% of the responders (at Conclusion: Findings strongly suggest that there is a great need to create awareness and to promote the reporting of ADR amongst prescribers since knowledge and awareness are the most important parameters that can minimize the under reporting of ADRs.

CLP-17

Comparison of Action of Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) and Other Allopathic Drugs in Benign Hyperplasia of Prostate - A Retrospective Study


Sarita Panigrahy, V. Seshayamma, Gaddam Hari Jagannadha Rao, Siva Kumar Nadella, Ramesh.

Department of Pharmacology and Urology, ASRAM Medical College, Eluru

Objective: BHP is common medical problem seen in elderly. Medical management with Alpha Blockers, 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors and Phytomedicines are regularly used in symptomatic BHP patients. Saw Palmetto is one of the commonest phytomedince in use. In our institution, we have tried to compare the effect of saw Palmetto with other allopathic medicines retrospectively in the patients attending the department of surgery and urology over last one year. A study was carried to compare the effect of different types of drugs on BHP. Materials and Methods: Patients with symptomatic BHP were treated with different groups of medicines were studied over last one year. Complicated BHP patients with indications for surgery are excluded from the study. Total numbers of 64 patients were found to be in regular treatment medically and they were included in the study. Results: The predominant age-group of presentation was 56 to 78 years. Out of 64 patients 41 patients had taken allopathic drugs as mono or combination therapy. Rest 23 patients had taken Saw Palmetto. All the patients were given a three month course of medical management. In both the groups the pre and post treatment subjective and objective findings were recorded and reproduced for comparison. Conclusion: Phytomedicine treatment for BHP has been seen in many centers. The result we found was comparable with the action of allopathic drugs in BHP.

CLP-18

Comparative Study of Efficacy of Silodosin and Tamsulosin in Patients of Lower Ureteric Calculi in a Tertiary Care Hospital


Sha Naseeruddin, Suresh S. Kendri, Imdad Ali. N

Vijayanagar Institute of Medical Sciences, Bellary, Karnataka, Affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India

Objective: Recent studies have reported excellent result of MET (Medical Expulsive Therapy) with Silodosin for small distal ureteric calculi. This study was planned with an objective to compare the efficacy of Silodosin and Tamsulosin in terms of Stone Expulsion Rate (SER) and Time to Stone Expulsion (TSE). Materials and Method: We have conducted a comparative randomized trial (Study) in 60 patients. These patients were divided into two groups of 30 each. Group I were given Tab. Silodosin 8mg/day for 14 days and Group II were given Tamsulosin 0.4mg/day for 14 days. Follow up was done at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using Chi square test and student "T" Test. Results: We found that the number of patients who expelled ureteric stones in less time were (83.3%) in Group I and (70.3%) in Group II and was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: Silodosin is more effective than Tamsulosin in Expulsion of smaller ureteric stones.

CLP-19

An Open Label, Multiple Dose, Dose Finding Study Of Abiraterone Acetate In Adult Women With 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

B. Srinivas Teja*, B. swetha, M. sathish Kumar, A. Narendra Babu, Rama Rao Nadendla

Department of Pharmacology, Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India

Objective: To determine the minimal dose of abiraterone acetate required to decrease the serum androstenidoine to the age-appropriate range for adult women with 21- hydroxylase deficiency. Materials and Methods: 10 adult women with 21- hydroxylase deficiency were enrolled for the study. Study consists of a screening period from 40 to 1 study days. After treatment period 1 to 8, subjects proceeded to next higher level after 7 day rest period when androsterone abnormalised in 80% of subjects. Androsterone Results: Two treatment periods were conducted with one time dose escalation from 100mg dose to 250mg dose of abiraterone acetate.250mg of abiraterone acetate has shown 80% -hydroxylase enzyme deficiency in adult women. Conclusion: By -hydroxylase enzyme we can overcome the effects caused by this deficiency like ambiguous genitalia, hirsutism, male pattern baldness, irregular menstruation, and decreased fertility.

CLP-20

Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy of Some Antioxidants in Diabetic Nephropathy


Swati S. Jadhav 1 , Vithhal G. Kuchake 2 , Chandrashekhar D. Upasani 3

1 Symbiosis School of Biomedical Studies, Symbiosis International University, Lavale, Pune, 2 RC Patel College of Pharmacy, Karawandnaka, Shirpur, 3 Professor of Pharmacology and Principal, SSJB's SSDJ College of Pharmacy, Chandwad, Nashik

Objective: To evaluate the combined effect of antioxidant vitamins E, C and reduced glutathione in diabetic nephropathy. Materials and Method: A randomized, open controlled clinical trial was conducted on 216 diabetic nephropathy patients who have had diabetes for at least 5 years. Result: 216 patients were selected and divided in to four groups such as positive control, vitamin, reduced glutathione and combination of vitamin E and C plus reduced glutathione. After 4 months supplementation of vitamin E and C plus reduced glutathione, it was found that the, vitamins and reduced glutathione treated groups shows significant (p<0.009 and p<0.002) decreased microalbuminuria levels from 33.2±2 to 30.5±2 and 31.4±2 to 30.1±1 as compared to control group. Interestingly, treatment of glutathione plus vitamins exhibited significant decreased (p<0.001) values from 33.3±2 to 27.2±2. Similarly, its effect on total protein shows significant difference (p<0.01 and p<0.05) decline in level from 8±0.4 to 7.6±0.3; 7.8±0.3 to 7.5±0.3 in vitamin and glutathione plus vitamin combination as compared to control and glutathione group alone. Conclusion: Diabetes is a chronic illness that requires a combine effect of treatment regimen for better glycemic control and to prevent its complications. So it has been suggested that initiating therapy (OHA) with combination of antioxidants vitamin E and C plus reduced glutathione significantly lowers urinary albumin excretion rate and total protein in diabetic nephropathy.

CLP-21

Evaluation of Total Antioxidant Capacity and Lipid Peroxidation in Human Male Infertility


Anju Mehrotra, Varsha Saragwan, D.K. Katiyar, K.K.Pant

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. King George' s Medical University, Lucknow, India

Objective: The objective of the present study is to investigate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation concentration in seminal fluid of fertile and infertile men. Materials and Methods: Total 65 subjects were selected and divided into four groups. Semen samples were collected and different parameters were investigated (volume, total sperm counts, sperm motility and abnormal sperm morphology) according to WHO guidelines. These groups had 15 fertile men (normozoospermic as control) and 50 infertile men (15 oligozoospermic, 17 asthenozoospermic, and 18 oligoasthenozoospermic). In all cases TAC and MDA levels were measured spectrophotometrically. Statistical analysis was done and Pearson's correlation was performed to examine the correlation between parameters and semen quality. Results: Mean antioxidant capacity of oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic groups was found to be lower than control group. Sperm motility increased with increased level of ROS production in the infertile groups. Lipid peroxidation as expressed by MDA levels was significantly higher in three infertile groups in comparison to normozoospermic group. MDA level was negatively associated to sperm motility and sperm count. Increased MDA levels in the abnormal groups represent the pathological effects of lipid peroxidation on sperm function. Conclusion: Decreased antioxidant capacity in the infertile group might be due to either increased ROS production or insufficient antioxidant capacity Present findings suggested that routine determination of antioxidant status of semen, during infertility investigation is useful.

CLP-22

Evaluation of a Pharmacovigilance Educational Initiative for Pharmacy Students in Nepal

Pranaya Mishra 1 , Subish Palaian 2 , Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim 3

1 American University of the Caribbean School of Medicine, Cupecoy, St. Maarten. 2 Department of Pharmacology, College of Medical Sciences, Bharatpur, Nepal. 3 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Qatar University, Qatar

Objective: Evaluating the impact of an educational initiative 'pharmacovigilance' on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) among pharmacy students of Pharmacy College at Pokhara University, Nepal. Materials and Methods: Students from first to fourth year bachelor of pharmacy were included and their KAP towards pharmacovigilance was evaluated using the pretested KAP questionnaire (Cronbach alpha 0.70) consisting of 25 questions (knowledge- 14, and attitude /practice - 11); with a maximum possible score of 50. After getting the baseline KAP, 2 nd and 4 th year students were grouped as control while 1 st and 3 rd year as test group. Three interventions on pharmacovigilance was given to test group over six months. Improvements in KAP scores and student feedback (using a 'Likert scale' having 20 questions; with a maximum possible score 100) were noted. Results: Altogether 124 students (control 56 and test 68) were included. The median of the baseline scores were 20 for knowledge, 19 for attitude/practice and the total of 39. Upon combining the knowledge and attitude/practice scores, males (n=81) had a slight higher score of 40 than females (n=43), had a score of 38. Upon intervention, the baseline KAP scores improved from 39 to 43 at 1 st follow up (p=0.000); at 2 nd follow up (p=000) and to 44 (p= 0.000) at 3 rd follow up [Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test at α=0.05]. The median (interquartile range) feedback scores was 86. Conclusion: The study suggests a positive impact of educational intervention that was reflected by an improvement in the KAP and feedback scores in the test group.

CVS-1

A Cost Analysis Study of Hypolipidaemic Drugs Available in Indian Market


Rajgopal J K M

Department of Pharmacology, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal (M.P.).

Objective: To analyze the percentage cost variation of different hypolipidaemic drugs available in Indian market either singly or in combinations. Materials and Method: Cost of different drug being manufactured by different companies in same strengths and dosage forms was obtained from 'DRUG TODAY (July-September 2014)' and CIMS (July-October 2014). The difference in the maximum price and minimum price of the same drug, same strength and manufactured by different companies was calculated. Drugs which were manufactured by one company only or being manufactured by different companies however, in different strengths were excluded. Results: A total of 21 drugs (11 single and 10 combination preparations) which were manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies were analyzed. In single drug therapy, Statins: atorvastatin 20 mg (1017.78%) has maximum percentage variation while pravastatin 10mg (1.01%) has minimum percentage variation. Among lipoprotein lipase activators; fenofibrate 200mg (549.43%) showed maximum percentage variation and bezafibrate 200mg (10%) has least percentage variation, In combination therapy, total 10 combination therapies were analyzed. In this Atorvastatin and Ezetimibe combination shows the maximum variation up to 220.85%. Conclusion: These observations revealed a significant percentage of cost variation up to 1017.78%, which is manufactured by different pharmaceuticals companies, so it is recommended that the appraisal and pricing of marketing drugs should be well regulated, to decrease the economic burden on the patient.

CVS-2

Experimental Studies on the Possible Role of Oxidative Stress in Theophylline Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats


Md. Shamsuzzaman, Gulati K, Ray A.

Department of Pharmacology, V.P. Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

Objectives: The study was designed to evaluate the possible role of oxidative stress in Aminophylline induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Materials and Method: Female Wistar rats (200-250g) were treated by different doses of Aminophylline for 7 days and developments of cardiac changes were observed. Following this, the animals were anesthetized by urethane and animals were cannulated (carotid artery) and the heart rate, mean B. P and ECG were recorded by software based data acquisition system (BIOPAC-MP 36). The rat heart tissue was removed for estimation of biochemical markers like MDA, GSH, SOD and SGOT. Results:Aminophylline (50 -200 mg/kg, for 7 days) treatment increased heart rate in a dose related manner in rats with maximum effect being seen with the highest dose (150 mg/kg) tested. Changes in BP were not so marked. At a dose of 150 mg /kg, the drug showed marked tachycardia and elevations in BP and this was also associated by T- wave inversion in the ECG tracing. Alpha tocopherol (20 and 40 mg/kg) and L-arginine 500 mg/kg pretreatment attenuated Aminophylline induced cardiac changes i.e. the heart rate and mean B. P were decreased and the frequency of T-wave inversions were reduced. The levels of MDA and SGOT were increased at after Aminophylline (150 mg /kg), but levels of GSH and SOD were decreased, when compared to controls. Pretreatment with alpha tocopherol (40 mg/kg) and L-arginine (500 mg/kg) attenuated the Aminophylline induced cardiac and associated biochemical parameters. Conclusion:The pharmacological and biochemical data are suggestive of possible involvement of oxidative stress during Aminophylline induced cardiotoxicity.

CVS-3

A Study I Role of GABA-Transaminase (GABA-T) in MonocrotalineInduced Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats

Singh N, Kaur G, Lingeshwar P, Hanif K

Division of Pharmacology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India

Objective: Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a cardiopulmonary disorder, is characterized by increasedright ventricular (RV) pressureandhypertrophy. Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is associated with various cardiovascular disorders but its role in the pathophysiology of PH remains unexplored. Increased SNS activity is distinguished by elevated norepinephrine (NE) level and activity of γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA) Transaminase (GABA-T) which degrades GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter within the nervous system. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased GABA-T activitymayaugment SNS activity in PH by GABA catabolism and elevating NE. Materials and Methods: The effect of modulation of GABA-T was studied by oral administration of its inhibitor Vigabatrin (50 and 75 mg/kg/day) following a single subcutaneous administration of Monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg) in SD rats. The pressure and hypertrophy of RV, oxidative stress, inflammation, pulmonary vascular remodeling were assessed after 35 days treatment in MCT treated rats. The expression studies of GABA-T, HIF-1 and NE estimation were also done in lung. Results: There was a significant increase in pressure, hypertrophy in RV and pulmonary vascular remodeling in MCT exposed rats which was attenuated by Vigabatrin in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with Vigabatrinalso decreased MCT inducedoxidative stress, nitrite and inflammation in both lungs and RV. In MCT treated rats, there were increased level of NE and the expression of GABA-T and HIF-1α which were reduced by Vigabatrin. Conclusion: Our study revealed that GABA-T plays an important role in Phby modulating SNS activity and should be considered as a therapeutic target in PH.

CVS-4

Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis on Wistar Albino Rats

Karmakar P R12*, Chattopadhyay P1, Mazumder P M2

1Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Defence Research Laboratory, Tezpur, Assam, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand

Objective: This investigation is focused to induce atherosclerosis plague on wister albino rats by feeding high fat diet. Materials and Method: High fat diet comprising of pure cholesterol, ghee, dalda and wheat was feeded to wister albino rats and periodically serum lipid profile (low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, cholesterol and triglyceride), body weight, electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Finally histopathological evaluations were done on the luminal surface of aorta of the experimental animal to confirm the formation of atherosclerotic plaque . Result: Lipid profile finding showed an increase in their values as well as histopathological findings confirmed the formation of atherosclerosis plague. Conclusion: The investigation confirmed that atherosclerotic plaque can be formed on wild albino rats and in very short period of time, which will be quite beneficial in regard with other tedious processes for better understanding of the disease's cause of atherosclerosis.

CVS-5

Effect of ACE Inhibitor on Arterial Stiffness and Elevated Pulse Pressure: Beyond Blood Pressure Reduction

Gupta S K*, Bodakhe S H

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Central University, Bilaspur (C.G.), India

Objective: In present study we investigated the effect of Materials and Method: The rats were selected and divided into groups. Except group-1, all the rats were uninephrectomized and kept with high salt drinking water for six weeks for the induction of hypertension and to amplify the stiffness of arteries. After six weeks, rats with PP ≥ 50 mmHg were selected and grouped (n = 5) as per the treatment to be given. Group 2 served and fed with normal diet with high salt drinking water (NaCl 0.9%w/v). Group 3 and 4 were treated with the arterial stiffness was estimated using pulse wave velocity analysis. Result: In our result, both drugs produced a significant (P < 0.001) and similar decrease in blood pressure, however, only Conclusion: Based on result it may be concluded that ACE inhibitors induces a decrease in arterial stiffness and elevated pulse pressure independently to blood pressure.

CVS-6

Neuroprotective Effect of Losartan on Anxiety and Cognitive Performance Against Chronic Restraint Stress in Mice: Possible Role of Rennin Angiotensin System (RAS) Pathway

1 Choudhary S, 1 Singh B, 1 Pilkhwal S S, 1 Kumar A

1 Pharmacology Division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC Centre of Advanced Study, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate protective effect of losartan on anxiety and cognitive peroformance against chronic restraint stress induced stress in mice. Materials and Methods - In the present study, Male laca mice (20-30g) were subjected to restraint stress 2 hrs daily for 30 days at variable times. Losartan (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p) was administered 45 mins prior to 2 hr restraint stress daily for a period of 30 days. Animals were tested for behavioral parameters in actophotomotor, mirror chamber and rotarod test on day 0, 15 and 30. Cognitive performance was assessed using plus maze on day 30. Results: Daily chronic restraint stress of 2 hrs for 30 days significantly caused anxiety like Conclusion: The present study highlights the involvement of RAS pathway in the neuroprotective effect of losartan against chronic restraint stress.

CVS-7

Pharmacological Screening of Trigonella Foenum Graecum for Cardio-Tonic Activity and Comparison with Salnia Haematodes


Ch. Roja Rani1 A. Seshagiri Rao2

Department of Anatomy, Maharajah's Institute of Medical Sciences, Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh, India

Aim and objectives: Aim of the present study is to screen Trigonella foenum graecum aqueous extracts for the cardio-tonic activity and compare with Bahman surkh. Materials and Methods: Salnia haematodes (Bahman surkh) is claimed to be a potent cardio-tonic drugs since ages. Present investigation was undertaken by preparing standard aqueous extracts of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) and examine whether it possessed any cardio-tonic activity. Since positive results were observed, the cardio-tonic activity of Trigonella foenum graecum aqueous extracts was compared with the cardio-tonic activity of aqueous extracts of Salnia haematodes. Experiments were carried out on isolated intact frog's heart, rectus abdominis muscle of frog and guinea Pig's ileum. Results and Conclusion: 1. A definite fall in blood pressure was observed in animals fed with Trigonella foenum graecum aqueous extracts.2. In a single dose the extract has shown significant inotropic effect on intact frog's heart and increased cardiac output.

END-1

Naringenin-β-Cyclodextrin Complex Treatment Alters Antioxidant Status Via Modulation of Cytokines, Akt and ICAM-2 Signalling in Post Diabetic Rat Testicular Damage

Urmi Saha, Sritama Banerjee, Souvik Roy

Department of Pharmacology, NSHM Knowledge Campus, Kolkata - Group of Institutions.124, B.L. Saha Road, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of naringenin and naringenin-β-cyclodextrin complex on oxidative stress, cytokines like TGF-β1, IL-1β, ICAM-2, Akt and apoptosis in streptozotocin induced diabetes rat testicular damage. Materials and Methods. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Rats were treated with naringenin alone and complexation of naringenin with β-cyclodextrin (20 mg/kg) once a day orally for 10 weeks, starting 3 days after streptozotocin injection. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed. Testis tissue and blood samples were collected for histopathological and biochemical analysis. Results: Naringenin-β-cyclodextrin complex significantly decreased the elevated tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive substance levels and increases the reduced superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities in testis. Complex treated diabetic rats showed an improved histological appearance, enhanced serum testosterone levels, significant reduction in the activity of in situ apoptotic events, and altered the expression of TGF-β1, IL-1β, ICAM-2 and Akt in sertoli, leydig cells over the naringenin treatment. Conclusion. These results suggest that administration of naringenin -β-cyclodextrin complex is a possible option for the oral delivery of naringenin as a therapeutic entity with applications to reduce diabetic testicular damage by decreasing oxidative stress correlates with apoptotic events.

END-2

Sinapic Acid Attenuates Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats

Manoj Aswar 1 , Vijay Patil 2

1
Sinhgad Institute of Pharmacy, Narhe, Pune (MS), India, 2 Hon. Loksevak Madukarrao Chaudhari, College of Pharmacy, Faizpur (MS), India

Objective: Diabetic neuropathy is most common of secondary complications associated with diabetes mellitus and is characterized by slowing of nerve conduction velocity, elevated pain, sensory loss and nerve fiber degeneration. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of Sinapic Acid (SA) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced neuropathic pain in rats. Materials and Methods: Four weeks after intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) animals in test groups were treated with SA (10, 20, 30 mg/kg, p.o.). Thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia were evaluated in all groups (Day 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56) of STZ diabetic rats to assess the extent of neuropathy by Hargreaves method, Randall Selitto, Von-frey hair tests and cold allodynia. Biochemical parameters like lipid peroxidase, GSH, total protein content, nitric oxide were also estimated in the tissue homogenate. A level of inflammatory mediators like interleukins (IL-6 and IL-1β) was done in the sciatic nerve homogenate. Results: Chronic treatment with SA for 5 weeks significantly and dose dependently attenuated the decrease in level of nociceptive threshold and endogenous antioxidants whereas increased inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and IL-1β) were found to be significantly reduced with SA. Conclusion: Hence the findings of present investigation orchestrate the neuroprotective effect of SA via modulation of endogenous antioxidant defense system along with biomarkers via control on hyperglycemia and also through its anti-inflammatory activity.

END-3

Sub-Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Oral-Insulin-Formulation in Rats

Kamkar R, Roy Sudipta, Sar T.K., Mandal T.K., Chakraborty A.K

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Objective: Diabetes is a major disease and our nation is suffering from over the past few decades. Fatty food intake and sedentary lifestyle has increased the risk of diabetes to an epidemic proportion and India has been projected as the future capital of diabetes in the world. Diabetes mellitus is of two types and is a result of disorder of insulin hormone in the body. Treatment of diabetes mellitus with insulin began in the early 90s. The present work focuses on the sub-acute oral toxicity of oral-insulin-formulation in rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of healthy albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) of either sex were gavaged with oral-insulin-formulation at 0.9g/kg, 0.64g/kg and 0.45g/kg body weight respectively and control received 1g/kg vehicle for 28 days. Rats were divided into two subgroups and blood samples were collected from heart on 0, 7 th , 14 th , 21 st , 28 th and 57 th day (5 rats) and clotting time, heamatological parameters were estimated along with plasma glucose, blood urea nitrogen, insulin and tri-iodothyronine from the first group followed by biochemical estimations from the second group. Rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and liver was collected for glycogen estimation. Results: It was found that although the oral-insulin-formulation neither altered the body weight, feed intake nor have any effect on heamatological parameters of the experimental groups but they significantly decreased (P<0.05) the plasma glucose level and increased the plasma insulin and triiodothyronine level of the groups. Other biochemical parameters remained unchanged. A dose dependent increase in glycogen was found in the liver of the experimental groups as compared to the control ones. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the oral-insulin-formulation at the different dose levels did not produce any toxic effects in rat even after continuous administration for 28 days.

END-4

Evaluation of Ethyl Acetate Fraction from the Aerial Parts of Salvia splendens Sellow ex.Roem. and Schult for its Effect on Diabetic Neuropathy

Priya Ranjan, Papiya M. Mazumder, Rathinavelusamy Paramaguru, Ishani Mondal

Department of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand

Objective: Diabetic neuropathy, a major complication of Diabetes, progresses gradually resulting in peripheral sensitization leading to central sensitization. Herbal drugs are gaining importance in preventing the pathogenesis of Diabetes. Protective effect of Salvia splendens is due to its property of controlling hyperglycaemia. In the present study, an effort has been made to check the efficacy of Salvia splendens against chronic complications of diabetes like diabetic neuropathy. Materials and Methods: Administration of streptozotocin-nicotinamide (60 mg/kg-120 mg/kg; i.p.) caused diabetes which resulted in diabetic neuropathy in experimental animals when left untreated for 35 days. Test groups were treated with ethyl-acetate fraction of aerial parts of Salvia splendens (SSEA) at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by oral route. In order to assess neuropathic pain and efficacy of Salvia splendens, behavioural tests were performed in the form of thermal and mechanical tests. In thermal test, the tail withdrawal latency was observed by tail flick method and cold allodynia test. Mechanical test was performed by assessing paw withdrawal threshold in Randall-Sellito test. Results : There has been marked hyperalgesia in untreated group followed by neuropathic pain at the end of 35 days (P<0.05). Diabetic rats treated with SSEA exhibited significant reduction in nociception due to thermal stress and increase in mechanical threshold due to mechanical algesia (P<0.05) at both the dose levels along with marked improvement in blood glucose levels. Conclusion: SSEA possesses significant anti-hyperglycaemic activity but further studies regarding nerve conduction velocity would confirm its efficacy in managing diabetic neuropathic condition.

END-5

Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine as Add on Therapy With Losartan in Patients of Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy

Seemant Saurabh, Vijay Yadav, Anupam Sharma, Anurag Jain

S.N. Medical College, Agra (UP), India

O bjective : The present study was conducted to observe the effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine as add on therapy with losartan in patients of type 2 DM with nephropathy. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in PG department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Department of Medicine, S.N. Medical College, Agra. The study was done on diagnosed patients of type 2 DM with Nephropathy. Patients were divided into two groups A and B of 20 patients each. 1) Group A was treated with Losartan 50 mg O.D. for 24 weeks and 2) Group B was treated with Losartan 50 mg O.D. plus N-acetyl cysteine 600 mg B.D. for 24 weeks. All the patients of both groups were on their standard antidiabetic therapy throughout the study period. Effect on Blood sugar (Fasting and PP) was measured at beginning of treatment i.e. 0 week, 8 weeks and 24 weeks. Result: Statistically significant decrease in fasting blood sugar was seen in losartan plus N-acetyl cysteine group at 8 as well as 24 weeks. Conclusion: Oxidative stress is a common pathological factor in diabetic nephropathy and appears to be a target for therapeutic treatment. NAC has significant role in reduction of fasting plasma glucose.

END-6

Anti-Diabetic Activity of Eugenol in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus


Debapriya Garabadu, Jasmine, Sairam Krishnamurthy

Neurotherapeutics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Objective: To study the anti-diabetic activity of Eugenol in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus. Eugenol is a phenylpropanoid with established anti-diabetic activity against experimental type-1 diabetes; however, its anti-diabetic activity has not yet been evaluated in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin, nicotinamide, eugenol, metformin were used in this study. In the present study, streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.p.) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg, i.p.) were injected to male rats at a time lag of 15 min to induce T2DM. After confirmation of T2DM in terms of plasma glucose level on day-3 to streptozotocin injection, animals were treated with vehicle or metformin (25 mg/kg, p.o.) or eugenol (12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven consecutive days. Results: There was significant increase in the level of plasma glucose and triglyceride in T2DM rats compared to vehicle administered animals. Further, T2DM caused oxidative stress in the rat liver in terms of increase in the extent of lipid peroxidation and decrease in the catalase activity compared to vehicle treated animals. Eugenol treatment at highest dose level significantly attenuated T2DM-induced hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridaemia in the plasma of the animals. Conclusion: Eugenol (50 mg/kg) attenuated T2DM-induced increase in the extent of lipid peroxidation and decrease in the catalase activity in the liver tissues. Metformin also exhibited beneficial effects similar to that of eugenol in T2DM rats. Therefore, it can be assumed that eugenol could be an alternative candidate in the pharmacotherapy of T2DM.

END-7

Evaluation of Renoprotective Activity of Carallumaadscendens in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats.

Rachana Patil, Balaji Patil, Pramod Kaldate

Objective: Nephropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus, and the morbidity and mortality due to diabetic nephropathy is constantly progressing in industrialized nation. Carallumaadscendens is a pregnane glycoside which is used as a traditional Indian medicine to nourish the kidney. Therefore, the pharmacological study of its diabetic nephropathy effect was undertaken to validate its traditional use. Materials and Methods: In the present study we investigated, whether Carallumaadscendens, apregnaneglycoside can prevent the development of DN and /or slow or stop its progression in type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by high fat diet and a single low dose of STZ (35 mg/kg i.p.) sustained blood glucose level (>200mg/dl) were considered as diabetic and selected for experimentation. Thirty rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, diabetic, diabetic + CAE (300 mg/kg; p.o.), diabetic + CAE (500 mg/kg; p.o.) and diabetic + pioglitazone (10 mg/kg; p.o.) administered two weeks. All rats were anaesthetized and then were killed to remove kidney. Results: Diabetic rats exhibited microalbuminuria along with increased urinary and serum creatinine, BUN and Ccr indicating impairment in kidney functions similar to early stage of clinical diabetic nephropathy. However, treatments with Carallumaadscendens extract at dose of 300 mg/kg p.o. and 500 mg/kg p.o. of diabetic rats for four weeks ameliorated kidney functions. Conclusion: Carallumaadscendens extract has beneficial effect in slowing the progression of early diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes rats, which may be due to its multivariate actions such as antihyperglycemic, inhibiting oxidative stress and antihyperlipidaemic activity.

END-8

Evaluation of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Flowers of Pterospermum acerifolium on Wound Healing in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes


Rita Pal, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Sakshi Shrivastava

Department of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

Objective: Impaired wound healing in Diabetes is the most common complication of Diabetes. Protective effect of Pterospermum acerifolium (PAFEF) is due to its property of controlling hyperglycaemia. Wound healing activity of the prepared gel containing different concentration of extracts is evaluated by in-vivo excision wound model. Materials and Methods: Diabetes is induced by single administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg; i.p.). Open excision wound was made on rat by removing a patch of skin. Different groups were applied topically with std (Framycetin sulphate cream 1%w/w), gel base, gel extract of PAFEF (2% and 5% ) for 14 consecutive days. Wound area, wound contraction and period of epithelisation is measured. Wound area were monitored on predetermined days i.e. 2,4,8,12,14,16. The areas on wounds were measured on days 4,8,12,16 and the mean percentage wound closure was calculated. When no raw wound was left behind it was taken as end point of complete epithelisation. Results: Diabetic control group showed decreased wound contraction compared to non-diabetic control. Gel 2 (5% extract) produced greater wound contraction. Gel formulation have significant (p<0.0001) wound healing activity compared to diabetic control group. Wound healing is delayed in diabetic condition compared to normal and also that the contraction of wound increases in diabetic group as the concentration of extract increased from 2% in gel1 to 5% in gel 2. Conclusion: PAFEF possesses significant wound healing properties. Both the formulation containing 2% and 5% PAFEF were found to increase wound healing compared to control with 5% fraction showing increased wound contraction.

GIT-1

Comparative Evaluation of Standardized Methanolic Extract of Fumaria indica and Monomethyl Fumarate on Cold Restraint Stress Induced Ulcer in Rats

Anshul Shakya 1, *, Geeta Rai 2 , Shyam Sunder Chatterjee 3 , Vikas Kumar 1

1
Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi India, 2 Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India, 3 stettiner Straίe 1, Karlsruhe, Germany, *Current Address: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam, India

Objective: Fumaria indica Linn. (Fumariaceae) is an Auyrvedic herb, known as pitpapra. Investigations made in recent past in our laboratory suggest its CNS modulating potential including anti-stress, anxiolytic, antidepressant, nootropic, adaptogenic etc. The present study was aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of standardized 50% methanolic extract of Fumaria indica (MFI) and monomethyl fumarate (MMF) on cold restraint stress (CRS) induced ulcer in rats. Materials and Methods: Effects of 10 daily doses of MFI (60, 120, and 240 mg/kg/day, p.o.), MMF (1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and root extract of Withania somnifera (WS 100 mg/kg, p.o.) on CRS induced ulcer in rats were compared for stress marker (i.e. plasma corticosterone level, weight of adrenal gland and spleen) and gastric parameters (weight of glandular stomach, number and severity of ulcers, ulcer index, protective mucosal parameters and oxidative load). CRS procedure was done on day 10, one h after the last drug administration on all groups except on vehicle treated control rats. Results: Likewise WS pre-treated rats, pre-treatment with MFI and MMF in rats were significantly (p<0.05%) mitigated stress-induced anomalies i.e. stress and gastric (offensive and defensive) parameters in dose dependent manner. Conclusion: Outcome demonstrates that, the standardized methanolic extract of Fumaria indica was analogous to the monomethyl fumarate against cold restraint stress induced ulcers in rats.

IND-1

Anti-Hyperglycemic and In-vivo Antioxidative activity evaluation of Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: An ethnomedicinal plant of Assam

Barnali Gogoi, Bibhuti Bhusan Kakoti

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dibrugarh University Assam, India

Objective: To study the anti hyperglycaemic effect of methanolic extract of the bark of Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) (MECB) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Oral glucose tolerance test level was measured at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the administration of extract. The extract was orally administered once daily at two dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg for 15 days. The effect of MECB on the divergence of body weights, blood glucose levels and the biochemical parameters viz., total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride, aspartate transaminase (SGOT , alanine transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in an autoanalyzer. Histopathology of pancreas and in-vivo antioxidative status was studied. Results: A significant increase in bodyweights and rapid decrease in hyperglycemic peak was experiential in animals treated with MECB . After 15 days of treatment the Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL level was decreased and HDL was increased significantly. MECB reduced the levels of the elevated marker enzymes SGOT, SGPT and ALP. In in-vivo antioxidant studies, MECB reduced the level of lipid peroxidation and improved the level of catalase and glutathione in liver. Histopathological studies of pancreas in diabetic and treated groups substantiate the cytoprotective action of extract. Conclusion: The results suggest that the bark extract of Cinnamomum bejolghota possess anti hyperglycemic effect in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice which justify the traditional use of this plant as ethnomedicine in treatment of diabetes.

IND-2

Pharmacological Evaluation of Leaves of Mimosa pudica

Sanaye M.M, Joglekar.C.S

Prin. K. M. Kundnani College of Pharmacy, 23-Jote Joy Bldg, Rambhau Salgaonkar Marg, Cuffe Parade, Mumbai, India

Objectives: 1-Literature survey, Procurement of plant and extraction.2-Invitro evaluation of plant extracts (hydroalcoholic and aqueous) 3-Neuropharmacological evaluation of extracts using battery of animal models. Materials and Methods: Medicinal plant was collected and dried in shade. Dried leaves were extracted with mixture of ethanol:water (hydroalcoholic,70:30) and water ( aqueous) using soxhlet extraction technique. In the present study phytochemical screening followed by estimation of total polyphenolic and total explore its pharmacological potential in vitro antioxidant testing of hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Mimosa pudica, has been also performed by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) method, reducing power assay and Lipid peroxidation. Result: The results of in vitro studies may provide guideline for further in vivo evaluation of plant extracts in future. Conclusion: Phytochemical screening was performed to find out the types of phytoconstituents present in plant. Acute toxicity studies will be carried out to establish safty of the plant extract and for dose calculation. The selected doses of extracts will be used for neuropharmacological screening. Study will lead to systemic and scientific exploration of new medicinal plant for its CNS effect.

IND-3

Cucumis melo var. agrestis Ameliorates HFD Induced Dyslipidemia in Syrian Golden Hamsters and Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

Kripa Shankar, Durgesh Kumar, Salil Varshney, Abhishek Gupta, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Muheeb Beg, Anurag Srivastava, Sanjeev Kanaujiya, Deepak Kumar Mishra, Anil N. Gaikwad

Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, PCN-208, CSIR- CDRI, Lucknow, India

Objective: The present study aimed to explore anti-dyslipidemic and anti adipogenic potential of Cucumis melo var. agrestis fruit extract and its hexane fraction. Materials and Methods: Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed a chow or high-fat diet (#D12451 from Research Diets Inc., USA) with or without cucumis melo fruit extract (100 mg/kg) and hexane fraction (50 mg/kg) for 7 days. Lipid profile and glucose were estimated from blood serum using Merck Selectra Junior Bio-analyzer (Merck Millipore). Protein and mRNA expression was analyzed using immunoblot and Quantitative PCR. Results: Oral administration of cucumis melo fruit extract and its hexane fraction to dyslipidemic hamsters reduced the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), lowdensity lipoprotein (LDLC), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c ) levels, Atherogenic index and adipose tissue weight. Hexane fraction increased hepatic mRNA expression of LXR and decreased SREBP1c and FAS. Hepatic protein expression of FAS, pACC and pATP citrate lyase, which are downstream targets of SREBP1c were significantly decreased in hexane fraction treated animals. Standard diagnostic tests and histopathological analysis suggested that hexane fraction caused no toxicity. In 3T3-L1, absorbance of extracted ORO accumulated in lipid droplets showed that cucumis melo inhibited adipogenesis significantly. Conclusion: Taken together, all evidences show that Cucumis melo var. agrestis fruit extract and further its hexane fraction possess anti-dyslipidemic and anti adipogenic potential.

IND-4

Promising Blood Sugar Lowering Action of Sunderban Mangrove

Moumita Ray 1 , Anjan Adhikari 1 , Tapas Kumar Sur 2 , Sharmistha Biswas 3 , Ranendra Kumar Roy 4 , Anup Kumar Das 1

1 Department of Pharmacology, R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata, India, 2 Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, India, 3 Department of Anatomy, N.R.S. Medical College, Kolkata, India, 4 Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Sagar Dutta Hospital, Kolkata, India

Objective: Searching of new anti-diabetic compounds from the folk medicine is the global thrust area of research. From the last few years, efforts are ongoing to identify potential blood sugar lowering agent from Sundarban mangrove. The chemical identities and therapeutic applications of Indian origin mangroves are unexplored till date. Previous studies indicated that Rhizophora mucronata (family Rhizophoracae) has potential anti-hyperglycemic properties. Present study focused on identifying the active antidiabetic principle(s) from the leaves of the plant and to establish its blood sugar lowering action on Streptozotocin induced animals. Materials and Methods: The fresh matured leaves were collected, properly identified and extracted in different organic solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Extracts were dried after solvent removal and examined for comparative qualitative and quantitative analysis following high precision chromatographic techniques. Their in-vitro antioxidant activities were evaluated and toxicological profile was checked by standard guidelines. The blood sugar and blood lipid profile were estimated in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats in a single and multiple dose experimental regimens. Results: The chromatographic analysis confirmed the presence of phenolics in the mangrove leaves. The methanolic extract showed strongest radical (DPPH) scavenging activities (IC 50 5.12 μg/mg extract). Alcoholic extract exhibited safe in acute (upto 2gm/kg orally in rat) and 28-days sub-acute toxicity studies and showed significant blood sugar and lipid lowering potentialities. The microscopic findings supported the biochemical results. Conclusions: Present studies confirmed the chemical nature of Rhizophora mucronata leaves and its blood sugar lowering activities. Purification of the chemical moiety and to explore mechanistic pathways is in research stage.

IND-5

Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activity of Leaves of Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.B.r., in Streptozotocin Nicotinamide Induced Diabetes Mellitus

Odelia Sawian 1 , Arulmozhi.S 1 , Papiya Mitra Mazumder 2 , KR Mahadik 3

1 Department of Pharmacology, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, pune, Maharashtra, India, 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India, 3 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, pune, Maharashtra, India

Objective: Alstonia scholaris Linn. (R.Br.,) has been used in traditional and folklore medicine for the treatment of diabetes. The antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Alstonia scholaris in nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced diabetes is established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethylacetate fraction from ethanolic extract of the leaves of Alstonia scholaris (known as EA) in nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats were orally administered with vehicle (2% w/v Tween 80), glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) and EA (10 and 30 mg/kg) to the respective treatment groups. The blood glucose level, body weight, glycosylated hemoglobin, muscle and liver glycogen, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status and histopathology of pancreas were performed after 6 weeks treatment and compared to the control. Results: EA and glibenclamide were found to significantly (p<0.001) reduce the blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid peroxidation whereas they increased the body weight, liver and muscle glycogen and antioxidant status. The anti-diabetic effect was sustained from 1 week onwards till the end of the study. Conclusion: It has been concluded that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanolic extract of leaves of Alstonia scholaris, in addition to the antidiabetic activity in type II diabetes mellitus, also possess antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities.

IND-6

Antifertility Efficacy of Ficus religiosa Fruits on Female Wistar Albino Rats

Shivkant Sharma 1 , Dhirender Kaushik 1 , Ramandeep Kaur 1 , Rajnesh Kumar Sharma 2

1 Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India, 2 Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshatra, Haryana, India

Objective: To evaluate the Antifertility activity of ethanolic extract of Ficus religiosa fruits. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Ficus religiosa fruit was administered at dose levels 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight p.o. for the evaluation of anti-implantation and esterogenic/antiestrogenic activity in ovariectomized female rats. In anti-implantation activity, the extract was administered to female rats from 1 to 7 days of pregnancy and on 10th day, laprotomy was performed to determine the no. of implants, total no. of resorptions and corpus luteum For estrogenic/anti-estrogenic activity, ovariectomized female rats were administered with the extract at both the doses alone as well as along with 17α-ethinyl estradiol (1 μ/rat/day) for 7 consecutive days. On the 8th day, all animals were sacrificed and uteri removed and processed for histoarchitecture study. Uterine weight, vaginal opening and vaginal cornification along with the serum cholesterol level of all the animals also studied. Results: The extract showed significant (p<0.01) 75% and 87.5% anti-implantation activities at 150 and 200 mg/kg doses respectively. The extract also exhibited significant (p<0.01) estrogenic activity as evidenced by increase in body weight, uterine weight, increased thickness and height of endometrium, vaginal cornification and decrease in serum cholesterol level which is further supported by histological study. Conclusion: Results revealed that fruits of Ficus religiosa possess antifertility activity.

IND-7

Antiepileptic Activity of Unmadgajakesari - A Herbomineral Formulation

Rajeeta Joseph 1 , Dr. V. Pandit 2 , Dr. A. Wele 3

1 Department of Pharmacology, B.V.D.U. Dental College and Hospital, Pune, 2 Department of Pharmacology, B.V.D.U. Medical College, Pune, 3 Department of Rasashastra, B.V.D.U. College of Ayurveda, Pune, India

Objective: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disorder characterized by episodes of recurrent unprovoked seizures. Unmadgajakesari (UGK) is a herbomineral formulation claimed to be useful in epilepsy in traditional medicine. Lack of scientific evidence of UGK for its use in epilepsy lead to the objective of the present work. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiepileptic activity of Unmadgajakesari in animal models. Materials and Methods: After doing the acute toxicity study of UGK, it was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity in Maximal Electroshock (MES) and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures models in albino wistar rats. For each study animals were divided into 6 groups, each group comprising of 6 animals. Group I -Normal control, Group II-Vehicle control (ghrita), Group III- Drug control (positive control). In test groups (IV-VI) UGK was administered in doses of 70, 140 and 280 mg/kg orally for 8days. Antiepileptic activity was evaluated on day 1and 8. Results: UGK was found to be nontoxic upto dose of 2000 mg/kg. Significant antiepileptic activity was observed in both the groups on 8 th day of UGK administration. In PTZ model, UGK was most effective in the dose of 70 mg/kg in delaying the onset and reducing the severity of clonic convulsions. In the MES model, significant abolition of tonic hind limb extension was observed in dose of 280 mg/kg. No adverse effects or mortality was seen in this study. Conclusion: UGK appears to have significant antiepileptic activity after repeated administration. With wide spectrum of action, this drug may be useful addition to antiepileptic agents.

MIS-1

Anti-fertility and Anti-gonadotropic Effects of Curcumin and Andrographolide in Combination in Female Rats

Surendra H. Bodakhe, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Akhilesh Kumar Chauhan, Mandeep Singh Kapoor

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, India.

Objectives: Curcumin and andrographolide plays an essential role in controlling the fertility. In present study, antifertility potential of their combination has been evaluated by studying its effect on implantation and oestrus cycle. Anti-gonadotropic effects were also evaluated using female rats. Material and Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats (180 ± 30g) were used for study. They were divided into groups and were treated as per schedule. The antifertility effect of curcumin and andrographolide was evaluated by measuring their effect on implantation and oestrus cycle of rats. Anti-gonadotropic effects were also evaluated using suitable screening method. Result: The combination significantly reduced the number of implants and the size of the litters in rats compared to the normal control group. The combination also significantly altered the durations of each phase of oestrus cycle and synergized the effect to decrease the number of ovarian follicles. Conclusion: The results indicate that the combination produces greater antifertility effects and thus can play a vital role in fertility control.

MIS-2

PTEN, E-cadherin and β-catenin Expression in Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Endometrial Carcinoma

Gaurav Sharma 1 , Annu Makker 1 , Dipti Nigam 1 , Uma Singh 2 , Vinita Das 2 , Sudhir Kumar Goel 3 , Madhu Mati Goel 1

1 Department of Pathology, King George's Medical University-UP, Lucknow, India, 2 Department of Obs and Gyne, King George's Medical University-UP, Lucknow, India, 3 Department of Biochemistry, AIIMS-Bhopal, India

Objective: PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene, is inactivated in up to 83% endometrial adenocarcinomas and lesion specific loss of the PTEN protein confirms genetic aberration in endometrial tissues. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) involving down-regulation of E-cadherin is thought to play a fundamental role during early steps of invasion and metastasis of endometrial carcinoma (EC). In EC, myometrial invasion is considered one of the most important prognostic factors. Alterations in β-catenin have been described in endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) and regulation of EMT through signaling crosstalk. EMT process has been extensively described in other types of cancer but has been poorly studied in EC. The present study therefore was undertaken with the aim to observe immunohistochemical expression of PTEN, E-cadherin and β-catenin in EIN and EC. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed using primary antibodies against PTEN, E-cadherin and β-catenin in endometrial tissue obtained from patients with EC (n=12), EIN (n=12) and healthy controls (n=12). Results: Loss of PTEN and E-cadherin was observed in EC and EIN tissues compared to normal endometrium. β-catenin expression was membranous in normal endometrium, however endometrium EIN showed nuclear expression as well. In EC β-catenin expression mainly was nuclear and was either low or totally absent in cell membranes. Conclusion: Loss of E-cadherin and PTEN with increased nuclear translocation of β-Catenin in EIN and EC suggests involvement of these markers in development of EIN and EC at an early stage. The study needs to be done on a larger sample size with molecular confirmation.

MIS-3

Synthesis and Molecular Modeling Studies of Thiazolidinone Containing Sulfonylurea Derivatives as Potential Anti-Diabetic Agents

Aman Thakur, Ajay Kumar, Dhirender Kaushik

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119

Objective: Our study targets to synthesizing and designing of new derivatives of antidiabetic potential. Material and Methods: In the present study, a series of thiazolidinone containing sulfonylurea derivatives were synthesized. The synthesized compounds were screened in-silico for anti-diabetic potential with help of molecular docking simulations. Molecular docking on structure of the cAMP responsive exchange factor EPAC2 (PDB ID: 2BYV) was performed using AutoDock Vina. All the 3D structures of synthesized compounds were prepared using MarvinSketch application of Chemaxon. Results: Among these new compounds, 2c had the best theoretical binding (-7.9 kcal/mol) with the said receptor when compared with the positive control glipizide (-7.6 kcal/mol). Conclusion: Study leads to the development of new analogs of potential antidiabetic activity.

MIS-4

Pharmaceutical Care in Patients with Limited English Proficiency in Australia.

Khan S 1,2,3 , Arora D 1,2 , Maganlal S 1

1 School of Pharmacy, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia, 2 Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia, 3 Mater Research Institute- The University of Queensland, South Brisbane, Australia

Objective: To evaluate the current practices used by the pharmacists' for communicating with patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) and to assess pharmacists' knowledge of, attitude towards, and satisfaction with accessing available services for supporting LEPs patients within their current practice settings. Methods: Semi- structured interviews was conducted with five pharmacists employed in pharmacies representing multiple practice setting Queensland, Australia. Thematic analysis was primarily informed by the general inductive approach. NVivo software (QSR International Pty Ltd) was used to manage the data. Results: Three interlinked themes emerged from the analysis of interview data: (1) Barriers to the provision of Pharmaceutical care, (2) Strategies employed in dealing with LEP patients and, (3) Lack of knowledge about existing services. Pharmacists recognised their lack of skills in communicating with LEP patients to have negative consequences for the patient and discussed these in terms of uncertainty around eliciting patient information and the patient's understanding of their instructions and or advice. Current strategies were inconsistent and challenging for LEP patient care. Use of interpreters was common. While participants perceived the usefulness of informal interpreters there was a significant degree of uncertainty surrounding their actual competency in conveying the core message. Conclusion: The present highlight a significant gap in provision of pharmaceutical care in patients with LEP. Development of user-friendly decision algorithm may aid in facilitation of quality use of medicines in such patients.

MIS-5

Sociodemographic Pattern of HIV Infected Adult Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata

Avishek Banerjea 1 , Sourav Chakraborty 1 , Anjan Adhikari 1 , Anup KR. Das 1 , Partha Sarathi Karmakar 2

1 Department of Pharmacology, R.G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, 2 Antiretroviral Therapy (A.R.T) Center, Department of Medicine, R.G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, India

Objective: To describe the sociodemographic pattern of HIV infected adult patients in a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata. Materials and Methods: It is an observational and cross sectional study comprising all newly diagnosed HIV infected adult patients attending the A.R.T center of R.G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, from September to November 2014. Patients' detailed sociodemographic profile and risk factors for HIV infection were recorded in a pre-tested and pre-designed case report form for evaluation. Results: 50 patients comprising 28 (56%) males, 20 (40%) females and 2 (4%) transgenders-transexuals, have been encountered. Mean age of presentation is 34 years. 23 (46%) patients have no formal education and 12 (24%) patients are unemployed. 41 (82%) patients have been infected through heterosexual contact. Conclusion: The present study revealed a higher prevalence of HIV infection among unemployed youth which suggests that the productive and economically viable segment of the society is worst affected. The heterosexual nature of HIV transmission supports interventions aimed at risky sexual behaviours.

MIS-6

Design and Synthesis of Pyrazoles Drivatives as Inhibitor of Dihydrofolate Reductase for Antimalarial Potential


Ajay Kumar 1 , Deepika Paliwal 1 , Dhirender Kaushik 1 , Shilpy Aggarwal 2

1 Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, 136119, Haryana, 2 R.K.S.D. (PG) College Kaithal, 136 027, Haryana

Objective: Design and Synthesis of Pyrazoles Drivatives as Inhibitor of Dihydrofolate Reductase for Antimalarial Potential. Materials and Methods: In this study, a series of pyrazoles derivaties as inhibitor of DHFR have been designed using Molecular modelling techniques like docking simulations, pharmacophore modelling etc. with the aid of Autodockvina and LigandScout. "Lipnski's Rule of five" parameter and toxicity parameters were predicted through online servers like Molinspiration and Osiris property explorer. Pyrazoles were synthesized by the reaction of 1, 3-diketones with 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole and further characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy. Results: From docking studies, 4-F substituted compound has shown highest docking score of -9.3kcal/mol with Dihydrofolate Reductase receptor. Conclusion: Study leads to development of therapeutics active antimalarial agents

MIS-7

Designing and Synthesis of Curcumin Analogs of Antimalarial Potential

Deepika Saini 1 , Dhirender Kaushik 2 , Ajay Kumar 2

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, GJU SandT, Hisar, 2 Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, K.U. Kurukshetra

Objective: Design, synthesis and evaluation of some novel curcumin derivatives with the expectation that they might be having better biological activity than existing ones. Materials and Methods: In our present study, curcumin analogs have been synthesized from α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The final products were docked against receptor for malaria using maestro 9.1. The compounds having best interactions were further evaluated for in-vitro and in-vivo activity using schizont maturation inhibition assay and 4-day suppressive test respectively. Results: From the results, compound 5d has shown maximum activity in both in-vitro and in-vivo models. Conclusion: The study concludes that curcumin analogs displayed antimalarial potential computationally as well as biologically.

MIS-8

Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Level as an Indicator of Thyroid Gland Function in a Healthy Young Adult Population

Anindita Mahanta

Department of Physiology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati

Objective: The aim of the present study was to measure the serum TSH concentration in a healthy young adult population. Material and Methods: Hundred medical students (50 males and 50 females), with no present or past history of thyroid disease, no family history of thyroid disease, no history of intake of any drug that might affect thyroid hormone profile and with no signs or symptoms suggestive of thyroid disease on clinical examination, were included in the study. Serum TSH was measured by IRMA method. Results: Mean age of subjects was 18.98±0.70years. Normal range of TSH assay was 0.30-5.00mIU/ml. Mean TSH of subjects was 2.99±1.43mIU/ml (2.96±1.43mIU/ml in males and 3.01±1.43mIU/ml in females). 12 subjects (5males and 7 females) had TSH>5.00mIU/ml. On further follow-up, they were found to be subclinical hypothyroids, defined as elevated serum TSH with normal free T4 level. Conclusion: Studies have shown an increased risk of development of overt thyroid dysfunction in subjects with high normal serum TSH. Early identification and follow-up of subclinical hypothyroid subjects will help in early diagnosis and management of overt hypothyroidism.

MIS-9

Analysis of Zinc Formulations In Indian Pharmaceutical Market


Arkapal Bandoyopadhyay, Nishant Pathak, Gyanendra Kumar, Sanjay Singh, Rakesh Chandra Chaurasia

Department of Pharmacology, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

Objective: To analyse various preparations of zinc available in Indian market for dosage forms, chemical formulations, amount of zinc and combination with other components. Materials and Methods: Zinc containing drug preparations were compiled from CIMS Jan-April 2014 edition and are categorised based on salts, dosage forms, amount of zinc, combinations and subsequently analysed. Results: Total of 468 preparations containing zinc was found. Salts found were elemental zinc 47.6%, zinc sulphate 42.3%, zinc oxide 6.6%, zinc gluconate 2.6%, zinc citrate and acetate 0.9%. Dosage forms found were solid (tablet, capsule, powder) in 87.9%, liquid form 8.7% and ointments 3.4%. Drug combinations found were with vitamins and minerals in 54.5%, with Iron and folic acid in 18%, with nutritional supplements in 17.5%, with calcitriol in 5.5% , zinc oxide ointments 4.5%. Amount of zinc in these preparations varied from 2mg to 68.5 mg. Conclusion: Analysis of products shows that zinc is used commonly in combinations with vitamins and minerals. Elemental zinc and zinc sulphate are commonly used salts. There is a wide variation in the amount of zinc in these preparations. Zinc being an integral part of metalloenzymes in body proper standardisation should be done on evidence based studies.

MIS-10

Electrophoretic Study of Adult Haemoglobin Among Assamese People With Special Reference to Abnormal Haemoglobin

Barnali Kalita

Department of Physiology, Guwahati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of different types of adult haemoglobin among Assamese people with special reference to abnormal haemoglobin. Materials and Methods: 40 cases were taken in the age group between 21-50 yrs. Alkali denaturation test and Electrophoresis method was done in the study. The tribes chosen are Ahom, Boro, Karbi, Missing, Kalita, Tea garden, Koch and Rabha. Results: In the present study of different types of haemoglobin in Assamese people out of 40 cases, 18 were normal adult haemoglobin,8 HbE trait, 8 HbE (Disease) ,4HbE (Thal) and 2 HbS disease. Conclusion: Incidence of abnormal haemoglobin was found to be higher in Ahoms and Boros. Definite opinion could not be ascertained regarding sex and age. Further followup study with larger number of subjects needs to be carried out.

MIS-11

Perceived Stress and Sources of Stress Among First Year MBBS Students

Chinmoyee Baruah, Anindita Mahanta

Department of Physiology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Department of Physiology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: The present study was carried out with the following objectives: 1. To assess the level of perceived stress among the students. 2. To identify the sources of stress among the students. Material and Methods: The present study is a questionnaire - based cross-sectional study conducted in the department of Physiology, Gauhati Medical College. 100 first year MBBS students (50 males and 50 females) were included. Results: The mean Perceived Stress Score (PSS) was 22.48 ± 5.60 (22.70 ±5.05 in females and 22.29±6.07 in males). The most common stressors were academic (performance in examination and increased class workload) and environmental (lack of time for recreation and quality of food in mess). Conclusion: Identification of the sources of stress among students and taking appropriate measures to reduce the negative impact of stressors will promote a healthy academic environment.

MIS-12

Impact of Educational Intervention on Prescription Writing Skills of Interns

H. S. Amane 1 , P.B. Bhandari 2

1 Department of Pharmacology, Peoples college of medical sciences and RC, Bhopal, MP, 2 Department of Pharmacology, SDM college of medical sciences and Hospital, Dharwad, Karnataka

Objective: The skill of ideal prescription writing is an important aspect of management. Numerous studies have shown that there is scope for improvement in prescription writing skills. Pharmacology classes which are a part of educational curriculum during the second year of medical training is not enough for future clinical rotations. In view of this, we carried out a study to assess prescription writing skills of interns before and after an educational intervention. Methods: A survey form with clinical case was designed and distributed before and after clinical pharmacology training to the interns working in a tertiary care hospital at Dharwad. Every prescription written was analyzed and scored for date, patient's name, age, sex and address, doctor's name, registration number, professional degree and signature, symbol Rx, diagnosis, drug name, dose, frequency, route, duration, quantity, refill information and instructions for labeling. Results and Conclusion: The study highlights overall knowledge of interns in relation to each prescription writing parameter. The majority of interns missed out key information while writing a prescription, such as date and instructions for labeling. There was improvement in prescription writing skills after clinical pharmacology training to the interns. This study endorses an urgent need for vigorous educational interventions regarding prescription writing skills during undergraduate studies and close monitoring during internship.

MIS-13

Retrospective Study of Pattern of Drug Used in Acute Bronchial Asthma in Medicine Department at a Tertiary Care Hospital


Kamal Ojah, H. Saikia, H.K.Sarma

Department of Pharmacology, Jorhat Medical Colllege and Hospital, Jorhat, Assam, India

Objective: The present study is aimed at examining the prescribing pattern of drugs used in acute bronchial asthma in a tertiary care centre and to analyse the appropriateness of prescriptions. Methods: Retrospective study of case records of 125 indoor patients admitted with acute bronchial asthma in Medicine department of Jorhat Medical College and Hospital between 10 th January 2014 to 20 th September 2014 was done after getting approval from Institutional Research and Ethical committee. Results: The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. It was observed that among the antiasthmatic drugs salbutamol was most commonly prescribed, followed by montelukast and prednisolone. In the combination therapy, the most commonly prescribed was (ipratropium bromide +salbutamol) 60.00% followed by (budesonide +formeterol) 31.85% and (salmeterol +fluticasone) 8.15%. Conclusion: Upon over all analysis this study indicates good prescribing practices among the physician in the hospital where study was undertaken. To conclude the treatment protocol followed in our hospital is in consensus with international guidelines.

MIS-14

A Retrospective Study of Pattern of Prescription for Eclampsia Patient in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Jorhat, Assam.

Medhi N, Saikia H, Sarma H K

Department of Pharmacology, Jorhat Medical College and Hospital, Jorhat, Assam, India

Objective: The study aims to evaluate the management and prescription pattern among inpatients with Eclampsia. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in the indoor patients of Eclampsia of the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Jorhat Medical College for last 3 months. The Medical records were collected and compiled for detail review for the study of drugs used in Eclampsia patients. Drugs those were prescribed for other than Eclampsia were not included for study. Results: In total 78 prescriptions were studied for the type of drugs used in the patient with Eclampsia and their effect on the mother and new born were noted. Among the total (58%) were Primigravida. Out of the total (62.8%) patients were controlled by the First line drugs. (38.4%) went through Caesarean Section. While (71.3%) new born were born with depressed respiratory system, (18.4%) mother shows signs of Post partum Eclampsia but were recovered without any minimal residual effect. Also (21.9%) maternal mortality was recorded. While there was (13.4%) intra uterine fetal death and (9.2%) early neonatal death. Conclusion:- Analysis shows that Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO 4 ) one of the most common drug used in Eclampsia which still needs further study to improve on it and on the basis of which newer drugs could be developed.

MIS-15

Critical Appraisal of Patient Package Inserts and "The Need"


Pranjit Narzaree, M.C. Gupta

Department of Pharmacology, PT. B.D.Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India

Objective: To evaluate package inserts of allopathic medicines for completeness of its content. Material and Methods: Hundred Package inserts accompanying allopathic drug products marketed by Indian pharmaceutical companies were collected in 4 weeks duration from pharmacies nearby PGIMS, Rohtak and analyzed as per section 6.2 and 6.3 of schedule D of Indian Drug and cosmetic Act 1945 and also compared to US FDA guidelines. Results: The contents were not uniform and difficult to locate. Drugs usage during pregnancy, lactation were absent in 12%, ability to drive and use machines were absent in 81% and drug interactions in 21%, management for overdosing 25%, expiry date absent in 80%. In comparison to US FDA, it lacked disclaimer statement, boxed warning notification, special care precautions during labor and delivery period, in pediatric and geriatric population, immediate access to details of safety and efficacy, abuse and dependence, categorization of adverse drug reactions in clinical trial, revision date, references, approval date, a toll-free number and internet reporting for suspected adverse events, post marketing experience, clinical pharmacology, clinical studies etc. Conclusion: Current concept of package inserts does not seems to be serving effectively. Therefore necessary steps should be taken to avoid discrepancies. A user friendly Patient-oriented Package Insert should be reformulated such that it can serve as a better tool.

MIS-16

Assessment of Recent Medico-Legal Updates Among Medical Practitioners in Kolkata

Sugoto Datta1, Sourav Das Choudhury2

1 Department of Pharmacology, R.G.Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, 2 Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata

Objective: Medical jurisprudence in day-to-day clinical practice is a grey area for many clinicians and the associated principle of respect for autonomy continues to remain elusive for a majority. We conducted a study to assess awareness of recent medico-legal updates among medical practitioners in Kolkata. Methods: The study is being conducted by carrying out a questionnaire based survey on 100 consecutive medical practitioners in Kolkata. The study tool is a pretested structured questionnaire administered and filled by the responder. The questionnaire comprised 24 items, of which 15 pertained to 'consent' , whilst 3 each pertained to 'standard of care', 'duty of care' and 'confidentiality'. Results: Responses from 28 subjects (42.86% general physicians, 67.86% males, 92% Hindu, mean age 36.3±9.24 years) have been analyzed. Responses were poorest for 'duty of care', where the correct responses were provided in less than 40% cases. The responses varied widely for the items on 'consent', where correct responses varied between 14.3% and 80.8%. The awareness regarding 'standard of care' and 'confidentiality' is superior to the other areas. The worst response (14.3%) was observed regarding the technical aspects of consent form filling. The responses were comparable amongst general physicians and specialists. Conclusion: Medico-legal knowledge is inadequate among medical practitioners in Kolkata, especially so regarding 'duty of care' and 'consent'. The study needs to be extended to a pan-institutional setting rather than an individualized one.

MIS-17

A Qualitative Analytical Study to Assess Causality, Preventability and Severity of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) Amongst Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients on Maintenance Immunosuppressant Therapy

Divya John Stephy.J, C.Ramachandra Bhat

Government Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India

Objective: (i) To assess the incidence and pattern of immunosuppressive drug- induced ADRs in adult kidney transplant recipients (ii) To assess the causality, preventability and severity of the reported/ collected ADRs. Material and Methods: Data from medical records of Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients on maintenance immuosuppressive drugs (on one or more of the following drugs: corticosteroids, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, everolimus and sirolimus) attending Renal Transplant Outpatient clinic of Department of Nephrology, Govt. Kilpauk medical College between September 2014 - November 2014 will be collected. Qualitative Analysis for assessment of Causality by Naranjo Algorithm; Assessment of Preventability by Modified Schumock and Thorton criteria and Severity assessment by WHO scale. Results: The current study is in ongoing phase. A comprehensive observation on the incidence and pattern of ADRs associated with specific immunosuppressant agents, temporal relationship to onset of ADRs, assessment of causality, preventability and severity of reported/treated ADRs would be analysed and presented in the conference. Conclusion: Based on the study results, common ADRs, System Organ Classification based pattern, temporal characteristics, severity, preventability of immunosuppressant drug- induced ADRs could be identified. This data would help in giving valuable feedback to revise treatment/ follow up protocols and aid in minimising ADRs among Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients.

MIS-18

Problem Based Integrated Teaching MDP Patient with use of GMHAT

Lokendra K. Sharma, ID Gupta, Ramesh Kumar Mishra, S K. Singhal

SMS Medical College, Jaipur, India

Objective: To compare the effects of traditional teaching with Integrated teaching. Materials and Methods: An analytic observational study was carried out on MBBS students. After taking pre-test of students they were divided randomly into two groups, one group underwent learning through tradition teaching and other group took sessions through problem based integrated teaching technique. After finishing the topic, post test was taken. Significance of difference of scores of pre and post-test of students was assessed by paired't' test while significance of difference in mean change of scores in both groups of students was assessed by unpaired 't' test. Student's and faculty's perception regarding the new approach was also inquired. Conclusion: problem based Integrated teaching was found to be more effective than the traditional one. This INTEGRATED TL method was well accepted by faculty as well as students. Both students and faculty had a positive attitude toward this innovation in education.

MIS-19

Evaluation of Curative Action of Metformin in Ethanol induced Hepatic Dysfunction in Rats


Borole D. Kanchan, Bodhankar SL

Department of Pharmacology, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Medical College, Pune, Katraj Dhankawadi, Pune, India

Objective: Alcoholism is very common in adults both genders as it is accepted as a social drink. Excessive alcohol consumption causes toxic effects as occasional alcohol consumption results into addiction, in which liver damage is very common. There are no promising drugs available to cure the established liver damage. So this study was undertaken to evaluate curative effect of Metformin in ethanol induced hepatic damage. Material and Methods: Thirty eight Sprague Dawley rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were divided into 5 groups.40%v/v Ethanol in dose 1 ml/100g/d was given orally for 90 days. From 91 st day onwards Group-I: Control(E)- Ethanol stopped, Group-II- Vehicle control (DW): Distilled water, Group-III: Metformin 125 mg/kg (low), Group-IV: Metformin 250 mg/kg (moderate), Group-V: Metformin 500 mg/kg (high), were started and continued till next 90 days. Biochemical Parameters- LFTs- AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, Bilirubin, ProthrombinTime (PT), Protein, Albumin on day-1, day-91, day-181. On day-181 rats sacrificed and livers subjected to histopathological scoring as: Portal fibrosis (PF):0-6, Lobular infiltration and Necrosis (LIN):0-3, Mallory bodies (MB):0-3, Hepatocytes ballooning (HB):0-3, Perisinusoidal Fibrosis (PSF):0-3, Fatty changes (FC):0-3. Results: Ninety days ethanol administration caused significant rise in AST, ALT, ALP, GGT and bilirubin levels with significant prolongation of PT and significant decrease in protein, albumin levels in all animals. In control group-I (E) and Group-II (DW) the biochemical parameters were further deteriorated till day-180. In drug treated groups, there was significant improvement in all biochemical parameters which were comparable with day-1 observations. Significantly high histopathological scores in group-I and group-II than drug treated groups, confirmed these findings. Conclusion: Metformin appears a promising drug in treatment of alcoholic liver disease.

MIS-20

Assessment of Antimalarial Effects of Rutin by In Vitro Experimental Model

Rajesh Choudhary, Divya Shitlani and Surendra H. Bodakhe

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur, C.G.-495009.

Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the potential of antimalarial activity of rutin by in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Material Methods: Antimalarial activity of rutin was evaluated through in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Plasmodium falciparum culture plates were divided into different groups, each containing five plates. Control group was treated with 5 ml of DMSO, standard group was treated with 5 ml of chloroquine phosphate (0.06 μg/ml), and test group was treated with 5 ml of three different concentration of rutin (8, 9 and 10 μg/ml). In vitro antiplasmodial activity of rutin in term of IC 50 value determined through microscopic monitoring, as concentration of agent causing 50% reduction in parasitaemia as compared to control culture parasitaemia. Results: In vitro analysis through effect of rutin on cultured P. falciparum (chloroquine sensitive) shown significant (p<0.001) antiplasmodial activity against control group and revealed IC 50 value about 9.50 ± 0.50 μg/ml. Conclusion: The finding of the results suggested that rutin have a potential antimalarial activity against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

MIS-21

Modification of Immunological Responses by Trigonella Foenum Graecum Extract: An Experimental Study in Albino Rats.

Ch. Roja Rani 1 A. Seshagiri Rao 2

Assistant professor, Department of Anatomy, Maharajah's Institute of Medical Sciences, Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh, India

Aim and objectives:
The present study is to compare its immunological respose with Garlic (Allium sativum) and Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.). Materials and Methods: Aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) was prepared by following standard extraction procedures. In the present study 5gm of seeds were powdered, extracted into water and finally concentrated to 10 ml. The extract was used throughout our present study. A similar extract was prepared using Garlic (Allium sativum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.). Garlic and Turmeric are well documented anti-inflammatory agents with considerable immunological response in many of the earlier studies. In our experimental animals the antigen stimulus was produced by inoculating 0.25 ml of typhoid 'H' antigen once subcutaneously. Aqueous extracts of Fenugreek, Garlic and Turmeric prepared as standard extracts as detailed above were administered orally daily for 10 consecutive days in antigen challenged albino rats. The antibody titre was estimated in these cases on the 11 th day of antigenic stimulus by employing widal agglutination test. Results and Conclusion: The test dose of Fenugreek extract administered per orally significantly inhibited the antibody titre and results were comparable to those with Garlic and Turmeric.

NEU-1

Comparison of the Adaptogenic Efficacy of Three Different Withania somnifera Extracts in Mice.


Amitabha Dey 1 , Shyam Sunder Chatterjee 2 , Vikas Kumar 1

1 Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, India, 2 Stettiner Str. 1, Karlsruhe, Germany (Retired Head of Pharmacology Research Laboratories, Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH and Co. KG, Karlsruhe, Germany)

Objective: Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is an important Rasayana herb and widely considered as Indian ginseng in Ayurveda. In traditional system of Indian medicine, it was used as tonic to promote physical and mental health, rejuvenate the body in debilitated conditions and increase longevity. Materials and Methods: The study was designed to compare the oral efficacies of three different standardized extracts of W. somnifera viz. root extract (WSR), aerial part extract (WSA) and stem extract (WSS) for putative adaptogenic activity in both male and female mice. A battery of tests i.e. Stress induced hyperthermia, hot plate test, tail suspension test and pentobarbital induced sleep were used to delineate the adaptogenic activity of these extracts. Mice were divided in different groups (n=6), and was subjected with WSR, WSA and WSS (50 mg/kg) daily as oral suspension in 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose for 11 consecutive days. The control group received vehicle only. Results: Stress induced hyperthermia was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by WSR (50 mg/kg) followed by WSA and WSS both in male and female mice. Daily administration of test extracts significantly (p<0.05) reduced immobility time in tail suspension test, shown significant effect on onset and duration of sleep in pentobarbital induce sleeping test and also significantly increased the hot plate reaction time as compared to control, the activity of WSR was found greater followed by WSA and WSS. Conclusion: These observations indicate that W. somnifera has significant adaptogenic activity, confirming the clinical use of the plant against diverse spectrums of stress associated psychopathologies.

NEU-2

Pharmacological Investigations on Cross Adaptation in Immobilization and Electric Foot Shock Stress in Mice

Anjana Bali, EitikaChauhan, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala -147002.

Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the existence of cross adaptation between immobilization and foot shock stress and to identify the role of endogenous opioids in cross adaptation. Material and Methods: Mice were immobilized for 2 h and electric foot shocks of 0.5 mA intensity, 1s duration with an interval of 2 min were delivered for 1 h to induce stress. A single episode of immobilization or electric foot shock was employed for acute stress; while repeated episodes of same stressor for 5 days were employed for stress adaptation. For cross adaptation, stressors were exchanged i.e., homotypic stressor was replaced with heterotypic stressor on the 6 th day. Stress-related behavioral alterations were assessed using actophotometer, hole board, open field and social interaction tests. Results: Single exposure of immobilization and foot shock produced behavioral alterations on the first day, which were selectively restored in repeated immobilization (not foot shock) subjected animals on the 5 th day indicating the development of adaptation. Furthermore, acute exposure of foot shock as a novel, heterotypic stressor did not produce behavioral alterations in immobilization stress (homotypic) adapted animals indicating the development of cross adaptation. Administration of naloxone abolished the restoration of behavioral changes as a part of adaptive/ cross adaptive process in repeated immobilization stress subjected mice. Conclusion: Mice adapted to immobilization stress demonstrate cross adaptation to foot shock stress, with the possible involvement of endogenous opioids in induction of adaptation and cross adaptation at behavioral level.

NEU-3

Possible behavioural and biochemical alterations in the neuroprotective effect of Carvedilol against aluminium induced neurotoxicity


Archi Aggarwal 1* , Anil Kumar 1

1
Pharmacology Division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC Centre of Advanced Study, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of carvedilol against aluminium chloride induced cognitive dysfunction in rats. Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats received aluminium chloride (100 mg/kg) in drinking water daily for a period of 6 week. Carvedilol (2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) was administered for period of 6 weeks. Behavioral parameter (Morris water maze) followed by biochemical estimations (LPO, reduced glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, catalase, nitrite, SOD, AChE, aluminium estimation) were assessed in the brain. Result: Chronic aluminium chloride administration significantly delayed acquisition latency to reach the visual platform as compared to the naive group, indicating memory deficits. Carvedilol (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) treatment for 6 weeks significantly improved cognitive performance in morris water maze task and attenuated oxidative damage (reduction in MDA, nitrite conc. and reduced GSH and decreased glutathione S-transferase, SOD and catalase activities) in the brain as compared to control rats. Conclusion- The present study highlight the neuroprotective actions of carvedilol against aluminium induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage.

NEU-4

Evaluation of Hyperglycemia Induced Neuronal Stress in Neuro 2a Neuroblastoma Cells As An

In vitro Model of Diabetic Neuropathy: Therapeutic Implications of Rosmarinic acid


Chayanika.G*, Aparna.A, Rupasree.P, Veera Ganesh.Y, Prasanth.K, Ashutosh Kumar

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, NIPER-Hyderabad, Balanagar, Telangana, India

Objective: The present study is aimed at examining the effect of hyperglycemic stimulus on morphological and biochemical changes in Neuro 2a cells and to evaluate the protective role of Rosmarinic acid (RA) in overcoming those changes. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effects of elevated glucose and protective role of RA, we propose an in vitro system with Neuro 2a cell lines as a model for diabetic neuropathy. The optimum hyperglycemic dose was selected based on cytotoxicity findings. RA treatment was given at 15 and 30 μM/ml doses to hyperglycemia induced cells. The biochemical changes like MDA and GSH were estimated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and ellmans method respectively. Intracellular ROS was determined by DCFDA staining and apoptotic cell examination by Acridine orange and Ethidium bromide (AO-EB) staining. To determine anti-inflammatory activity of RA, Nitric oxide (NO) assay was performed using griess reagent. Results: The hyperglycemic dose was found to be 100 mM/ml glucose, where gross biochemical, structural changes were observed. RA treatment in hyperglycemia induced neuro 2a cell lines showed reduced MDA levels and enhanced GSH levels. Intracellular ROS and apoptosis was found to be reduced as evident by DCFDA staining and AO-EB staining respectively. RA exposure also ameliorated hyperglycemia induced elevation in NO levels. Conclusion: The results suggest that hyperglycemic exposure (100 mM glucose) to Neuro 2a cells simulates the conditions of oxidative and inflammatory changes present in diabetic neuropathy phenotype. RA has shown antioxidant and neuroprotective property in vitro and can be proceed for in vivo examination.

NEU-5

Effects of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors in Ameliorating Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Rats: Behavioural, Biochemical and Histological Analysis


Debasree Deb 1 , K.L. Bairy 2 , Mohandas Rao 1 , Veena Nayak 2

1 Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, 2 Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Objective: To evaluate the memory enhancing effect of ACE inhibitors in scopolamine-induced amnesia model. Materials and Methods: Male rats were divided into 6 groups: control (2% gum acacia), scopolamine (2 mg/kg i.p.), ramipril (0.45 mg/kg), lisinopril (0.45 mg/kg) and fosinopril (1.80 mg/kg). Drug groups were treated orally for 4 weeks. Scopolamine was administered as single dose (2 mg/kg i.p.) at end of treatment period. Rats were subjected to Morris Water Maze (MWM) test followed by analysis of ChAT activity and study of hippocampal morphology. Results were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test. Values of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In MWM test, ramipril showed better efficacy compared to lisinopril and fosinopril in both acquisition and retention trials and the difference was statistically significant compared to scopolamine (p<0.001). ChAT activity increased with higher dose of ramipril and was significant compared to scopolamine (p<0.001). Neuronal cell damage was less evident in ramipril group compared to lisinopril and fosinopril. Conclusion: The study shows that ramipril has a potential role in improving memory deficits seen in AD though further studies are warranted to achieve conclusive result.

NEU-6

Association of Apo E 4 and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in Alzheimer's disease (AD)

Deepak Divakar a , Anoop Kumar a , Sanjay Bishnoi b , Dinakar Sasmal a , Neelima Sharma a

a Department of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, BIT Mesra, Ranchi. b Department of Clinical Research, Jamia Hamdarad University, New Delhi, India

Objective: ApoE4 gene and Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the strongest known risk factor for AD. The identification of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as well as ApoE4 gene is at high risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) which is important for prognosis and early intervention. So, this study critically reviews to establish the association of ApoE4 and MCI in AD. Methods: 84 articles from different sources of literature journal are searched after explicitly reviewing; eventually selected 34 research articles are included to fulfil the objective. Results: Pearson's coefficient is calculated with the help of statistical analysis software (SAS) and was found to be 0.782, which means that there is a moderately strong linear relationship between the two variables (AD and MCI PLUS APOe4). Conclusion: There is association between APoe4+ Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and AD which means that a person having APOe4 allele with MCI in early stage have more risk of getting Alzheimer Disease. So, if we can identify traits of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and APOe4, we can start the treatment of Alzheimer Disease in early stages.

NEU-7

Anti-Stress Activity of Aqueous Extract of Terminalia belerica in Normal and Diabetic Rats

Naveen Shivavedi 1 , Deepaneeta Sarmah 1 , Shyam Sunder Chatterjee 2, Vikas Kumar 1

1
Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi-221 005, India, 2 Stettiner Str. 1, Karlsruhe, Germany (Retired Head of Pharmacology Research Laboratories, Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH and Co. KG, Karlsruhe, Germany)

Objective: Terminalia belerica is one of three components of the Ayurvedic formulation "Triphala", and it was reported as Ayurvedic Rasayana herbs to have an adaptogenic properties. In view of that, the present study on aqueous extract of Terminalia belerica fruits (TB) was designed to investigate its anti-stress activities in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg/i.p.) in rats. TB 5, 25 and 125 mg/kg/p.o. dose was administered for seven consecutive days and blood glucose levels were monitored periodically. Rats were subjected to foot-shock for 1 hr daily for fourteen days through a grid floor in standard conditioning chamber with the escape route closed to, for inducing stress. To access the intensity of stress-induced effects, battery of models i.e. gastric ulceration, behavioural despair test, suppression of sexual behaviour in male rats, and adrenal and spleen weight were performed. Results: TB at dose 25 and 125 mg/kg was shown significant decrease in gastric ulceration in both diabetic and non diabetic rats similar to Withania somnifera (WS) as standard. In behavioural despair test, TB (25 and 125 mg/kg) demonstrated significant effects in immobility period, like WS. Whereas, suppression of sexual behaviour test TB was shown dose dependent significant increase in number of mountings. Moreover, TB (25 and 125 mg/kg) was demonstrated significant effects on increased weight of adrenal gland and decreased weight of spleen after removal from the body. Conclusion: These observations suggested that TB has potential for treatment of anti-stress activity.

NEU-8

Exploring Anti-Stress Potential of Furosemide in Immobilization and Electric Foot Shock Stress in Mice

Puneet Kaur Randhawa, Aalamjeet Kaur, Anjana Bali, Nirmal singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University Patiala-147002,

Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the anti-stress effect of furosemide (sodium potassium chloride co-transporter inhibitor) in immobilization and foot shock stress-induced behavioral alterations. Materials and Methods: Acute stress was induced in Swiss albino mice either by applying electric foot shocks of 0.6 mA intensity of 1 sec duration with 30 s inter-shock interval for 1 hr or immobilizing for 150 minutes. The acute stress-induced behavioral changes were assessed by using actophotometer, hole board, open field and social interaction tests. Biochemically, the corticosterone levels were estimated in the serum as a biomarker of HPA axis. Results: Acute stress resulted in development of behavioral alterations and elevation of the corticosterone levels. Intraperitoneal administration of furosemide (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) significantly attenuated immobilization and foot shock stress-induced behavioral changes along with normalization of the corticosterone levels. Furosemide produced comparable beneficial effects in restoring immobilization and foot shock stress-induced behavioral and biochemical changes. Conclusion: Furosemide mediated attenuation of corticosterone release may be responsible for beneficial effects in re-establishment of behavioral alterations in immobilization and foot shock induced acute stress in mice.

NEU-9

Exploring the Role of Simvastatin in Vincristine-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats


Amteshwar Singh Jaggi, Shrutya Bhalla, Nirmal Singh

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University Patiala, India

Objective: The present study explores the role of simvastatin in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain. Material and Methods: Neuropathic pain was induced by administering vincristine (100 μg/kg i.p) for 10 days (two 5 day cycles with 2 days pause). Pain was assessed by determining mechanical hyperalgesia, mechanical dynamic allodynia, heat hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. Biochemically, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured along with serum cholesterol levels. Simvastatin (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days after administration of vincristine. Results: Simvastatin (7.5 and 15 mg/kg) reversed vincristine-induced neuropathic pain and attenuated vincristine-induced increase in MPO, without altering cholesterol levels. Simvastatin at higher dose (30 mg/kg) did not alter neuropathic pain despite decreasing MPO levels. Furthermore, administration of simvastatin (30 mg/kg i.p.) in vincristine treated rats as well as it's per se administration in normal rats reduced cholesterol levels. Per se administration of simvastatin in normal rats produced neuropathic pain. Conclusion: Simvastatin attenuates neuropathic pain only at lower doses with no reduction in cholesterol levels and anti-inflammatory effects may be possibly reverse neuropathic pain. However, despite reducing inflammation, simvastatin did not confer beneficial effects at higher doses at which there is reduction in cholesterol levels suggesting the critical role of cholesterol in neuropathic pain induction.

NEU-10

Inhalational Agent of Choice for Anaesthetic Management of Morbidly Obese Patients.

Mehta MN, Nerurkar RP

Department of Pharmacology, Topiwala National Medical College and B.Y.L. Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai, India

Objective: To compare desflurane and sevoflurane for the anaesthetic management of morbidly obese patients. Materials and Methods: Literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Google Scholar with the key words "desflurane", "sevoflurane" and "Morbidly obese patients" using appropriate filters. Publications between January 1985 to September 2014 that were clinical trials comparing desflurane and sevoflurane in morbidly obese patients, fulfilling the JADED criteria (score>3) were considered for analysis. Results from these shortlisted trials were computed to compare the inhalational anaesthetics desflurane and sevoflurane in the management of morbidly obese patients . Results: Initial search yielded eleven publications of which only five met the inclusion criteria. Four out of five studies concluded that contribution of Body Mass Index (BMI) to delay in airway reflex recovery is more pronounced with sevoflurane. Three studies evaluated the pharmacokinetic profiles and concluded that sevoflurane is less lipophilic, more potent and has rapid uptake and elimination while desflurane has rapid elimination and negligible metabolism. Two out of five studies quoted that desflurane is a better alternative to sevoflurane in chronic renal or hepatic impairment. Conclusion: A systematic analysis of the published articles concludes that desflurane has early extubation, faster recovery, safety in renal and hepatic impairment, better pharmacokinetic profile, early ambulation and better patient satisfaction as compared to sevoflurane and is thus, the preferred inhalational agent in the anaesthetic management of morbidly obese patients.

NEU-11

Rosmarinic Acid Resists Neuroinflammatory Manifestations Associated With Diabetic Neuropathy in Streptozotocin Induced Rats

Veera Ganesh Yerra*, Reddamma.S, Ashutosh Kumar

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, NIPER-Hyderabad, Balanagar, Telangana-500037.

Objective: The present study was aimed at evaluating the neuroprotective efficacy of rosmarinic acid; an antioxidant from variety of medicinal plants in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were rendered diabetic using STZ (55 mg/kg, i.p). Rosmarinic acid (RA) was administered (25 and 50 mg/kg) during the last 2 weeks of 8week diabetic period. At the end of study, animals were assessed for their response to thermal, mechanical hyperalgesia and subjected to testing of motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and nerve blood flow (NBF) followed by sacrifice. Sciatic nerves were isolated from animals for biochemical, immunohistochemical and protein expression studies. Results: RA administration significantly increased tail withdrawal latencies and paw withdrawal thresholds in tail immersion test and von Frey tests respectively. Diabetes induced impairment in nerve conduction and endonutritive blood supply were ameliorated with RA treatment. RA supplementation also reduced oxidative DNA damage and expression of NF-κB and COX-2 as evident by TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical staining respectively. Conclusion: RA was found to inhibit the oxidative stress associated inflammatory complications in sciatic nerves of diabetic rats and can be developed as therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

NEU-12

Neuroprotective Effect of Memantine against Chronic Stress Induced Loss of Hippocampal Neurons

Sandeep Kumar Mishra, Ramoji Kosuru, Tushar Batra, Nitin Verma, Sanjay Singh*

Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Objective: To investigate the neuroprotective effect of chronic memantine treatment on mitochondrial functional status of the hippocampal neurons and its consequal behavioural effects in chronic stress model of depression. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 36 male wistar rats, weighing 260 ± 20 gm. The rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, stress and stress + memantine groups. Animals in the stress and stress + memantine group were exposed to chronic stress for 28 days. Drug treatment group received memantine (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day i.p.) during the stress period. Mitochondria were isolated and electron transport chain enzymes were estimated. Plasma corticosterone levels were estimated by HPLC. Results: We found that memantine at all doses (5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg) has the capacity to revert the changes in mitochondrial ETC enzyme activity and oxidative parameters due to chronic stress, though up to different levels. At 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, memantine showed better performance in behavioral test but 10 mg /kg dose of memantine was found to be better than 5 mg/kg in improving oxidative stress parameters. Conclusion: Memantine 10 mg/kg was found to be neuroprotective against chronic stress induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and loss of memory without any locomotor deficits.

NEU-13

Estimation of Pharmacologically Interesting Dose Range and Treatment Regimen of Ascorbic Acid in Mice

Naveen Shivavedi 1 , Shyam Sunder Chatterjee 2 , Vikas Kumar 1

1
Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi-221 005, India, 2 Stettiner Str. 1, Karlsruhe, Germany (Retired Head of Pharmacology Research Laboratories, Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH and Co. KG, Karlsruhe, Germany)

Objective: L-Ascorbic acid (AA) is the most abundant water-soluble naturally occurring organic compound with antioxidant properties. It serves as a cofactor for enzymes involved in hormone biosynthesis, and the regeneration of antioxidants. Plants and food rich in AA have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. Materials and Methods: The experimental protocol was designed to evaluate the oral efficacies of AA for putative adaptogenic activity in male mice. A battery of behaviour test models viz. stress-induced hyperthermia, tail suspension test and pentobarbital-induced hypnosis were used to evaluate the adaptogenic activity of AA. Mice were divided in different groups, and were administered with AA (5, 25, 125 and 625 mg/kg) daily as solution (10 ml/kg) prepared with pH balanced distilled water for 11 consecutive days. Body weight and basal rectal temperature was measured to access the changes occurs due to daily foot shock induced stress. Results: Stress-induced hyperthermia was significant (p<0.05) reduced by AA in dose dependant manner and also compensated the body weight and basal rectal temperature due to daily handling and intermittent foot shock induced stress. Daily administration with test drug was also reduced the immobility period in tail suspension test and showed considerable potentiating effect on onset and duration of sleep in pentobarbital-induce hypnosis test in dose dependent manner. Conclusion: These observations suggest that AA has potential for adaptogenic activity, and it could be used against various spectrums of neuropsycopharmalogical associated with environmental stress.

NEU-14

Paroxetine Attenuates Modified Stress-Re-Stress-Induced Post-traumatic Stress Disorder-Like Behavioral Symptoms

Debapriya Garabadu, Neha Singh, Sairam Krishnamurthy*

Neurotherapeutics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Objective: To attenuate post-traumatic stress disorder-like behavioral symptoms. Materials and Methods: Halothane, paroxetine. The establishment of an appropriate animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is necessary to promote better understanding of the mechanisms of the disorder. Although no single widely accepted animal model of PTSD has been established to date, the stress re-stress (SRS) animal model has been partially validated as a model for PTSD. However, there is no chronic model for PTSD-like symptoms. Hence, a modification has been proposed to develop long-term PTSD-like behavioral symptoms in the present study. On day-1 (D-1) rats underwent for training session in elevated-plus maze (EPM) test. On D-2, rats were subjected to stress protocol of 2 h restraint and 20 min forced-swim followed by halothane anesthesia. The rats were exposed to re-stress (forced-swim) on D-8 and at six day intervals on D-14, D-20, D-26 and D-32. The rats were treated with paroxetine (PAX; 10.0 mg/kg; p.o.) from D-8 to D-32. Results: Paroxetine attenuated depressive-like symptom in terms of increase in immobility period in forced-swim test in SRS exposed rats from D-14 to D-32. Paroxetine exhibited anxiolytic activity in terms of decrease in the percentage entries and time spent into open arm in EPM in modified SRS exposed animals. Moreover, paroxetine also improved the cognitive deficits in terms of increase in the percentage decrease in the novel arm entries into novel arm in Y-maze in modified SRS rats. Conclusion: These observations emphasize the fact that paroxetine could be an alternative candidate in the long-lasting PTSD.

NEU-15

Stress Response Desensitizing Efficacies of Triethylene Glycol and Quercetin in Mice.

Nikita Shrivastava 1 , Shyam Sunder Chatterjee 2 , Vikas Kumar 1

Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, India, 2 Stettiner Str. 1, Karlsruhe, Germany (Retired Head of Pharmacology Research Laboratories, Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH and Co. KG, Karlsruhe, Germany)

Objective: Triethylene glycol and quercetin are two antimicrobial and cyto-static agents encountered also in the adaptogenic herb Withania somnifera. Aim of this study was to compare their efficacies in a mouse bioassay for stress response modulating efficacies of test agents. Materials and Methods: Groups of mice were orally treated with graded daily oral doses of triethylene glycol, or quercetin, or with their vehicles for 11 consecutive days. They were subjected to a foot shock stress triggered hyperthermia test on the 1 st , 5 th , 7 th and 10 th days of treatments, and to tail suspension test on the 11 th day of the treatments. One day after these tests, effects of pretreatments on pentobarbital induced sleep was quantified. Results: Efficacies of both the test agents for inhibiting transient foot shock triggered hyperthermia increased with their increasing daily doses, and their dose dependant antidepressant like effects in tail suspension test were apparent after their 11 daily doses. Daily handling and intermittent foot shock stress triggered looses in body weights and slight elevation of basal core temperatures observed in vehicle treated mice were also dose dependently reversed by both of them. Minimum effective daily oral dose of triethylene glycol for antagonizing pentobarbital hypnosis was 20 mg/kg, whereas that of quercetin was 400 mg/kg. Conclusion: Both triethylene glycol and quercetin are two stress response modulating secondary metabolites of Withania somnifera, whereupon triethylene glycol is orally more effective. Triethylene glycol is a structurally simpler and functionally novel therapeutic lead from this well known Ayurvedic medicinal plant.

NEU-16

Resveratrol Inhibits Behavioral and Neuroinflammatory Changes in Oxaliplatin Induced Sensory Neuropathy

Payal Kumari*, Manasa.A, Aparna.A, Ashutosh Kumar

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, NIPER-Hyderabad, Balanagar, Telangana, India

Objective: To assess the role of neuroinflammation in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and to determine the protective effect of Resveratrol in CIPN. Materials and Methods: Resveratrol was administered at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks daily (i.p.) for Oxaliplatin (4 mg/kg twice weekly for 4 weeks, i.p.) treated animals. Thermal hyperalgesia was assessed using tail immersion in cold (10 0 C) and hot (45 0 C) water. Mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed using Von Frey aesthesiometer and Randall selitto callipers. Motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and Sciatic nerve blood flow (NBF) were determined using power lab system and Laser Doppler system respectively. TUNEL assay and immuohistochemistry were performed on the sciatic nerve sections. Results: Resveratrol treatment significantly increased tail flick latency and paw withdrawal threshold, when compared to Oxaliplatin treated control rats. TUNEL assay shows that extent of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis has been reduced by the treatment with Resveratrol. MNCV and NBF were not altered to a significant extent in Oxaliplatin treated animals. Treatment with Resveratrol also inhibited the expression of inflammatory markers such as NF-κB and COX-2 in sciatic nerve sections. Conclusion: Results obtained in our study clearly indicates the role of neuroinflammatory cascade in the pathogenesis of CIPN. It has been also evident that Resveratrol could overcome the behavioral disturbances associated with neuropathy through its anti inflammatory, anti oxidant activity and hence emphasizes the importance of developing it as a medical remedy for symptomatic relief in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

NEU-17

Ameliorative Effect of Hesperidin against Aluminium Chloride-Induced Nephro-Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Mice

Prabha K Rajput 1 , Ashok Jangra 1 , Prajapati Kasbe 1 , Shubham Dwivedi 1 , Sr Chandershaker 1 , Satendra Singh Gurjar 2 , Mangala Lahkar 1, 3

1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam, India, 2 Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam, India, 3 Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of hesperidin on aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 )-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice (20-25 g) were administered AlCl 3 (100 mg/kg; p.o.) for 8 weeks and concurrently treated with hesperidin (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) for the same duration. Animals were sacrificed on 57 th day, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Hepatic and renal functional parameters (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, urea, creatinine, and albumin) were analyzed in the serum. Oxido-nitrosative stress was measured through Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, reduced glutathione content, nitrite estimation and by evaluating the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in tissue homogenates. Results: AlCl 3 significantly increased the lipid peroxidation, nitrite content and significant decrease in GSH level, SOD activity in the AlCl 3 group compared with the control group in liver and kidney homogenates. Moreover, serum analysis revealed that AlCl 3 causes significant changes in hepatic and renal function parameters Hesperidin (100 mg/kg) significantly abrogates the AlCl 3 -induced oxido-nitrosative stress along with restoration of the hepatic and renal functional parameters in liver and kidney. Conclusion: Our study reveals that oxido-nitrosative stress appears to play a major role in AlCl 3 -induced hepato-renal toxicity and oral hesperidin (100 mg/kg) administration restored the antioxidant defense system and protected against AlCl 3 -induced nephro and hepatotoxicity.

NEU-18

Evaluation of Protective Effect of Fisetin in an Experimental Model of Hyperglycemia Induced Stress in Neuro 2a Cells

Pragna.B*, Rupasree.P, Aparna.A, Veera Ganesh.Y, Prasanth.K, Ashutosh Kumar

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, NIPER-Hyderabad, Balanagar, Telangana, India

Objective: To evaluate the protective role of Fisetin against hyperglycemia induced redox, apoptotic and inflammatory changes in Neuro 2a cells. Materials and Methods: Neuro 2a cell lines were used as an in vitro model for diabetic neuropathy where cells were exposed to the glucose concentration of 100 mM/ml for the induction of diabetic conditions. Fisetin, a natural flavonoid was given as a treatment at a dose of 1.25μM/ml and 2.5μM/ml to screen for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The antioxidant properties of the compound, intracellular ROS, detection of apoptotic cells was done by measuring MDA levels, GSH enzyme, DCFDA staining and Acridine orange /Ethidium bromide (AO-EB) staining respectively. Nitric oxide assay was performed using griess reagent to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the compound. Mitochondrial superoxide and membrane potential was determined by mitosox staining and JC-1 staining respectively. Results: Hyperglycemia induced Neuro 2a cells has shown the elevated MDA levels and reduced GSH levels, treatment with Fisetin reduced the lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH levels. Treatment with Fisetin reduced the glucose induced ROS generation in Neuro 2a cells. Apoptosis was counteracted in drug treated cells as evident by AO-EB staining. Nitric oxide levels were suppressed with treatment when compared to glucose control. Similarly, Fisetin exposure also ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction through reduced mitochondrial superoxide production and maintenance of inner mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusion: These results suggest that Fisetin possesses mitoprotective property and thus can be used as a therapeutic choice in diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction such as diabetic neuropathy.

NEU-19

Honokiol abolishes Depressive-Like Behaviour and Cognitive Impairment Induced by Restraint Stress in Mice

Priyansha Choubey 1 , Ashok Jangra 1 , Shubham Dwivedi 1 , SR Chandershaker 1 , Satendra Singh Gurjar 2 , Mangala Lahkar 1,3

1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam, India, 2 Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam, India, 3 Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: The present study has been designed to investigate the protective effect of Honokiol on chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced depressive-like behaviour and cognitive impairment in swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino mice weighing 22-25 g were employed in the present study and were divided in to four groups. CRS was produced by restraining the mice in ventilated polypropylene tubes for 6h/day for 28 consecutive days. Honokiol (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 30 min before restraint stress for last 7 days. On 29 th day, Forced swimming test (FST) and Morris water maze test was performed to evaluate the depressive-like behaviour and cognitive deficit in mice. Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and isolated the hippocampi from the brains for biochemical estimation. In addition, we measured the serum corticosterone level in mice. Results: In Morris water maze test, cognitive function was significantly reduced in CRS group which was markedly improved by Honokiol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment. Honokiol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly prevents the CRS-induced increase in immobility time in FST. Furthermore, our results showed that depressive-like behaviour and cognitive impairment induced by CRS was accompanied by marked increase in oxidative stress parameters, serum corticosterone level. Honokiol treatment abrogates the oxidative stress and elevated serum corticosterone level in dose dependent manner. Conclusion: Taken together, the results of the present work emphasize that Honokiol shows antidepressant effect along with abrogation of cognitive impairment in the CRS model that may be partly due to its antioxidant activity.

NEU-20

Stress Response Desensitizing Efficacies of Aspirin and 3-Hydroxy-Benzoicacid in Mice


Saba Anjum Khan 1 , Shyam Sunder Chatterjee 2 , Vikas Kumar 1

1 Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, India, 2 Stettiner Str. 1, Karlsruhe, Germany (Retired Head of Pharmacology Research Laboratories, Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH and Co. KG, Karlsruhe, Germany)

Objective: To compare oral efficacies of two benzoic acid derivatives aspirin and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid in a mice screening assay for adaptogens. Materials and Methods: Efficacies of single and repeated daily oral doses of aspirin and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid in a mice foot shock stress triggered hyperthermia test for adaptogens with anxiolytics and antidepressants like efficacies were quantified. Fluoxetine and diazepam were used as reference drugs. Effects of repeated daily doses of the test agents on tail suspension test and pentobarbital induced hypnosis in mice were also quantified. Results: Both aspirin and 3-hydroxy benzoic acid dose dependently inhibited intermittent foot shock stress triggered body weight losses and core temperature elevation after their daily oral doses. Efficacies of both of them against acute foot shock stress triggered transient hyperthermic responses increased with the increasing numbers of treatment days. After 11 daily treatments, they dose dependently reduced the immobility time of mice in tail suspension test, and also antagonized pentobarbital induced sedation and hypnosis. Qualitatively, all observed effects of both of them were analogous to those of tested doses of the reference psychoactive drugs used in this study. Conclusion: Like several other plant derived and other carboxylic acids with bactericidal or antiseptic properties, both aspirin and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid are also modulators of environmental stress triggered physiological responses. These observations add further experimental evidences to the conviction that their regulatory effects on the functions of microbiota-gut-brain axis are involved in their diverse spectrums of therapeutically interesting bioactivities observed after their relatively low daily oral doses.

NEU-21

Anti-Aggressive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Terminalia belerica in Normal and Diabetic Rats

Naveen Shivavedi 1, Shobha Prajapati 1, Shyam Sunder Chatterjee 2, Vikas Kumar 1

1Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, India. 2Stettiner Str. 1, Karlsruhe, Germany (Retired Head of Pharmacology Research Laboratories, Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG, Karlsruhe, Germany).

Objective: Terminalia belerica is one of constituents of Triphala i.e. an Ayurvedic formulation oftenly used as adaptogen. In view of that, the present study on aqueous extract of Terminalia belerica fruits (TB) was designed to investigate its anti-aggressive activities in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in overnight fasted rats by a single i.p. injection of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg) and blood glucose levels were monitored periodically. TB at dose of 5, 25 and 125 mg/kg, p.o. was administered with 0.3% CMC suspension for seven consecutive days. The battery of experimental models i.e. isolation induced aggression test and apomorphine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) induced aggression test were performed. Results: The diabetic control rats were demonstrated significant effects measured in all parameters during isolation induced aggression test, when compared with non-diabetic control rats. Whereas, TB treated rats were demonstrated significant effects, in all parameters observed during isolation induced aggression test, as dose dependent manner, like lorazepam. Moreover, in apomorphine induced aggression test, the diabetic control rats were showed significant decrease in latency to first attack and increase in intensity of aggression activity, when compared with non-diabetic control rats. These effects were reversed by TB treatments as dose dependent manner, like lorazepam. Conclusion: In view of these results, it may be concluded that TB extract has potential for treating anti-aggressive activities in rats.

NEU-22

Comparative Adaptogenic Activity of Bioavailable Extracts of Curcuma Longa and Pure Curcumin in Rodents.

Suruchi Verma 1 , Shyam Sunder Chatterjee 2 , Vikas Kumar 1

1 Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, India, 2 Stettiner Straίe 1, Karlsruhe, Germany (Retired Head of Pharmacology Research Laboratories, Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH and Co. KG, Karlsruhe, Germany)

Objective: Curcumin is major bioactive constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Curcuma longa. Although extensive efforts have been made on curcumin but very less efforts have been executed on improved bioavailable and different concentration of curcuminoids containing extracts on its neuro-psychopharmacological activity. The reported experiments were designed to compare the oral efficacies of Curcuma longa (CL) extracts viz. CL-1H (21.8% w/w), CL-2B (18.8% w/w), CL-3R (95.4% w/w), CL-4M (16.6% w/w) and pure curcumin in mice for evaluation of better adaptogens. Materials and Methods: A battery of behavior models of rodents i.e. Stress induced hyperthermia, tail suspension test and pentobarbital induced sleep were used to assess adaptogenic nature of CL-1H (21.9 mg/kg), CL-2B (25.4 mg/kg), CL-3R (5 mg/kg), CL-4M (28.7 mg/kg) and pure curcumin (5 mg/kg). Body weight and basal rectal temperature were evaluated to assess stress-induced functional changes in animals. Results: Stress induced hyperthermia significantly (p<0.05) reduced by CL-2B, CL -3R, CL-4M and pure curcumin in male mice. Although due to daily handling and foot shock stress, body weight and basal rectal temperature were significantly compensated by CL-2B, CL-3R, CL-4M and pure curcumin. On day 11 in tail suspension test, CL-3R, CL-4M, and pure curcumin treated groups significantly (p<0.05) reduced immobility time. However, in pentobarbital induced sedation test, no significant effect was found on onset and duration of sleep. Conclusion: On the basis of obtained result we may propose that CL-3R, CL-4M and pure curcumin will be better adaptogenic agents against diverse spectrums of co-morbid psychopathologies associated with environmental stress.

NEU-23

Silibinin Prevents Cognitive Deficits by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Aluminium-Induced Neurotoxicity in Mice

Surya Narayan Pandey 1 , Ashok Jangra 1 , Prajapati Kasbe 1 , Satendra Singh Gurjar 2 , Sr Chandershaker 1 , Durgesh Dwivedi 1 , Mangala Lahkar 1,3

1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam, India, 2 Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam, India, 3 Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: The current study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of Silibinin on aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) induced neurotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino mice weighing 20-25 g were taken and divided in to six different groups (8 animals per group). Mice were co-administered Silibinin (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) with AlCl 3 (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for 42 days and then cognitive function was assessed on 42 nd day by Morris water maze test. Brain samples were taken to assess oxidative stress markers (Superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, Glutathione level), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α) level on 43 rd day. Furthermore, we performed the histopathological study by Congo red staining of hippocampal region in the brain. Results: Silibinin (200 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated the cognitive impairment caused by AlCl 3 treatment in mice. Moreover, Silibinin (200 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the oxidative stress (as evident by reduced malondialdehyde, increased Glutathione level and Superoxide dismutase activity) and pro-inflammatory cytokine level caused by AlCl 3 treatment. Congo red staining of hippocampus region showed β-amyloid plaques in AlCl 3 -treated animals. Chronic Silibinin (200 mg/kg) co-treatment significantly diminishes the amyloid plaques in the hippocampal region. Conclusion: The present study suggested that Silibinin exerted its neuroprotective effect against AlCl 3 -induced toxicity via modulation of endogenous antioxidant enzyme, inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators.

NEU-24

Boswellia Ovalifoliolata Alleviates Hyperalgesia and Allodynia in Chronic Constriction Injury Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats

Vijay.A*, Prashanth.K, Aparna.A, Veera Ganesh.Y, V.G.M. Naidu, Ashutosh Kumar

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, NIPER-Hyderabad, Balanagar, Telangana-500037.

Objective: To evaluate the protective role of Boswellia ovalifoliolata against Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI) induced neuropathic pain in rats. Materials and Methods: Chronic Constriction Injury induced neuropathic pain was induced in rat by placing four ligatures around the sciatic nerve and ethanolic bark extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata was administered at doses of 250 and 450 mg/kg for 2 weeks daily (P.O.). Thermal hyperalgesia and allodynia were assessed using paw immersion in cold (10 0 C), hot (45 0 C) water and placing on cold plate (4 0 C), hot plate (52 0 C) respectively. Mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed using Von Frey aesthesiometer and Randall selitto callipers. Chemical induced cold allodynia was assessed by acetone spray test. Assessment of oxidative stress induced biochemical alterations were performed by estimating malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and Ellman's method respectively in the homogenates of sciatic nerves. Results: Boswellia ovalifoliolata treatment significantly increased paw flick latency and paw withdrawal threshold, when compared to CCI control rats. The treatment also reduced the MDA levels and increased the GSH levels significantly in the nerve homogenates of CCI operated rats. Conclusion: Results obtained in our study clearly indicated the pharmacological efficacy of Boswellia ovalifoliolata against thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical hyperalgesia and also cold allodynia. The antioxidant activity of Boswellia ovalifoliolata might be the basis of its neuroprotective property and need to be assessed at molecular level before proceeding for its therapeutic use in peripheral neuropathies.

OCU-1

Topical Genistein For the Treatment of Sex Steroid Deficient Dry Eye: An Experimental Study


Halder N 1 , Singh S 1 , Sharma N 2 , Titiyal JS 2 , Biswas NR 3 , Velpandian T 11

Ocular Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, New Delhi, 2 Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences; All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 3 Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Objective: The present study was conducted for developing topical formulation of genistein and evaluation of its efficacy in the experimental models of postmenopausal/ post androgen deficiency dry eye disease. Materials and Method: Isotonic topical formulation of 0.1% genistein was formulated and was evaluated in the sex steroid deficient animal model in rats. The protocol was approved by the standing animal ethics committee of AIIMS, New Delhi. Wistar rats of either sex (180-250g) were procured from central animal house. Animals were subdivided into Control, Vehicle control and Test groups. Steroid deficient dry eye was developed by overiectomizing female rats and treating male and female rats with finasteride using the method of Singh et al 2013. Untreated control group received vehicle and treatment group received topical genistein (0.1%) at the volume of 10μl three times a day. Tear flow and TBUT were recorded in rats to monitor the efficacy of topical genistein. Results: Topical genistein (0.1%) significantly (p<0.05) improved the tear flow as compared to their age and day matched vehicle treated ovariectomized rats, finasteride treated female and male rats. Similar to tear flow assessment, TBUT assessment revealed a significant decrease in TBUT in vehicle treated ovariectomized rats and finasteride treated female and male rats group along with time TBUT further confirmed that 0.1% genistein treatment restored the tear function test. Conclusion: This study concluded the 0.1% genistein is capable to maintaining the tear film integrity in the sex steroid deficient model of dry eye in experimental animals. Further studies are in progress for its safety for human use.

OCU-2

Molecular Analysis of Retinal Renin Angiotensin System in Rat Model of Retinopathy of Prematurity

Madhu Nath 1 , A Kumar 1 , Rv Azad 1 , A K Deorari 4 , B Singh 3 , T Velpandian 21

Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre For Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS. 2 Ocular Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre For Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS. 3 Department of Biophysics, AIIMS. 4 Department of Paediatrics, AIIMS. 3 Department of Biophysics, AIIMS

Objective: Retinal renin Angiotensin system is well explored area in diabetic retinopathy, but very few studies are reported which are evaluating its role in childhood blinding disease retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). so this present study was carry out to analyse gene expression of the retinal angiotensin system after intervening with lisinopril (ACE inhibitor) and telmisartan (ARB) in the experimental model of ROP. The drug levels were analysed in plasma, vitreous and retina through LC-MS/MS. Materials and Methods: Neonatal Wistar rat pups were exposed to high oxygen saturation (75%) chamber, from postnatal day (PD) 7 th to postnatal day 12 th . Pups were randomised into test group i.e. lisinopril and telmisartan, lisinopril plus telmisartan combination, positive control- bevacizumab and Disease control. Rat pups were sacrificed and retinas were extracted to study the gene expression of RAS components (renin, angiotensinogen, AT1 receptor and ACE), VEGF and HIF 1α in various test groups. Plasma, vitreous and retina were analysed through LC-MS/MS. Results: Expression of RAS components of various groups was also altered. Level of HIF, VEGF and other RAS components were higher in disease control group as compare to normoxia. Test drugs were able to reduce the expression of all genes studied. Analysis through LC-MS/MS showed the penetration of test compounds in vitreous cavity. Conclusion: Intervening the over activated retinal renin Angiotensin system through drugs was able to regulate this system in experimental model of ROP. These drugs can be evaluated further for the preservation of structural and functional health of developing retina in premature infants.

OCU-3

Analysing Sex Steroid Deficient Dry Eye Models

Moksha L 1 , Singh S 1 , Sharma N 2 , Titiyal JS 2 , Biswas NR 1 , Velpandian T 1

1 Ocular Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Dr. RPC, AIIMS, 2 Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. RPC, AIIMS

Objective: The present study was conducted to develop sex steroid deficient dry eye animal models by evaluating the expression of sex steroid receptors (NR3A1, NR3A2 and NR3C4) in the ocular tissues. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in healthy Wistar rats of either sex weighing 180-250g. Bilateral ovariectomy was performed in female rats and oral finasteride (dose of 1.16 mg/kg/day) challenge was given to both male and female rats. Tear film stability was assessed by using cotton thread method and tear breakup time (TBUT). Dew point calculation was done using August-Roche-Magnus approximation during the tear assessments to correlate environmental factors affecting the tear function tests. At the end, animals were sacrificed and ocular tissues were subjected for the quantification of the expression of NR3A1, NR3A2 and NR3C4 receptors. Results: The impact of ovariectomy caused a significant tear film deficiency from the 20th day onwards in all female rats. The ten day finasteride administration also showed a significant tear film deficiency in both male and female rats. However, subjecting 60 days post ovariectomy rats to finasteride challenge did not show any further decrease in tear flow. Gene expression analysis also revealed a significant down regulation of sex steroid receptors in ocular tissues after ovariectomy and finasteride challenge. Conclusion: From this study, it has been concluded that ovariectomized and finasteride treated anti-androgenic models produced a significant tear deficiency in the rats which can be explored for pharmacological screening of topical agents and understanding the disease process in postmenopausal and androgen deficiency dry eye disorders.

PKN-1

Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Paliperidone and Its Formulations


Mahendra Kumar Hidau, Faruq Mohammed, Surbhi Soni,

Sanjay Singh*

Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of paliperidone and paliperidone polymeric nanoparticles in male wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 18 male wistar rats, weighing 220 ± 30 gm. The study was designed to estimate pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of different nanoformulation and control paliperidone solution (1 mg/ml) in 50% w/w mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 and water (Dose: 5 mg/kg free base). Rats were administered 5 mg/kg dose subcutaneously. Blood samples were collected from three different groups for each time points by sparse sampling approach. Results: Mean values of T 1/2 , T max , C max , and AUC 0-∞ were 8.2 ± 0.63 h, 0.7 ± 0.07 h, 3952 ± 31 ng/mL, 27891.42 ± 98 ng.h/mL, for control (paliperidone with PEG 400), 35.7 ± 2.8 h, 0.5 ± 0.02 h, 2587 ± 25 ng/mL, 46694.98 ± 769 ng.h/mL, for paliperidone loaded polymeric nanoparticles and 61.73 ± 4.9 h, 0.5 ± 0.01 h, 2189 ± 20 ng/mL, 49479.99 ± 59 ng.h/mL, for paliperidone loaded polymeric nanoparticles in-situ gel respectively. Conclusion: Our results showed that paliperidone loaded polymeric nanoparticle in-situ gel system had more control release pharmacokinetic profile than paliperidone loaded polymeric nanoparticles and paliperidone.

PKN-2

Pharmacokinetic Studies Following Single Administration of Oral-Insulin-Formulation in Rabbits

Kamkar R, Layek Pralay Shankar, Sar T.K., Mandal T.K. and Chakraborty A.K.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata- 37, West Bengal, India

Objective: Diabetes is a major health problem the nation is facing worldwide. It has been stipulated that the global prevalence of the disease will increase exponentially in next several years in both developed as well as developing countries. Diabetes mellitus is of two types and occurs due to the decreased levels insulin hormone in the circulation. The objective of the present research is to study the pharmacokinetics following single administration of oral-insulin-formulation in rabbits. Materials and Methods: The oral-insulin-formulation was administered into 2 groups of healthy albino rabbits (Oryctogalus cuniculus) of either sex at 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were collected till 12 hours from heart and plasma was separated and stored in -20°C. The concentrations of plasma insulin were estimated by sandwich ELISA technique with assay sensitivity 0.75μ IU/ml. The concentrations were further plotted into the semi logarithmic graph paper against time and the data was analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with a computer statistical program (SPSS, ver-10.0). Results: The plasma insulin concentrations were found to attain maximum (C max ) at 4 hour for both the groups and decline gradually till the 12 th hour, when it became minimum. Insulin level could not be detected beyond 12 hour post administration. The semi logarithmic plot of mean plasma insulin concentration-time profile showed two compartment open model kinetics at both dose levels. Conclusion: Following single oral administration at both the dose levels the values of various pharmacokinetic parameters were reported and thus it may be concluded that oral-insulin-formulation is not predictable.

PKN-3

Evaluation of Effects of Antidiabetic and Antihypertensive Combination Therapy in Vivo


Rania Indu 1 , Anjan Adhikari 1 , Pranabesh Chakraborty 2 , Jayanta Chattopadhyay 2 , Tapas Kumar Sur 3 and S.K. Bandhyopadhyay 4

1 Department of Pharmacology, R.G.Kar Medical College, Kolkata-700004, 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Bengal School of Technology, Hooghly, West Bengal, India, 3 Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, 4 Department of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of West Bengal, Swastha Bhavan, Kolkata.

Objective: Polypharmacy (multiple drug use) is not any rare instance to combat multiple disorders affecting human. This is associated with the risk of drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. Present study will address the effects of therapy associated with two burning problems: Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension. Modern statistics identified that diabetic patients affected with hypertension, is a common phenomenon in society. This study aims to evaluate the safety parameters of anti-diabetic and antihypertensive drugs, when used concurrently in animal models. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino rats, weighing 120-150Kg, were classified into different groups: diabetic rats without treatment, diabetic rats treated with Metformin or Atenolol, or both along with normal control. Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin and the therapy was continued for 30 days. Blood Glucose and Body weight were measured throughout the period. After therapy biochemical tests were conducted on the sacrificed rats. Result: 5.6% loss in body weight was evidenced in rats with combined therapy as compared to 30% increase for normal rats. Evaluation of biochemical parameters indicated an increase in the level of serum Triglyceride by 70 units on average in rats with combination therapy and diabetic rats as compared to normal. 16.7% decrease in serum Albumin-Globulin Ratio was also witnessed in rats under combination therapy and diabetic control as compared to normal rats. Conclusion: This study was aimed to validate the safety and efficacy issues of polypharmacy in vivo that can be further extrapolated to human, to achieve optimum therapeutic goal. Evaluation of other pharmacokinetic data is under progress.

PKN-4

Evaluation of Intraocular Penetration of Meropenem and Ertapenem after Systemic Administration in Non-Inflamed Eyes

Das U 1 , Nath M 2 , Chadrasekharan D 2 , Raj Pal 2 , Venkatesh P 2 , Velpandian T 1

Ocular Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Dr. RP Centre, AIIMS, 2 Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. RP Centre, AIIMS

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intraocular penetration of penems after systemic administration in non-inflamed eyes. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was performed on 48 human participants after obtaining ethical approval, which was further divided into 2 groups. The participants in Group 1 and 2 were given single dose (500mg) of meropenem and ertapenem intravenously and each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 8 each who received the drug at 3 hr, 6 hr, and 12 hr before surgery, respectively. The vitreous samples were collected by pars plana vitrectomy at 3 hr, 6 hr, and 12 hr. The vitreous and blood sample concentrations were determined by a validated method using ESI-LC-MS/MS. Results: After single dose intravenous administration, the mean levels of meropenem and ertapenem were found to be 43.66ng/ml and 123.05ng/ml in the vitreous of non-inflamed eyes and were 1021.06ng/ml and 12875.86ng/ml in plasma, respectively. The vitreous concentrations attained were compared to the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of both the drugs against common pathogen causing endophthalmitis namely S. epidermidis, S. aureus Streptococcus species and P. aeruginosa. Levels higher MIC 90 for S. aureus was attained by 7 subjects (31.8%) and levels higher MIC 90 for Streptococcus species was attained by 2 subjects (9.09%). Conclusion: Both meropenem and ertapenem were found to penetrate into the vitreous cavity of non-inflamed eyes with single intravenous dose but it was insufficient to attain therapeutic level. Further studies are in progress for analysis of penems followed by multiple doses.

RDU-1

Utilization Study in Dermatology OPD in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Nanded

Bakkewar Shweta M, Tamboli Saleem B , Shirure Prashant A, Deshmukh Jagjeevan B, Ghadlinge Manik S, Deshmukh Amol C.

Department of Pharmacology, Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Government Medical College, Nanded, Maharashtra.

Objective: To study the pattern of drug use in various skin disorders in dermatology OPD and to evaluate the rational use of drugs in population. Materials and Methods: A total of 890 prescriptions were evaluated prospectively over a period of 2 months at dermatology OPD at a tertiary care hospital Nanded with the permission of Institutional Ethical Committee. Evaluation made using WHO drug use indicators. Results: Total 890 prescriptions were analyzed in which total 2901 drugs were prescribed with an average of 3.25 drugs per prescription. Out of all the drugs 27.4% drugs were from National Essential Drug list 2011. Antihistaminic (17.85%) were the most common group of drugs used, followed by corticosteroids (16.3%). Most of the drugs were given by topical route (58.3%), followed by oral route (40.2%). 32.2% of drugs were prescribed by generic names. Conclusion: The prescriptions revealed polypharmacy. This study can help to provide feedback to prescribers' thereby increasing awareness and improve patient care by rational use of drugs.

RDU-2

Drug Utilization Study Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Rural Community in Telangana, India

D.T.V Naresh, Shailendra D, Subbaratnam Y, Prasuna G

Department of Pharmacology, Mediciti Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad.

Objective: To identify the pattern of medication used including dosages and medication combinations in patients with T2DM. Materials and Methods: 444 subjects with T2DM were selected by simple random sampling from a rural community in Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Data were collected by household visits using structured questionnaires to document medication usage and socio-demographic information. Results: Metformin alone or in combination with sulfonylureas was prescribed in 90.3% of patients with T2DM. 81 patients with T2DM were on concomitant anti-hypertensive therapy. Atenolol, either alone or in combination with Amlodipine was prescribed to 38% and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) /Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB) were prescribed to 32% of T2DM patients with Hypertension. Conclusion: T2DM treatment was predominantly based on Metformin alone or in combination with sulfonylureas in concurrence with standard guidelines. Hypertension in large proportion of patients with T2DM was treated with Atenolol alone or along with Amlodipine. This is contrary to guidelines which recommend ACEI/ARB as preferred agents for treatment of Hypertension in Diabetes.

RDU-3

Cost Analysis Study of Commonly Used Oral Antiepileptic Drugs Available in Indian Market

Phatak A M, Hotwani J H

Department of Pharmacology, Topiwala National Medical College and B.Y.L. Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai Central, Mumbai, India

Objective: To find the cost of different oral antiepileptic drugs available as monotherapy and number of manufacturing companies for each. To evaluate difference in cost of different brands of same dosage of same active drug by calculating percentage variation of cost. Material and Methods: Cost of a drug being manufactured by different companies, in the same strength and dosage forms was obtained from "Indian Drug Review" Vol. XXI, Issue No.4, 2014. The difference in the maximum and minimum price of the same drug manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies and percentage variation in price was calculated. Results: Percentage price variation of the commonly used conventional drugs was - Phenytoin (50mg): 140%, Carbamazepine (100mg): 1033%, Phenobarbital (30mg): 730%, Oxcarbazepine (150mg): 59%, Valproic acid (300mg): 420%. Newer drugs - Levetiracetam (250mg): 75%, Lamotrigine (25mg): 66%, Topiramate (50mg): 108%, Zonisamide (100mg): 19%. Conclusion: Epilepsy is a chronic non-communicable disorder of the brain that affects people of all ages often interfering with education and employment. In India, there are around 10 million people suffering from it. Estimation of the economic burden of epilepsy is of pivotal relevance to enable a rational distribution of healthcare resources. The average percentage price variation of different brands of the same commonly used conventional oral antiepileptic drug manufactured in India is very wide. The formulation or brand of AED's (Antiepileptic drugs) should preferably not be changed since variations in bioavailability or different pharmacokinetic profiles may increase the potential for reduced effect or excessive side effects. Hence, manufacturing companies should aim to decrease the price variation while maintaining the therapeutic efficacy.

RDU-4

Assessment of Drug Utilization Pattern of Psychotropic Agents in the Out Patient Department of Psychiatry at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur

Batta Angelika, Jain P, Upadhyaya P

Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur.

Introduction - The rational use of drugs aims at promoting rational prescribing through a multi-prolonged strategy, which includes intervention to correct drug use problems, adoption of essential drug list, determining and restricting irrational prescribing. This study was done with the aim to study the rationality of prescriptions of psychotropic agents, and to determine whether the drug prescribing was in accordance with WHO guidelines for rational prescribing. Material and Methods: The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Prescriptions were collected from Psychiatry Outpatient department from 1 st Mar 2014 to 31 st July 2014 at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur. Patient's demographic data, diagnosis, treatment details, no. of drugs per prescription, drugs prescribed in generic name, drugs prescribed from the Essential Medical List were analyzed. Results: A total of 200 prescriptions were analyzed according to WHO prescribing indicators. Average no. of drugs per prescriptions was 2.3. Most commonly prescribed drugs were Escitalopram and Olanzapine. 51% prescriptions had drugs from EML.2% drugs were prescribed in generic name. Conclusion: This study concludes that the prescriptions were irrational and not in accordance with the WHO indicators. More strategic interventions like improvement in undergraduate clinical pharmacology teaching, good prescribing skills development and regular workshops and CMEs of Interns and post graduate students should be taken to improve rational use of drugs.

RDU-5

Cost Analysis of Oral Antidepressant Drugs Available in Indian Market

Bhave K, Paunikar AP

Department of Pharmacology, Topiwala National Medical College and B.Y.L. Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai Central, Mumbai, India

Objectives: To evaluate the cost variation in the oral antidepressant drugs available either singly or in combination. To evaluate the difference in cost of different brands of same active drug by calculating percentage variation of cost. Materials and Methods: Cost of a particular drug being manufactured by different companies, in the same strength and dosage forms was obtained from "Indian Drug Review 2014 issue 4". The difference between maximum and minimum price of the same drug and percentage variation in price was calculated. Results: In single drug therapy, among tricyclic antidepressants, reboxetine (2mg) shows maximum price variation of 900%, while dosulepin (10mg) and reboxetine (4mg) shows no variation. In atypical antidepressants, bupropion hydrochloride (150mg) shows maximum price variation of 447.94 %, while mirtazapine (45mg) shows variation of 10%. In SSRI's, paroxetine (37.5mg) shows maximum price variation of 1116.66%, while fluoxetine (40mg) shows variation of 8.33%. In SNRI's, venlafaxine hydrochloride (37.5 mg) shows maximum price variation of 246.15%, while duloxetine (40mg) shows variation of 32%. In MAO-A inhibitor's, moclobemide (150mg) shows maximum price variation of 246.15 %. Among other antidepressants lithium (300mg) shows variation of 285.14%. In combination therapies, chlordiazepoxide with amitriptyline shows maximum price variation of 227.23%. Conclusions: The average percentage variation of different brands of the same drug manufactured in India is very wide. The management of the marketing drugs should be directed towards maximizing the therapeutic benefits to community and minimizing the economic burden.

RDU-6

Prescribing Trend of Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Western India

Amit Gupta, Priti Dhande, Hardik Patel, Insiya Sherawala

Department of Pharmacology, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Medical College, Pune.

Objectives: This study was planned to screen the prescriptions in the outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital to assess the status of prescribed FDCs. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in the month of May 2013 in which 15 days OPD prescriptions were accessed from the hospital record section for presence of FDCs. Results: We came across 193 FDCs in 400 prescriptions during our study of which the most were found in prescriptions from Medicine (32%) and Dermatology (20%) departments. Not a single FDC was prescribed during the study period by Psychiatrists and Ophthalmologists. Only 5.38% FDCs were from the 18 th list (2013) of essential medicines (EML) by the WHO. Anti-inflammatory (27%) and nutritional supplements (23%) comprised of 50% of the total FDCs found. We even came across 12% FDCs which are unapproved and combinations of paracetamol with higher than recommended dose was found in 19 FDCs. Conclusion: FDCs are being rampantly prescribed by the physicians without proper knowledge of updated guidelines by the DCGI. There is an urgent need to sensitize the treating doctors about EML, rationality, usage and banned FDCs.

RDU-7

A Study on Olanzapine Induced Weight Gain among Schizophrenia Patients in Relation to Age and Gender.

Anupam Das, K. Ravi Babu, K.S.N Murthy.

Department of Pharmacology, GSL Medical College, Rajahmundry, A.P.

Objective: To evaluate the olanzapine induced weight gain among Schizophrenia patients in relation to age and gender. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients fulfilling the ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia were included in the study. Pregnant women, patients with known endocrine, CVS and renal disorders, smokers and chronic alcoholics were excluded from the study. Socio-demographic data and baseline weight were recorded before the initiation of treatment. The patients were administered a flexible dose of olanzapine (5-15 mg). Patients were followed up at 3 weeks and at 6 weeks of treatment initiation. The increase in weight gain was recorded and analyzed in relation to age and gender. Results: Study results showed 65.6% had a weight gain of 1-5 kg over a period of 6 weeks. Weight gain is significantly raised in patients > 40yrs of age as compared to those < 40yrs (p < 0.01). Comparison on basis of gender showed that 40% men gained weight as compared to 60% in women which is statistically significant (p <0.01). Conclusion: The present study concluded that >40 yrs of female individuals are more prone to develop weight gain. So physicians should consider the age and gender aspects of the patient before initiating Olanzapine therapy in Schizophrenia.

RDU-8

Study on Prescribing Pattern of Antimicrobials in ENT Department of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Bihar, India

Ayan Pal, Subhrojyoti Bhowmick, Jhilli Basu, Rabindranath Chattopadhya, Sipra Bhattacharya, Shib Shankar Paul, Sumit Chattopadhyay.

Department of Pharmacology. M.G.M. Medical College and L.S.K. Hospital, Kishanganj (Bihar)

Objective: The objective of this study was to monitor the antimicrobial utilization pattern and determine its cost effectiveness in the ENT department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Bihar. Materials and Methods: An observational, prospective study was conducted from May to August 2014 in the OPD and IPD of ENT Department of M.G.M. Medical College and L.S.K. Hospital, Kishanganj. A total of 218 prescriptions were studied. Data were collected in customized proforma from prescriptions and analyzed using the WHO prescribing indicators. Results: Majority of patients were male 53.67%. 37.16% patients belonged to the age group of <15 years, followed by 34.86% patients in 15-60 years. Majority of patients were diagnosed with ear (40.82%) followed by throat (33.03%) infections. Commonly prescribed antimicrobials were β-lactams (71.69%) followed by macrolides (11.69%). Among the cephalosporins most frequently used was Cefixime (22.46%), among penicillins was amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (16.92%), and among macrolides was azithromycin (8.61%). Further, 66.51% patients received single antimicrobials whereas 33.49% received multiple antimicrobials. Average number of antimicrobials prescribed per patient being 1.49. Concomitant therapy included analgesics (39.33%) and antihistaminics (25.84%). The average cost per prescription being INR 89. All drugs were prescribed in brand names. Conclusion: Prescribing multiple antimicrobials was commonly encountered in this study. Dedicated training hours on prescribing of antimicrobials in ENT diseases for doctors of the state along with regular prescription audit will help promote rationale use of antimicrobials in the long run.

RDU-9

Evaluation of Self Administered Antibiotics Pattern in Newly Admitted 1 st Year Medical Students

Gyanendra Kumar, Arkapal Bandyopadhyay, Priya Choudhary, Sanjay Singh, Rakesh Chandra Chaurasia

Department of Pharmacology, Motilal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, U. P. India

Objectives: To evaluate the pattern of self administered antibiotics in terms of selection and duration of usage of antibiotics in newly admitted 1 st year medical students of MLNMC Allahabad. Materials and Methods: 150, 1 st year medical students studying in Motilal Nehru Medical college was selected for questionnaire based cross sectional study. The questionnaire was formatted under following headings: 1. Pattern of self medication, 2. Type of antibiotics usage, 3. Type of preparation, 4. Duration of usage of antibiotics, 5. Awareness about antibiotic resistance. Results: Among 150 students, 85.33% self medicate themselves with antibiotics. In which commonly used antibiotics were fluoroquinolones (62.50%), ampicillins (19.53%), cephalosporins (7.81%) and 10.15% students used miscellaneous group of antibiotics. 75% students used fixed dose preparations while rest of students (25%) were used individual antibiotic. Most of the students (46.09%) stopped taking antibiotics after disappearance of symptoms, 35.93% stopped few days after disappearance of symptoms and 17.96% students used previous doctor's prescription for duration of usage of antibiotics. 80.46% 0f students were aware of resistance while 19.53% did not aware of it. Conclusion: Fluoroquinolones was most commonly used antibiotic group for self medication, mostly in combination with other antibiotics. Duration of usage of antibiotics is very irregular. Hence, proper education and counseling is required for usage of antibiotics and to prevent resistance with antibiotics.

RDU-10

To Study the Prescribing Pattern of Analgesics in Post Operative Cases in the Department of Orthopaedics in Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Assam.

Jahirul Islam Laskar, Dolly Roy

Department of Pharmacology, Silchar Medical College and Hospital

Objective: To study the prescribing pattern of analgesics in post operative cases in the department of Orthopaedics in Silchar Medical College and Hospital of Assam. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective observational study being carried out in the post operative ward in the Department of Orthopaedics in Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar, for a period of three months w.e.f. 01/08/2014. The prescription pattern of analgesics will be analysed at the end of the study period. Result: Till now we have followed 60 patients from 01/08/2014 to 30/09/2014. In those cases we have observed that 70% (42) of the patients received inj. Diclofenac 75mg, 20% (12) received inj. Tramadol 100mg and the remaining 10% (6) received inj. Nalbuphine 20mg for first three days after the surgery. After 3 days 100% (60) of the patients were administered oral analgesics (90% received Tab Aceclofenac100mg BD and 10% Tab Tramadol 100mg BD), out of which 10% (6) also received injectable analgesics (as SOS). It has been seen that all the patients received either injectable or oral analgesics for maximum of 10 days post operatively. Conclusion: After 2 months of our study we can conclude that all the patients are administered injectable analgesics for first 3 days post operatively which was followed by oral analgesics up to 10 days.

RDU-11

Study on Antimicrobial Prescribing Pattern among Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Patients in a Teaching Hospital in Bihar, India


Jhilli Basu, Subhrojyoti Bhowmick, Ayan Pal, Rabindranath Chattopadhyay, Sipra Bhattacharya, Sovandip Hazra, Udyan Sarkar

Department of Pharmacology, MGM Medical College and LSK Hospital, Kishanganj, Bihar, India

Objective: Scarce data is available on the antimicrobial prescribing pattern in Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID) patients from Bihar, India. Hence, this study was conducted among PID patients evaluating the prescribing practice, its cost effectiveness and compliance to CDC guidelines. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted from March-August'2014 at Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of MGM Medical College and LSK Hospital, Kishanganj, Bihar in which total of 638 prescriptions of clinically diagnosed PID cases from OPD and IPD were studied and analyzed with respect to the standards mentioned above. Results: Commonest offending organism were Chlamydia-trachomatis 402(63%) followed by Candida-albicans 121(18.97%), Trichomonas-vaginalis 70(10.97%), Neisserrhoea-gonorrhoae 32(5.02%) and others 13(2.04%) respectively. Majority of patients received oral Doxycycline 500(78.37%) in combination with Metronidazole followed by Ofloxacin 138(21.63%) with or without Metronidazole through oral and/or I.V route. Gentamicin was added to 17(2.66%) of prescriptions and Clotrimazole was prescribed topically in all patients. 619(97.02%) of the prescribed antibacterials were of oral formulation followed by 8(1.25%) parenteral preparations and 11(1.73%) prescriptions having a combination of both. The average cost is Rs.150.37 per OPD prescription whereas average cost per day of indoor prescription is Rs.173.30 only. Conclusion: The results reveal that polypharmacy is common in such patient group and prescribing practice is majorly as per standard guidelines although supplemented with an antifungal coverage. Cost effective antibiotics were prescribed with an acceptable clinical recovery.

RDU-12

Study of Prescription Pattern of Antimicrobial Drugs Prescribed in ENT OPD in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Assam

Teli Jiban Jyoti , Das Swarnamoni

Department of Pharmacology, Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh, Assam.

Objective: To study the prescription pattern of antimicrobial drugs prescribed in ENT OPD. of Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh. Material and Method: An observational study was carried out in the Out Patient Department of ENT of Assam Medical college and Hospital, Dibrugarh between the period of July to September 2014. Total 170 prescriptions were analyzed on the basis of demographic data, chief complaints, investigation, provisional diagnosis and treatment. The data were collected in especially designed Performa and descriptive analysis was done. Result: Out of the 170 patients, 86 were males (50.7%) and 84 were females 49.3% . Among them 39% were having ear related complaints, 22% nose and Para nasal sinus (PNS) related complaints, 28% throat related infections, 7% were having tongue and oral cavity related problems and 4% were other causes. Frequently observed diagnosis were Chronic supurative otitis media or CSOM (9%), Acute pharyngitis (8.1%), Acute frontal sinusitis (7.4%), Otomycosis (6.3%), Acute tonsillitis (5.6%), Chronic tonsillitis (4.9%), Acute supurative otitis media or ASOM (5.3%). All antimicrobial were prescribed empirically on the basis of provisional diagnosis. Among antimicrobial prescription, Beta-lactam group was prescribed maximum (76%) in the form of Amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (74%), cefpodoxil-clavulinic acid (26%) and other Cephalosporins (9.4%). Other antibiotics prescribed were Fluoroquinolones (7.6%), Macrolides (4.7%) and metronidazole (2.3%). Conclusion: The study showed that the antibiotic was prescribed empirically on the basis of the provisional diagnosis of the clinical condition.

RDU-13

Drug Utilization Pattern and Their Consumption in Intensive Care Unit of SCBMC Cuttack


Lalit Mohan Sika, Kali Prasad Pattnaik, Suhasini Dehury, Sidhartha Sankar Routroy

Department of Pharmacology and Department of Anesthesiology, Scbmch, Cuttack.

Introduction: In ICUs critically ill patients are admitted with or without multi organ involvement and various life support measures. There is use of multiple drugs in these critically ill patients due to multiple co-morbidities. Hence it is very essential to study the drug utilisation and their consumption in critically ill patient in ICU setup. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational open level study was conducted in the department of pharmacology and ICUs in SCBMC from January 2014 to june2014. Data were collected in a case study format and were analysed for demographic variables: Drug utilisation was measured in DDD/100 bed days. Data were expressed as percentage and mean. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Total of 50 (fifty) cases were evaluated with a mean age of 50.48 years. Average duration of ICU stay was 4.5days. The average no. of drugs prescribed per patient was 12.54. Total drug utilization in terms of DDD/100 bed-days was 200.17. Antibiotics, antifungal, steroids and inotropic agents were prescribed through parenteral route. Numbers antimicrobials prescribed per patient was 3.80. Piperacillin + trazobactum combination antibiotics were the most common empirical regimen used. Conclusion: Antimicrobials and inotropes are frequently utilised drugs in ICU. Prescribed guidelines are required to reduce the prevalent poly-pharmacy and to promote appropriate use of antimicrobial drugs based on the culture and sensitivity report.

RDU-14

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Antibiotic Usage (Self Medication) among Intern Doctors in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Assam

Das Monami, Gohain Kalpana

Department of Pharmacology, Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh, Assam.

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of antibiotic usage (self medication) among the intern doctors in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out by distributing questionnaire in a written format among the intern doctors after obtaining their verbal consent. The questionnaire consisted of 24 questions (10 questions on knowledge, 6 on attitude and 8 on practices) to test their Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP). Study period was from August 2014 to September 2014. After collecting the filled-up questionnaires, the data was analyzed and the results were expressed as percentages. Results: Questionnaire was distributed to 160 intern doctors, out of which 135 responded with completely filled questionnaire. Percentage of response was 84.4%. Among the respondents, 63 (46.67%) were males and 72 (53.33%) were females. Mean age of the interns were 24. Cough and cold (63%), fever (56%), diarrhoea (43%) were perceived to be the commonest conditions of antibiotics usage. Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (68%), azithromycin (61%), ofloxacin (56%) and norfloxacin (42%) were the most commonly used antibiotics for self medication. The commonest sources of drug information were pharmacies (50.90%), previous prescriptions (27.27%). 62% of the participants were aware of the adverse consequences of self medication with antibiotics. Conclusion: Irrational usage of antibiotics leads to resistance and increase in the cost of treatment. The intern doctors had an average KAP towards self medication with antibiotics. Hence there is a need to increase the awareness about it by educational intervention.

RDU-15

Evaluation of Drug Utilization Patterns of Emergency Medications Used in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India


Mrinal Borgohain 1* , P. Elango 1 , T.V. Ramakrishnan 2

1
Department of Pharmacology, 2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, India

Objective:
To study the prescribing trends, to calculate the consumption rate of emergency drugs and direct cost of therapy in emergency medicine department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted over a period of six months from January 2014 to June 2014. The emergency drugs used in the hospital were first identified and their amounts of consumption were collected from the computer database. Hospital ID of the patients who attended the Emergency unit were collected from the register of the medical record and those patients who received the emergency drugs were identified from the computer database. Results: Out of 11,273 patients who attended the Emergency Unit, 300 patients were selected in our study. The average number of drugs per prescription was 6.2 ± 2.2. Furosemide (49.6%) was the most frequently used emergency drug followed by Heparin (40%) and Nor-adrenaline (30.3%). Most common indication for prescribing was acute coronary syndrome. Among the non-emergency drugs ondansetron (86.6%) and pantoprazole (84.2%) were given very commonly. Direct cost of treatment per patient was Rs 4251 ± 1641. Conclusion: The results of the present study are attempts to highlight the importance of strategies that have to be implemented to optimize medication use at the Emergency department.

RDU-16

To Study the Prescribing Pattern of Antipsychotic Drugs in the Out Patient Department of Psychiatry in Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Assam.

Parthajyoti Neog, Dolly Roy

Department of Pharmacology, Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar, Assam

Objectives: To study the prescribing pattern of antipsychotic drugs in Silchar Medical College and Hospital of Assam. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective observational study being carried out in the Out Patient Department of Psychiatry Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar, for a period of three months from 01/08/2014. The prescription pattern of antipsychotic drugs will be analysed at the end of the study. Results: Uptill now we have studied 86 patients from 01/08/2014 to 30/09/2014. In those patients we have seen that 58.13% (50) of the patients received Olanzapine, 25.58% (22) received Risperidone, 7.5% (6) received Quetiapine, 3.48% received Amisulpiride, 2.32% (2) received Haloperidol, and 2.32% (2) received Aripiprazole. 1.16% (1) received Clozapine. It has been seen that out of these patients 67.44% (58) are Male and 32.55% (28) are female. Conclusion: From the above studies and results till now we are concluding that Olanzapine is the most commonly prescribed antipsychotics followed by Risperidone, Quetiapine, Amisulpiride, Haloperidol, Aripiprazole and Clozapine and the psychiatric diseases are more common in males compared to females

RDU-17

How Common is Antibiotic Resistance among Urinary Pathogens?

Rajshekar K, Shailendra D, Subbaratnam Y, Prasuna G.

Department of Pharmacology, MediCiti Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS), Hyderabad

Objective: To assess the pattern of antibiotic resistance and sensitivity among urinary pathogens in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Culture/sensitivity reports of 165 urine samples from patients attending MIMS hospital, Medchal. Results: All gram negative urinary pathogens were resistant to Ceftazidime, Cefixime, Cotrimoxazole and Ciprofloxacin. However, all gram negative urinary pathogens showed sensitivity to several antibiotics including, Amoxycillin Clavulanic acid, Cephalexin, Ceftriaxone, Cefoperazone, Erythromycin, Gentamicin, Imipenem, Levofloxacin, Lomefloxacin, Piperacillin-Tazobactam, Penicillin G and Vancomycin. All gram positive urinary pathogens were resistant only to Cefepime and were sensitive to Amikacin, Ceftazidime-Clavulanic, acid, Ceftriaxone, Cefoperazone, Imipenem, Lomefloxacin Nitrofurantoin, Ticarcillin Clavulanic acid and Penicillin G. Drugs to which both gram positive and gram negative urinary pathogens found sensitive were Ceftriaxone, Lomefloxacin, Cefoperazone, Imipenem and Penicillin G. Conclusion: Although resistance was noted among gram positive and gram negative urinary pathogens to several antibiotics, most urinary pathogens showed significant susceptibility to commonly available antibiotics such as Ceftriaxone, Lomefloxacin, Cefoperazone, Imipenem and Penicillin G. None of the isolated urinary pathogens showed resistance to Carbapenems.

RDU-18

Prescribing Patterns of Medicines in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients on Maintenance Haemodialysis

Sourav Chakraborty 1 , Saugata Ghosh 1 , Avishek Banerjea 1 , Radha Raman De 1 , Swapan Kumar Mandal 2

1
Department of Pharmacology, 2 Department of Haemodialysis, R G Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, India

Objectives: To study medicine prescribing pattern for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on maintenance haemodialysis. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study is being conducted in haemodialysis unit of R. G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, with adult CKD patients on maintenance haemodialysis. Patients' clinical profiles, drug usage patterns and medication related problem data are being captured in a structured case report form and the data analyzed descriptively. Adherence level is assessed by Morisky Medication-Taking Adherence Scale-MMAS 4-item (MMAS-4) scale. Results: Data from 38 patients recruited over 12 weeks has been analyzed so far. Mean (SD) age is 51.3 (9.67) years; 58% are male, mean urea level is 156.0 (77.89) mg/dl, mean creatinine level is 6.5 (3.66) mg/dl. A large number (47.4%) are suffering from diabetic nephropathy. Common co-morbidities are hypertension (89.5%) followed by anaemia (84.5%) and hyperkalaemia (26.3%). Median (interquartile range) number of drugs per prescription is 10(9 - 13), with the bulk being cardiovascular drugs (22.71%) followed by gastrointestinal (13.04%) and haematopoietic drugs (11.6%). Average number of potential drug-drug interaction per prescription is 2.53 (1.81). Incidence of adverse drug reaction was 15.8 %. Adherence level is medium in majority (57.9%) of patients. Conclusion: Average number of drugs per prescription is higher than previous studies. There is high risk of drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. The study is on-going.

RDU-19

To Study the Prescribing Pattern of Oral Antibiotics in the Department of E.N.T. in Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Assam.

Supratik Roy Choudhury, Dolly Roy

Department of Pharmacology, Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Assam

Objectives: To study the prescribing pattern of oral antibiotics in the department of ENT in Silchar Medical College and Hospital of Assam. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective observational study being carried out in the Out Patient Department of ENT in Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar, for a period of three months from 01/08/2014. The prescription pattern of oral antibiotics will be analysed at the end of the study. Results: Uptil now, prescriptions of 75 patients have been studied from 01/08/2014 to 30/09/2014. In those patients, it has been found that 61.33% (46) of the patients received combination of Amoxicillin (500mg) and Potassium Clavulanate (125mg), 14.67% (11) received Cefpodoxime Proxetil 200mg, 10.67% (8) received Cefuroxime Axetil (250mg or 500mg), 9.33% (7) received Azithromycin (500mg), 4% (3) received Clindamycin (300mg). Conclusion: From the above studies and results, it has been so far concluded that Amoxycillin-Potassium Clavulanate is the most commonly prescribed oral antibiotic drug followed by Cefpodoxime Proxetil, Cefuroxime Axetil, Azithromycin and Clindamycin. Azithromycin tablet is prescribed only to the patients with upper respiratory tract infection not associated with other infections; Clindamycin tablet is prescribed only to those having infections involving cartilages of ear or nose.

RDU-20

Utilization and Adverse reaction profile of Anti-diabetic drugs in a Tertiary Care Hospital in East Sikkim: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study


Sushrut Varun Satpathy, Supratim Dutta, Binu Upreti, Namgay Bhutia, Dhruva KR. Sharma

Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim

Objective: To identify differences in drug utilization and to record adverse drug reactions (ADR) of anti-diabetic drugs. Materials and Methods: Cross-Sectional Observational, Hospital based study conducted from May 2013 -May 2014 with 310 patients with Diabetes. Data analyzed by using SPSS version 20 and excel 2007. Results: Out of 310 diabetic prescriptions, majority belonged to Nepalis (47%) community followed by Bhutias (25.2%). Mean ± SD age 59.85 ± 13.8 yrs. Mean duration 9.52 ± 6.5 yrs. Average number of drugs / prescription was 4.92 ± 2.5. Metformin alone and Metformin combination (66.7%) was the commonly prescribed anti-diabetic drug. Metformin + Glimepiride (23.9%) - 2 dose combination. 3 dose combination, Metformin + Voglibose + Sitagliptin (6.8%) - highest Life-style modifications (64.2%). Total of 278 out of 310 patients, had an associated co-morbid condition; most common being Hypertension alone (34.5%) and Hypertension together with other co-morbid (CKD, CVA etc.) conditions comprised (73.9%) respectively. Generic drugs (11.01%) and Essential Medicine list drugs - (49.8%). Suspected adverse effect noted in 22 patients. Mean ± SD cost of total anti-diabetic medications was Rs.118.61 ± 81.3 for 310 patients. For Hospital Inpatients, anti-diabetic drug consumption 0.291 DDD/100 bed days. Conclusion: Metformin (Biguanides) was the most utilized (66.7%) anti-diabetic drug. This study revealed that pattern of prescription was rational and largely compliant with ADA (American Diabetic Association) guidelines.

RDU-21

Drug Utilization Study of the Pattern of Immunosuppressant Use in the Department of Nephrology in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Ahmed A, Mousum A.S, Lahkar M

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam.

Objective: To study the utilization pattern of use of immunosuppressants in the Department of Nephrology in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Nephrology of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital. It was an observational prospective study. Data was collected in a specially designed form to record the required information. Analysis of the prescriptions was done prospectively in outdoor patient department (OPD) by visiting the OPD, thrice a week for four months. The informed consent of the subjects was taken prior to their enrolment. The parameters that were analysed were patient's demographic profile, the drugs prescribed, their dosage form, route of administration and also the average number of drugs per prescription. Results: The most commonly used immunosuppressant in Nephrology Department of Gauhati medical college was found to be the Glucocorticoids of which Prednisolone is mostly prescribed. The most common route was oral and the most common dosage form being tablets. The average number of drugs was six per prescription. Conclusion: Glucocorticoids are the most commonly used immunosuppressants in nephrology department in Gauhati medical college.

RDU-22

The study of pattern of infections and cost effective analysis of antibiotics used in cancer patients with infections in a tertiary care hospital

Srinivas K, Syamala D, Prameela R, Shovan P, Subbareddy V

Department of Pharmacology, Andhra Medical College, Vishakapatnam

Objectives: (1) To study the etiology of infections in patients admitted to oncology department . (2) To study the pattern of pharmacotherapy of antibiotics used in infections with patients admitted to oncology department. (3) To study the pharmacoeconomics of drugs used in infections admitted to oncology department. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective observational study conducted for a period of twelve months in the department of oncology at King George Hospital. Appropriate data regarding to the study protocol was collected and analyzed using essential statistical tools. Results: A total of 84 eligible patients were enrolled, there was an unequal distribution of males and females (M/F: 56/32). The mean age was 60.5years. Gram negative organisms were the most common isolate. Majority of infection were in respiratory tract followed by urinary tract and infections at wound site. 44% received monotheraphy while rest 56% required combination of antibiotics. Third generation cephalosporin was most commonly used antibiotic. Metronidazole was frequently added drug in combination therapy. Conclusions: The present study shows that empirical treatment remains ideal in infectious cancer patients.

RDU-23

Drug utilization study of Geriatric Population in Department of Geriatric medicine of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati

Borah L, Handique C.

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam

Objective: To study the utilization pattern of drug use in geriatric population in the Department of Geriatric medicine in Gauhati Medical College and hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Geriatric medicine of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital. It was an observational prospective study. Data was collected in a specially designed form to record the required information. Analysis of the prescriptions was done prospectively in the department. The informed consent of the subjects was taken prior to their enrolment. The parameters that were analysed were Gender distribution, Duration of hospitalization, Disease condition prevalent in the geriatric population and Analysis of the drug prescribed. Results: The study reveals that males were found to attend geriatric department more than females the average duration of stay being 3-5 days. Mostly cases of CVA, followed by Ischaemic heart diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders were found. Accordingly drugs as Mannitol, Pantoprazole, Aspirin, Clopidogrel, and Deriphylline were prescribed to treat these conditions. Conclusion: Geriatric age group is a special group of population where appropriate drug at the right dosage has to be administered. The present study throws light on the pattern of drug usage in this age group in GMCH. Proper knowledge of drug prescription can improve the quality of life in these age group.

RDU-24

Drug Utilization Study among Geriatric Patients Attending Various Outpatient Clinics in a Tertiary Care Hospital - A Prospective Observational study

P.Priya, T.Aruna

Govt. Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai-10.

Objective: To study the utilization pattern of different groups of medications among geriatric patients attending various Outpatient clinics. Materials and Methods: A Prospective Observational Study conducted among geriatric patients attending Outpatient clinics - Medicine, Diabetology, Cardiology, and Neurology Departments, Govt. Kilpauk Medical College Hospital, Chennai from September 2014 to December 2014. The data is recorded from the Prescription sheet of geriatric patients. The data collected are (1) Patient related information - age, sex, duration of illness, diagnosis (2) Drug related information - generic name, dose, dosage schedule, route of administration, duration of treatment. Data will be analyzed statistically using the parameters like (1) Average number of drugs per prescription (2) Analysis of various drugs -types and categories (3) Percentage of drugs prescribed from essential drug list . Results: The data analyzed shows that most of the patients are on polypharmacy and common drugs prescribed are Antihypertensive, Oral hypoglycaemic, and antiplatelet drugs. The completed results will be delivered in the conference as the study is ongoing. Conclusion: The study evaluates the pattern of drug utilization and rationality of drug prescription in the management of common outpatient ailments in geriatrics patients.

RDU-25

Evaluation of Rationality Drug Promotional Literature

Ravi.D.Mala, Srikanth, Suraj B, Tanuja H V

Department of Pharmacology, ESIC Medical College, Gulbarga-585106.

Objective: To critically analyze quality of drug promotional literature by using WHO criteria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted from March to June 2014, in the medicine outpatient department. Results: A total of 190 drug promotional brochures were evaluated. None of the promotional literature fulfilled all WHO criteria. International nonproprietary name was mentioned in 90.5%, Dosage form and dosage schedule in 69.4%, Approved therapeutic uses in 87.8%, Adverse effects in 71.5%, Contra-indications and special precautions in 58.9%, Reference to scientific literature was appropriate in 47.8% of the drug promotional literature but the brand name was mentioned in all the drug promotional literature (100%). It was found from this study that there are deficiencies in drug information of the advertised drugs. Pharmaceutical industries did not follow WHO guidelines while promoting their drug products. For a better understanding and potential utilization of new drugs, it is very important for a physician to critically analyze research findings and draw conclusions as misleading and wrong information is not uncommon in drug promotional literature. Conclusion: Majority of the promotional materials did not follow the WHO's Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion. Pharmaceutical drug advertisements can mislead and should be read with caution.

RDU-26

Cost Analysis of Currently Available Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Indian Market

Chaubey S S, Shankpal P D

Department of Pharmacology, Topiwala National Medical College and B.Y.L. Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai Central, Mumbai, India

Objectives: To evaluate and analyze the variation in the cost of oral hypoglycemic (single and in combination) currently available in the Indian market. Materials and Methods: Cost of a particular drug manufactured by different companies, in the same strength and dosage forms was obtained from 'Indian Drug Review', Vol XXI, Issue 4, 2014 and analyzed. The difference in maximum and minimum price as well as percentage variation was calculated. Results: The percentage price variation of oral Hypoglycemic agents in single drug therapy was significant with a834.8%difference in the cost of Glimepiride (2mg),600% in Pioglitazone (15mg), 396.1% in Metformin (500mg),307.6% in Gliclazide (80mg),214.8% in Glipizide (2.5mg), 203% in Glibenclamide (5mg) and 102% in Voglibose (0.3mg). Combination therapy with Glimepiride and Metformin showed a variation of 348% followed by Gliclazide and Metformin (330%). Conclusion: The present study shows wide price variation of the same drugs manufactured by different companies in the Indian market. This adds to the economic burden of patients in the long term treatment of Diabetes Mellitus. Hence, manufacturing companies should aim to decrease the price variation while maintaining the therapeutic efficacy.

RDU-27

A Retrospective Study of Antibiotics Used in Pediatrics Department in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Jorhat, Assam.

Bijoy Bakal, H. Saikia, H. K.Sarma

Department of Pharmacology, Jorhat Medical College and Hospital, Jorhat, Assam, India

Objectives: Irrational use of antibiotics leads to emergence of resistant bacteria and hence infections that are even worse than the original diagnosed ones. So, appropriate drug utilization studies are found to be crucial to evaluate whether these drugs are properly used. For this reason, this study was designed to assess the overall antibiotics use practice in a tertiary care hospital's pediatric ward in Jorhat Medical College, Assam. Methods: Retrospective study of case records of 104 patients admitted in the Indoor Department in Pediatrics at Jorhat Medical College and Hospital between 20 th July, 2014 to 20 th September, 2014. Institutional Research and Ethics Committee clearance were obtained prior to the study. Results: In this study, the major disorders for which antibiotics were prescribed include Pneumonia and Acute Gastroenteritis. The most commonly used antibiotics were Ceftriaxone and Amoxycillin which accounted for 43.5% and 25.6% respectively. Some antibiotics are empirically used while others are used after culture sensitivity. Judicious use of antibiotics after culture sensitivity has decreased the hospital stay. Conclusions: Analysis of prescribing patterns gives an insight into the prevailing diseases and the judicious use of antibiotics. The present study could serve as a platform upon which further studies in prescription analysis can be undertaken to investigate the scope for further improvement in prescribing practices.

RDU-28

Cost Analysis of Oral NSAIDS Available in Indian Market

Deshmukh K R, Hotwani J H

Department of Pharmacology, Topiwala National Medical College and B.Y.L. Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai Central, Mumbai, India

Objectives: To analyze the variation in the cost of oral NSAIDS (single and in combination) available in the Indian market. Materials and Methods: Cost of various NSAIDS being manufactured by different companies, in the same strength and dosage forms was obtained from 'Indian Drug Review', Vol XXI, Issue 4, 2014. The difference in the maximum and minimum price and percentage variation in price was calculated. Results: Significant percentage price variation of the NSAIDS found was Aspirin (50mg)- 695%, Diclofenac (50 mg)- 654%, Nimesulide (100 mg)- 562%, Paracetamol (500mg)- 310%, Piroxicam (20mg)- 216%, Celecoxib (100mg)- 177%. Among the combination therapy, Diclofenac (50 mg)+Serratiopeptidase (10 mg)- 400%, Diclofenac (50 mg) + Paracetamol (500 mg)- 388%, Nimesulide (100 mg)+Paracetamol (325mg)- 384%, Aceclofenac (100mg)+ Paracetamol (500mg)- 350%, Ibuprofen (400mg) + Paracetamol (325mg) - 116%. Conclusion: There are a number of brands of oral NSAIDSmanufactured and marketed by different pharmaceutical companies available in the Indian market. The present study showswide variation in the price of the same drugs manufactured by different companies. This adds to the economic burden of the patients in the treatment of pain and chronic inflammatory conditions. Hence, pharmaceutical companies should aim to decrease the price variation while maintaining the therapeutic efficacy.

RDU-29

Cost Analysis of Oral Cephalosporins Available in Indian Market


Paul KB, Karve AV

Department of Pharmacology, Topiwala National Medical College and B.Y.L. Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai Central, Mumbai, India

Objectives: To evaluate and analyze the variation in the cost of oral cephalosporins (single and in combination) available in Indian market manufactured by different companies. Materials and Methods: Cost per tablet/ capsule of cephalosporins being manufactured by different companies, in the same strength and dosage forms was obtained from 'Indian Drug Review', Vol XXI, Issue 4, 2014. The difference in the maximum and minimum price and percentage variation in price was calculated. Results: There are a number of companies manufacturing a particular drug, eg. Tab Cefixime (200mg)- 127 companies, Tab Cefpodoxime (200mg)- 106 companies, Cap Cefalexin (500mg)- 38 companies and amongst the combinations; Tab Cefixime (200mg)+Tab Clavulanate (125mg)- 51 companies, Tab Cefpodoxime (200mg)+Tab Clavulanate (125mg)- 32 companies. Significant percentage price variation of the cephalosporins found was Tab Cefpodoxime (200mg)- 1746%, Tab Cefuroxime (500mg)- 1696% on the higher side and Tab Cefdinir (100mg)- 8.4%, Cap Cefixime (100mg)- 13.3% on the lower side; Among the combination therapy, Tab Cefixime (200mg)+Tab Ornidazole (500mg)- 9900%, Tab Cefuroxime (250mg)+Tab Clavulanate (125mg)- 320% on the higher side and. Tab Cefpodoxime (200mg)+Tab Ofloxacin (200mg)- 42.1%, Tab Cefuroxime (500mg)+Tab Clavulanate (125mg)- 58.94% on the lower side. Conclusion: There are a number of brands manufacturing oral cephalosporins in the Indian market. The present study shows wide price variation of the same drugs manufactured by different companies. This adds to the economic burden of the patients in the treatment of the respective diseases. Hence, manufacturing companies should aim to decrease the price variation while maintaining the therapeutic efficacy.

RDU-30

Study of Self-Medication among Medical Undergraduate Students

Chhabra Rajat R, Tamboli Saleem B, Deshmukh Jagjeevan B, Ghadlinge Manik S, Deshmukh Amol C

Department of Pharmacology, Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Government Medical College, Nanded, Maharashtra

Objectives: To study the prevalence and pattern of use of self-medication among MBBS students from first year to internship. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among medical students at Government Medical College, Nanded, Maharashtra during the period August 2014 to September 2014. Results: A total 200 students were included in the study. Out of 200 students 172(86%) reported self-medication. Among self-medicated study participants, 91(52.9%) were males and 81(47.1%) were females with mean age of 21.02 years. The most frequently reported illnesses or symptoms of illnesses that prompted self-medication of study participants were fever (95.9%), cough/cold (84.3%), headache (74.4%) and bodyache (68.6%) with the main reasons being similar past experience (77.9%), mildness of illness (58.7%) and urgency of problem (22.7%). Antipyretics (89.5%), analgesics (83.7%), cough syrup (69.8%) and antacids (60.5%) were the most frequently used categories of drugs. Old prescription for same illness (54.1%), seniors or classmates (41.9%), parents or other family members (36.6%) and textbooks (34.3%) were the most frequently reported source of drug information for self-medication. Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among MBBS students. Therefore, there is need to educate the students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

RDU-31

Cost Analysis Study of Anti-Retroviral Agents Available in Indian Market


Pandit PR, Panchal SP

Department of Pharmacology, Topiwala National Medical College and BYL Nair Charitable Hopital, Mumbai.

Objectives: To evaluate and analyze the variations in the cost of anti-retroviral agents available in Indian market manufactured by different companies. Materials and Methods: Cost of a particular drug being manufactured by different companies, in the same strength and dosage forms was obtained from "Indian Drug Review" issue 4, 2014. The difference in the maximum and minimum price andpercentage variation in the price was calculated. Results: Percentage price variation of the commonly used drugs found was: Zidovudine (Cap.100mg)-436%, Lamivudine (Tab100mg)-268%, Tenofovir (Tab 300mg)-149.3%, Nelfinavir (Tab250mg) -71%, Nevirapine (Tab200mg): 43.4%, among the combination therapy Lamivudine 150mg + Zidovudine 300mg: 314% variation. Conclusion: There are number of brands manufacturing anti-retroviral drugs in Indian market. The present study shows wide price variation of the same drugs manufactured by different companies. This adds to the economic burden to patients in the treatment of HIV-AIDS. Therefore, manufacturing companies should aim to decrease the price variation while maintaining the therapeutic efficacy.

RDU-32

Cost Analysis Study of Commonly Used Oral Fluoroquinolones Available in Indian Market

Badwane S. V, Chawan V. S.

Department of pharmacology; Topiwala National Medical College and BYL Nair Ch. Hospital, Mumbai

Objective: To find out the cost of various oral fluoroquinolones available in India either as a single drug or in combination and also to evaluate difference in cost of various brands of same fluoroquinolone by calculating percentage variation in cost in Indian rupees. Materials and Methods: Cost of oral fluoroquinolones manufactured by different companies, in the same strength and dosage forms was obtained from "Indian Drug review", Vol. XXI, Issue 4, 2014. The difference in the maximum and minimum price of the same drug manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies and percentage variation in price was calculated. Results: Percentage price variation for various fluoroquinolones was as follows. Ofloxacin (200mg): 869%, Sparfloxacin (200mg): 648%, Norfloxacin (400mg): 291%, Ciprofloxacin (500mg): 290%, Levofloxacin (250mg): 264%, Lomefloxacin (400mg):104%, Moxifloxacin (400mg): 60%. Among the combination therapy, price variation was Norfloxacin + Tinidazole (400+600mg): 983%, Ofloxacin + Cefixime (200+200mg): 232%, Levofloxacin + Ornidazole (250+500mg): 211%, Ofloxacin + Ornidazole (200+500mg):156.60% Ciprofloxacin + Tinidazole (500+600mg): 150%. Conclusion: The average percentage price variation of different brands of same oral fluoroquinolones manufactured in India is very wide. As India is a developing country, clinicians must prescribe fluoroquinolones keeping in mind the cost of therapy.

REV-1

Mutagenesis: A Lab Technique

Dhirender kaushik, Bhawna Vaish, Manjusha Chaudhary A.C. Rana

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

Mutagenesis is a process by which genetic information of an organism is changed in a stable manner, resulting in a mutation (a change of nucleotide sequence of genome of an organism, viruses or extra chromosomal genetic element). Many mutations arise as a result of problems caused by DNA lesions during replication, resulting in errors in replication. It may occur spontaneously in nature or as a result of exposure to mutagens. Mutagenesis in a lab is an important technique whereby DNA mutations are deliberately engineered to produce mutant genes, proteins or strains of organism. Various constituent of a gene such as its control element and its gene product may be mutated so that functioning of a gene or protein can be examined in detail. In nature, mutagenesis can lead to cancer and various heritable diseases, but it is also driving force of evaluation. Mutagenesis may also arise as a result of presence of environmental mutagens that induces changes to DNA. Most mutagens act either directly or indirectly via mutagenic metabolites on DNA producing lesions. Mutations may also produce mutant proteins with interesting properties or enhanced or novel functions that may be of commercial use.

REV-2

Denosumab in the Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: A Review

Handique C, Lahkar M, Bordoloi P,

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam

Osteoporosis is a common clinical disorder characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of skeletal micro architecture leading to an increased risk for bone fracture. Treatment modalities aim to reduce the risk for fracture and prevent further bone loss. Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to RANK ligand is highly effective in reducing the risk of vertebral, non vertebral and hip fracture. In the collective data from the phase II and III clinical trials, Denosumab has been shown to be safe. Denosumab reduced the risk for new vertebral, non vertebral and hip fractures over 36 months in the largest phase III Fracture Reduction Evaluation of Denosumab in Osteoporosis Every 6 Months (FREEDOM) trial. The clinical concern was the potential risk for infections because of the ubiquitous presence of RANK-L throughout many tissues. Denosumab is not cleared by the kidney but by the reticuloendothelial system, and it may not have any adverse renal effects as may be seen, though rarely, with intravenous bisphosphonates. The long-term efficacy and toxicity of Denosumab still remains to be evaluated in further studies. As the postmenopausal women are increasingly experiencing a longer life expectancy so the long term evaluation of this drug particularly becomes important. As aging is accompanied with multitude of conditions Denosumab can be a good choice as it has no drug drug interactions. It appears to be a promising, effective and safe and a cost-effective therapy compared with existing alternatives.

REV-3

Drug Delivery and Research-4Ds Approach

Dr. Sravana Sandhya. P, Dr. Vasundhara Devi. B, Dr. Radhika Rani. KC

S. V. Medical College, Tirupati

Pharmaceutical research is centered on design and development of drugs. A majority (40%) of the failures in new drug discovery programmes are attributed to the poor biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetic properties (Waterbeemd HV et al, 2003). An overarching goal of any new drug discovery programme is to develop an orally deliverable molecule because of the ease of drug administration and the established process for manufacturing oral dosage forms. Drug solubility and permeability are the two most important properties that govern oral drug absorption and bioavailability. On the basis of these two properties, a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) has been developed, which classifies drugs into four classes (Amidon GL et al, 1995) and this aids as guidelines for developing new delivery technologies to improve drug solubility and permeability (Devane J et al, 1998). The pathophysiology of disease can provide several clues for the design of drug delivery system. Thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease allows a drug delivery scientist to address the delivery issues for specific issues. The delivery system, which is the main focus of pharmaceutics research, should integrate (drug, disease and destination) and involves several components such as polymers, stabilizers and preservatives. Patient compliance or reduced dosing frequency or reduced adverse effects and overcoming are limitations of conventional therapies. There is a strong clinical and commercial need to develop new delivery systems for challenging molecules like proteins and gene based medicines (Davis SS et al, 1998).

REV-4

Suvorexant, Novel Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonist for Management of Insomnia: A Systematic Review


Dr. Shubhangam Sharma*, Dr. Hanmant Amane

Department of Pharmacology, PCMS and RC, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.

Introduction: Insomnia is a common clinical problem that has numerous impacts on individuals and society. People with insomnia often have difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, and daytime consequences include fatigue, inattention, and difficulty with work. Currently approved treatments for insomnia alter neurotransmission in widely acting GABA, monoaminergic and cholinergic systems, causing various adverse effects. The recent discovery of orexins (also called hypocretin, a neurotransmitter that regulates arousal, wakefulness, and appetite) and their receptors has led to the development of new therapy targets- 'the orexin receptor antagonist (ORA)' which have the potential to selectively promote sleep and cause fewer side effects. Mechanism 0f Action: Suvorexant, approved for sale by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on August 13, 2014 is a potent dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) that blocks both the orexin receptors, OX1 and OX2 thus inhibiting orexin A and B, neuropeptides that promote wakefulness. Clinical Profile: Randomized trials conducted by W. Joseph Herring et al and Sun et al provide evidence that this unique alternative with novel mechanism of action improves sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep time (TST) alongwith significant changes in sleep latency or latency to persistent sleep (LPS) and sleep maintenance, or waking after sleep onset (WASO). It has a favorable tolerability and limited side-effect profile that includes somnolence, headache, dizziness and abnormal dreams. Conclusion: Based on the recent clinical data, Suvorexant potentially represents an effective and well-tolerated medication that offers a sustained benefit for patients with symptoms of chronic insomnia.

REV-5

"Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L)) For Diabetes"

Ena Pradhan, Chandra Kala Sharma

Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim, India

Traditional herbal formulations are often the foundation stone for many new drug discoveries. The drug discovering strategies are based on rational designing and careful standardization of the formulations. Sikkim, a floristically rich state of India is located on the lap of the Eastern Himalaya and its different ethnic and tribal inhabitants are bestowed with rich knowledge on traditional medicinal plant usage. Several studies have been conducted and are still being conducted in this region to explore the medicinal properties of these plants. Based on literature survey, around 37 species of plants found in Sikkim have antidiabetic property. Ipomoea batatas(L) is one such plant whose ariel as well as tuberous roots have been found to have antidiabetic effect. Flavonoids considered to be one of the main active components of Ipomoea batatas(L) leaf have hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, blood vessel softening and antimutation properties. The Ipomoea batatas(L) tubers improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride, provide fibre which offers protection against colon cancer, increase satiety and rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine and minerals. Inspite of having all these properties not much study have been conducted on this plant in India and none in Sikkim. Diabetes is an epidemic disease affecting millions worldwide. The plant is cultivated throughout India and is a part of daily diet. The antidiabetic property of Ipomoea batatas(L) grown in the climate of Sikkim may be studied in animal model for scientific validation and discovering new drug which will benefit millions worldwide.

REV-6

Nanotoxicology: A Pathologists Perspective

Dhirender kaushik, Garima, Manjusha Chaudhary, A.C Rana

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

Advances in chemistry and engineering have created a new technology, nanotechnology, involving the tiniest known manufactured products. These products have a rapidly increasing market share and appear poised to revolutionize engineering, cosmetics, and medicine. Unfortunately, nanotoxicology, the study of nanoparticulate health effects, lags behind advances in nanotechnology. Over the past decade, existing literature on ultrafine particles and respirable durable fibers has been supplemented by studies of first-generation nanotechnology products. These studies suggest that nanosizing increases the toxicity of many particulates. First, as size decreases, surface area increases, thereby speeding up dissolution of soluble particulates and exposing more of the reactive surface of durable but reactive particulates. Second, nanosizing facilitates movement of particulates across cellular and intracellular barriers. Third, nanosizing allows particulates to interact with, and sometimes even hybridize with, subcellular structures, including in some cases microtubules and DNA. Finally, nanosizing of some particulates, increases pathologic and physiologic responses, including inflammation, fibrosis, allergic responses, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity, and may alter cardiovascular and lymphatic function. Knowing how the size and physiochemical properties of nanoparticulates affect bioactivity is important in assuring that the exciting new products of nanotechnology are used safely. This review provides an introduction to the pathology and toxicology of nanoparticulates.

REV-7

The Toxicology of Inhaled Nitric Oxide


Dhirender kaushik, Mohit Madan, Manjusha Chaudhary, A.C Rana

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

Inhaled nitric oxide is a targeted pulmonary vasodilator that improves clinical outcomes for newborn patients with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and may be effective in treating some premature patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome or lung disease of prematurity. Nitric oxide is now recognized as playing an important role in the regulation of diverse physiological processes. However, the pharmacological properties of inhaled nitric oxide are not easy to separate from its toxicological effects. For example, the intended effect of inhaled nitric oxide, vasodilation in the lung, is mediated, in part, by increased cellular cyclic GMP (cGMP). However, increased cGMP can also interfere with normal cellular proliferation. Nitric oxide has also been shown to cause DNA strand breaks and/or base alterations that are potentially mutagenic. Inhaled nitric oxide can rapidly react with oxygen in the lung to form nitrogen dioxide, which is a potent pulmonary irritant. Nitric oxide also reacts with superoxide anion to form peroxynitrite, a cytotoxic oxidant that can interfere with surfactant functioning. The overall effect of inhaled nitric oxide in potentiating or attenuating inflammation and oxidative damage in diseased lung is dependent on the dose administered. Furthermore, despite rapid inactivation by circulating hemoglobin, inhaled nitric oxide exerts effects outside the lung, including blocking platelet aggregation, causing methemoglobinemia, and possibly inducing extrapulmonary vasodilation.

REV-8

Teratogens and Their Effects


Dhirender Kaushik, Priya Yadav, Manjusha Chaudhary, A.C. Rana,

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119

Proper use of medicine during pregnancy is an essential part of prenatal care, since it can not only affect the health of pregnant women but also the developing fetus, which is exposed to a wide range of adverse effect. Before the disaster caused by the use of thalidomide in the late 1950's and early 1960's, placenta was considered barrier capable of protecting the fetus from any pharmacological damage. However currently it is known that most drugs as well as various substances present in environment have the ability to cross the placental barrier and reach the bloodstream of the fetus exposing to pharmacological and/or teratogenic effect. These agents are called teratogens and include anticonvulsants, ACE inhibitors, warfarin, lithium etc. NSAID'S for example, that are widely prescribed for fever, pain and inflammation may cause embryo, fetal and neonatal adverse effect. Additionally, fetal and neonatal adverse effect in brain, kidney, lung, skeleton, gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have also been reported after the NSAID's treatment. There are some drugs associated with an increased incidence of prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight. The present review aimed at presenting various teratogens which leads to detrimental effects on fetus. Keyword: Pregnancy, teratogen.

REV-9

Helpfull Steps Which Can Prevent Risk Factors in Inflamatory Bowel Disease

Sandeep Kaur, Dhirender Kaushik, A.C. Rana

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative colitis are collectively known as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Crohn's Disease causes inflammation of the full thickness of the bowel wall, in any part of the digestive tract from the mouth to the anus. Ulcerative colitis is inflammation of the inner lining of the large bowel (colon and rectum). More than 75,000 Indians have one of these conditions. Although Crohn's Disease start at any age but now a days it is becoming much more common in children under the age of nine. Evidence from the literature and clinical experience are presented that illustrate best practice for improving current quality of care of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases should be carried out but there are a number of gaps in our current quality of care for patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Best care for inflammatory bowel disease patients should involve:-Creating more IBD centers of excellence, founded on current guidelines.·Services delivered by a multidisciplinary team at these centers.·Fostering physician-patient collaboration.·Consider new Interventions for adherence.·Coaching programs and tools that improve patient self-management and empowerment. Doctors should be aware of possible drug interactions and side effects. Dietary or lifestyle changes may reduce inflammation in Crohn's disease.

REV-10

Synthesis and In-silico Evaluation of Some New Substituted Benzopyrones As Potential CNS Stimulants

Sonia Kohli, Sukhbir Lal Khokra, Dhirender Kaushik

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra

A literature revealed that heterocyclic ring system such as substituted benzopyrone and thiazole have received much attention during recent years on account of their prominent potential as cardiotonic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory effects, antimicrobial, antibacterial and herbicidal activities. The biological importance of benzopyrones and thiazoles prompted us to synthesize some new compounds having both the ring systems, with a view to screen them for their CNS stimulant activity. The identities of all new compounds, synthesized during the course of present investigations have been established through their elemental analysis and their spectral characteristics. The synthesized derivatives were also analyzed for their CNS stimulants on the basis of in silico analysis via molecular docking studies.

REV-11

Chemical Widely Used in Antibacterial Hand Soap

Srijita Dutta

Department of Pharmacology, Nshm Knowledge Campus-Group of Institutions Kolkata

Research has shed light on a number of problems with employing triclosan so widely. Studies have shown that the chemical can disrupt the endocrine systems of severalnone different animalsnone , binding to receptor sites in the body, which prevents the thyroid hormone from functioning normally. The study found that the chemical hinders human muscle contractions at the cellular level and inhibits normal muscle functioning in both fish and mice. In the first phase of the study, we exposed individual human muscle cells, both from the heart and typical skeletal muscles, to concentrations of triclosan similar to what our bodies experience in everyday life. Then, we used electrical stimulation to cause the muscle cells to contract. In the isolated cells, though, exposure to triclosan disrupted communication between two proteins crucial for proper muscle functioning, causing failure in both the heart and skeletal muscle cells. Triclosan can be useful in some instances, however it has become a ubiquitous 'value added' marketing factor that actually could be more harmful than helpful. At the very least, our findings call for a dramatic reduction in its use.

REV-12

Immunomodulatory Action of Adrenaline


Srijoni Sarkar

Department of Pharmacology, Nshm College of Pharmaceutical Technology, Nshm Knowledge Campus, Kolkata Group of Institutions,124 B.l. Saha Road, Kolkata, India

I am reviewing the effect of adrenaline as an immunomodulator and how it is associated with stress and immune dysregulation. Stress-associated immune dysregulation is based on psychoneuroimmunological interactions. In response to stress, several physiological changes are initiated. But, chronic activation of stress responses results in chronic production of catecholamines in the body. Adrenaline and noradrenaline bind to adrenergic receptors and activate cAMP response element binding protein. This induces gene transcriptions for a variety of cytokines. These changes in gene expression can disregulate immune function which is significant enough to have serious health implications. Studies on stress are conducted via various ways which can quantify the aspects and dimensions associated with it. Experimental stressors can be either short-term or long-term and chronic. I am going to review the effect of stress-induced immune dysregulation on infectious diseases, wound healing and inflammation. Studies conducted both on animal models and human subjects suggest that increased stress levels are responsible for increased susceptibility to infections, delayed wound healing and increased inflammation. Since catecholamines modulate a variety of immune functions, a sudden and acute activation of adrenaline frequently in the body results in immune dysregulation, which, in turn causes the body to become more susceptible to infectious diseases and other serious ailments.

REV-13

ADRs Reporting in India

Sukhjinder Singh, Dr. Mangala Lahkar.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati Assam, India

The aim of this review is to enhance the ADR reporting in India. The various articles were accessed to know the status of ADRs reporting in India. The articles were searched by the key words mainly "Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting in India", and "Pharmacovigilance status in India" in Google. The results were drawn on the basis of collected articles. At present, all over India there are 150 ADR Monitoring Centres (AMC) are established under the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI). Out of these, 60 AMCs are established this year (2014). The number of Individual case reports (ICSRs) in the PvPI database during the year 2010 was 3223 and upto May 2014 it was 84470. But still shortcoming of ADR reporting is there. Many factors are responsible for the shortcoming of ADR reporting. The doctors have positive attitude towards ADR reporting but they are unaware about the methodology of ADR reporting which affect their practice of pharmacovigilance. The Indian pharmacists have poor knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) towards ADR reporting and pharmacovigilance. The pharmacists with higher education such as Pharm D have better KAP. The ADR reporting can make the drugs safer and protect the health of nation from the harmfulness of the drugs. By creating awareness among the doctors, nurses, pharmacists, other health care professionals and patients the ADR reporting can be enhanced. By developing clinical skills among the Indian pharmacists the active participation of the pharmacists in ADR reporting can be enhanced.

REV-14

Harmonisation of clinical research compensation guidelines for BRICS countries: A need of the hour.

Swati S. Jadhav 1 , Chandrashekhar D. Upasani 2 , Ravindra B. Ghooi 3

1 Symbiosis School of Biomedical Sciences, Symbiosis International University, Lavale, Pune, 2 Professor of Pharmacology and Principal, SSJB's SSDJ College of Pharmacy, Chandwad, Nashik, 3 Consultant, Cipla Palliative Care and Training Centre, Pune, India

India is a prominent member of BRICS, one of the fast growing groups of nations who have come together for economic co-operation. The other countries are Brazil, Russia, China and South Africa. The compensation guidelines in clinical trials for all BRICS countries recommend that research participants are entitled to compensation for research related injury. Patients receive free medical care for trial related injuries in all these countries though there are different means and methods of compensation. In this paper we study the compensation guidelines of the BRICS countries, analyse how clinical research participant is ethically compensated for injury and check for the discrepancies between prescribed literature and its practice. The work also includes study of healthcare and economic development of BRICS countries through clinical research as an avenue. In future the BRICS group may become a dominant pressure group in world economy. Clinical research is a high growth area in all these countries. High population with low per capita income make these countries an attractive low cost clinical research alternative to high per capital income nations like North America and Europe. The comparative study provides the preliminary insight into the need of harmonisation, simplicity and robustness of compensation guidelines for these countries for their economic, industrial and research growth.

REV-15

Advances in Modern Knowledge on Dravyaguna of Piper longum During the Past Five Years


Vaishali Yadav, Vikas Kumar

Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, India

Herbs are natural remedies for the various diseases with higher safety profile and efficacy. Natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives for Ayurvedic system of medicine. Piper longum Linn. is a native of indo-Malaya region, belongs to the family of Piperaceae. Piperine and piperlongumine are the major active chemical constituents of Piper longum extract (PL), besides of many other alkaloids, volatile oil and resins have been extracted from this plant. Recent studies showed that PL exhibits anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-bacterial, aphrodiasiac, larvicidal and leishmanicidal activity. Some recent studies showed that, it could also be used in some respiratory disorders and as digestive agent. Piperine, the major bioactive constituent of PL was found to enhance the bioavailability of structurally and therapeutically diverse drugs. PL has been reported to possess some protective activity against various neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease and depression. There are several lucrative formulations reported which contains this plant viz. Abhayaristam, Draksaristan, Chyavanaprasam, Pippalyasavam, etc. Some compound preparations of PL like Bhaskara lavana, Panchkola churna and Asta churna are useful in dyspepsia, flatulence, gastritis and enlarged spleen. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to present some examples from the literature studies of last five years that have served to validate and explore the traditional use of PL with specific biological activity.

RSP-01

Pattern of Antimicrobial Usage in Acute Respiratory Tract Infection

Jyothi R, Basavaraj Bhandare, Satyanarayana V, Naveen Poojar C M

Department of Pharmacology, Rajarajeswari Medical College, Bangalore, India

Objectives: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. According to studies, ARIs are the reason for 75% of the antibiotic prescriptions each year they are also associated with abuse of antibiotics. Presumptive antibiotic usage for ARI remains a common practice despite evidence that no therapeutic benefit is derived for the patient and sometimes harmful consequences result. So, our objective was to study the current trend of prescribing patterns of antimicrobials used in treatment of acute respiratory infections. Materials and Methods: 1) Non Interventional, Prospective, Observational and Descriptive study. 2) 300 prescriptions for Acute Respiratory Tract Infection were analysed in Department of General Medicine and Otolaryngology OPD at Rajarajeswari Medical College and Hospital. Results: A total of 300 patients were enrolled in the study, among them 186(62%) were male and 114(38%) were female. 66% were above 40 years. Bronchitis (31%) was the most common indication for the use of antimicrobials followed by Pharyngitis (20%), Acute exacerbation of COPD (18%), Sinusitis (17%) and Others (14%). Preferred antimicrobial agents were Cephalosporins (41%), followed by Amoxicillin (29%), Levofloxacin (18%), Azithromycin (11%). Single antimicrobial agent was used in 56%, two drug combination in 34% and three drug combination in 10%. Adverse drug reactions were seen in 2% of the patients. Conclusion: The study supports the findings of previous studies that antimicrobial agents are overused in ARIs. Despite broad-spectrum antibiotics usually confer no additional benefit they are extensively used. There is a room for improvement in quality prescribing of Antimicrobial agents.

TOX-1

Intratracheal Administration of Carbon Nanotubes Produces both Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Toxic Effects in Sprague Dawley Rats

Amit Khurana 1 , Ramarao Poduri 2,3 , Chandraiah Godugu 2

Department of Regulatory Toxicology, National institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER)- Balanagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, 2 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) - Mohali, Punjab, India, 3 Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, Punjab, India

Objective: To evaluate toxicological effects of single walled (SWCNTs) and multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) upon intratracheal (i.t.) administration in rats. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were administered with SWCNTs and MWCNTs at the dose of 1 and 5 mg/kg intratracheally. Animals were sacrificed at 1 week, 1 and 3 months after CNTs administration. BAL was performed; oxidative stress parameters were studied in lung and thoracic aortic tissues. The inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6), NF-KB/p65 levels were estimated by ELISA method. Hydroxyproline concentration was measured in lung tissues to study the fibrogenic potential of CNTs. Extrapulmonary toxic effects were studied in rat thoracic aorta. The vascular contraction and endothelium dependent vascular relaxation was studied in in-vitro isolated tissue experiments. Results: In BAL fluid and lung tissues, i.t. administration of both types of CNTs resulted in significant toxicity. Oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and NF-KB/p65 levels were significantly increased. Increased hydroxyproline content in lung tissue suggests fibrogenic potential of CNTs. In vitro thoracic ring contraction and relaxation studies showed significant increase in the alpha-1 and angiotensin type-1 receptor mediated contractions. Further, endothelium dependent vascular relaxation was also significantly compromised. Vascular contraction and relaxation studies indicate the development of vascular dysfunction, mediated by oxidative stress. Results revealed the higher toxic response of MWCNTs compared to SWCNTs. Conclusion: Our results suggest the hazardous effects of CNTs at pulmonary and extrapulmonary sites upon i.t. administration. Therefore, care must be taken while using, working or exposing to the CNTs.

TOX-2

Toxicokinetic Studies Following Single Administration of Oral Lufenuron in Black Bengal Goats.

Pandey A.K, Sar T.K., Mandal T.K.

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Objective: Lufenuron is an insectide classified under insect growth regulator (IGR) which are third generation pesticide. Present study has been undertaken with black Bengal goat as the animal model to study the toxicokinetic effect after single dose oral administration of lufenuron. Materials and Methods: Determination of minimum oral toxic dose of lufenuron in black Bengal goat was carried out by trial and error and it was calculated 1750 mg/kg bw. For toxicokinetic study four female goats were used which were divided into two groups. Lufenuron technical grade suspending in 1% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) was orally administered once at the dose rate of 1750 mg/kg b.w. to all the three goats of experimental group. Blood samples (2 ml) were collected by jugular vein upto 168 hrs post dosing. Plasma was then separated and was utilized for analysis of lufenuron concentration by HPLC. Statistical analysis was performed with a computer statistical program (SPSS, ver-10.0). Results: The plasma lufenuron concentrations was detected at 1 hour post dosing and gradually maximum blood concentration (C Bmax ; 45.87± 1.48 μg ml -1 ) was achieved at 3 hrs post dosing. The semilograthemic plot of mean blood concentration time profile indicates wide distribution of the compound in all the compartments of the body and also longer persistence of lufenuron in the blood. Conclusion: The rate of absorption of lufenuron from oral route was very poor and persistent. Body clearance value was very poor and apparent volume of distribution is very high resulting longer persistence in tissue.

TOX-3

A Case Report Study of Amoxicillin Induced Stevens Johnson Syndrome

Ravindra Kumar.G, Dhananjay.K,

Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciencesand Research Foundation, Amalapuram, East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh

Abstract: A 13year old boy was brought to the hospital with high grade fever, cough, swelling of lower lip and burning micturition. His father gave the history of cough with expectoration, fever for 4 days and the patient was treated for this condition in a private clinic with amoxicillin 500mg (cap. Mox, Ranbaxy, india) bid, chlorpheniramine maleate 10 ml (syrup. Piriton, 2mg/5 ml gsk, u.k) tds and paracetamol 500 mg tds (tab paracip, cipla, india). After 2 days he developed swelling, bleeding and pus from lower lip, burning micturition and erosions on the glans penis for which he was admitted. On admission pulse rate110/min, temperature 102 0 f and all other vital signs were normal. On systemic examination dehydration, swelling of lower lip with bleeding and erosions on the glans penis were noted. All other systems were normal. Biochemical and hematological investigations were normal. The diagnosis was Stevens Johnson syndrome. Cap. Amoxicillin was stopped and the patient was treated with IV fluids, steroids, antibiotics, antipyretics, anti histaminics and pantoprazole. After 3 days of above mentioned treatment the patient started to recover and got discharged from the hospital on 10 th day. It is necessary for a medical practitioner to be aware of Stevens Johnson syndrome, a rare adverse drug reaction of amoxicillin, to identify and treat the life threatening condition.

TOX-4

Carbamazepine Induced Lichenoid Drug Eruption

Lokesh Patil, Dattatri A.N

Department of Pharmacology, Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli, India

Case report: Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic drug mainly used in partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Adverse cutaneous reaction to carbamazepine are very common ranging from simple rash to severe reactions like Steven Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Lichenoid drug eruption is an uncommon cutaneous adverse drug reaction of several drugs. Herein we report a case of carbamazepine induced lichenoid drug eruptions in a 50-year-old woman who presented with pruritic shiny, violaceous and flat topped polygonal papules all over the body mainly on lower limbs, trunk and back. The lesions resolved with hyperpigmented patches on stopping the drug and treatment with topical steroids. Skin biopsy was confirmative with features of lichenoid interface dermatitis. Lichenoid drug eruption is a rare occurrence with carbamazepine and the time interval between the initiation of the offending drug and the appearance of the cutaneous lesions varies from months to a year or more, so physicians should be aware of this condition in order to prevent and treat such reactions early.

TOX-5

Cilnidipine-Induced Bilateral Pitting Ankle Edema in a Hypertension Patient- A Case Report

Das Joydip, Sen Sukanta, Paik Sabyasachi, Somnath Mondal, Saha Bibhuti 1 , Tripathi SK

Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, 1 Department of Tropical Medicine and Centre of Excellence for HIV care, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India

Introduction: Ankle edema is a common adverse effect of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs) like amlodipine. Cilnidipine is a fourth generation dihydropyridine CCB inhibiting both L-type and N-type Ca 2+ channels. Case report: Here we report a case of a 37-year old man, smoker and occasional alcoholic, weighing 75 kg, who was recently diagnosed as a case of essential hypertension. His pre-treatment blood pressure was 154/96 mm of Hg and he was advised to start cilnidipine 5 mg once daily with salt restriction and lifestyle modifications. There was no history of concurrent drug intake. He developed bilateral pitting ankle edema after the 5 th week of concurrent drug therapy. Clinical examination revealed no symptoms and signs of anemia, renal, hepatic, cardiac and rheumatological disease. All basic investigations such as CBC, routine urine examination, blood sugar, blood urea, creatinine, liver function test, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, free T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone and serum uric acid were within normal limits. Electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography were normal. The patient was advised to stop the suspected drug cilnidipine and was changed over to olmesartan with chlorthalidone (20 + 12.5 mg) once daily. The edema disappeared completely on the 9 th day after stopping cilnidipine. Patient was not ready for re-challenge. The causality assessment was done as per the Naranjo algorithm and WHO- UMC criteria, it appears to be probable. Capillary hypertension caused by CCBs can be reduced by venous dilation, and ACEIs/ARBs can be administered with CCBs.

TOX-6

Diclofenac-Induced Erythema Multiforme - A Rare Case Report


Era Nikhil, Sen Sukanta, Saharoy Sukalyan, Paik Sabyasachi, Moitra Saibal 1 , Tripathi SK

Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, 1 Pulmonologist, Department of Respiratory and Allergy Medicine, Charnock Hospital and Research Centre Pvt. Ltd, Kolkata, India

Introduction: Erythema multiforme (EM) is a distinctive hypersensitivity syndrome characterized by skin and mucous membrane lesions. EM shows typical clinical patterns. Based on the severity and the number of mucosal sites involved, the disease has been sub-classified into EM minor and major. Case Report: We describe the first case of a 59-year-old woman who developed diffuse, erythematous rash on face, trunk and both extremities which later turned into blisters with the complaint of extensive ulceration of oral cavity along with pain and inability to eat following four days treatment with diclofenac. There was history of ankle sprain for which she was prescribed tab diclofenac by rural medicine practitioner. On oral examination, both upper and lower lips showed swelling, extensive irregular ulcerations, showing cracking and fissuring with blood encrustation. Characteristic target lesions with concentric color variations were present over back and extremities. The Nikolsky sign was negative. Investigations revealed moderate leukocytosis. Mycoplasma pneumonia Ab and autoimmune disease survey were negative. Serum anti-HSV-1 IgG titre was normal. Diclofenac was stopped and patient was treated with methylprednisolone (16 mg/ day) for 2 weeks and then gradually tapered off, hydroxyzine (25 mg/ day) for 7 days, fusidic acid ointment local application twice daily and paracetamol (650 mg SOS). Skin lesions healed with scaling and transitory hyperpigmentation. Discussion: A provisional diagnosis of drug-induced EM (DIEM) was made. EM major shows ulcerations involving more than one mucous membrane with skin target lesions. Conclusion: Prompt identification and withdrawal of the culprit drug(s) and rapid initiating supportive care in an appropriate setting is the mainstay for the management of EM.

TOX-7

Doxycycline Induced Fixed Drug Eruption.

S G S Rajesh Reddy, V. Janaki.R. Torvi

Department of Pharmacology, Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Hubli, India

Introduction: Fixed drug eruption (FDE) represents the most common cutaneous adverse drug reaction in Indian patients accounting for 30% of all cutaneous adverse drug reactions. More than 100 drugs, including doxycycline have been implicated in causing FDEs. Case Report: This is a case of 29yr old male presented to skin opd with complaints of erythematous skin rashes associated with burning and itching sensation. The patient stated that these lesions had appeared within a few hours of taking a single dose of oral doxycycline 500mg for a hordeolum externum. A diagnosis of FDE to Doxycycline was made and the patient was told to stop the offending agent and was started on oral antihistamines (Tab cetrizine) and topical steroid cream (mometasone). Discussion: FDE is considered a form of delayed hypersensitivity, mediated by CD8+ T-cells. A diagnostic hallmark is the reappearance of the lesions over the previously affected sites, when the offending drug is reused. Conclusion: FDE from doxycycline is a rare occurrence. It is often misdiagnosed. Physicians should be aware of this condition in order to prevent future recurrences as it causes a lot of cosmetic and physical discomfort to the patient.

TOX-8

Nevirapine Induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) in a HIV Infected Patient- A Case Report


Paik Sabyasachi, Sen Sukanta, Era Nikhil, Das Joydip, Saha Bibhuti 1 , Tripathi S K

Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India, 1 Department of Tropical Medicine and Centre of Excellence for HIV Care, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India

Introduction: The severity of cutaneous adverse drug reaction may vary from mild rashes to severe Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Nevirapine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) is sometimes associated with life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Case Report: Here we report a case of a 72-year-old HIV infected man who developed diffuse, erythematous rash on face, trunk, abdomen and both extremities with extensive ulceration of buccal, genital and ocular mucosa following 3 weeks treatment with nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. The body surface area involvement of the patient at the time of presentation was 35%. The sudden onset, positive drug history, associated clinical symptoms, stinging eyes, extensive erythematous rash over face and trunk, fluid filled blisters and ulcers in oral, nasal and genital cavity, cracking and fissuring of lips with bloody crusting, positive Nikolsky's sign and histopathology report, a provisional diagnosis of nevirapine-induced TEN was made. On hospitalization ART was stopped. After administration of oral immunosuppressant, intravenous antibiotic, intravenous paracetamol, topical antiseptic, anti-histamine, topical lubricants, fluid therapy and parenteral nutrition patient could not be recovered and died after 7 days of hospital admission. Discussion: The causality assessment as per the Naranjo algorithm and WHO- UMC criteria was Probable. Assessment of causality by using the algorithm of drug causality for epidermal necrolysis (ALDEN) and SCORTEN severity score was also assessed. Conclusion: Due to the high risk of mortality, management of patients with TEN requires rapid diagnosis, evaluation of the prognosis, rapid identification and interruption of the culprit drug, specialized supportive care ideally in an intensive care unit.

TOX-9

Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) Produces Length Dependent Toxicity in Mice: An Alarm on Safety of MWCNTs as a Drug Carrier

Nuty Vijaya, Ramarao Poduri 1,2 , Chandraiah Godugu 1

Department of Regulatory Toxicology, National institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) - Balanagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, 1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) - Mohali, Punjab, India, 2 Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, Punjab, India

Objective: To evaluate the effect of length dependent toxicity of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in mice. Materials and Methods: Different sized (length) MWCNTs were intravenously administered to Swiss mice at the dose of 5 mg/kg. One week after single dose administration, animals were studied for various toxicological end points. Various biochemical toxicity markers such as ALT, AST, BUN, and creatinine were measured in plasma. Oxidative stress parameters such as MDA, GSH were estimated in vital organs like liver, lung, spleen, heart etc. Proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6), NF-Kβ P/65 levels were measured by ELISA method. Results: MWCNTs produced length dependent toxic effects in liver, as observed from significant increase in the liver toxicity markers (ALT and AST) with increased length of MWCNTs. Oxidative stress parameters indicated that MWCNTs produce toxic effects in liver, lung and spleen, due to selective distribution of different MWCNTs in these organs. Similarly, proinflammatory cytokines were significantly increased in plasma and tissues homogenates (liver, lung and spleen). The highest length MWCNTs (1-20μM) produced severe toxicity profile compared to medium length and short length MWCNTs. Conclusion: The toxicity of MWCNTs depends on the length of CNTs used. The fictionalization nature may also determine the toxic potential; with COOH functionalized CNTs producing lesser/no toxic effects compared to same size of non functionalized CNTs. Therefore, care must be taken while using longer MWCNTs for various biomedical applications and accidental exposure.

TOX-10

Ameliorative Effect of Tamarindus Indica Linn Leaf Juice in Cisplatin Induced Grade- I Chronic Renal Failure

Maurya P, Sar T, Mukherjee. P, Chatterjee U.S. and Mandal T.K.

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishary Sciences,37, K.B. Sarani, Kolkata, India

Objective: To study the ameliorative effect of Tamarindus leaf juice in grade 1 chronic renal failure in goats. Materials and Methods: Grade 1 chronic renal failure in goats, was experimentally induced by administering Cisplatin (1mg/ml) at 30 mg/sq. mt. intravenously (I/Vly) twice a week for 28 days. Blood and urine samples were collected at 7days interval to monitor plasma creatinine, BUN, GFR and urine CRT, GFR determined by CRT clearance method. Following induction of renal failure Tamarindus leaf juice was administered (standard non-toxic dose) @ 2gm/kg and 4gm/kg bodyweight to evaluate efficacy of the same in chronic renal failure. Result and Discussion: Mean BUN, CRT were increased and GFR was decreased markedly in healthy goat to mean BUN level (23.085+0.0231 - 23.004+0.142 mg/dl), CRT level (1.417+ 0.067 - 1.404+0.051 mg/dl) and GFR level (2.593+0.052 - 2.697+0.061 ml/min/kg) respectively following I/V injection of cisplatin (1mg/ml) @30 mg/sq. mt. bi-weekly for 28 days Following administration of Tamarindus leaf juice @ 4 gm/kg orally for 30 days at 24 hrs interval. Mean BUN, CRT level were significantly decreased from day 1 to day 30. GFR rate was significantly increased from day 14 to day 30 in Tamarindus leaf juice treated chronic renal failure goats. Conclusion: Tamarindus leaf juice @ 4gm/kg bodyweight may effectively cure grade 1 chronic renal failure than @ 2gm/kg b.wt.

TOX-11

Ameliorative Effects of Antioxidant on Pesticide Toxicity Studies

Dhirender Kaushik, Rahul Gupta, Ajay Kumar, Rajneesh Sharma 1

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India, 1 Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India

Objective: Our aim of the study, to investigate the preventive effect of lemon juice on pesticide toxicity. Material and Methods: In this study, lemon juice used to analyzed there effect on malathion toxicity. We are evaluating different parameters such as physical parameter, weight parameter, blood parameter, sperm count method, In-vitro method and histopathology of different organs. Twenty four rats were used in this study and classified into 4 groups (6 animals each group). One dose was selected for the study, 400 mg/kg (1/3.8 th of LD 50 ). Standard dose of 100 mg/kg vitamin C was taken to study the ameliorative effect of Citrus lemon juice on malathion generated toxicity in different organs, blood and sperm. Result: Antioxidants ameliorated the toxicity produced by the pesticide significantly. Some of variations observed in different organs. Conclusion: Study concluded that antioxidant of lemon juice ameliorated significantly malathion affected the organs like liver, kidney, brain and testis.

TOX-12

Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Cadmium Induced Brain Cholinergic Deficits and Protective Potential of Quercetin in Rats.

Richa Gupta, Rajendra K. Shukla, Lalit P Chandravanshi, Pranay Srivastava, Yogesh K. Dhuriya, A.B. Pant and Vinay K. Khanna

CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, Utter Pradesh, India

Objective: The present study is focused to investigate the integrity of mitochondria in cadmium induced brain cholinergic dysfunctions and protective potential of quercetin. Materials and Methods: Rats were exposed to cadmium (5.0 mg/kg, bw, p.o.) and simultaneous treated with quercetin (25 mg/kg bw, p.o.) for 28 days. The assay of brain cholinergic mitochondrial dysfunction selected parameters associated with apoptosis was carried out by standard procedure. Results: Exposure to cadmium resulted to increase ROS generation, decrease mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of mitochondrial complexes in frontal cortex and hippocampus as compared to controls. Exposure to cadmium also increase the expression Bax, a pro-apoptotic, Caspase-3, an executor protein and decrease the expression of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein in frontal cortex and hippocampus suggesting enhanced apoptosis. Ultra structural changes specially mitochondrial damage were also observed on cadmium exposure in rats as compared to controls. Simultaneous exposure to cadmium and quercetin in rats resulted to cause significant decrease in ROS generation, increase in mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of mitochondrial complexes in frontal cortex and hippocampus as compared to rats exposed to cadmium alone. Increase in the expression of Bcl2, and decrease in the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 was also observed in rats simultaneously treated with cadmium and quercetin as compared to those treated with cadmium alone. Protection in cadmium induced mitochondrial damage was also observed in rats exposed to cadmium and quercetin simultaneously. Conclusion: The results of present study indicate mitochondrial dysfunctions in cadmium induced brain cholinergic deficits in rats and exhibit protective potential of quercetin.

TOX-13

Protection of Aluminium chloride-induced testicular oxidative stress by Silibinin in Swiss Albino Mice


Prajapati Kasbe, Tavleen Singh, Ashok Jangra, Shubham Dwivedi, SR Chandershaker, Surya Narayan Pandey, Mangala Lahkar 1

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER). 1 Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: Aluminium compounds exposure-induced oxidative stress is a major health concern to the human population. The present study was carried out to elucidate the protective effects of silibinin against reproductive toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: AlCl 3 (150 mg/kg, p.o.) and silibinin (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) drug treatment were administered orally for six weeks to male swiss albino mice. Animals were sacrificed after completion of six weeks; testes were isolated, weighed and then homogenized in chilled 0.1M phosphate buffer saline. We measured Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione, nitrite level and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in testes homogenates for estimation of oxidative stress. Results: AlCl 3 induced a significant reduction in testicular weight which was ameliorated by silibinin (200 mg/kg) treatment. AlCl 3 treatment showed elevated levels of TBARS, nitrite content and decreased level of reduced glutathione as compared to normal control group. SOD activity was reduced in AlCl 3 -treated group which was prevented by silibinin (200 mg/kg). Administration of silibinin (200 mg/kg) to AlCl 3 -exposed rats showed a decrease in the level of TBARS, enhanced levels of reduced glutathione as compared to normal control group. Silibinin (100 mg/kg) failed to produce any significantly effect on oxidative stress parameters in testes. Conclusion: These findings may indicate that oxido-nitrosative stress plays a major role in AlCl 3 -induced testicular toxicity and silibinin provides significant protection against AlCl 3 -induced testicular injury by attenuating oxidative stress parameters.




 

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