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ABSTRACTS
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 46  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 10-62
 

Oral Papers



Date of Web Publication26-Dec-2014

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How to cite this article:
. Oral Papers. Indian J Pharmacol 2014;46, Suppl S1:10-62

How to cite this URL:
. Oral Papers. Indian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Sep 22];46, Suppl S1:10-62. Available from: http://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2014/46/7/10/147674


AIN-1

Study of Analgesic Activity of Resveratrol in Different Doses in Animal Models


Tanu Garg, V. K. Yadav

Department of Pharmacology, People's College of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bhanpur, Bhopal (M.P.)

Objective: To evaluate the analgesic activity of resveratrol in different doses in animal models. Material and Methods: Albino mice of either sex weighing 20-30gms were selected for the study. Mice were assigned into 4 groups of 6 animals each. The control group received 0.9% normal saline (10 ml/kg), standard group received indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and test groups received resveratrol (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg). The drugs were given orally 1 hr prior to both the tests. The animals were tested for analgesia 30, 60, 90, 120 min after drug administration using tail flick method and 1% acetic acid was given intraperitoneally to induce writhing in the other method. Delay in the reaction time in tail flick method and decrease in total number of writhes in acetic acid induced writhing model denoted analgesic activity. Data analysis was done using one way ANOVA followed by Tuckey's HSD test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Resveratrol showed significant increase in reaction time at various time periods in tail flick method and showed significant decrease in the number of writhes in acetic acid induced writhing method. Conclusion: In the study, resveratrol exhibited analgesic activity in both thermal and chemical pain models in both the doses, and analgesic activity in higher dose (100 mg/kg) was comparable to standard drug.

AIN-2

A Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety of Difluprednate Ophthalmic Emulsion 0.05% with Prednisolone Acetate Ophthalmic Suspension 1% for Managing Ocular Inflammation and Pain Following Cataract Surgery

Roopa Devi H.S., Nagabushan H, Manjula T R1

Departments of Pharmacology and 1 Ophthalmology, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya, Karnataka, India

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% and Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1%, administered for managing inflammation and pain following cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: Prospective, randomized, open-labelled, parallel-group, active-controlled study carried out among 100 patients who underwent Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS) and Intra-Ocular Lens (IOL) implantation. Subjects were randomized 1:1 into two groups to receive topical treatment with prednisolone or difluprednate for 3 weeks. Signs of ocular inflammation like Anterior Chamber (AC) cells, AC flare, chemosis, ocular pain, visual acuity, Intra-Ocular Pressure (IOP) and adverse events were evaluated on days 0, 1, 7, 14, 28, and 35. Results: Clearing of inflammation on day 14 (primary endpoint) was achieved in a significantly greater percentage of subjects treated with difluprednate compared with prednisolone, with regard to both AC cell grade 0 (84% vs 32%; P 0 < 0.001) and AC flare grade 0 (84% vs 30%; P 0< 0.001). Percentage of subjects free of ocular pain on day 14 was equal in both treatment groups (92%). Improvement in visual acuity was more with difluprednate (P = 0.001). Adverse effects were milder except for IOP rise which was experienced by one subject (2%) in difluprednate group and two subjects (4%) in prednisolone group (P = 0.557). Conclusio luprednate was more effective, well tolerated than Prednisolone in managing ocular inflammation and also in relieving ocular pain postoperatively.

AIN-3

Utilization Pattern of Analgesics and Alteration in Hormone Status in Patients With Cancer Pain

Chinmayee Priyadarshini, T.R. Swain, S. Mohanty1, R. Samal

Department of Pharmacology and 1 Department of Anesthesiology, SCB MCH, Cuttack

Objectives: Analgesics should be prescribed based on degree of analgesia and in-depth knowledge on efficacy and safety profile. Recent report suggests alteration of hormonal status in painful conditions. Present study aims to correlate analgesic use in cancer pain with pain severity and the specific hormonal status of the patient in cancer pain. Materials and Methods: Fifty adult patients of either sex attending Pain palliative Clinic of Acharya Harihar regional cancer institute were randomly selected for this study. Ethics committee permission was taken before starting the study. Patients were categorized as mild, moderate, and severe pain group by visual analogue scale. Patients were screened for their GH, Cortisol, and β- HCG status free of cost. Rationality of selection was analysed using WHO analgesic ladder. Result: 72% of patients in cancer found out to be in severe pain that were found out to be using high dose morphine and NSAIDs as add on drugs. About 17 % were suffering from moderate pain that is managed with low dose opioids or high dose NSAIDSs. Only 11% patients were found in mild pain who were receiving NSAIDS. All hormonal levels were found to be decreased in all the 3 groups and especially in severe pain group. Conclusion: Cancer pain is managed with proper analgesic selection but more careful administration can help in better pain management.

AIN-4

Outcome of Rheumatoid Arthritis Following Adjunct Statin Therapy

Subham Das, M. Mohanty, P. Padhan

Department of Pharmacology, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Orissa

Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adjunct statin therapy in comparison to standard disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Materials and Methods: Diagnosed RA patients of age-group between 40 and 60 years were selected as per the inclusion criteria from the rheumatology outdoor of KIMS, Bhubaneswar. From the selected patients we identified two separate groups of patients. Group-1 included 30 patients of RA currently under DMARD therapy with adjunct Statin medication. Group-2 included 30 patients of RA currently under DMARD therapy. Patients were followed up over 6 months. Standard parameters like disease activity score (DAS28), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded for comparing outcome of rheumatoid arthritis in both groups. Results: The means of all the three parameters, i.e. DAS28, ESR and CRP in RA patients who were on adjunct statin medication (group-1) were significantly lower than RA patients without statin medication (group-2). Conclusion: These data supports the hypothesis that adjunct statins given with DMARDs mediate modest but clinically apparent beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis.

AIN-5

Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Various Macrolides in Experimental Model of Chronic Inflammation in Rats

Sawant Sanket S., Shankpal P. D., Gawand K.V.

Department of Pharmacology, Topiwala National Medical College and B.Y.L. Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai Central, Mumbai, India

Objective: Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolide antibiotics in experimental models of chronic inflammation and comparison of the efficacy of their anti-inflammatory properties. Materials and Methods: Male Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each i.e. Control (1 ml of 1%CMC), Ibuprofen (100 mg/kg), Erythromycin (40 mg/kg), Azithromycin (40 mg/kg), Clarithromycin (40 mg/kg), Roxithromycin (40 mg/kg). Cotton Pellet Granuloma was produced by modified Winter and Porter method using 4 pellets inserted subcutaneously into the ventral region, two on either side under ether anaesthesia. Vehicle, control and test drugs were orally administered daily for 7 days. Rats were sacrificed on 8th day. Cotton pellets with granulation tissue were removed surgically and weighed for wet weight. They were dried at 60°C overnight in a hot air oven and weighed for dry weight. The exudate amount, granulation tissue and their percent inhibition by test drugs were calculated. Results: Erythromycin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin and Roxithromycin showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with activity of roxithromycin being the most effective. This anti-inflammatory activity of macrolides was less thanIbuprofen. Conclusion: This study proves that macrolide antibiotics, especially Roxithromycin, have significant anti-inflammatory activity. This anti-inflammatory activity of macrolides can be beneficial in patients suffering from infections associated with accompanying inflammation.

AIN-6

Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety between Fluticasone Furoate and Azelastine Nasal Spray in Allergic Rhinitis

Mayukh Mukherjee, Sirsendu Mondal, Manasi Banerjee, Pragnadyuti Mondal, Dipak Sarkar, Suhrita Paul

Department of Pharmacology, Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Objectives: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common inflammatory disease condition of upper respiratory tract. Currently, most commonly used drugs for treatment of AR are: anti-histaminics, corticosteroids etc. Fluticasone Furoate nasal spray has been studied extensively in allergic disease. Azelastine has also shown efficacy in controlling AR. This pilot study compares the efficacy and safety of Fluticasone Furoate versus Azelastine nasal spray in treatment of AR. Materials and Methods: 26 patients with AR are randomly assigned into 2 parallel groups in this prospective open label study. Group A containing 13 patients are treated with Azelastine nasal spray 140 microgram twice daily administered as one spray in each nostril. Group B containing 13 patients are treated with Fluticasone Furoate nasal spray 110 microgram once daily administered as 2 sprays in each nostril. Follow up visits done at 7 days and 14 days. The efficacy was assessed by the change in nasal and ocular symptom scores as their subtotals (Total Nasal Symptom Score and Total Ocular Symptom Score) and grand total (Total Symptom Score). Results: 10 patients in azelastine group and 12 patients in fluticasone group have completed the study. Baseline parameters were comparable. Both azelastine and fluticasone furoate decrease the TSS, TNSS and TOSS significantly from baseline in 7 days and 14 days (P <0.001). But when compared between azelastine and fluticasone furoate, no significant difference found at any point of time. Conclusions: Azelastine and fluticasone furoate are equally effective in treatment of AR. Both are safely tolerated in AR patients.

AIN-7

Study of the Effect of the Extract of the Leaves of Oxalis Corniculata in Experimentally Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Experimental Animals

Handique C, Lahkar M, Dutta A

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati medical college, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objectives: To study the effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Oxalis corniculata in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Adult albino rats of either sex weighing between 200-250gm were employed and were housed in standard laboratory conditions at 25°C. They were fed on rat chaws diet and water ad libitum. The animals were divided into 5 groups each containing 6 animals. The groups were normal control, IBD control, standard (sulfasalzine 360 mg/kg p.o), Oxalis corniculata (200 mg/kg) and Oxalis corniculata (400 mg/kg) respectively. On 7 th day acetic acid per rectally was used to induce IBD. Assessment of the colonic damage was done after 24 hours by using the grading scale of Morris et al. (1989) and histopathological examination. Results: Mean±SEM values were calculated for each group. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and post analysis by Dunnett's test was done. Results were found to be significant (P<.05). Pretreatment with the extract of Oxalis corniculata in the dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg produced significant anti-inflammatory activity compared to the control group. However the effect was less significant compared to the standard group. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory property of the ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in a dose dependent manner.

AIN-8

Comparative Efficacy and Safety of a Polyherbal Formulation With Paracetamol in Patients of Osteoarthritis of Knee

Patil PT, Murthy MB, Ghongane BB1, Ramanand SJ, Burute SR, Pawar MP, Halasawadekar NR

Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Miraj, Maharashtra, 1 Department of Pharmacology, B. J. Medical college, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Objectives: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common painful, debilitating joint disease which impacts quality of life. Symptomatic pain relief with existing treatments is less desired. The gap in available therapeutic alternatives may be bridged by drugs from indigenous sources. Thus this study compared the efficacy and safety of a Polyherbal formulation (PF) with Paracetamol (PCT) in patients of osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized control trial between one group receiving PCT 500mg twice a day and other group receiving PF tablets twice a day for 4 weeks. Primary efficacy parameters were improvement of pain score on Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), predefined symptom score (PSC) and Quality of life (QOL) at the end of study. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: 15 patients in PCT and 17 patients in PF group were followed. The mean NRS score at the end of 4 weeks was 7.1 ± 2.3 in PCT group and 5.6 ± 1.8 in PF group (P=0.0464*). The mean PSC at the end of 4 weeks was 18 ± 1.8 in PCT group and 16 ± 2.3 in PF group (p=0.1010). The mean QOL score at the end of 4 weeks was 11 ± 2 in PCT group and 13 ± 2.1 in PF group (p=0.0096**). 2 patients in PF group complained of dyspepsia and 1 had dizziness. None had adverse events in PCT group (P=0.2288). Conclusion: PF is more efficacious in terms of pain reduction and QOL with safety comparable to PCT in knee OA.

AIN-9

Evaluation of Corticosteroid Use Pattern in Steroid Responsive Dermatological Conditions

Dr. Wahane P.A, Dr. Jagtap R.P, Dr. Ghongane B.B.

Department of Pharmacology, B.J. Govt. Medical College and SGH, Pune, India

Objectives: Objective of study was to analyse prescribing pattern and to study adverse effects if any. Methods: Prescriptions of outpatients and inpatient from Department of Skin, containing corticosteroids were collected over a period of August 2013 to June 2014. They were analysed to ascertain the usage pattern in relation to their potency, route, dosage form, co-prescriptions, indications and associated adverse effects. Results: 756 prescriptions were analysed. 48.4% patients were in the age group of 30-60. 426(56.34%) of patient were male and 330(43.65%) were female. Average 3.64 drugs were prescribed per patient. Total 2754 drugs were prescribed of which 851 (30.90%) were steroids. of the steroids prescribed 725 (85.19%) were topical.75.79 % (645) of steroids were prescribed in ointment form. They were prescribed for 42 common indications of which eczema (27.38%), Psoriasis (21.95%) and Dermatitis (9.65%) were most common. Moderate potency steroids (72.38%) followed by High potency (15.04%) steroids were commonly prescribed. 2439 (88.57%) of total drugs were prescribed by generic name. Antihistaminics (29.15%) were most frequently co-prescribed drugs. 783(28.43%) of drugs prescribed were form essential drug list as given by WHO in April 2013. Total of 32 Steroid related adverse drug reactions were encountered. Oral Prednisolone (34.37%) was most common drug causing adverse drug reactions. Prednisolone induced moon facies was most common adverse drug reaction seen. Conclusion: The usage of steroids through topical, oral and parenteral routes and the incidence of adverse drug reactions were at par with other studies. Tendency to polypharmacy was also noted.

AIN-10

Analgesic and Anxiolytic Activity of Ondansetron in Rats and Mice

Vipin K Jain, S.N.Kaore, Miti Katakwar

Department of Pharmacology, Peoples College of Medical Sciences and RC, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Objective: To evaluate analgesic and anxiolyticactivity of ondansetron in rodents. Material and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice (20-30 g bw) and Wistar rats (100-200 g bw) were divided in groups. Study was undertaken after approval from IAEC, Bhopal. Animals received intraperitoneally either Ondansetron (0.1, 0 .5 and 1 mg/kg), diclofenac (10 mg/kg ), tramadol (25 mg/kg) and diazepam (1 mg/kg) or vehicle (1 ml dw) in control. Tail immersion and writhing test were used to compare the effects of ondansetron versus diclofenac and tramadol on analgesic activity and elevated plus maze (EPM) and hole board test were used to compare the effects of ondansetron versus diazepam for evaluation of anxiolytic activity. Results : Ondansetron exhibited significant analgesic activity at doses of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg bw and anxiolytic activity at 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg bw dose. Comparison between groups shows significant variation in different time periods (P<0.05) and in dose dependent manner. Locomotor activity was not significantly changed by ondansetron suggesting no sedation. Conclusion: Ondansetron exhibited significant analgesic and anxiolytic activity in rodent models.

AIN-11

Comparative Evaluation of Newer Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Patients of Osteoarthritis of Knee Joint

Dr. Yashika Garg, Dr. Jatinder Singh, Dr. H.S. Sohal1

Department of Pharmacology, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar. 1 Department of Orthopaedics, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar

Objectives:
The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical improvement in pain, disability and range of movement by etodolac, lornoxicam and diclofenac in osteoarthritis of knee joint. Material and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, open-label parallel-group study in patients of osteoarthritis of knee joint diagnosed according to ACR Criteria. Informed consent was obtained from all patients included in the study. Ninety patients of osteoarthritis of knee joint were recruited and randomized in three groups of 30 patients each who received tab etodolac 400mg b.i.d, tab lornoxicam 8mg b.i.d, and tab diclofenac sodium 50 mg t.i.d respectively. The duration of the study was 12 weeks. Results: At the end of study period of 3 months, pain intensity and functional index were better in the lornoxicam group (VAS 16.50 ± 8.52; WOMAC 11.93 ± 7.97) as compared to the etodolac (VAS 32.33 ± 10.56; WOMAC 14.00 ± 5.90) and diclofenac group (VAS 41.17 ± 10.96; WOMAC 19.20 ± 7.73; P < 0.05). Conclusions: Lornoxicam and etodolac were more effective and better tolerated as compared to diclofenac in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee joint

AIN-12

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ash of Silver Used in Traditional Indian System of Medicine

Dr Deep Inder1, Dr Pawan Kumar2

1
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology, FOD, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 2 CMO, Directorate of Health Services, Govt. of NCT of Delhi, Karkardooma, Delhi, India

Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory activity of ash of silver used in traditional Indian system of medicine. Materials and Methods: The albino rats were divided into four groups (8 rats in each). Group 1 received gum acacia (1% p.o as control) dissolved in normal saline. Group 2 received standard anti-inflammatory drug aspirin (200 mg/kg p.o) suspended in 1% gum acacia. Group 3 received test drug ash of silver (75 mg/kg p.o ) suspended in 1% gum acacia. Group 4 received test drug ash of silver (100 mg/kg p.o ) suspended in 1% gum acacia. Acute inflammation was produced by sub-plantar injection of 0.1 ml of 1% suspension of carrageenan in normal saline, in the right hind paw of the rats, one hour after oral administration of drugs aspirin (200 mg/kg p.o) and ash of silver (75 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg p.o). The paw volume was measured plethysmometrically (Ugo Basile, Italy) at '0' and '2' hours after the carrageenan injection. Reduction in volume of edema and the percentage of anti-inflammatory activity were calculated. Results: Results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by dunnett's test. Test drug ash of silver exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity at the dose 100 mg/kg p.o (P < 0.01) but was significantly less is compared to aspirin (200 mg/kg p.o). No observable adverse effects appeared at test doses. Conclusion: Test drug ash of silver may act as an alternative anti-inflammatory drug compared to aspirin due to better short term toxicological profile compared to aspirin. Further studies are required to establish these facts.

ANS-1

Comparative evaluation of Carboxymethylcellulose either alone or in combination with Steroids in the treatment of Dry eye in a tertiary care teaching hospital at Dehradun, Uttarakhand

Sindhu S, Dutta SB, Mittal SK, Das G, Beg MA, Bawa S

Department of Pharmacology, SGRRIM and HS, Patel Nagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand

Objective: Artificial tears had been mainstay of treatment for dry eye since long. Steroids are among the newer treatments. This study is designed to compare the effect of topical Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) alone or in combination with topical steroid for treatment of dry eye in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients diagnosed with dry eye were enrolled for study period of 1year. Patients (n=60) were stabilized on CMC for 2weeks and thereafter divided into two groups. Group I (n=30) CMC; Group II (n=30) CMC+steroid. Patients were followed up to 12weeks. Diagnostic tests included Schirmer's test and Tear Break-Up Time (TBUT). Quality of Life was assessed by Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Analysis was done by t-test. p 0 <0.05 was considered significant. Observation and Result: Schirmer's values in Group-I and Group-II at 0and12weekswere7.8±0.81and15.4±0.62 (P<0.0001) and 7.43±0.42 and 17.53±0.25 (P<0.0001) respectively. TBUT values in Group-I and Group-II at 0 and 12 weeks were 4.93±0.44 and 9.36±0.35 (P<0.0001) and 4.5±0.38 and 10.9±0.24 (P<0.0001) respectively. OSDI score in Group-I and Group-II at 0 and 12weeks were 87.64±1.41 and 54.25±1.09 (P<0.0001) and 91.17±1.13 and 54.55±1.14 (P<0.0001) respectively. At 12weeks, intergroup comparison in Schirmer's (P<0.01), TBUT (P<0.05) and OSDI score (P>0.05) was done. Burning, stinging, photophobia, discharge and raised intraocular pressure were among the common adverse effects seen. Conclusion: Both groups showed significant improvement in Schirmer's, TBUT and OSDI score at the end of study. Intergroup comparison showed more significant improvement in the group where steroid was added. Adding steroid ameliorated symptoms rapidly but short term use recommended due to adverse effects.

ANS-2

Impact of Multiple Stresses (Cold-Hypoxia-Restrain) on Rat Skeletal Muscle

Richa Rathor, Priyanka Sharma, Geetha Suryakumar, Lilly Ganju, Shashi Bala Singh

Defence Institute of Pharmacology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, India

Objective: The present study was planned to evaluate the biochemical changes in terms of oxidative stress and the role of heat shock proteins during multiple stress (C-H-R) in muscle. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats, 12-14 weeks old, weighing 150±10 g were divided into two groups: Group 1: Normoxic control rats Group 2: Multiple stress (Cold-Hypoxia-Restrain, CHR) exposed rats For multiple stress, rats were restrained and exposed in C-H-R decompression chamber maintained at 5C and a low atmospheric pressure of 428-mm Hg equivalent to an altitude of 4572 m. Following exposure, the animals were sacrificed and muscle was excised for biochemical analysis. Results and Conclusion: The study provided new insights into the biochemical and functional effects on muscle subjected to multiple stresses (CHR). Data depicted increased ROS and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) and this increment was accompanied by decreased antioxidant enzymes like SOD, catalase, GPx, reduced glutathione (GSH). This imbalance leads to oxidative stress which further escorts to increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. In this series, increased protein oxidation leads to up regulation of HSP70 and HSP60 against multiple stresses (CHR). HSP70 could be responsible for protection and adaptive mechanism while over expression of HSP60 could be interpreted as a potential mediator of oxidative stress and inflammation. Enhance HO-1 activity was also observed in CHR exposed rats, suggested its antioxidant defence property and better adaptation property against CHR stress.

ANS-3

A Prospective, Randomized Study of Effect of Uroselective Alpha Blockers on QT Interval and their Choice in BPH

Dr Manjunatha R, Dr H.P Pundarikaksha, Dr Amar Kumar J,

Department of Pharmacology, Department of Urology, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India

Objective: To assess the cardiac safety of uroselective α1 blockers. Materials and Methods: 90 subjects with BPH and LUTS were randomized into three groups of 30 each to receive alfuzosin, tamsulosin or silodosin. The study medications were given in the standard dose for 12 weeks and the corrected QT interval was recorded (QTc) at baseline and end of the study period. QTc prolongation was considered significant if the increase from baseline was >45ms. The causality assessment was done as per the WHO-UMC causality categories. Results: 2 subjects with alfuzosin, 3 subjects with tamsulosin and none with silodosin showed significant prolongation in QTc interval. All had a causality category of possible. Conclusion: Silodosin must be preferred and the use of alfuzosin and tamsulosin should be avoided in patients at risk of QT prolongation like those with concomitant prescription of other drugs causing QT prolongation (class Ia/III antiarrythmics, antipsychotics, TCAs), hypokalemia and congenital predisposition to long QT interval. Earlier studies have reported QT prolongationwith alfuzosin, but not with tamsulosin and silodosin. Hence, the observation of significant QTc prolongation in 3 subjects with tamsulosin can be considered as an unexpected AE observed in this phase IV, post-marketing study.

BHP-1

Sodium Phenylbutyrate Ameliorates the Depressive-Like and Cognitive Behaviors in Chronic Restraint Stress Model via Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

Ashok Jangra1, Satendra Singh Gurjar2, Shubham Dwivedi1, Sr Chandershaker1, Md Iftikar Hussain3, Probodh Borah3, Mangala Lahkar1,4

1
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam, India, 2 Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam, India, 3 State Biotech Hub, College of Veterinary Science, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam, India, 4 Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Aassam, India

Objective: Chronic Stress is a leading risk factor in the pathogenesis of Depression. Recent investigations have suggested the association between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and depression. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of SPB against restraint stress-induced depressive-like behaviour and cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods: Adult male swiss albino mice (22-25 g) were restraint 8 h/day for 28 days and injected (i.p.) with sodium phenylbutyrate (40 and 120 mg/kg) for last seven days. Forced swimming test (FST) and Morris water maze (MWM) test were performed to assess the depressive behaviour and cognitive impairment respectively. Quantitative Real-time PCR was performed to estimate the gene expression level of ER stress-related genes. Results: Restraint stress increases the immobility time in the FST, indicative of depressive-like behaviour. In MWM test, Retention latency was increased in stressed animals as compared to control group. mRNA levels of ER stress markers, GRP78 and CHOP were significantly up-regulated in the hippocampus (HC) of stressed mice. SPB (120 mg/kg) was effective to abolish the depressive-like behavior induced by restraint stress and to prevent the restrain stress-induced cognitive impairment. Upregulation of ER stress-associated genes, GRP78 and CHOP in HC was significantly prevented by treatment with SPB (120 mg/kg). Conclusion: Our present results suggested that ER stress genes are activated in HC and it may be the partly contributor for the stress-induced depression and cognitive impairment. Sodium phenylbutyrate could be a novel approach for the treatment of depression and cognitive disorders.

BHP-2

Risperidone Shows Anti-Post Traumatic Stress Disorder-Like Activity by Reducing Mitochondria-Linked Apoptosis

Debapriya Garabadu, Sairam Krishnamurthy

Neurotherapeutics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Objectives: Mitochondria-linked apoptosis is considered as one of the contributors in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Earlier it has been reported that risperidone exerts anti-PTSD effect against modified stress re-stress (SRS) paradigm, an animal model of PTSD. Thus, the present study explored the effectiveness of risperidone on intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in the modified SRS model. Materials and Methods: Male rats were subjected to stress protocol of 2 hr restraint and 20 min forced-swim followed by halothane anesthesia on day-2 (D-2). Thereafter, rats were exposed to re-stress (forced-swim) on D-8 and at six day intervals on D-14, D-20, D-26 and D-32. The rats were treated with risperidone (0.1 mg/kg; p.o.) from D-8 to D-32. Results: Risperidone ameliorated modified SRS-induced depressive-like symptom (increase in immobility period) in forced-swim test, anxiety-like behaviors (decrease in percentage of open arm entries and time spent) in elevated plus maze test and cognitive-deficit (loss in spatial recognition memory) in Y-maze test on D-32. Risperidone attenuated modified SRS-induced decrease in the plasma corticosterone level on D-32. Risperidone attenuated modified SRS-induced increase in number of apoptotic cells in amygdala indicating anti-apoptotic activity. Further, risperidone ameliorated SRS-induced decrease in the level of amygdalar cytochrome-C and caspase-9. Conclusion: It can be deduced that risperidone exhibits anti-PTSD activity through inhibiting mitochondria-linked apoptosis.

BHP-3

Antianxiety Effect of Mucuna Pruriens Alone and in Combination With Aegle Marmelos in Swiss Albino Mice

Anjula Sachan, Rahul Kumar, Sarvesh Singh, Makhan Lal 1 , Amod Kumar, R. Nath, Dheeraj Kumar Singh, R.K. Dixit

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 1 Department of Dravyaguna, State Ayurvedic Medical College Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Objective: Present study was designed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of Mucuna pruriens extract alone and in combination with Aegle marmelos extractin Swiss albino mice. Material and Method: 36 Swiss albino mice weighing around 20-30gwere randomly divided into six groups (n=6): Group1 (control) received normal saline, Group 2(standard) received Diazepam (2.0 mg/kg), Group 3, 4, 5 and 6 receivedMPE (100 mg/kg), MPE (200 mg/kg), MPE (400 mg/kg) and combination of MPE (400 mg/kg) with AME (300 mg/kg) respectively. Pharmacologically validated model elevated plus maze was used. Result: Mucuna pruriensat the doses of 200 mg/kgand 400 mg/kgand combination of Mucuna pruriens (400 mg/kg) with Aegle marmelos (300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the time spent and no. of entries in closed arm, increased the time spent and entries into open arm in elevated plus maze (P < 0.05) as compared to control group. Conclusion: Present study demonstrates the anxiolytic activity of Mucuna pruriens but this activity was more significant in combination of Mucuna pruriens with Aegle marmelos in Swiss albino mice.

BHP-4


A Comparative Study of Anti-anxiety Activity of Sesamol and Buspirone in Mice

Anuradha Dubey*, Hanmant Amane

* Departmentof Pharmacology, PCMS and RC, Bhanpur, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Objectives: To evaluate and compare the anti-anxiety effects of Sesamol and Buspirone in Mice. Materials and Methods: Adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into six groups, each containing six mice. Group I served as vehicle control and received 0.9% (w/v) of saline (1 ml/100 g). Group II servedas positive control and received diazepam (1 mg/kg). Group III, Group IV and Group V were considered as test groups and received 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of sesamol respectively. Group VIwill also be considered as test group and received 5 mg/kg of buspirone. All treatments were administered intra-peritoneally 30 min prior to start of the experiment. One hour before the administration of the drugs; mice were moved into the laboratory to habituate to the experimental environment. Each animal was used only once. The behavioral tests were carried out likeElevated plus maze test, Open field test, Light/dark exploration test and Hole board test. Results and Conclusion: The present study demonstrated thatsesamol exhibited significant anxiolytic activity in elevated plus maze, light and dark model, open field test and hole board test induced anxiety in mice. The results of present study correlated with previous studies. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of action of sesamol at biochemical and physiological level.

BHP-5

Evaluation of Vanillin as an Antidepressant in Rodents


Miti katakwar, Hanmant S. Amane, Vipin k. Jain

Department of Pharmacology, People's College of Medical Science and Research Centre, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh

Objective: To evaluate the antidepressant activity of vanillin in rodents. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats weighing 100-200 gms were divided in 5 groups. Study was undertaken after approval from IAEC, Bhopal. Following drugs were administered per orally vanillin (10, 50, 100 mg/kg), imipramine (27 mg/kg) and vehicle (1 ml). Forced Swim Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) were performed to evaluate the antidepressant activity of vanillin and compare it with imipramine. Result and Conclusion: Vanillin exhibited significant antidepressant activity in doses of 10, 50, 100 mg/kg body weight. Comparison between groups showed significant variation in different time periods (p<0.05) and in dose dependent manner. Locomotors activity was not significantly affected by vanillin, suggestive of no sedative property. Further studies are needed to ascertain the exact mechanism and role of vanillin in depression.

BHP-6

Anti-Depressant Effect of Cowhage (Mucuna Pruriens) Alone and in Combination With Bael (Aegle Marmelos) in Swiss Albino Mice

Sarvesh Singh, Anjula Sachan, Rishi Pal, Rrahul Kumar, Narendra Kumar, Makhanlal 1 , Amod Kumar, R. Nath, Dheeraj Kumar Singh, R.K. Dixit

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 1 Department of Dravyaguna, State Ayurvedic Medical College Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Objective: To evaluate the anti-depressant effect of Cowhage (Mucuna pruriens) alone and in combination with Bael (Aegle marmelos) in swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 36 male swiss albino mice. Mucuna pruriens extract (MPE) administered orally at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day, and in combination with Aegle marmelos extract (AME) at dose of 300 mg/kg. The antidepressant effect of Mucuna and Aegle was compared with the standard drug imipramine (15 mg/kg/day, oral) fed for 30 days. Forced Swimming Test was used to evaluate the anti-depressant effect. The immobility time in each group was recorded. All data obtained was analysed by Tukey's multiple comparison test. Result: MPE at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg shows reduction in immobility time but the results obtained were insignificant (p > 0.05). At higher dose of MPE (400 mg/kg) shows significant reduction in immobility time (p < 0.05). The combination of MPE (400 mg/kg) with AME (300 mg/kg) shows further reduction in immobility time (p < 0.05) when compared with standard drug imipramine (15 mg/kg/day, oral). Conclusion: Present study demonstrates the antidepressant activity of Cowhage alone and in combination with Bael in Swiss albino mice.

BHP-7

Mechanism Underlying Changes in Anxiety Related Behaviors in Zebra fish (Danio rerio) following Exposure of Piper longum extracts

Chandana Choudhury Barua1*, Prakash Haloi1, Nayan Jyoti Hazarika2, Iswar Chandra Barua3

*Professor, 1 Junior Research Fellow, Department of Pharmacology, CVSC, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam, 2 Junior Research Fellow, Department of Biochemistry, 3 Principal Scientists, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, AAU, Jorhat, Assam, India

Objective: Zebra fish (Danio rerio) is increasingly being used in behavioral neuroscience, neuropsychopharmacology and neurotoxicology. They possess several qualities that make them particularly useful for studying stress and anxiety related behaviors. They are highly sensitive to various environmental challenges, including novelty tank diving test, drug withdrawal, response to predators, inspection of novel object, alarm reaction and endocrine response to stress. Materials and Methods: ANY-maze Video Tracking Software (Stoelting Co.) was used to quantify anxiety-related behaviors in zebra fish. After a period of acclimation, they were placed individually in a narrow novel tank (e.g., 1.5-L), maximally filled with water, divided into two equal virtual horizontal sections, demarcated with a line on the outside walls. Novel tank diving test was used for studying the anxiolytic activity of P.longum. Results: Exposure to P. longum (100 mg/L) in this paradigm evoked overt effects in fish, including decreased latency to enter the top half of the tank (193.26 sec), longer top duration (167.68 sec), decreased total time of freezing (105.2 sec) with respect to control in the 6 min novel tank diving test. The standard drug buspirone showed longer top duration (266.90 sec), decreased latency to enter the top half of the tank (169.63 sec), decreased total time of freezing (87.2 sec) indicating superior anixolytic effect as compared to control. Conclusion: P.longum has an anxiolytic-like pharmacological effect in zebra fish, and therefore, strongly supports the utility of zebra fish models in neurotropic drug screening. Phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of P.longum contains polyphenols, i.e., flavonoids and tannins might be responsible for anxiolytic potential of P.longum. So in future, this innovative study will help in the investigation of the molecular basis of this effect.

BHP-8

Modulation of Stress Induced Anxiogenesis by Morphine in Rats: Involvement of Nitric Oxide (NO) and Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp70)

Jagdish Chandra Joshi, Arunabha Ray, Kavita Gulati

Department of Pharmacology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

Objectives: The present study evaluated the effects of morphine on acute and chronic restraint stress (RS) induced anxiety modulation and the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and heat shock proteins (Hsp70) during such effects. Methods: Male Wistar rats (175-200 g) were exposed to acute (RS) or chronic restraint stress (CRS) and neurobehavioral parameters were measured by elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Brain NO metabolites (NOx) were assayed spectrophotometrically and Hsp70 was assayed by ELISA kit in brain homogenates. Morphine was given by i.p. for 1 or 15 days, alone or in combination with L-arginine (NOS synthase precursor). The data was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Acute RS induced behavioral suppression in the EPM and lowered brain NOx, whereas, Hsp70 levels were elevated. Pretreatment with morphine (1 and 5 mg/kg) and L-arginine (500 mg/kg), either alone or in combination, attenuated acute RS induced changes in behavioral suppression and NOx, but Hsp70 levels were further increased. CRS did not elicit any appreciable neurobehavioral response in EPM or brain NOx levels but increased Hsp70 levels. Chronic morphine marginally influenced CRS induced behavioral adaptation, but potentiated this phenomenon in combination with l-arginine. Pretreatment with morphine attenuated the high Hsp70 levels seen after CRS. L-arginine showed similar attenuating effects and also potentiated the effects of morphine. Conclusion: It is inferred that NO and Hsp70 may be involved in the effects of morphine during acute and chronic stress induced anxiety modulation.

BHP-9

Protective effect of edaravone against lipopolysacharide-induced depressive like behavior in mice

Babul Kumar Bezbaruah 1 , Chandra Shaker Sriram 2 , Ashok Jangra 2 , Satender Singh Gurjar 3 , Pritam Mohan 4 , Mangala Lahkar 1 , Md Iftikar Hussain 5 , Probodh Borah 5

1 Department of Pharmacology, III rd Floor, GMC, Narkachal Hilltop, Bhangagarh, Guwahati, Assam, 2 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, NIPER, III rd Floor, GMC, Narkachal Hilltop, Bhangagarh, Guwahati, Assam, 3 Department of Biotechnology, NIPER, III rd Floor, GMC, Narkachal Hilltop, Bhangagarh, Guwahati, Assam, 4 Department of Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Sciences, AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam, 5 State Biotech Hub, Department of Animal Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Sciences, AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objectives: Edaravone, a free radical scavenger has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. Our study was intended to explore the effect of edaravone pretreatment in LPS-induced raised pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and neurobehavioral anomalies. Materials and Methods: Edaravone (3 and 10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally (i.p) once daily for 7 consecutive days. On the 7 th day, LPS (0.83 mg/kg) was injected (i.p) 30 min after drug administration. Behavioral and biochemical evaluations were carried out and fluoxetine was taken as a standard. For behavioral assessment tail suspension test (TST) and force swim test (FST) were conducted 24 h after LPS injection. For biochemical estimations, brains isolated from mice 24h after LPS administration, and immediately hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were separated from each brain. Tissue homogenate was prepared with hippocampus and prefrontal cortex separately, to estimate cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and BDNF through ELISA. Results: We found that a single administration of LPS significantly increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and decreased the levels of BDNF in both hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Treatment with edaravone (20 mg/kg) significantly reversed the alterations in the BDNF level and attenuated LPS induced increases in TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Besides, LPS administration increased the immobility time in TST and FST. High dose of edaravone and fluoxetine significantly shortened LPS-induced increases of immobility time in both TST and FST. Conclusion: In conclusion, anti-inflammatory activity of edaravone exhibited significant antidepressant-like effects in mice with LPS-induced depressive like behavior.

BHP-10

Amelioration of MPTP Induced Behavioral and Biochemical Changes by Ferulic Acid

Yanna vinay*, Aswar Urmila, Nerurkar Geetanjali, Aswar Manoj

Department of Pharmacology, Sinhgad Institute of Pharmacy, Narhe, Pune, India

Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of FA in MPTP induced PD in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: PD was developed in Wistar rats with a single bilateral dose of MPTP (1 mg/nostril). These rats were treated with either saline or FA (30 and 60 mg/kg, p.o.) or L.dopa (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for four weeks. Locomotion and cognition parameters were carried out on day 0, 7, 14, 21, 28. On day 28 th , blood was withdrawn for estimations of oxidative and inflammatory markers; animals were sacrificed, brain tissues were studied for histopathology. The expression TNF- α, IL-1 β, PERKIN, FosB, and TH were carried out. Result: MPTP was able to induce PD as evident by the locomotor, catalepsy, muscle relaxant and social recognition activities from day 14 onwards (P<0.01). Administration of FA was able reduce MPTP these changes significantly (P<0.001). The MPTP group showed marked rise in the MPO, LPO and reduced SOD which was reversed by FA dose dependently (P<0.01). The augmented expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, PERKIN, FosB in FA were significantly reversed as compared to MPTP rats. The protective effect of FA in MPTP induced PD is supported by histopathology of brain tissues. Conclusion: The study revealed the beneficial effects of FA against MPTP induced PD due to its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory property .

BHP-11

Possible involvement of GSK-3
β/HSP72 in Brain Ischemic Preconditioning using BCCAo against Chemically Induced Neurodegeneration

Ashish sharma, Rohit Goyal, Shaila Khah

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan (H.P.) - 173212

Objectives: To assess the role of BIP using BCCAo against 3-NP neurotoxicity; and to implicate GSK-3β and HSP72 in above stated paradigm using LiCl (GSK-3β inhibitor) and Quercetin (HSP72 inhibitor). Methodology: Male Wistar rats (180-200g), n=6 were clustered in seven groups: Sham, Perse, BCCAo, 3-NP (35 mg/kg i.p.), LiCl (40 mg/kg i.p.), Quercetin (6 mg/kg i.p.) and LiCl + Quercetin. Motor incoordination, memory retention and anxiety like behaviour was assessed using Balance beam, accelerating rota rod, gait analysis, Morris water maze and elevated plus maze. Serum biochemical estimations for Lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide were assessed. Statistical evaluations were carried out using Graph Pad, Prism5. Results: 3-NP treated animals showed a significantly high score in motor incoordination and lesser scores in memory retention as compared to sham and BCCAo groups. Similar trend was noticed in serum biochemical evaluations. However, this protection was pronounced by GSK-3β inhibition and sequestered by HSP72 inhibition. Conclusion: The findings of the present study may postulate that the BIP through BCCAo is effective against chemically induced neurodegeneration by cross-tolerance. The protection is dependent on negative regulation of GSK-3β and positive regulation of HSP72.

CEL-1

Deoxy-andrographolide Promotes Glucose Uptake through Glucose Transporter 4 Translocation to Plasma Membrane in L6 Myotubes

Deepti Arha1, Sukanya Pandeti2, T. Narender2, A.K. Tamrakar1

1
Division of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India, 2 Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India

Objective: Skeletal muscle is the principal site for postprandial glucose utilization and augmenting glucose uptake into this tissue may help to control hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Deoxyandrographolide (DA) isolated from the Andrographis paniculata Nees on glucose utilization in skeletal muscle. Experimental Approach: Rat L6 skeletal muscle cells were treated with DA and the effect on glucose uptake was determined by measuring the incorporation of 2-deoxy-[3H]-D-glucose into the cell. Translocation of GLUT4 to plasma membrane was measured by an antibody-coupled colorimetric assay and signaling protein levels were assessed by Western blot. Results: In L6 myotubes, DA dose-dependently stimulated glucose uptake by enhancing the translocation of GLUT4 to cell surface without affecting the total amount of GLUT4 and GLUT1. These effects of DA were additive to insulin. Further analysis revealed that treatment with DA activated PI-3-K- and AMPK-dependent signaling pathways, account for the augmented glucose transport in L6 myotubes. Conclusions and implications: The results suggest that DA exerts antihyperglycemic effect through enhancing skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity leading to enhanced glucose utilization. Thus we conclude that DA can be a potential molecule to develop as a drug for insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders.

CEL-2

To Study the Effect of Baicalein on LPS Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in Balb/C Mice

RajaramMohanrao M1, Ravi Kishore N1, Mohan B1, Shravan kumar1, Babul Kumar Bezbaruah1,2

1
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, NIPER, III rd Floor, GMC, Narkachal Hilltop, Bhangagarh, Guwahati, Assam, 2 Department of Pharmacology, III rd Floor, GMC, Narkachal Hilltop, Bhangagarh, Guwahati, Assam, India

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has lifetime prevalence in the range of 1.5-19.0% with a median estimate of 9.4% and is projected to become the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Accordingly, the systemic administration of LPS causes' time-dependent behavioural alterations: sickness behaviour is evident approximately 2 h following LPS administration (i.e., along with the peak release of cytokines), while depressive-like behaviour is observed 24 h after LPS challenge (i.e., after the initial cytokine peak), and is a proposed animal model of depressive-like behaviour. Aim: The aim of present study is to investigate the therapeutic potential of Baicalein on NFKB activation and oxidative stress in LPS-induced Depressive-like behavior. Methods: Male Balb/c mice were pre-treated with Baicalein (25 and 50 mg/kg) orally in 1% DMSO in saline for 7 days; Mice injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with Lipopolysaccharide from  Escherichia More Details coli 0127:B8 (0.83 mg/kg in saline) after 30 min. of last dose of selected drug on 7th day. Elevated levels Pro inflammatory cytokines like IL1β, IL6, TNFα and INFγ increased oxidative and nitrosative stress by releasing free radicals like hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, nitric acid and peroxy nitrite levels. Results: Pre-treatment with Baicalein before administration of single dose of LPS significantly decreased the levels of IL1β, IL6, TNFα, INFγ but elevated the levels of anti-oxidant enzymes like GPx, GR, SOD, CAT, and GST when compared to the control group. It further prevented lipid peroxidation of membrane lipids. Conclusion: It can be inferred from the results that, Baicalein has shown anti-depressant effect in LPS induced depressive like behavior in Balb/c mice by attenuating oxidative stress.

CEL-3

Elucidation of the mechanism of genistein on sugar metabolism using experimental models

Kanuj Mishra1, Sharmilee Vetrivel1, Madhu Nath2, JS Tyagi1, Nabanita Halder3, Thirumurthy Velpandian3

1
Department of Biotechnology, 2 Department of Opthalmology, Ocular Pharmacology and Pharmacy, 3 Department of Pharmacology, AIIMS, New Delhi, India

Purpose: The nuclear hormone receptors PPAR-γand ER-β have been found to have an important role in the treatment of diabetic retinal complications. The molecular detail of its action through nuclear receptors remains a question. Method: In-silico method was used to assess the affinity of genistein on the molecular targets (PPAR-γ, ER-β) accessed from PDB. In-vitro activity of genestein was accessed on PPAR-γ and ER-β using fluorescent polarization ligand screening assay. Action of genestein on blood sugar level was assessed using In-ovohydrocortisone (HC) induced diabetic model and in-vivo streptozotocin induced model in rats and was compared to its appropriate positive controls (insulin for inovo and pioglitazone for in-vivo). The effect of genestein on the occurance of diabetic retinopathy in diabetic rats were assessed by using electroretinography (Micron III). Gene expression studies were also carried out to quantitate the expression of GLUT-4, PPAR- γ and ER-β. Results: In-silico studies showed the affinity of genestein is comparable to their native ligands. In vitro receptor binding assay showed EC50 values of genestein against PPAR-γ and ER-β to be 18.44pM (estradiol-3.34μM) and 1.28mM (pioglitazone-220.1nM). Genistein significantly decreased blood sugar level in both inovo and invivo models. Fundus imaging showed genestein's protective role in reducing tortuosity, excitotoxictiy and cataract diabetic in rat model. The mRNA expression of Glut-4, PPAR-γ and ER-β in retinal and kidney tissues found PPAR-γ to be a main player in the anti-diabetic action. Conclusion: Above studies showed the possibility of crosstalk between ER-β and PPAR-γ or up-regulation of PPAR-γ could be responsible for the observed effect. Further studies are in progress.

CEL-4

To study the Expression Pattern of Toll like Receptor's (TLR' 1 and 4), Interleukins, Cyclooxygenase and Prostaglandin E in Human Multiple Myeloma

Manash Pratim Borgohain1, Nityanand B. Bolshette2, K. K. Thakur2, R. Gogoi2, M. Lahkar1, Jina Bhattacharyya3

1
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati, Assam, India, 2 Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati, Assam, India, 3 Department of Haematology, Gauhati Medical college and Hospital, Bhangagarh, Guwahati, Assam, India

Introduction: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by abnormal proliferation and invasion of plasma cells into the bone marrow. It was observed that MM cells express TLRs, indicating an inflammatory response to tumor-induced signals in the bone marrow environment of MM patients. TLR signaling in MM cell finally leads to transcription of IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFNs and are relevant for disease progression. Methods and Material: Extraction of RNA and DNA were done from the fresh blood samples of MM patients. cDNA was synthesized from the RNA by Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and expression pattern of TLR 1 and 4; IL-6, IL-8, COX2 and EP4 was done by Quantitative Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). ELISA for IL-12p40 and p70 also has done. Results: Quantitative Real Time PCR shows that the expression of TLR 4, COX2, and EP 4 is higher in myeloid B cells. IL-6 shows higher expression in these patients and up regulated than the normal patients. Conclusion: From this profiling we can assume that TLR 4 helps in the pathogenesis of MM and it may involve in inflammation through the higher expression of COX2 and EP4. They stimulate the secondary signaling cascade which ultimately responsible for the secretion of IL-6. Along with the expression of IL-6, IL-12 is linked with autoimmunity, and high level also been reported for chronic inflammatory reaction. By commanding TLRs and its individual signaling pathways in myeloma cells might be potential therapeutic targets for tumor progression inhibitors.

CEL-5

Protective Role of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Myoglobin Glycation in the Development of Diabetes-Induced Myocardial Infarction

Hardik Ghelani1, Valentina Naumovski, Srinivas Nammi

School of Science and Health, The National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), University of Western Sydney, NSW 2751, Australia

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Several reports have confirmed that the non-enzymatic glycation of myoglobin in the hyperglycaemic state results in the structural and functional modifications of myoglobin protein and may participate in the pathogenesis of MI. Therapeutic agents that can inhibit myoglobin glycation may prove to be beneficial in the management of MI in diabetics. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is an endogenous ligand known to inhibit protein glycation and subsequent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation; however its effect on myoglobin glycation has not been examined. Aim of the Study: The present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of ALA on glucose and fructose-induced myoglobin glycation. Methods: The anti-glycation activity of ALA was determined using chemical assays that measured the formation of advance glycation end products (AGEs) fluorescence intensity, the level of fructosamine and released iron from the heme moiety of myoglobin. The protein oxidation was examined using the level of protein carbonyl content and thiol group. Results: ALA showed marked reduction in glucose and fructose induced myoglobin glycation as indicated by inhibited AGEs formation, reduced levels of fructosamine adducts formation and reduced free iron release. Furthermore, ALA significantly prevented protein oxidative damage, including effects on the thiol and protein carbonyl oxidation. Conclusion: These studies suggest that ALA is capable of preventing hyperglycaemia-induced glycation and oxidative modification of cardiac muscle myoglobin and may be an efficacious treatment option in the management of MI in the diabetic state.

CHM-1

Pharmacoeconomic Evaluation of Azole Antifungal Prophylaxis in Patients of Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Undergoing First Consolidation Chemotherapy; Experience of a Tertiary Care Centre of Odisha

Malaya Ranjan Singha, Truptirekha Swain, Sudhansu Malini Sethy*

Department of Pharmacology and Department of Clinical haematology, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha

Objective:
Present study aims to explore the clinical outcome of the patients on different azoles prophylaxis and to correlate the economic burden and rationality thus generated. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in Haematology department of S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Diagnosed patients of AML receiving first cycle of consolidation chemotherapy were followed up daily directly / telephonically throughout their first cycle of consolidation chemotherapy. Selection of prophylactic azoles, total dose schedule, clinical outcomes and resource consumptions were recorded and analysed. Complete success was defined as completion of the designated course without development of systemic fungal infection. The result was compared statically using decision model. Results: 52% of patients received itraconazole, 38% received fluconazole and 9% received posaconazole. Six patients in itraconazole, four in fluconazole and 1 in posaconazole group developed fever due to fungal infection. Fluconazole proved to be most cost effective prophylactic drug followed by itraconazole and posaconazole. Conclusion: Fluconazole is the most cost-effective antifungal prophylactic agent compared to itraconazole and posaconazole in AML patients.

CHM-2

Prescribing Pattern of Anticancer Drugs Among Inpatients in a Tertiary Care Hospital


Manushi Aggarwal, Shalini Chawla, Kishore Singh

PG resident, Department of pharmacology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India

Objective: To evaluate the prescribing pattern of anticancer drugs in inpatients receiving chemotherapy. Methods: An observational study was conducted in radiotherapy department of LNJP hospital. 101 admitted newly diagnosed cancer patients were included and utilization of drugs was assessed using core WHO indicators. Results: Average number of total drugs and anticancer drugs prescribed per patient was 9.2 and 2.97 respectively. 94% of the drugs were prescribed from essential medicines list and using their generic names (70%). Platinum compounds (27.6%) were the most commonly prescribed anticancer group followed by antimetabolites (24.3%), taxanes (15%), antitumor antibiotics (13%), alkylating agents (10%), epipodophylltoxins (3.7%), vinca alkaloids (2.7%), steroids (1.7%), immunomodulators (1%), camptothecins (0.7%) and monoclonal antibody (0.3%). Cisplatin (20%) was the commonest anticancer prescribed. 96% cytotoxic drugs were given intravenously and 4% were administered orally. Amongst the adjuvant group of drugs, antiemetics (20 %) were given most frequently, followed by drugs decreasing gastric acid secretion (16%), electrolytes (14%), steroids (12%), diuretics (10%), colony stimulating factors (8%), mesna (4%), antiallergics (4%), nutritional supplement (3%), vitamins and minerals (3%), antimicrobials (2%), analgesics (1%) and antianxiety (1%). Conclusion: Average number of drug prescribed was high as many adjuvant drugs were prescribed either to decrease the adverse drug reactions or improve quality of life. Platinum compounds and antimetabolites were the most frequently used classes of anticancer drugs as they were a part of the regimens used to treat most common cancers.

CHM-3

Evaluation of the Effects of the Anti-Retroviral Drug Regimen (Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine) on Cd4 Count, Body Weight, and Hb% of the HIV Patients-A Retrospective Study.

Vaneeta1, Reshma SR1, Somashekhar HS2, Narendranath S3, Keerthi Sagar j4, Dinakar KR1

1
Post Graduate Student, Department of Pharmacology, JJM Medical College, Davangere, 2 Professor and HOD, Department of Pharmacology, JJM Medical College, Davangere, 3 Associate professor, Department of Pharmacology, JJM Medical College, Davangere, 4 Clinical investigators, Lotus Lab, Bangalore

Objective: The main objective of study is to evalaute the effects of triple drug therapy Zidovudine + lamivudine + nevirapine on cd 4 counts, weight and Hb% for the duration of 6 months. Methods: In this retrospective study, data was collected from the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) centre where 315 subjects infected with HIV received ZIDOVUDINE + LAMIVUDINE + NEVIRAPINE. Baseline cd4 count, weight and Hb% were recorded and compared with the cd4 counts, weight and Hb% after 6 monthsof therapy with the same. Statistical analysis was done using paried T test for body weight and hb% and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test for cd4 count group wise comparison. Results: Records with incomplete data were excluded. Cd 4 count improved significatly after 6 months of treatment (n=263, p 0 = 0.0001). Body weight also improved significantly with treatment (n=264, p = 0.0001. Whereas in case of haemoglobin % there was no improvement after the study treatment period (243 were analysed) (P =0.3441). Conclusion: Even though the combination of ZLN is very effiicacious as a anti retroviral drug regimen. But should be given cautiously in patient with haematological abnormalities especially anaemia. special attention should be paid to patient's hb level after this drug therapy is initiated by giving the patient regular monthly tests for hb estimation and supplimenting the drug regimen with drugs that improve hb%. First of all we should try to figure out the exact significance and predictors of zidovudine induced anaemia in HIV/AIDS patients in well planned and robust prospective studies.

CHM-4

A Study on the Adverse Effects of Anticancer Drugs in J K Cancer Institute, Kanpur

B K Mangal, Pooja Agrawal, Navneet Kumar, Ambrish Gupta, Virendra Kushwaha, Sharad Singh, Arpita Singh

Department of Pharmacology, G S V M Medical College, Kanpur, UP, India

Objective: This prospective study was designed to monitor and analyze the pattern of occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to cancer chemotherapy in the cancer ward/OPD in J K cancer institute, Kanpur. Methods: Cancer patients who received cancer chemotherapy were interviewed for information on type of adverse reactions and were documented in CDSCO (Central Drugs Standard Control Organization) form. The collected reports were analyzed for demographic and drug details, causality, preventability and severity of ADRs. Causality was assessed by WHO causality assessment scale. Preventability and severity were assessed by modified Schumock and Thornton scale, modified Hartwig and Siegel scale respectively. Result: Out of the total 40 cases evaluated, 17 (42.5%) were males and 23 (57.5%) were females. The most frequently reported ADRs were Vomiting (40%), Nausea (27.5%), Diarrhoea (27.5%), Anxiety (15%), Palpitation (7.5%), Neutropenia (7.5%), Constipation, Tingling, Cisplatin, Paclitaxel, Docetaxel, Cyclophosphamide,5-FU and Adriamycin were common drugs causing ADRs. 87.5% ADRs were category of " probable " and 12.5% "possible" but no "certain" reactions.. Most of the reactions were category of "probably preventable" and of 'moderate severity (60%), and 40% were of mild type. Conclusion: This study indicates that all patients receiving cytotoxic drugs suffer one or more ADRs. ADR monitoring is essential to reduce patient suffering and health care cost. We conclude that most of the reactions were not severe as predicted but of moderate type, if no therapeutic modifications are done, these can grow up to high levels.

CLP-1

Oxidative Stress in Patients with Epilepsy and Its Relation With Antiepileptic Drug Polytherapy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Assam.

Gogoi Mall Dipankar, Das Swarnamoni

Department of Pharmacology, Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh

Objectives: Epilepsy is a highly prevalent neurological disorder, and oxidative stress is regarded as a possible mechanism involved in epileptogenesis. The purpose of this study is to look at this perspective and to gather relevant data regarding the causal relationship of oxidative stress with epilepsy and the role of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in altering the pro-oxidant antioxidant balance in patients on polytherapy with AEDs. Materials and Methods: Oxidative parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were evaluated in 100 patients with epilepsy (Test group) and equal number of age and sex matched healthy volunteers (Control group). In the test group, oxidative stress markers were evaluated at the beginning (Test group A) and after 6 months on AED polytherapy (Test group B) and comparative study was done. Oxidative stress markers of Test group A and B were also compared with the control group. Result: In the Test groups (A and B), MDA levels were significantly higher and catalase and SOD activities were significantly lower than the control group. In Test group A, MDA level was significantly higher and catalase and SOD activities were significantly lower than Test group B. Conclusion: There is causal relationship between oxidative stress and epilepsy as the oxidative markers were significantly higher in patients than in control. Also AEDs reduced the oxidative stress markers in patients after 6 months of AED polytherapy.

CLP-2

A Comparative Study of the Efficacy and Tolerability of Two Weeks Itraconazole and Terbinafine in Tinea Cruris.

Gautam.B.V1, Adarsh Gowda2, Jyothi.R3

1 Postgraduate, 2 Assistant professor, 3 Assistant Professor, 1,3 Department of Pharmacology, 2 Department of Dermatology, 1,2,3 Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India

Objective: Itraconazole is a fungistatic triazole while Terbinafine is a fungicidal allylamine. The objective of this study is to compare the 2 week efficacy and tolerability of 100 mg/day of itraconazole with 250mg/day of terbinafine in 120 patients with Tinea Cruris.

Materials and Methods: 120 patients diagnosed with Tinea cruris were randomized to receive either itraconazole 100 mg/day or terbinafine 250 mg/day for 14 days and were then followed up every week for 3 weeks. Mycological cure was assessed by the absence of fungal elements in KOH wet mount and culture of skin scapings at the last follow up visit. The patients were termed clinically responsive if there was atleast a 50% decrease of total score in a 0-3 point scoring scale for the main signs and symptoms of desquamation, erythema and pruritis. The patients were termed healed or clinically cured if there were no signs and symptoms at the last visit.

Results: At the end of the follow-up period, 82 % of itraconazole treated patients and 68% of terbinafine treated patients were mycologically cured (P < 0.05). The clinical response rate in the itraconazole and terbinafine group were 86% and 70% respectively (P < 0.05). Both medications were well tolerated but tolerability was significantly higher in the itraconazole group than in the terbinafine group (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Both 14 day treatment regimens were effective in tinea cruris but the tolerability, mycological and clinical results were significantly better with itraconazole compared to terbinafine.

CLP-3

Evaluation of Drug Promotional Brochures Using WHO Guidelines, Teaching Critical Appraisal of Its in Medical Students

Hasina A. Sayyad

Dr. B.B. Ghongane: Department of Pharmacology, B.J. Government Medical College, Pune, India

Objectives: To evaluate the collected drug promotional literatures for accuracy, consistency and validity of the information presented in it using WHO criteria for ethical medicinal drug promotion. Todetermine the effect of training on appraisal of drug advertisement in medical students. Material and Methods: 100 Promotionalbrochures were collected from medical representatives visiting outpatient departments. These were evaluated for accuracy, consistency and validity of the information using WHO criteria for ethical medicinal drug promotion. A pre and post knowledge of the (n=132) students'ability to identify violations of existing guidelines were assessed using 5 promotional literature, after training session. Results: The brand name, active constituent(s), therapeutic indications were mentioned in 100%brochures. However, the information on side effects (36%), drug interactions (56%), special precaution (27%), use in pregnancy and lactation (55 %) and other ingredients known to cause problems (65%) was lacking. In medical students, the average pre test score was 56.48% which significantly increased to post- test score of 87.6% after training session. Conclusion: Pharmaceutical companies did not strictly follow WHO guidelines while preparing these promotional brochures. The main thrust is apparently on brand names. Crucial information from safety point of view i.e. adverse events and precautions is predominantly lacking. Therefore physicians should be critical while referring to such promotional literatures. Need to train undergraduate medical students on critical appraisal of drug advertisement is emphasised for future rational drug use in practice.

CLP-4

Role of Metformin versus Topiramate in Preventing Olanzapine Associated Weight Gain and Metabolic Syndrome

Hindol mondal1, Suhrita paul1, Prathama guha2

1
Department of Pharmacology, Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, 2 Department of Psychiatry, N.R.S. Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of metformin and topiramate in preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain and metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia patient. Materials and Methods: 123 schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to treatment for 24 weeks with olanzapine alone (olanzapine group) or olanzapine plus metformin 1000 mg/day (Metformin group) or olanzapine plus topiramate 100 mg/day (Topiramate group) with each group containing 41 patients. Dose range of olanzapine was 5 - 20 mg/day in each group. Planned assessments included body weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, insulin and insulin resistance, blood pressure and lipid profile, Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Results: of 123 patients randomly assigned, 110 completed treatments. The weight increased significantly less with metformin and topiramate group relative to olanzapine group during 24-week follow-up. Fasting blood glucose value of olanzapine group increased significantly compared to metformin and topiramate group. Fasting insulin level and insulin resistance was significantly less with metformin compared to olanzapine and topiramate group. Occurrence of metabolic syndrome was less in metformin and topiramate group. Significant decrease in SAPS and SANS scores was seen within each group with no between-group differences. Metformin was tolerated well but side effects were more with topiramate. Conclusions: Metformin and topiramate are equally effective in attenuating olanzapine-induced weight gain though they are unable to prevent all components of metabolic derangements. Metformin is better than topiramate in preventing insulin resistance whereas topiramate is associated with more adverse effects.

CLP-5

Study of Drug Utilization Pattern and Adverse Drug Reactions of Antiepileptic Agents Among Pediatric Patients of SSG Hospital Baroda, Gujarat

Dave HH, Trivedi NA

Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College and SSG Hospital Baroda, Gujarat, India

Objective: To study drug utilization pattern and to analyses adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) among pediatric patients of S.S.G. Hospital Baroda. Material and Method: A cross sectional observational study was carried out in the 100 pediatric patients of either gender diagnosed to have epilepsy and taking treatment from pediatric OPD , SSG hospital Baroda for a minimum 3 months period. After taking written informed consent and assent (when necessary), patient's detailed medical history, demographic details and other required information was recorded on a prestructured data entry form. Result: Out of 100. GTCS was found to be the most common (55%) form of epilepsy among pediatric patients and Carbamazepine was most commonly prescribed (43%) AED followed by sodium valproate (37%). 71% patients were prescribed monotherapy. Total 24 different types of ADRs were observed out of which behavior disturbances (29%) was the most frequent observed ADRs followed by drowsiness (25%). Carbamazepine was the causative agent for 62.5 % of ADRs. Average total cost of illness of epilepsy per patient was 6640 INR per year. Conclusion: In the present study in majority of the patients, AEDs were prescribed as per WHO guidelines. We found that on average 12.75% of annual income of the family was spent on the treatment of epilepsy.

CLP-6

Antirabies Vaccine: An Experience in An Antirabies Clinic of North Eastern India

Julie Birdie Wahlang, Maxilline.D.Marak


D.k.brahma, Lalromawii, Joonmoni.lahon, Neigrihms, Mawdiangdiang, Shillong

Aim: Cross sectional study based on animal bite including dog bite cases treated in the ARV OPD at Pasteur Institute, Shillong, Meghalaya. Materials and Methods: Daily registered cases of animal bites in the years of 2011, 2012 and 2013 in the outpatient department of ARV clinic of Pasteur Institute, Shillong, Meghalaya, after obtaining due permission from the Government of Meghalaya, Shillong Meghalaya, India. Results: Total of 13,088 cases of animal bites giving an overall "dog bite" (DB) and "other animal bite" (OAB) percentage of 86.52% and 13.47% respectively. Class III type was highest amounting 76.16% followed by 4.75% and 19.20% respectively for class I and class II dog bites. Total number of patients receiving TCARV and Antirabies serum is 95.2% and 25.6%. Adverse events occuring during the course of treatment is 23.7%, Local Pain and rash predominantly reported at 45.3% and 11.6 % of total adverse drug events. Conclusion: Rabies is a global problem leading to 30,000 deaths per year in the world. It is a collaboratve effort to prevent (Municipality, Health, Forest deptt ). Management of dog bite cases need to be addressed in UG/PG courses.

CLP-7

Study of Adverse Drug Reactions and Treatment Outcome in Mdr-Tb Patients Registered at Dots Plus Site, Ssg Hospital, Baroda, Gujarat

Vithalapara K V 1 , Trivedi N A 1 , Makwana M Z 2 , Patel K R 2 , Leuva A T

1,2 Department of Pharmacology and 1 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Government Medical College Baroda, Gujarat, India

Objectives: To evaluate the frequency and types of ADRs due to DOTS-PLUS therapy and to determine outcome of treatment in patient of MDR-TB. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observation study was carried out on MDR-TB patients enrolled for DOTS PLUS therapyat drug resistant tuberculosis centre SSG hospital, Baroda, Gujarat from April 2010 to April 2012. After taking prior permission from concerned authorities and Institutional scientific and ethical committee, detailed case history of all the patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria was obtained from the hospital records and all relevant data was extracted ina pre structured data entry form. Results: Total 323 patients were included in the study. Out of which 25% patients were declared cured, 7% completed treatment, 23% defaulted, 40% were treatment failure while 31% patients died. Total 60(19%) patients presented with ADRs which required treatment modifications. Weakness 27% and hearing loss 23% were the commonest ADRs reported. Conclusion: Treatment outcome for MDR-TB remains poor in patients taking DOTS-PLUS therapy which is further compounded by high drug toxicity. Early detection of ADRs and use of lowest possible therapeutic dose of the second line drugs may help such patients to some extents.

CLP-8

Prevalence of Multidrug Resistance and Drug Susceptibility Pattern Among Retreatment Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Guwahati, India

Manjit Das1, Jutika Ojah2

1 PGT, Department of Community Medicine, 2 Professor, Department of Community Medicine

Objectives: (1) To study the prevalence of MDR-TB among the retreatment cases. (2) To study the drug susceptibility pattern among the retreatment cases. Materials and Methods: Study design: Cross sectional, hospital-based. Study place: Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati. Study period: One year, from October 2013 to September 2014. Study population: All the TB patients attending GMCH, during the study period and fulfilling the criteria of relapse, treatment after default and treatment failure were included. Data collection tools and technique: The sputum specimens were subjected to bacteriological culture followed by Drug susceptibility testing (DST) in the Intermediate Reference Laboratory (IRL). Other relevant data were obtained from case records and compiled by using Microsoft Excel and analysed by Graphpad Instat 3.0 version. The study was approved by the institutional ethical committee. Results: Out of the total cases 27% were treatment failure, 61% were default and 12% were relapse. Culture was positive in 73% cases. MDR cases were 58% and non-MDR cases were 42%. Conclusion: Majority of the retreatment cases were treatment after default. Resistance to rifampicin was found more commonly among the MDR cases.

CLP-9

Drug Utilization Pattern in Cardiovascular Conditions


Neha V. Raval, Neeta J. Kanani

Department of Pharmacology, Baroda Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India

Objective: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world and occur at a much younger age in India compared to the developed countries. It is important to study the pattern of drug therapies in management and prevention of diseased states. This study was done with the objective to observe the prevalence of CVDs and to quantify the drug utilization trends. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional observational drug utilization study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital for 33 days, including 1020 adult patients attending Medicine outpatient department for CVDs. Data for demographic details, diagnosis and the drugs prescribed, were collected and analyzed using WHO 'prescribing indicators'. Results: Female patients (55.88%) constituted more than half of total. Patients from the age-group of 60 to 69 years were most frequent (30.49%). The most commonly encountered CVD and comorbid condition were hypertension (70.8%) and diabetes (21.6%), respectively. Aspirin (62.54%), enalapril (60.88%) and atorvastatin (56.86%) were the most frequently prescribed drugs. 19% drugs were prescribed by brand names and 34% were from National List of Essential Medicines. Average of 6.4 drugs was prescribed per encounter. Defined Daily Dose (DDD)/ 1000 patients/ year values were calculated for 10 most frequently prescribed drugs according to WHO ATC/DDD classification. Conclusion: Present data provides an insight for further drug utilization studies in outpatients of CVDs in India for which inadequate data is available. Polypharmacy and unnecessary use of nutrients and mineral supplements are a matter of concern and need to be addressed appropriately.

CLP-10

A Drug Utilization Study of Acute Poisoning Cases in Emergency Ward of Medicine at Sir Sayajirao General Hospital, Baroda

Pratik Asari, Shreya Shah

Department of Pharmacology, Medical College Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India

Objectives: To study the pattern of acute poisoning cases treated in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: In this observational cross sectional study, data were collected from October, 2013 to March, 2014 of all acute poisoning cases aged more than 12 years, admitted in medicine emergency ward. Results: Data of total 340 cases of acute poisoning were collected of which 63.53% were male. Suicidal Poisoning was observed in 62.06% followed by accidental poisoning (37.94%). Common causes of poisoning were bites (25.88%) followed by organophosphate (19.41%) and unknown compound (19.41%) ingestion. Commonly observed symptoms were vomiting, local symptoms, altered sensorium and giddiness. Mortality was seen in 16.47% while complete recovery was in 66.47%. 54.37% drugs were prescribed by generic name, 30.10% by brand name and 15.53% by both. 66% drugs were prescribed from NLEM (2011). Antimicrobials were prescribed in 75% cases, other commonly prescribed drugs were antiemetic, atropine, H 2 blockers, PAM, ASV, PPIs. Conclusion: Educational programs with emphasis on preventive measures are necessary to create awareness among the general public. The prevention and treatment of poisoning should merit highpriority in the health care of general population. All tertiary care teaching hospitals should have a poisoning centre which will help in decreasing mortality and morbidity.

CLP-11

Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Pathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infections at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Central India

Rakesh Sonawane1, Abhay Joshi1 , Nidhi Jain1, Arun Srivastav2

1
Post Graduate, Department of Pharmacology, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal (MP), 2 Head of Department, Department of Pharmacology, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal (MP)

Objective: To study the frequency and distribution of uropathogens and their antibiotic resistance pattern in a tertiary care teaching hospital and correlate them to assist empirical decision-making. Materials and Methods: Urine samples submitted to microbiology department for routine cultures and sensitivity were analyzed by standard methods, prospectively for the duration of 3 months. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Out of 804 urine samples analyzed, 356 samples (44.28%) were positive for urine culture. Out of 356 positive samples, 309 samples (86.79%) were positive for Gram negative bacteria while 47 samples (13.2%) were positive for Gram positive bacteria. Among Gram negative bacteria, Klebsiella (42.07%) was the most common organism followed by E. Coli (39.48%) while among Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus Scientific Name Search  (40.42%) and CONS (34.04%) were the most common. Gram negative bacteria were maximum resistant to Cefpodoxime, Cefprozil and Ceftizoxime (>80%) and least resistant to Imepenem-cilastin, Cefaperazone-sulbactum and Meropenem. Gram positive bacteria were maximum resistant to Lomefloxacin, Clarithromycin and Clindamycin (>80%) while least resistant to Linezolid, Gatifloxacin and Vancomycin. Conclusion: The study revealed high level of antimicrobial resistance among all uropathogens. Klebsiella was the predominant bacterial uropathogen to cause UTI. Fluoroquinolones and 2 nd , 3 rd generation cephalosporins have limited value for treatment of UTI. Imipenem-cilastin, Meropenem and Vancomycin are still effective but resistance against them is also increasing. So stringent protocol such as routine monitoring of drug resistance pattern and antibiotic policy are mandatory to avoid the indiscriminate use of antibiotics and prevent the further development of antimicrobial resistance.

CLP-12

Study of the Pattern of Adverse Events Following Immunization in a Tertiary Care Hospital


Rekha Aherkar, P. K. Deshpande, B. B. Ghongane

Department of Pharmacology, B. J. Govt. Medical College and Sassoon General Hospital, Pune, India

Objectives: To analyze patternof Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) in children. Methods: Prospective, observational study was carried out at Tertiary care hospital where children aged 0-6 yearsreceiving routine immunizationwere analyzed. A two-phase telephone survey of parents consisting 1 st call at 7 th and a 2 nd call at 30 th day after the vaccine administrationwas conducted. The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) form along with case record form was used to record the AEFI. Results: 1206 children, aged 0-6 years, received a total of 3179 vaccine doses at the immunization OPD.22.71% children suffered AEFI. Most common AEFI per 1000 doses of all vaccinations was Fever (54.41) followed by swelling at injection site (34.3) andDiarrhea (6.29). Most of the adverse events were seen in age group of less than 9 months of age (232 out of 274 i.e. 84.67%). DPT vaccine was associated with many AEFI (246 out of 274) and it was observed that maximum (37.8%) adverse events were seen with 1 st dose and number decreased in subsequent doses. Conclusions: AEFI should bereported in Vigiflowso that database will be generated regarding vaccine safety. Ongoing surveillance of AEFI with regular analysis and feedback should be an integral part of immunization programs.

CLP-13

A Comparative Study of Granisetron and Ondansetron For Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting Following Elective Open Abdominal Surgeries Under General Anaesthesia in Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar

Rohit Tigga, Daisy Phukan

PGT, Department of Pharmacology, Head and Professor of Department of Pharmacology, SMCH

Objective: To study the comparative efficacy of prophylactic administration of Ondansetron and Granisetron in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing elective open abdominal surgeries under general anaesthesia. Method of the Study: Double blind, randomized, controlled, parallel group, single centre, prospective clinical trial. Materials and Methods: 120 patients (18-60 years of age) undergoing elective open abdominal surgeries were randomly allocated into two groups containing 60 patients each. Group A received Ondansetron 4mg IV and Group B received Graniseteron 1mg IV over 30 seconds at the closure of peritoneum. Results: It was seen that, in 0-24 hours postoperative period, the overall incidence of nausea was 28.33% with Ondansetron and 10% with Granisetron, the incidence of vomiting and requirement of rescue antiemetic was 25% in Ondansetron group and 11.67% in Granisetron group, respectively. The incidence of PONV was highest in 0-4 hour time period. The incidence of adverse effects was statistically insignificant between the groups. Conclusion: Prophylactic therapy with Granisetron is more effective than Ondansetron for prevention of PONV after elective open abdominal surgeries.

CLP-14

A Cross Sectional Study on the Alterations in the Haematological and Metabolic Parameters in Antiretroviral Therapy

Bhattacharjya S, Gohain K, Kotokey R.k.

Department of Pharmacology, Assam Medical College, India

Objectives: To evaluate the haematological and metabolic alterations 6 months after antiretroviral therapy at the ART centre of Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh. Materials and Methods: The case records of HIV positive patients are evaluated 6 months after antiretroviral therapy. Prior written consent and permission from the institutional human ethical committee was obtained. Patients of either sex more than 18 years of age and weight more than 30 kg were included in the study. Patients with hepatorenal insufficiency, diabetes, pregnancy or lactating and on anti-tubercular therapy were excluded from the study. Zidovudine, Lamivudine, Nevirapine, Tenofovir and Efavirenz were the drugs given in various combinations. The routinely performed haematological tests and the metabolic parameters were recorded at the initiation and 6 months after receiving antiretroviral therapy. Results and Observations: Out of the total patients 58% were of 20-40 yrs age group and 60% of patients were males. 6 months after antiretroviral therapy significant changes were observed. Mean haemoglobin level in males increased from 9.8 to 12.2 gm/dl and in females from 8.6 to 11.1 gm/dl. The mean BMI in males increased from 21.9 to 23.15 and in females from 20.3 to 23.4. Detailed results will be presented at the conference. Conclusion: Significant alterations in the haematological and metabolic profile occur after initiation of antiretroviral therapy and adequate measures should be initiated if required.

CLP-15

Oxidative Stress in Patients With Epilepsy and Its Relation With Antiepileptic Drug Monotherapy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Assam

Aziz Sahid, Das Swarnamoni

Department of Pharmacology, Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh, Assam, India

Aim: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder and oxidative stress has been implicated in many pathological processes including epilepsy. The purpose of this study is to look at this perspective and to gather relevant data regarding the causal relationship of oxidative stress with epilepsy and the role of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in altering the pro-oxidant antioxidant balance in patients on monotherapy with AEDs. Method: Oxidative parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were evaluated in 100 patients with epilepsy (Test group) and equal number of age and sex matched healthy volunteers (Control group). In the test group, oxidative stress markers were evaluated at the beginning (Test group A) and after 6 months on AED monotherapy (Test group B) and comparative study was done. Oxidative stress markers of Test group A and B were also compared with the control group. Result: In the Test groups (A and B), MDA levels were significantly higher and catalase and SOD activities were significantly lower than the control group. In Test group A, MDA level was significantly higher and catalase and SOD activities were significantly lower than Test group B. Conclusion: There is causal relationship between oxidative stress and epilepsy as the oxidative markers were significantly higher in patients than in control. Also AEDs reduced the oxidative stress markers in patients after 6 months of AED monotherapy.

CLP-16

Assesing the Knowledge Attitude Medication Adherence and Quality of Life Among Asthma Patients in a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital

Shovan P, Sudha J, Mitisha, Chitra, Subbareddy

Department of Pharmacology Andhra Medical College, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Objectives: 1. To analyzes the level of knowledge and attitude towards asthma and its medication usage. 2. To assess adherence to medications among patients receiving asthma medications.3. To assess health related quality of life among patients receiving asthma medications. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, observational, questionnaire based study carried out for a period of seven months in the Outpatients and Inpatients, Department of Medicine at King George Hospital, Vishakapatnam. Established cases of asthma that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled for the study. Patient's baseline knowledge and attitude towards asthma and its therapy was collected through structured interview by using a self designed validated questionnaire. Adherence to medications among patients was assessed by Morisky Medications Adherence Scale-8 items. Health related quality of life was tested using St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Statistical Analysis: The data were entered in Microsoft Excel. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize base line data. A p 0 value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Data under analysis will be discussed at the time of presentation.

CLP-17

Association of Carbamazepine-Induced Severe Cutaneous Drug Reactions and HLA-B*1502 Allele Status Among Indians- A Case Series and Review

Sen Sukanta 1 , Moitra Saibal 2 , Das Prasanta 2 , Datta Ankur 1 , Mondal Somnath 1 , Tripathi SK 1

1 Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, 2 Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Allergy, Charnock Hospital and Research Centre Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Aim: To study the association between HLA-B*1502 and carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN/ overlap syndrome in cases-series reported from Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Three individuals who were diagnosed CBZ-induced SCAR on the basis of their temporal relationship, clinical presentations and biopsy report. They were thoroughly followed up and specific HLA-B molecular typing was performed. Causality was assessed using Naranjo algorithm and WHO-UMC scale. Evaluation of the prognosis was done using SCORTEN. Result: Out of three patients studied for genotype, two patients were found to have the HLA-B*1502 allele. Conclusion: In India, some reports have already implicated carbamazepine associated SJS/TEN. This study suggests an association between HLA-B*1502 and carbamazepine induced SJS in Indian patients. As HLA B*1502 as a marker of CBZ-induced SJS/TEN is ethnicity specific, there is also a need to determine the relationship between HLA B*1502 and CBZ-induced SJS/TEN in other ethnic groups in India. Robust clinical studies like large cohorts of carbamazepine-exposed Indian patients are needed. Geno-typing before primary CBZ treatment should be made compulsory before prescribing in Indian patients.

CLP-18

Pharmacoeconomics of a Chronic Disease: Schizophrenia

Vinita Khubchandani, Rajesh Hishikar, Manoj Sahu

PTJNM Medical College and Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Memorial Hospital

Objectives:
To determine the Pharmacoeconomics of a Chronic Disease: Schizophrenia. Method: A Pilot, cross sectional, observational study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in central India on 100 patient of schizophrenia as per inclusion criteria, who or their care giver gave consent to participate in the study. A structured questioner was filled for assessing direct and indirect cost. Statistical analysis was done using chi-square test and un-paired t-test and p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Although the average number of drug prescribed were less and cheaper for schizophrenia, the average total cost (direct +indirect) per month per patient: Schizophrenia is Rs 2943.36. If we exclude alternative treatment, cost toward treatment of Schizophrenia is only Rs 1132 p= 0.0001 which is significant. Conclusion: This shows alternative treatment and indirect cost significantly add to Pharmacoeconomics burden in schizophrenia.

CLP-19

A Prospective Study For Evaluating the Clinical Efficacy of Methylxanthines in Patients of Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AECOPD) Admitted in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Vinob Kalkoti, Neeta J Kanani

Department of Pharmacology, Medical College and SSG Hospital Baroda, Gujarat, India

Materials and Methods: 91 patients admitted were randomly recruited into two groups. Control group received standard treatment (Salbutamol + Ipratropium bromide nebulizationsix hourly, parenteral antibiotics and steroids) and treatment group received IV Deriphyllin 100mg tds plus standard treatment. Primaryoutcome variables for treatment efficacy were, change in post bronchodilator FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC. Secondary end points were improvement in dyspnoea (MMRC grade, SpO2). Results: There was nosignificant differencein FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVCbetween groups but there was significant reduction in dyspnoea grading in treatment group after 24 and 72 hours of admission. There were no significant differences in oxygen saturation or length of hospital stay between groups. Vomiting was more frequentlyobservedin treatment group (19.56% vs 4.44%, p=0.026), whereas nausea and headache were noted almost equally in bothgroups. Seven patients from treatment group relapsed while only one relapsed in control group (P=0.028). Conclusion: Although IV Deriphyllin produced improvements in dyspnoea, it did not influence subsequent clinical outcome. No evidence was found for any clinically important additional effect of Methylxanthine when used with nebulised bronchodilators and parenteral corticosteroids. Given its known toxicity, we cannot recommend use of intravenous Methylxanthine in treatment ofAECOPD.

CLP-20

Bacteriological Profile and Pattern of Antibiotic Sensitivity in Ear Swab Culture Isolates at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Bhopal


Abhay Joshi1, Rakesh Sonawane1, Nidhi Jain1, Arun Srivastav2

1
Post Graduate, Department of Pharmacology, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal (MP), 2 Head of Department, Department of Pharmacology, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal (MP)

Objective: To study the bacteriological profile and the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity and resistance in ear swab culture isolates in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Ear swab specimens submitted to the microbiology laboratory for routine cultures and sensitivity were analyzed prospectively for the duration of 5 months. Results: Among the total 88 samples analyzed, 70 samples (74.67%) were found to be positive for growth. Out of 70 growths, 68 shows single isolate and 2 shows double isolates. Out of these positive samples, 53 samples (75.71%) were positive for Gram negative bacteria while 17 samples (24.29%) were positive for Gram positive bacteria. Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and E.coli species were the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated while Staphylococcus aureus and CONS were the commonest Gram-positive bacteria. Gram negative bacteria shows >75% sensitivity to Cefaperazone-sulbactum, Piperacillin-tazobactum and Tobramycin and >60% sensitivity to Imepenem-cilastin, Meropenem and Ticarcillin-clavunate. They were most resistant to Cefpodoxime, Cefprozil and Ceftizoxime. Gram positive bacteria were >80% sensitive to Gatifloxacin, Linezolid, Vancomycin and Teicoplanin while most resistant to Lomefloxacin, Clarithromycin, Roxithromycin and Sparfloxacin. Conclusion: Microorganisms are rapidly acquiring antimicrobial resistance owing to indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This underlines the need of periodic review of bacteriological culture and sensitivity pattern for any healthcare set up. This type of prospective studies provides an inexpensive tool to determine the sensitivity and resistance patterns of various antibiotics among bacterial population and thus help in formulating an antibiotic policy for safe and effective use of antibiotics at loco-regional and national level.

CLP-21

Clinical observations on the therapeutic effects of Kumarabharana Rasa in the management of Chronic Tonsillitis among children at a tertiary care hospital of Karnataka


Arun Raj GR 1 , Shailaja U 1 , Parikshit Debnath 2 , Subhadip Banerjee 3 , Prasanna N Rao 4

1 Department of Kaumarabhritya, SDM College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India, 2 Department of Swasthavritta, SDM College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India, 3 Department of Pharmacology, Bengal Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kalyani, West Bengal, India, 4 Department of Shalyatantra, SDM College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India

Objectives: To assess the effect of an Ayurvedic poly-herbo-mineral formulation Kumarabharana Rasa (KR) in the management of chronic tonsillitis (Tundikeri) in children. Materials and Methods: This clinical study was a double arm with pre and post test design at outpatient level in a tertiary Ayurveda hospital attached to teaching institute located in district headquarters in Southern India. Patients (n = 40) of chronic tonsillitis satisfying diagnostic criteria and age 5-10 years were selected from outpatient department of Kaumarbhritya, SDM College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan. Among them, 20 patients were treated with Kumarabharana rasa (tablet form) in the dose of 500 mg once daily for 30 days in group A. The other 20 patients were treated with Godhuma tablet (placebo) in the dose of 500mg once daily for 30 days in group B. In both groups, Madhu (honey) was the Anupana (adjuvant) advised. After completion of 30 days of treatment, the patients were assessed on the very next day and investigations were also carried out on the very same day. Results: Statistically significant effect (P < 0.05) of Kumarabharana Rasa in reduction of all signs and symptoms of chronic tonsillitis after treatment were observed. Conclusion: Thus results signify that Kumarabharana Rasa has ameliorative effect in reducing the signs and symptoms of chronic tonsillitis.

CLP-22

Comparision of Rise of Haemoglobin Levels in Pregnant Women after Supplementation of Ferrous Ascorbate and Ferrous Sulphate in Gauhati Medical College and Hospital

Heemanshu Shekhar Gogoi, Bonti Bora, Anjanamoyee Saikia

Post Graduate Trainee-1 st Year, Department of Physiology, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, HOD and Professor, Department of Physiology, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Lecturer. Department of Community Medicine, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital

Objective: Haemoglobin is vital for life. This study was done to compare the rise of haemoglobin levels in pregnant women who took ferrous ascorbate and ferrous sulphate and hence to know which causes more rise. Materials and Methods: Sahli's Acid Haematin Method was used for estimation of haemoglobin levels. Statistical analysis was done using excel spread sheet and SPSS 11.5 version. Students' t test was done. Result: A total of eighty pregnant women (19-35 yrs) without any co-morbidities were selected and taken into two groups i.e. forty pregnant women who took ferrous ascorbate and another forty women who took ferrous sulphate. Each group comprised of twenty primigravidas and twenty multigravidas. Haemoglobin levels of first trimester before initiation of iron supplementation and towards the end of third trimester after intake of iron supplements was noted and the rise was determined. Even though there was rise in haemoglobin levels of both the groups, the rise in the group taking ferrous ascorbate (mean rise=1.86) was more than that of the ferrous sulphate group ( mean rise=1.19) and was statistically significant (t=4.423 , p<0.001). Also the rise in haemoglobin levels was more for the ferrous ascorbate group of both the primigravidas as well as multigravidas than that of the ferrous sulphate group. Conclusion: It is concluded that the iron supplementation especially ferrous ascorbate causes more rise in the haemoglobin levels in pregnant women than that of ferrous sulphate and has indeed given rise to positive health effects.

CLP-23

To Study the Pattern of Adverse Drug Reaction of Antipsychotic Drugs in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Assam

Kurmi Pritom, Das Swarnamoni

PGT, Department of pharmacology AMCH, Professor and Head of Department of pharmacology, AMCH, Dibrugarh

Objectives: ( 1) To record the various types of adverse drug reactions related to the antipsychotic drugs. (2) To find out the causality, severity and preventability of adverse drug reaction related to the antipsychotic drugs. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional observational open label study was carried out for a period of 4 months in indoor patients of psychiatric ward of Assam Medical College. The causality of the adverse drug events were assessed as per WHO-UMC. The severity of the adverse event was assessed by HARTWIG SCALE. The preventability of the adverse events was assessed by SCHAUMOCK AND THRONTON SCALE. Results: We screened 450 patients, of whom 56 were suspected of having at least one ADR. Out of these 53 cases (94.64%) were probable and 3 cases (5.36%) were possible. None was labelled as certain as rechallange test was not performed. Thirteen different kinds of ADR were recorded, of which EPS (39.3%) was the most common followed by increased salivation (10.7%) and agranulocytosis (10.7%). Among the antipsychotics olanzapine was the mostly used drug. According to Hartwig severity scale 28 patients (50%), 24 patients (42.86%) and 4(7.14%) noted as level 4,3,2 respectively. Over half of ADRs (57.14%) were definitely preventable and others were probably preventable. Conclusion: This study offers a representative profile of ADR to be expected, its casuality, severity and preventibility in psychiatry indoor patient in a tertiary care hospital in Assam.

CLP-24

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Among Nursing Health Professionals at a Tertiary Care Hospital

Sonowal S#1, Desai CK**1, Panchal JR*1, Desai MK***1

#
Resident *Assistant Professor **Professor ***Professor and Head, 1 Department of Pharmacology, B.J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, India

Aim: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of nurses about ADR reporting. Materials and Methods: A pretested and validated questionnaire comprising 14 questions (7 knowledge, 4attitude and 3 practice) wasadministered to 195 nurses andevaluated for their completeness and responses. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analysed. A maximum score of 15 each was allotted for both completeness and knowledge related questions. Responses for practice and attitude were scored in percentages. Results: A total of 178(91.3%) nurses responded. The mean scores for completeness and knowledge were 13.2 and 6.9 respectively. More than half of nurses (57.3%) strongly agreed that it is important to report ADRs. Majority respondents (78.7%) considered that nurses should also report ADRs. However, 70.3% respondentsopined that only serious ADRs should be reported. Almost 73.5 % of respondents had observed ADRs during their duty and67.9% of them had reported theseto doctors. Lack of knowledge about how to (51.1%), and where (39.3%) to report were cited as reasons for not reporting. A need for training about ADR reporting in their curriculum was expressed by 78% of respondents. Conclusion: Nurses are aware of occurrence of ADRs. However their knowledge about ADRs and the practice of reporting is poor. There is a need to educate and train them in ADR reporting.

CLP-25

A Study to Determine if the Concentration of Phenobarbitone in Serum Can Be Accurately Predicted from that Measured in Dried Blood Spot Specimens

Aswathy Rachel Thomas, Denise Fleming, A.T. Prabhakar, Visalakshi Jeyaseelan, Kalpana Ernest, Mathew Alexander

Post Graduate, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, Honorary Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, CMC, Vellore, Assistant Professor, Department of Neurological Sciences, CMC, Vellore, Lecturer, Department of Biostatistics, CMC, Vellore, Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, CMC, Vellore, Professor, Department of Neurological Sciences, CMC, Vellore, India

Aim: To determine if the concentration of phenobarbitone in serum can be accurately predicted either directly or with an equation from that measured in DBS specimens. Methods: 36 patients between the ages of 18 and 65, on phenobarbitone, were enrolled. The DBS specimens were prepared by spotting 20μl of whole blood on a standard Whatman filter paper using a calibrated micropipette. HPLC assays were used to measure the concentration of phenobarbitone in serum and DBS. Results: The imprecision and the bias whenDBS concentrations werecorrected for haematocrit were 8% and 0.49% respectively. The data were not normally distributed. The correlation coefficient was 0.987 between the serum and corrected DBS concentrations (Spearman rank correlation test). No statistical difference was found between the two groups by the Mann Whitney-U test (P=0.3919). Conclusion: Thus, the concentration of phenobarbitone in serum can be accurately predicted directly from that measured in a DBS. This means that a simple, cheap, easily accessible dried blood spot. TDM service is available for rural hospitals in India which will give the patients all the benefits of therapeutic drug monitoring.

CLP-26

A Cross Sectional Study to Evaluate the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of Healthcare Professionals on Pharmacovigilance in Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Assam

Dipjyoti Deka, Nishanta Thakuria

Department of Pharmacology, Assistant Professor of Pharmacology, SMCH

Objective: To do a cross sectional KAP study among health care providers in Silchar Medical College and Hospital. Study population is minimum 200. Method of the Study: The study is a cross sectional study among the health care providers in Silchar Medical College and Hospital about their knowledge, attitude and practices about pharmacovigilance. Materials: Preset questionnaire based on pharmacovigilance are distributed to the health care providers e.g- Doctors, Nurses, Pharmacists and MBBS/PG students of SMCH Silchar and are asked to fill it up and submit. Result: Results will be discussed at the time of presentation. Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn after completion of the study.

CLP-27

A study on Bishop's score change on cervical ripening by Dinoprostone gel

Jayshree Goswami, Saswati Sanyal Choudhury

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, India

Objectives: The aim of the study is to monitor change of Bishop's score changes over 12 hours by intracervical Dinoprostone gel and to correlate with various factors. Methods: Prospective Observational Study carried in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, GMCH, Guwahati. Study period was One year. A sample size of 110 is purposively taken. Patients are selected randomly who have indication for labor induction with Bishop's score ≤5. Progress of induction is measured by using Bishop's score. Data will be compiled in Microsoft excel sheet and will be analysed using SPSS 17.00. Results will be analzed using Fisher Exact test, Student t test and Bivariate analysis. Results: The Bishop's score changes over 12 hours ranges from 0 to 10. The mean change was 4.55±2.17 SD. Conclusion: The Bishop score change over 12 hours depend on various factors like Initial Bishop score, Vaginal pH.

CLP-28

Critical Analysis of Look Alike and Sound Alike Branded Drug Names in Clinical Practice

Nagabushan.H1, Priyadarshini.B2

1
Department of Pharmacology, MIMS, Mandya, 2 Department of OBG, SIMSRC, Bangalore

Objectives : Indian pharmaceutical Industry being the third largest in the world in terms of volume, presence of Look Alike and Sound Alike ( LASA) brand names are bound to occur and cannot be eliminated totally, but as to be accepted with caution. LASA or Confusing drug names are among the most common reasons for medication errors worldwide. The aim of this analysis was to analyze and list out LASA brand drug pair names with different generic drug composition in Indian pharma market in order to create awareness among medicine prescribers and dispensers. Materials and Methods: Recent issues of drug formularies like Current Index of medical Specialities (CIMS), Drug Today, RefRx, Indian Drug review and others were used as source of data and all the potentially confusing brand drug names were analyzed. Only confusing brand names with different generic composition having Levenshtein distance less than three were analyzed and tabulated. Results: Three hundred and four LASA brand drug pair names with different generic drug composition were analyzed. Most of the LASA brand drug pair started from alphabet "A". Drug pair with one of the drug belonging to Pregnancy Category X was listed. Branded drug pairs having same dosage, formulation and Levenshtein distance of 1 were tabulated and analyzed which will be discussed . Conclusions: Look alike and sound alike drug names cannot be totally eliminated from Indian market. But the danger posed by them can be reduced by increasing awareness of presence of confusing drug pairs in clinical practice among healthcare professionals.

CLP-29

A Study on the Efficacy of Preerative Finasteride on Intraerative Bleeding in Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy Patients Undergoing Trans-Urethral Resection of Prostate

V. Veena, Imdad Ali. N, Lakshminarayana

Post-graduate student Pharmacology, Prof and Hod Department of Pharmacology, Prof and HOD, Department of Urology, Vijayanagar Institute of Medical Sciences, Bellary, Affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India

Objective: To study the efficacy of Preerative Finasteride on intraerative bleeding in Benign prostatic hypertrophy patients undergoing Trans-urethral resection of prostate. Materials and Methods: An open labelled randomized controlled study was done which included 40 patients who were randomly divided into two groups of 20 each. Each patient in Group A was given Tab. Finasteride 5mg HS for 4 weeks, prior to TURP. Group B patients without Finasteride, served as control. The efficacy was measured by determining amount of irrigating fluid washed off during surgery, Hb in irrigating fluid, Hb and Haematocrit difference before-after the procedure, intraerative blood loss and blood loss per gram of prostatic tissue resected. Data so collected was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Hb in irrigating fluid, pre-post operative Hb and Haematocrit difference, intra blood loss and blood loss per gram of prostatic tissue resected were more in control group than in Finasteride treated group and was found to be statistically significant (p <0.05). Conclusion: A short term treatment with Finasteride preeratively in BPH patients is effective in reducing intraerative bleeding during TURP.

CLP-30

Study of the Pattern and Quality of Life With Anti Emetic Usage in Cancer Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital

Venkata Subbareddy Avula, Sudha J, Shovan P,

Andhra Medical College, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.

Objectives: To study the patterns of antiemetic regimens used in cancer chemotherapy in a tertiary care hospital. To study the efficacy and the effect of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) on the quality of life of the patients. Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted for a period of eight months. Sixty patients were included in the study and will be followed up for four cycles of chemotherapy. The extent of nausea and vomiting and the effect of the same on the quality of life on patients were assessed using a modified FLIE questionnaire, which was be filled at 0hrs, 6hrs, 24hrs and 120hrs following the initiation of chemotherapy. Statistics: The results obtained were tabulated and analyzed using mean, frequency, percentage, descriptive statistics, Friedman test, and ranking. SPSS version 11.5 was used and a 'p' value<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Data under analysis results will be discussed at the time of presentations

CLP-31

Comparison of Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Ramosetron With Ondansetron For the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Surgery Under Spinal Anaesthesia

Pankaja R, Shashi Kumar N S, Shiva Kumar G1

Department of Pharmacology and 1 Anaesthesiology, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya, Karnataka, India

Aims of the Study: 1. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of prophylactic use of intravenous Ramosetron 0.3mg with intravenous Ondansetron 4mg in preventing Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) after surgeries under spinal anaesthesia. 2. To determine the incidence of adverse effects with Ramosetron and Ondansetron. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, open-label study, 80 patients (age, 18-60 years) of ASA I-II, undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia received intravenous Ramosetron 0.3mg, Ondansetron 4 mg (n = 40 of each) immediately before induction of anaesthesia. The standard spinal anaesthetic technique was used throughout. Postoperatively the incidences of nausea, vomiting, retching and safety assessments were performed at 0, 2, 6, 24 and 48hour during the first 48hour after surgery. Results: No statistical differences were observed among the three groups with regard to patient characteristics and information on surgery and anesthesia. The percentage of patients who had complete response (no PONV, and no need for another rescue antiemetic within 0 to 48 hours after anaesthesia) was 80% (32/40) with Ramosetron and 37.5% (15/40) with Ondansetron (P < 0.001). The proportion of patients requiring rescue antiemetics was significantly lower with ramosetron (5%) when compared with the ondansetron group (15%) during the 48 h after surgery (P<0.05). Conclusion: Ramosetron (0.3mg) was more effective than Ondansetron (4mg) in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia.

CLP-32

Pharmacokinetics of Mycophenolate Mofetil in Adult Patients With Lupus Nephritis Including Development of a Limited Sampling Strategy


Rohit Kodagali1, Binu S Mathew1, Denise H Fleming1, Ratna Prabha1, Gopal Basu2, V Tamilarasi2, Kalpana Ernest1

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, 1 Department of Nephrology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Objectives: (i) Determinethe pharmacokinetics of MMF in patients with lupus nephritis (ii) Develop a limited sampling strategy (LSS) for the estimation of MPA AUC 0-12hr . Methods: Plasma specimens from 30 patients with lupus nephritis were prospectively collected at trough and then 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours after patients had taken MMF. Total MPA was estimated using high performance liquid chromatography. LSS's with acceptable correlation coefficients (R 2 ), bias and precision were developed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. The predictive performance of the LSS was validated using bootstrap validation. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analysed using Pmetrics software for R. Results: The observed MPA AUC 0-12 hr ranged from 19.52 to 67.67 mg.h/L with a mean of 45.12 mg.h/L. The mean C max and T max were 16.703 mg.h/L and 1.08 h respectively. The final LSS model validated post bootstrap is (multiple R 2 =0.926): MPA AUC 0-12 hr = 12.3376+ (2.9013XC 0 ) + (0.8305XC 1 ) + (0.7945XC 2 ) + (4.5156XC 4 ). Calculated bias and imprecision for the LSS were -0.13 and 7.09 % respectively. Conclusion: This study has, for the first time, described the pharmacokinetics of MMF in adult Indian patients with lupus nephritis and the developed 4 point LSS is an accurate measure of the total 12-hour MPA AUC 0-12 hr with favourable bias and precision.

CLP-33

Pharmacovigilance Study of the Adverse Drug Reaction in a Medicine Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Twelve Month Analysis

Bhagat SB, Joshi AD 1 , Gambre RS 2 , Patel SB 3

JR III, Department of Pharmacology, Grant Govt. Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospital, 1 Assistant professor, Department of Pharmacology, Grant Govt. Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospital, 2 Associate professor, Department of Pharmacology, Grant Govt. Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospital, 3 Professor and Head, Department of Pharmacology, Grant Govt. Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospital

Material and Methods: This was an observational, cross sectional study conducted in the medicine ICU of Department of medicine, at Grant Govt. Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospital, Mumbai in serially admitted patients over a period of 12 months. Results: A total of 631 patients were admitted and were enrolled in the study. A total of 78(12.36%) patients suffered ADR of different type of which 47(60.25%) were male and 31(39.74%) were female. The percentage of ADR was seen more in patients of 60-69 years. Patients with the hospital stay of 5-10 days showed more ADR (41.02%). Patients with no. of drug prescribed between 7-10 showed more ADR (34.61%). Headache was reported to be the most common ADR (19.23%). Organic nitrate were the most common group of drugs responsible for ADR (23.07%). Musculoskeletal disorder such as headache and fatigue reported to be the most common system involved (23.07%). 57.69% ADR belongs to Type A while 12.82% belongs to Type B. 46.15% of ADR found to be in Probable category. Severity assessment showed 37.29% of ADR in Moderate category. 48.71% of ADR resolved without treatment. Conclusion: It has provided base line information about the prevalence of ADRs and their distribution amongst different age groups, genders, organ systems affected and therapeutic classes of medicines.

CVS-1

Drug Utilization Pattern in Patients with Essential Hypertension at a Tertiary Care Centre in Eastern India


Sarkar Partha, Sengupta Mohua, Talukdar Arunangsu, Paul Suhrita, Banerjee Manasi

Department of Pharmacology, Medical College, Kolkata

Objectives: We observed the drug used as monotherapy as well as the pattern of polytherapy in treatment naive patients of essential hypertension attending outpatients department of medicine. We also see if JNC-8 guideline were followed or not while prescribing the antihypertensive drugs for patients with hypertension. Material and Methods: Prescriptions were collected from March 2014 to august 2014 of the patients of either sex and age group of 18 - 60 yrs who are newly diagnosed with essential hypertension according to JNC-8 guidelines and going to attend medicine OPD during the study period after fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Till now 230 prescriptions are audited. The prescriptions are analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: After analyzing the prescriptions (N = 230) for 6 months it is seen that recent guideline were not followed 58.59% encounters while prescribing the antihypertensive drugs. In 69.78% encounters patients were prescribed single antihypertensive drug and 29.56% encounters they were prescribed 2 or more antihypertensive drugs. Amlodipine is the most commonly prescribed drug, followed by enalapril. Conclusions: This interim analysis indicates that recent recommendations while prescribing the antihypertensive drugs were not followed properly. Although it is expected that along with the future time course awareness of the prescriber about recent guideline will provide a better treatment protocol for patients.

CVS-2

A Survey of Knowledge and Awareness in Patients of Hypertension and Survey of Information that Patient Receive from Physician for Hypertension in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Vikram Patil, Sangeeta Dabhade, P. T.Pandit, B. R. Daswani, B.B.ghongane

Department of Pharmacology, B.J.G.M.C and Sassoon General Hospital Pune, India

Objective: i) To assess level of knowledge and awareness in patients of hypertension regarding presenting features, risk factors, complications of hypertension. ii) To assess what information treating doctors provide to patients to control blood pressure and to avoid complications of hypertension. Methods: The survey was carried out among hypertensive patients attending cardiac Out Patient Department of a tertiary care hospital in Pune, by a validated questionnaire. Results: 1000 patients (49.7% male and 51.3% female) were included. Average age of patients was 69 years. 57.9% patients had good knowledge about hypertension. 37.1% patients had Average knowledge score while 5% had excellent knowledge score. Regarding the source of knowledge, 61% of patients got information from newspapers as compared to 34% patients who got it from doctors. Maximum information provided by doctors to patients was pertaining to cough as an adverse effect of therapy (32.2 %) and salt restricted diet as non-pharmacological treatment (70.3 %), but information regarding what symptoms they should consult the doctors for was passed on to only 24.6% of patients. Conclusion: About half the patients had adequate knowledge regarding their disorder but information provided to them by their physician was less than satisfactory. Doctors should give reliable information regarding medicines, follow ups visits and possible complications of hypertension.

CVS-3

Green Synthesis of Cerium Nanoparticles Using Centella asiatica, Their Characterization and Evaluation of Efficacy Against Cardiomyoblast Hypertrophy

Vandana Sankar, Salin Raj P, Athira Raj, Raghu K

Agro processing and Natural Products Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) - National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Thiruvananthapuram, India

Objectives: Conventional methods adopted for synthesizing metal nanoparticles require high-priced chemicals, highly sophisticated instruments, and are associated with non eco friendly approaches. Hence there is need for cost effective "green technologies" for metal nanoparticle synthesis. Cerium nanoparticles (CeNP) have been extensively used in industrial and biomedical applications, mainly due to its autocatalytic properties. There are reports on the use of CeNPs in the management of oxidative stress- related disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes etc. But their role in the management of cardiovascular diseases remains largely unexploited. Cardiac hypertrophy is a major cause of morbidity and oxidative stress has been stated to be its important mediator. In this backdrop, the objectives were to green synthesize CeNPs using Centella asiatica, characterize them, evaluate their antioxidant potential and efficacy in attenuating cardiomyoblast hypertrophy. Materials and Methods: CeNPs were 'green synthesized' using 1:5 volume ratio of C. asiatica aqueous extract and aqueous solution of cerium ammonium nitrate respectively. They were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, DLS, HRTEM, SEM and EDX. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and fluorometry were employed for studies on H9c2 cardiomyoblast uptake, superoxide and calcium levels. Results: Higher superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and cellular internalization were demonstrated for CeNPs when compared to macro counterparts. CeNPs attenuated isoproterenol- stimulated cardiomyoblast hypertrophy (60% decreases) as revealed from forward scatter data. Intracellular calcium overload was also diminished by CeNPs. Conclusion: The study describes for the first time, the attenuation of cardiomyoblast hypertrophy by green synthesized CeNPs, which may be linked to diminution of calcium overload and superoxide generation.

CVS-4

Comparative Study of Ubiquinone (CoQ10) and Krill Oil in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Seemant Saurabh, Alka Yadav, Ravi kant Tiwari, Anupam Sharma, Yogesh kumar Goyal, Anurag Jain

S.N.Medical College, Agra (UP), India

Objective: The present study was conducted to compare the effect of Ubiquinone and Krill oil in Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Material and Methods: The study was done on diagnosed patients of dilated cardiomyopathy. Patients were divided into three groups of 20 patients each. Group A comprise of 20 patients on conventional therapy only. Group B comprised of 20 patients on conventional therapy plusUbiquinone. Group C comprise of 20 patients on conventional therapy plus Krill oil. Krill oil was given in dose of 500mg OD for 12 months while CoQ10 was given in dose of 100mg OD for 12 months. Evaluation of subjects was done by measuring exercise tolerance as measured by 6 min. walking distance, Left ventricular function by echocardiography (MEF%) and clinical improvement in terms of NYHA classification. Result: Improvement was maximum in group B (CoQ10) while group C (Krill oil) shows considerable improvement. Conclusion: A definite and gradual improvement in functional status was observed in both the groups using Krill oil as well as Ubiquinone. There was improvement on 6MWD in all groups. Both the drugs are well tolerated with mild side effects; however cost of the drug is an issue which affects the compliance.

CVS-5

Effect of Nanocrystalline Solid Dispersion Formulation of Hesperetin in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy


Yogesh Bulani1, Kumar Sambhav1, Nadeem Akhtar1, Ganesh Shete2, Arvind K. Bansal2, Shyam Sunder Sharma1

1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2 Department of Pharmaceutics, NIPER, Mohali, Punjab, India

Objective: In the present study, nanocrystalline solid dispersion (NSD) formulation of hesperetin (HRN) was investigated in diabetes induced cardiomyopathy. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) i.p. single dose was used to induce diabetes in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. After six weeks of diabetes, rats were treated with NSD and HRN at 30 and 100 mg/kg body weight orally for two weeks. Cardiac functions such as heart rate (HR), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), rate of rise (+dP/dt) and rate of fall (-dP/dt) of left ventricular pressure were measured by in vivo hemodynamic measurements. Vascular parameters such as SBP and DBP were also measured. Cardiac fibrosis was quantified on Sirius red-stained sections. Stained. Cardiac structural derangement was examined by morphological examination with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results and Conclusion: Compared with diabetic group, HRN 100 treated group showed a significant protection against diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction indicated by increased absolute value of LVSP, HR and dp/dtmax. NSD 100 treatment reversed most of the histopathological alterations induced by diabetes. When HRN and NSD investigated for CVS safety pharmacological studies, both did not produce any significant change in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate.

CVS-6

Investigative Study of Trigonella Foenum Graecum as Anti-hyperlipidemic and Anti-atherosclerotic Agent

Ch.roja Rani 1 A. Seshgiri Rao 2

Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Maharajah's Institute of Medical Sciences, Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh.

Aim and Objectives: Aim of the present work is to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti- atherosclerotic activity of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) aqueous extracts. Materials and Methods: Trigonella foenum graecum is recommended for treatment of various systemic disorders in medicine. Present study involved our investigation into its efficacy in the treatment of rheumatism and obesity. Pharmacological investigations carried out have revealed marked cholesterol and triglyceride lowering, as well as anti-inflammatory activity is reported by us elsewhere, without any toxicity or undesirable side effects. The anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti- atherosclerotic activity was taken up in rabbits fed on a diet containg cholesterol and saturated fat (2% and 5% diet respectively). Four groups of rabbits, five in each group were employed and kept on a high lipid diet. Test drug (fenugreek extract) was fed and compared with controlled groups. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides level were monitored at different intervals. At the end, hematological and biochemical analysis and examination of different regions /organs of body were carried out. Results and Conclusion: 1. The present study has indicated no toxic effect in animals fed with Trigonella Foenum Graecum extracts. 2. Hematological and Biochemical analysis have revealed good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-atherosclerotic activity in the experimental animals.3. Different regions /organs of body in animals fed with Trigonella foenum graecum extracts have shown no degenerative changes.

END-1

Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Glycaemic Status of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients


Abheek Das 1 , Jyotirmoyee Jena 2 , Dayanidhi Meher 3 , Manjushree Mohanty 4

Department of Pharmacology, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Objectives: The major function of vitamin D3 is to maintain calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and to maintain bone mineralization. Recently extraskeletal effect of vitamin D has attracted considerable interest. Vitamin D may affect glucose homeostasis and prevent development as well as progression of type2 diabetes. The aim of study is to compare the level of fasting and potprandial blood glucose (FBG, PPBG), glycosylated haemoglobin ( HbA1c) in a selected group of type 2 diabetic patients at a specific time interval after supplementing with vitamin D3. Materials and Methods: 60 Patients having vitamin-D3 deficiency, age between 30yr-60yr, fasting blood glucose between 130mg%- 200mg%, taking oral antidiabetic drug were recruited from endocrinology out patient department (OPD) of KIMS Bhubaneswar. They were randomly divided into two groups 30 in each group. One group was administeredoral vitamin D3 tablet along with oral antidiabetic drug. Other group was administered only oral antidiabetic treatment. Patients were followed up after 6 month. FBG, PPBG, HbA1c measured initially and after 6 months. Results: Mean values of FBG, PPBG , HbA1c at 6 month in between two groups were compared by unpaired t- test and significant difference was obtained between two groups. Conclusion: The result of present study revealed vitamin D3 has beneficial role in control of glycaemic status of type 2 diabetic patients.

END-2

Pharmacological Inhibition of NF-
κB Ameliorated Learning and Memory Deficits in Type-2 Diabetic Rats

Ashok Kumar Datusalia, Pragyanshu Khare, Shyam Sunder Sharma

Molecular Neuropharmacology Lab, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, S. A. S. Nagar (Punjab), India

Objective: The present was aimed to investigate the effects of pharmacological intervention targeting NF-κB in diabetes-induced cognitive deficits. Materials and Methods: T2D was induced by high fat diet for two week followed by streptozotocin administration (35 mg/kg, i.p.) in SD rats. Animals were assessed for behavioral changes on 3 rd , 6 th , 9 th , 12 th , 15 th and 18 th weeks after diabetes. P arthenolide w as used as pharmacological tool for inhibition of NF-κB. W e have evaluated the effects of parthenolide on memory functions, neurotransmitter levels changes and neuroinflammation in type-2 diabetic rats. Results : Parthenolide showed increase in Morris water maze test learning and memory performance on three weeks treatment starting from 15 th week after induction of diabetes. Diabetic animals showed improved performance in passive avoidance, Y maze and elevated plus maze test paradigm following treatment with NF-κB inhibitor. Our parallel biochemical experiments revealed parthenolide treatments did not show any significant effect on blood glucose and insulin level. NF-κB inhibition significantly reduced neuroinflammation as evidenced by decrease in IL-6 and TNF-α level. Moreover, parthenolide also reversed the alterations in brain glutamate and GABA levels in diabetic rats. Conclusion: These findings corroborate that NF-κB inhibition may be effective treatment strategy in diabetes associated cognitive deficits.

END-3

Comparative Evaluation of Sitagliptin either alone or in combination with Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital at Dehradun, Uttarakhand

Anjoom M, Dutta SB, Beg MA, Varma A, Bawa S

Department of Pharmacology, SGRRIM and HS, Patel Nagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand

Objectives:
Sitagliptin, an oral and selective DPP-4 inhibitor represents a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Metformin is the most commonly used oral antihyperglycemic agent. We have compared sitagliptin either alone or in combination with metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: The study was conducted by Pharmacology Department in Medicine OPD for one year. A total of 60 T2DM patients were divided into 2 groups:Group I (n=30) were put on Sitagliptin100mg and Group II (n=30) were put on Metformin500mg+Sitagliptin50mg. Patients were stabilized for 2 weeks and followed up every 6 weeks for 24 weeks. Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS)and Post Prandial Blood Sugar (PPBS) was done at every follow up. HbA1c profile done at 0 and24 weeks. Analysis was done by t test. p 0 <0.05 was significant. Results: FBS in group I and group II at 0 and 24 weeks was166.60±1.20 mg/dl and 136.90±1.25 mg/dl (p<0.001) and167.30±5.69 and 125.16±2.48 mg/dl (p<0.001), respectively. PPBS in group I and II at 0 and 24 weeks was 211.83±3.35mg/dl and 164.43±2.34mg/dl (p<0.001) and 214.53±5.64 and 156.93±2.10 (p<0.001) respectively. HbA1c in group I at 0 and 24 weeks was 8.91±0.11 and 7.93±0.10% (p<0.001) and 8.97±0.13 and 7.09±0.13% (p<0.001). At 24 weeks intergroup comparison in FBS (p<0.001), PPBS (p<0.001) and HbA1c (p<0.001) was done. Most common adverse drug reactions were abdominal discomfort, upper respiratory tract infections and nausea/vomiting. Conclusion: Both groups showed significant improvement in FBS, PPBS and HbA1c at the end of study period. Intergroup comparison showed more significant improvement in the group where Sitaglipitn was added.

END-4

Comparative Study of Evening Versus Morning Intake of Levothyroxine on Serum TSH and Free T 4 in Patients of Hypothyroidism


Hossain Sajjad 1 , Banerjee Manasi 1 , Maiti Animesh 2 , Paul Suhrita 1

1 Department of Pharmacology, Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, 2 Department of Endocrinology, Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Objectives: To compare thyroid profile (serum TSH and fT 4 ) between patients taking evening dose of levothyroxine with patients taking morning dose. Methods: Out of 168 drug naive hypothyroid patients screened for this study, 130 were recruited after randomization into evening (Group A, n=65) and morning (Group B n=65) dosing group. Thyroid profile and lipid profile were evaluated at baseline, 12 week and at 24 weeks. Dose adjustment of levothyroxine was kept on 8 weekly basis based on serum TSH level. Result: 13 patients were lost during follow up (6 from group A and 7 from group B). 2 patients (from group A) conceived during the study period. 115 patients had completed the study. At the end of 24 weeks, 56 (96.55%) patients in Group A and 54 (94.74%) in Group B achieved euthyroidism. On intergroup comparison, no significant difference in thyroid profile was seen at 12 and 24 weeks between the evening and the morning dosing group. Similar dose of levothyroxine (μg/Kg) was required to achieve euthyroidism in either group. Though an early restoration of euthyroidism was seen in evening group in 12 weeks, the difference when compared to the morning group was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Evening dose was found to be as efficacious as morning dose, at least in terms of TSH reduction, in patients of hypothyroidism. So evening dose may be considered as an alternate dosing regimen in hypothyroidism.

END-5

The Effect of Pioglitazone on Nerve Conduction Velocity of the Median Nerve in the Carpal Tunnel in Type-2 Diabetes Patients


Sourav Das Choudhury*, Sudip Chatterjee, Debmalya Sanyal, Suraj Chakraborti, Arabinda Mukherjee

*Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Researchand SSKM Hospital, 244 AJC Bose Road, Kolkata, India.

E-Mail: varuosdc@gmail.com


Objectives: Pioglitazone has been shown to convert pre-adipocytes to adipocytes, and could possibly cause delay in nerve conduction of median nerve in the carpal tunnel, as the latter contains small amounts of adipose tissue. To test this hypothesis we measured terminal latency and amplitude of motor and sensory components of left median nerve spanning the wrist and covering carpel tunnel. Methods: The study was conducted in diabetic patients, controlled with oral agents, who were assigned to either pioglitazone or non-pioglitazone group (14 in each group), and underwent electrophysiological testing by Nerve Conduction Velocity at baseline and 3 months. Results: At 3 months, Pioglitazone-group had poorer amplitude in the sensory median nerve.(8.5 (IQR=6.5 to 11.5) vs non-Pioglitazone 14.5 (IQR 10.5 to 18.75). (p=0.002) The non-Pioglitazone group showed improvement in amplitude in the sensory median nerve{Baseline 13 (IQR=9 to 16.25) vs 3 months 8.5 (IQR=6.5 to 11.5)}(p=0.01) and amplitude in motor median nerve{Baseline 9 (IQR=4.75 to 11) vs 3 months 6.75 (IQR=4.75 to 10.25)}(P=0.049); and worsening of terminal latency of in motor ulnar nerve (Baseline 2.07 (IQR=1.92 to 2.25) vs 3 months 2.16 (IQR=1.97 to 2.325). (p=0.043) There was improvement of terminal latency in sensory ulnar nerve (Baseline 2.45 (IQR=2.315 to 2.88) vs 3 months 2.37 (IQR=2.275 to 2.445) for Pioglitazone group.(p=0.038). Conclusions: Pioglitazone pharmacotherapy confers higher risk of compressive neuropathy. The ulnar nerve showed better electrophysiological parameters in pioglitazone group, although the glycemic control was similar to those not on pioglitazone. Pioglitazone has beneficial effect on nerve electrophysiology which was nullified when the nerve was exposed to compressive neuropathy.

END-6

To Observe the Effect of Oral-Insulin-Formulation on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits

Karunanidhi R, Singh Ekta, Sar T.K., Mandal T.K., Chakraborty A.K.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Objective: To observe the effect of oral-insulin-formulation on alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Methods: Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate at 80 mg/kg in ice cold sterile saline solution as 10% via marginal ear vein over 5 minute to healthy albino rabbits (Oryctogalus cuniculus) of either sex. Plasma glucose levels were monitored at regular intervals and diabetes was confirmed on third day of alloxan administration. The rabbits which showed consistent hyperglycaemia were considered for the experimental group. The animals of the experimental group were gavazed with oral-insulin formulation (500 mg/kg [20 IU insulin] dissolved in distilled water). Blood samples were taken on 0,3,9,16,23,30 days of study period and then various biochemical tests were performed. Tissue was collected and various biochemical parameters were also estimated. Results: Mean values with SE of plasma glucose level of experimental group of rabbits following alloxan administration on day 0,3 and 9 were 96.47±2.53, 272.87±14.28 and 270.06±16.7 mg/dl. After 3 month of alloxan administration, the plasma glucose level increased from 89.9 mg/dl to 404.0 mg/dl. Mean plasma glucose level with SE of diabetic rabbit after administration of oral-insulin-formulation on 16,23,30 days were 232.82±20.10, 206.29±12.08, 193.52±12.69 mg/dl repectively. Plasma glucose levels on 16,23,30 days of post-administration of oral insulin formulation were reduced from the diabetic values, but only the plasma glucose levels on 23 and 30 days were found to be significantly (p<0.05) reduced from that from pre administration diabetic glucose values. Conclusion: It may be concluded that oral-insulin-formulation is not predictable.

END-7

Evaluation of Anti-Diabetic Activity of Commercially Available Extract of Tinospora Cordifolia in Streptozocin Induced-Diabetic Rats


Pathak N, Dwivedi M, Choudhary P, Singh S, Chaurasia RC

Department of Pharmacology, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, India

Objective: To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of commercially available extract of Tinospora cordifolia in streptozocin induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 30 albino rats of either sex weighing between 100-150 gms. All animals were fed on high fat diet for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks fasting blood glucose levels were taken and all the rats taking high fat diet were injected intra-peritonially with 35 mg/kg of streptozocin in citrate buffer. Blood glucose was estimated in all rats after 1 week high fat diet. Rats having blood glucose >200 mg/dl were considered diabetic and included in further study. They were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1: diabetic control (distilled water). Group 2: diabetic rats receiving T C extract (200 mg/kg/day). Group 3: diabetic rats receiving T C extract (400 mg/kg/day). Group 4: diabetic rats receiving Glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg/day). All the rats received respective drugs for further 6 weeks. Blood glucose estimation was done by Glucose-Oxidase method every 2 weeks. Results: In both low as well as high dose groups, Tinospora cordifolia showed significant reduction (P <0.01) in plasma glucose levels from fourth week onwards. Conclusion: Commercially available extract of Tinospora Cordifolia have significant anti-diabetic activity in streptozocin induced diabetic rats.

END-8

Bioavailability of Trigonella Foenum Graecum in Diabetics

Ch. Roja Rani 1 , A.seshagiri Rao 2

Department of Anatomy, Maharajah's Institute of Medical Sciences, Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh, India

Aim and objectives: The present study is to compare the Bioavailability of Trigonella Foenum Graecum between experimental animals Alloxan induced animals with Diabetic complications and a normal group. Materials and Methods: Trigonella Foenum Graecum (Fenugreek) extracts was prepared as per the standard procedure in similar experimental studies. We have extracted 5gm of dried seeds into 10 ml fine extract and used it for the present study. Male Albino rats suffering from induced Diabetic Nephropathy, Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Neuropathy have been chosen for the study. Trigonella Foenum Graecum extract is administered to type 1 and type 2 hyperglycemic albino rats in varying doses. Parallelly Alloxan induced Diabetic complications animal not administered with any anti-diabetic drug have been used as reference. Plasma glucose concentration in the test groups was compared with the reference group. Results and Conclusion: Plasma glucose concentration in the animals fed with Trigonella Foenum Graecum extract has shown considerable lower levels in comparison to reference group. Result will be fully discussed with statistical tools.

GIT-1

Gastric Ulcer Healing Effect of Extract of Mangifera Indica (Seed Kernel)

Ankita Sharma, I Chauhan, Mk Gautam, M Gangwar, A Singh and RK Goel

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

Objective:
To study gastric ulcer healing effect of 50% ethanolic extract of M. indica seed kernel (MIE) in rats. Material and Methods: MIE (200 mg/kg), suspended in 0.5% CMC, was administered orally once daily to C-F rats (150-200 g) either before induction of acute gastric ulcers (GU) or after induction of chronic GU for 10 days. Acute GU were produced by physical [4 hr pylorus ligation (PL) and 4-6 0 C cold restraint stress (CRS)] and chemical [aspirin (ASP), 200 mg/kg, 4 hr and 95% ethanol (EtOH) 1 ml/200g, 1hr] while chronic GU was produced by 100% acetic acid (AA, 0.06 ml, 60 sec) (n=6). Ulcer index (UI), gastric juice volume, offensive acid-pepsin (concentration and output) and defensive mucin secretion and mucosal glycoproteins (TC:P ratio where TC is sum of total hexoses, hexosamine, Fucose and sialic acid versus protein, P), antioxidants (SOD and GSH) and free radicals (LPO and NO) were estimated. The results were compared with antisecretory drug, omeprazole (OMZ). Results: MIE showed significant decrease in UI in all the GU models (49.8 to 77.3%, P 0 <0.05 to P<0.001) and decrease in volume and acid-pepsin (29.3 to 40.0%, P 0 <0.05 to P<0.01) and increase in mucin secretion (54.3%, P 0 <0.05) and mucosal glycoprotein (42.4%, P 0 <0.05) in PL rats compared with control group. CRS rats showed increase in LPO and NO (81.6 to 84.4%, P 0 <0.01 to P<0.001) and SOD (25.5%, P<0.01) and decrease in GSH (30.5%, P<0.001). MIE caused decrease in free radicals (87.9 to 114.5%, P<0.001) and SOD (18.4%, P<0.01) and increase in GSH (36.9%, P<0.01) compared with CRS rats. MIE showed similar effects like OMZ on the above parameters. Conclusion: M. indica seed kernel extract seemed to promote ulcer protection and healing by decreasing acid-pepsin secretion and mucosal LPO and NO and enhancing mucin secretion and mucosal glycoproteins and GSH.

GIT-2

Gastric Cytoprotective Effect of Extract of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)
Peel

I Chauhan, Ankita Sharma, MK Gautam, M Gangwar, A Singh and RK Goel

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. India

E-mail: Indal.smc@Gmail.com


Objective: To study gastric ulcer healing effects of 50% ethanolic extract of Punica granatum peel (PGE) in rats. Material and Methods: PGE (100 mg/kg), suspended in 0.5% CMC, was administered orally once daily to C-F rats (150-200 g) either before induction of acute gastric ulcers (GU) or after induction of chronic GU for 10 days. Acute GU were produced by physical [4 hr pylorus ligation (PL) and 2 hr 4-6 0 C cold restraint stress (CRS)] and chemical [aspirin (ASP), 200 mg/kg, 4 hr and 95% ethanol (EtOH) 1 ml/200g, 1hr] while chronic GU was produced by 100% acetic acid (AA, 0.06 ml, 60 sec) (n=6). Ulcer index (UI), gastric juice volume, offensive acid-pepsin (concentration and output) and defensive mucin secretion and mucosal glycoproteins (TC:P ratio, where TC is sum of total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid verses protein, P), antioxidants (SOD and GSH) and free radicals (LPO and NO) were estimated. The results were compared with antisecretory drug, omeprazole (OMZ). Results: PGE showed significant decrease in UI in all the GU models (45.6 to 79.4%, P 0 <0.05 to P<0.001). PGE showed little or no change in volume and acid-pepsin (-15.2 to 10.0%) secretion but increased both mucin secretion (57.1%, P<0.05) and mucosal glycoprotein (35.7%, P<0.05) in PL rats compared with control group. CRS rats showed increase in LPO and NO (81.6 to 84.4%, P 0 <0.01 to P<0.001) and SOD (25.5%, P<0.01) but decrease in GSH (30.5%, P<0.001) compared with unstressed rats. PGE caused decrease in free radicals (115.3 to 116.1%, P<0.001) and SOD (16.5%, P<0.01) and increase in GSH (31.8%, P<0.001) compared with CRS rats. Conclusion: P. granatum peels extract seemed to promote ulcer cytoprotection by enhancing mucin secretion and mucosal glycoproteins and reducing oxidative stress.

GIT-3

Anti-Gastric Ulcer Activity of Aqueous Extract of Mentha Arvensis in Experimental Animal Models

Prasad.V.N, Asthomi J, Vikneswaran.G, Subhalakshmi.A

Department of Pharmacology, RIMS, Imphal

Objective: To evaluate anti- gastric ulcer activity of aqueous extract of Mentha Arvensis (AEMA) in albino rats by: a.) Swimming stress ulcer model, b.) Acetic acid induced ulcer model. Materials and Methods: A.) Animals were divided into 5 groups of 6 animals each Group1 (control), Group 2(standard), Group 3, 4 and 5 (AEMA 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg). 30 min after drug administration, animals were forced to swim. After 3hrs they were sacrificed, stomach removed. Ulcer index was determined. B.) Similar 5 groups of animals were used again. 0.05 ml of acetic acid was injected into sub mucosal layer of stomach and withdrawn subsequently. Animals were administered test drugs with vehicle orally twice daily for 15 days. Ulcer index was determined. Results: The ulcer index from the 2 different models was calculated. Results were analysed by one way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's t test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The test drugs in increasing dose produced a significant reduction in ulcer index when compared to control in both the experimental animal models. Conclusion: Present study showed that aqueous extract of Mentha Arvensis has anti-gastric ulcer activity.

GIT-4

Protective Effects of Asiaticoside on 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid induced Experimental Colitis in Rats

Prasad Thakurdesai 1 , Vishwaraman Mohan 1 , Anuchandra Rajmane 2 , Amit Kandhare 2 , Subhash Bodhankar 2

1 Department of Scientific affairs, Indus Biotech Private Limited, 1, Rahul Residency, off Salunke Vihar Road, Kondhwa, Pune, India, 2 Department of Pharmacology, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Erandwane, Pune, India

Objective: To investigate the efficacy of asiaticoside (AS), a major triterpenoid of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban leaves, against trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced experimental colitis in rats. Methods: The Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of 6 each. Group 1 (G1) was maintained as normal (vehicle control) without TNBS-colitis induction. In remaining six groups, colitis was induced by single intrarectal administration of 0.5 ml of TNBS solution (25 mg dissolved in 0.25 ml of 50% ethanol) in the rat using a catheter and treated orally (twice a day for 14 days) as follows: G2: TNBS control (with vehicle); G3: sulfasalazine (350 mg/kg), G4: AS (1 mg/kg) , G5: AS (3 mg/kg), G6: AS (10 mg/kg) and G7 (30 mg/kg). The morphological parameters (body weight, stool consistency, and rectal bleeding) were measured at baseline and on every alternate day. On day 14, rats were sacrificed, colons were separated and macroscopic, biochemical, molecular, and histological parameters were assessed ex-vivo. Results : Subacute treatment of AS showed significant protection from TNBS-induced colitis with respect to morphological (body weight loss, stool consistency, rectal bleeding, colon weight), macroscopic (scores of colon damage and ulcer index), biochemical (oxidative stress related enzymes, mitochondrial damage, myeloperoxidase, hydroxyproline), molecular (mRNA expression of smad2, smad4, smad7, IL-1β , IL-6 and TNF-α) and histological changes in dose-dependent manner as compared to TNBS control group. Conclusions : Subacute oral administration asiaticoside demonstrated significant protective effect against TNBS induced experimental colitis in rats probably via multiple mechanisms.

GIT-5

Role of VEGF and Cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) in Healing Effects of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Aegle marmelos Extracts on TNBS-induced Colitis in Rats


Rk Goel, Mk Gautam, M Gangwar, I Chauhan, Ankita Sharma, A Singh

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

Objectives: Earlier we have reported the role of antioxidants and free radical scavenging actions in the healing effects of 50% ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Azadirachta indica (AIE) and Ocimum sanctum (OSE) and fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos (AME) in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. The present work assesses the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) in TNBS-induced colitis in CF rats. Materials and Methods: Colitis was produced in rats by intracolonic administration of TNBS (40 mg/0.4 ml of 40% ethanol/rat). AIE, OSE and AME (500, 400 and 200 mg/kg respectively) and sulfasalazine (SS, 100 mg/kg) were orally administered to rats for 14 days after induction of colitis with TNBS while, TNBS-untreated rats received NS orally and intrarectally. AIE, OSE and AME were studied for their effects on colonic damage score, weight and adhesions, histology and estimation of VEGF and TNF-α and IL-1β in colonic mucosal homogenates by ELISA methods. Results: TNBS treatment led to significant increase in colonic damage score, adhesions and weight and histology showed deformed cryptae, loss of goblets cells, lymphocytic infiltration and sub-mucosal oedema in the rat colon. AIE, OSE and AME showed decrease in colonic damage score, weight and adhesions and improvement in the structures with decreased lymphocytic infiltration. TNBS showed increase in TNF-α and IL-1β without any change in VEGF levels while, the treatments with the above extracts in TNBS-induced colitis rats showed decrease in TNF-α and IL-1β and increase in VEGF levels. The result was comparable with that of SS treatment. Conclusion: Leaves of Azadirachta indica and Ocimum sanctum and fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos possessed significant healing effects in TNBS-induced colitis which may be due to their enhanced effects on VEGF (enhanced) and cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β (inhibitory).

GIT-6

Drug Prescribing Pattern in Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases used as a Teaching Methodology for Rational Therapy for MBBS Students in a Medical College at Dehradun, Uttarakhand

Dutta SB, Beg MA, Bawa S, Vishal S

Department of Pharmacology, SGRRIM&HS, Dehradun, India

Objectives: There is a need to introduce clinical pharmacology at undergraduate level in order to improve rational prescribing of medicines. The study was directed with the aim of evaluating drugs prescribing pattern in Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases in order to teach basic prescription skills to MBBS students which will form an integral component of practicing rational therapeutics. Material and Methods: A retrospective drug utilization study was conducted in Gastro-intestinal patients by Department of Pharmacology at SGRRIMandHS, Dehradun. 205 prescriptions for patients with Gastrointestinal Tract diseases were collected by 2nd Professional MBBS students at beginning of 5th semester and randomly evaluated for prescribing pattern using WHO drug indicators. Results: A total of 205 prescriptions were analysed. Male:Fem ale ratio was 1:0.6. Age-wise distribution was: 0-15 years:24(11.70%), 16-30 years:51(24.88%), 31-45 years:72(35.12%), 46-60 years:38(18.54%) and >60 years:20(9.76%). A total of 1105 drugs were prescribed out of which 606(54.84%) were oral, 492(44.52%) injectable, 4(0.36%) topical and 3(0.27%) were inhalational. 343(31.04%) antibiotics, 199(18.00%) antacids, 116(10.50%) hepatoprotective, 105(9.5%) antiemetics, 94(8.50%) analgesics, 90(8.14%) multivitamins, 36(3.25%) laxatives, 14(1.27%) antispasmodics and 168(15.20%) miscellaneous drugs were prescribed. 679(61.45%) drugs were prescribed from National Essential Medicine List (NEML). Majority of the drugs were prescribed by their brand names. 5.39 drugs were prescribed per prescription. Conclusion: Majority of the prescriptions were prescribed from NEML. It is only by drug utilization studies, burden of diseases and corresponding utilization of drugs can be measured. Such studies impart clinical pharmacology knowledge to MBBS students and develop adequate skills in rational prescribing.

IND-1

Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of the Ethanolic Extract of the Leaves of Mimosa Pudica Linn. in Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Injury in Albino Rats

Ayan Purkayastha, Pinaki Chakravarty,

Department of Pharmacology, Silchar Medical College and Hospital

Objectives: i) To assess the hepatoprotective activity of the extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury in albino rats. ii) To assess if there is any synergistic action if Silymarin and ethanolic extract of leaves of Mimosa pudica Linn. are coadministered simultaneously. Methodology: The animals woud be divided into five groups of six animals each. Group A: liquid paraffin only. Group B: CCl 4 + liquid paraffin. Group C: Silymarin + CCl 4 + liquid paraffin. Group D: Mimosa + CCl 4 + Liquid Paraffin. Group E: Mimosa+Silymarin+CCl 4 +Liquid paraffin. Blood samples were collected and biochemical tests like Serum Bilirubin, AST, ALT, ALP, Total Cholesterol were done and liver samples were sent for histopathological examination for assessment of hepatoprotective activity. Results: Statistical analysis of data revealed that ethanolic extract of leaves of Mimosa pudica significantly reduced (P<0.01) serum levels of Total Bilirubin, AST, ALT, ALP, Total Cholesterol levels in carbon tetrachloride treated albino rats. Liver histopathology also showed favourable hepatoprotective findings. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of leaves of Mimosa pudica Linn. possess significant hepatoprotective activity however there was no significant synergistic action.

IND-2

Antidiabetic Activity of Polysaccharide Fraction of Vitex negundo Linn. in High Fat Diet and Lipopolysaccharide Induced Diabetic Rats

Dhwani T. Dave, Mehul R. Chorawala, Gaurang B. Shah; K.B.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India

Aim: To study the effect of polysaccharide fraction of Vitex negundo in high fat diet and lipopolysaccharide induced T2DM in rats. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with HFD for 10 weeks and concomitantly injected with LPS (10μg/rat, s.c., weekly) during dietary manipulation to induce T2DM and insulin resistance. Day 70 of dietary period was considered as day 0 for treatment study. Different doses of polysaccharide fraction of Vitex negundo (10mg/Kg, 30mg/Kg and 100 mg/kg) were administered for 21 days. Various parameters such as % change in body weight, food intake, water intake, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), plasma total cholesterol (TC), plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were measured in addition to OGTT. Results: LPS and HFD exposure in rats for 10 weeks produced hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and glucose intolerance, a condition similar to T2DM in humans. Treatment with different doses of polysaccharide fraction of Vitex negundo, reduced FPG, TC, TG, and glucose intolerance, indicating its anti-hyperglycemic activity. Conclusion: Obtained results suggest that polysaccharide fraction of Vitex negundo has significant antidiabetic activity which may be beneficial in T2DM.

IND-3

Uricosuric property of Phyllanthus acidus in albino rats

Borah A, Devi D

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: To evaluate the uricosuric properties of Phyllanthus acidus in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted after obtaining approval from the institutional animal ethics committee. The ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus acidus was employed as the test drug in doss 100 mg/kg,200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. All the experiments were carried out in albino rats. Potassium oxonate induced hyperuricaemia model was employed in this study. Potaasium oxonate inhibits the enzyme uricase in rats and administration of urate along with it therefore causes an increase in the blood uric acid levels producing hyperuricaemia. The animals were divided into six groups containing six animals each for each of the properties. Group I was the normal control group that received normal saline, Group II was the Hyperuricaemic control group, Group III was the uricosuric standard group, Group IV received the test drug in the dose of 100 mg/kg, Group V received the test drug in the dose of 200 mg/kg and Group VI received the test drug in the dose of 400 mg/kg. The uricosuric effect was compared with probenecid. The duration of the study was 4 days. Serum uric acid and urine uric acid levels were measured. Results: The uric acid levels in serum and urine of all the groups were analysed using ANOVA followed by Dunett's test. Administration of ethanolic extract of phyllanthus acidus leaves caused significant reduction in serum uric acid levels by causing excretion of uric acid in urine. Conclusion: The leaves of Phyllanthus acidus possess significant uricosuric effect in potassium oxonate induced hyperuricaemia in albino rats. This is however inferior to the standard uricosuric drug probenecid.

IND-4

Evaluation of anti-diabetic potential of ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata linn. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

Dutta Arijit, Lahkar Mangala, Handique Chimi

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objectives: To evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata Linn. in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : The rats were divided into 6 groups with 6 animals in each group. The normal control group received Normal saline p.o. All the other 5 groups were induced with diabetes and fed on Normal saline, Glibenclamide and ethanolic extract of Oxalis Corniculata at doses of 200 , 400 and 600 mg/kg/day. Streptozotocin injection was given i.p. in a single dose of 50 mg/kg body wt. The blood glucose levels were evaluated on Day 0 in all the rats prior to administration of Streptozotocin. On Day 3 the blood glucose levels were evaluated and the rats with blood glucose level >250 mg/dl were considered as diabetic and taken up for the study. Blood samples were drawn from tail tip of rat during the study. Fasting blood glucose estimation were done on Day 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 of the study. For the estimation of blood glucose level Accu-Chek Active glucometer was used and the blood glucose levels were expressed in mg/dl. Results: The study shows a gradual decrease in blood glucose levels with increase in dose and with increased period of exposure to the extract. However the extract at both the doses were not able to decrease the blood glucose level in diabetic rats to the extent of Glibenclamide, the standard drug. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiabetic potential of ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata.

IND-5

Evaluation of anti-convulsant potential of ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata in experimental animals


Dutta Arijit, Lahkar Mangala, Handique Chimi

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-convulsant potential of ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata. Materials and Methods: The anticonvulsant activity was tested by Maximum Electroshock Seizure and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model. The mice were divided into 5 groups each consisting of 6mice. The groups received 10 ml/kg of normal saline, phenytoin 25 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata p.o. respectively. One hour after administration of the test extracts the animals were subjected to maximal electroshock seizure (MES) by electro-convulsiometer with a current of 36 mA for 0.2 seconds via a pair of transauricular electrodes. Parameters measured were- a) duration of hind limb tonic extension (HLTE) b) total recovery time c) Percentage protection. In the PTZ model the mice were again divided into 5 groups with 6 mice in each group. All the groups received PTZ i.p. at a dose of 80 mg/kg. Parameters measured were (a) onset of clonus, (b) duration of convulsion (c) % reduction of clonic convulsion (d) % mortality. Results: Ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata showed significant dose dependent decrease in HLTE and total recovery time. The percentage protection was maximum with the phenytoin treated group followed by the extract doses from maximum to minimum. The PTZ model demonstrated dose dependent delay in the onset of clonus, decrease in duration of convulsion and % mortality and increase in % reduction of clonic convulsion. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study substantiate the anticonvulsant effect of ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata.

IND-6

Study of the Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidative Activity of Solanum torvum SW. in Rabbits Receiving High Fat Diet


Disha Gupta1, Kalpana Gohain2

1
Postgraduate student, Department of Pharmacology, Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh, Assam, 2 Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh, Assam, India

Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the possible antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative effects of the ethanolic extract of Solanum torvum SW. leaves in diet induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits. Materials and Methods : Twenty rabbits of either sex were taken and divided into four groups of five each as-Normal control - received normal diet, Experimental control - received high fat diet, Standard drug group - received high fat diet plus Atorvastatin 2.1 mg/kg/day orally and Test drug group - received high fat diet plus ethanolic extract of Solanum torvum leaves for 12 weeks after which blood samples were collected and lipid profile, catalase and malondialdehyde estimations were done. Weights of the animals were also estimated before and after the study. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. Values with p<0.05 were considered significant. Results: Solanum torvum significantly prevented the increase in the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL while significantly increasing the levels of HDL. It also significantly increased catalase and decreased malondialdehyde levels. A reduction in the weight of the animals was also seen. Conclusion: Solanum torvum has significant antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative properties making it a potential for a new hypolipidemic drug development.

IND-7

To Study the Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Ethanolic Extract of the Leaves of Solanum Torvum Sw. in Albino Mice

Pranab Kumar Paul, Kalpana Gohain.

Departmentof Pharmacology, Assam Medical College and Hospital Dibrugarh. Assam

Objectives: To Study the sedative and hypnotic property of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Solanum Torvum Sw. in albino mice. Materials and Methods: All the animals were divided into five groups (n=5). The first group received distilled water 10 ml/kg, second, third and fourth group received three doses of the extract i.e. 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg orally respectively and fifth group the standard dose of diazepam 3 mg/kg and was observed in the rota rod apparatus, open field apparatus and hole board apparatus for sedative activity. For evaluating the hypnotic activity the animals were dived into five groups (n=5);first group received distilled water10 ml/kg, second, third and fourth group received three doses of the extract i.e. 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg orally respectively and fifth group the standard dose of diazepam 2 mg/kg after that phenobarbitone sodium was injected intraperitoneally at the dose of 35 mg/kg and the onset of sleep and duration of sleep was noted. All the observations were statistically analysed with ANOVA one way and Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. Results: On evaluating the sedative activity in the rota rod apparatus, hole board apparatus and open field apparatus it was seen that the Ethanolic extract of Solanum torvum sw. showed significant results (p< 0.05). On evaluating the hypnotic activity the ethanolic extract of Solanum torvum sw. showed to increase the duration of sleep which was statistically significant but did not decrease the onset of sleep. Conclusion: It can thus be concluded that the ethanolic extract of Solanum torvum sw. showed sedative and hypnotic activity.

IND-8

Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking studies for discovery of potent drug candidates among compounds of Adhatoda vasica against Bronchial Asthma

Rigom Pegu 1, Bishnu Prasad Sarma1, Rupali Borua1, Subrata Sinha2*, Surabhi Johari2 , Arabinda Ghosh3

1
Govt, Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Jalukbari, Guwahati, Assam, 2 Center for Bioinformatics Studies, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam, 3 Department of Bio Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: Bronchial Asthma is a syndrome characterized by airflow obstruction with reduced airflow, symptomatic wheezing and dyspnea. Asthma is a multi factorial disease for which many genes are responsible. Ayurveda has mentioned in various Samhitas, that Adhatoda vasica can be used in the treatment of Asthma. However, the role of its compounds at the molecular level is yet to be known. In this study, an attempt has been made on in silico molecular studies for discovery of naturally derived from Adhatoda vasica as potent drug candidates for Bronchial Asthma. Methodology: Target protein of Bronchial Asthma was identified using KEGG Pathway Database for Asthma and cross validated using PDTD. The 3D structure files of the identified target protein were retrieved from RCSB-PDB Server. Compounds of Adhatoda vasica retrieved from Knapsack Family DB and toxicity was assessed using OSIRIS Property Explorer and Biological Activity assessed using Schrodinger QuickProp utility. Finally molecular docking was carried out between identified target protein and the screened ligands using Autodock Vina. Results: Out of 12 phytochemicals of Adhotada vasica, 8 phytochemicals viz. Vasicolinone, Vasicoline, Vasicol, Vasicinolone, Vasicinone, Vasicinol, Peganine, Deoxyvasicinon passed the virtual screening phase. Molecular docking studies of 8 compounds with target protein of Asthma (IL3, IL4, IL5, IL13, TNF-α and EOTAXIN) showed vasicinolone binds with IL-5 with the minimum binding affinity of -7.7 kcal/mol. Conclusion: The in-silico methods adopted in the present study helped to identify that vasicinolone can be used as a potent drug candidate for Asthma.

IND-9

Potential Role of PinusRoxburghii and BombaxCeiba in Bone Remodelling in Surgical Ovariactomy induced Osteoporosis in Rats

Aditi Sharma, Rohit Goyal*, Shashi Chauhan, Shoumyo Bhattacharya

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan, HP, India

Objective: The study was designed to investigate potential pharmacological effect of Pinusroxburghiiand Bombaxceiba on surgically induced Osteoporosis. Methods: Female Wistaralbino rats (220-260g) wereemployed and the ovaries were surgically removed bilaterallyin anaesthesia which causes post-menopausal syndrome in all the groups except sham operated rats. Extracts of Pinusroxburghii stem and Bombaxceiba stem at 100and200 mg/kg, p.o.for 4 weeks were given. Tamoxifen 1 mg/kg, p.o.was used as standard. The pharmacological assessments, biomechanical: three point bending of tibia, femoral neck load testing, compression of fourth lumbar vertebra; biochemical: alkaline phosphatase, calcium, inorganic phosphorus; and histopathologicalparameterswere determined. Acute toxicity as per OECD guidelines for safety assessments and phytochemical screening were done. Results: Surgical ovariectomy to female rats caused significant decrease in bone density, bone strength, alkaline phosphatase, serum calcium, serum phosphorous and increase in urine hydroxylproline levels, as compared to OVX control rats characterizing Osteoporosis. Treatment with Pinusroxburghii and Bombaxceiba extracts in two doses significantly ameliorated these biochemical, biomechanical and histopathologicalchanges, and hence possessing anti-osteoporotic activity. The presence ofQuercetin, a potent flavonoid, was also determined in HPLC analysis of methanolic extracts of Pinusroxburghii and Bombaxceiba. Conclusion : Thefindings may conclude that the constituents of Pinusroxburghii and Bombaxceiba extracts have significant potential in ameliorating osteobalstic and osteoclastic activities, calcium homeostatis and bone strength in female rats.

IND-10

Efficacy evaluation of Bauhinia variegate L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

Tapas Kumar Sar, Jeevan Ranjan Dash, Indranil Samanta, Nimai Chand Patra, Asit Kumar Maji, Tapan Kumar Mandal

Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, India

Objective: The objective was to study the effect of Bauhimia variegate L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat. Materials and Methods: Mastitis was induced by intracisternal inoculation of coagulase positive S. aureus (J638) at the concentration of 2000 colony forming units. Group I animals were treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone at 20 mg/kg intravenously and Group II animals were treated with once daily oral administration of B. variegate L. stem bark powder at 6 g/kg for 7 days followed by maintenance dose at 3 g/kg for next 7 days along with repeated dose of the antibiotic at 20 mg/kg intravenously at 4 days interval. Results: No significant improvement in the clinical condition of the udder was noticed in the group treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone alone. However, in the group treated with B. variegate L. stem bark powder along with repeated dose of ceftriaxone, no S. aureus colony was seen at 96h and onwards in milk samples with a marked decrease in somatic cell count and milk alkaline phosphates activity and increased lactoperoxidase activity. Further, plasma and milk concentration of ceftriaxone/ceftizoxime was increased which indicated antibacterial, bioenhancing and anti-inflammatory properties of the bark powder. The Group II animals also exhibited marked reduction in polymorphonuclear cells and fibrous tissue indicating antifibrotic property of B. variegate L. Conclusion: B. variegate L. stem bark powder can be considered as an effective adjunct therapy to intravenous ceftriaxone in S. aureus chronic mastitis in goat.

IND-11

Comparative Study of Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of the Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves and Bark of Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. in Streptozocin-Nicotinamide Induced Type 2 Diabetic Experimental Animal Models

Barman Hiran, Das Swarnamoni

Department of Pharmacology, A M C H. Dibrugarh, Assam, India

Objective: The present study was carried out to study the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extract of the leaves and bark of Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd, Streptozocin-Nicotinamide induced type2 diabetic animal models and also to explore the probable mechanism of their antidiabetic activity. Materials and Methods: A single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozocin 150 mg/kg 15 minutes after intraperitoneal injection of Nicotinamide 110 mg/ kg was injected in mice to induce diabetes. Mice with blood glucose level >200 mg/dl was considered diabetic and taken in the experiment. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract of leaves (EELAF) and bark (EEBAF) of Acacia farnesiana were administered per orally for 14 days. Blood glucose was measured on 8 th and 15 th day and serum insulin and antioxidant parameters were evaluated at the 15 th day of experiment. The effect of the extract on intestinal glucose absorption was evaluated on Wistar rats and tissue glycogen in Swiss albino mice. Results: Streptozocin-Nicotinamide induce diabetic mice showed significant hyperglycaemia with alteration of serum insulin, tissue glycogen and antioxidant levels. On treatment with EELAF, EEBAF and glibenclamide there is significant fall in blood glucose level with normalization of the impaired glycogen and antioxidant variables. Both extracts also showed significant inhibitory activity on intestinal glucose absorption. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the leaves and bark of Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd has both antidiabetic and antioxidant activities.

IND-12

Exploratory Study on the Ayurvedic Management of Allergic Rhinitis (Vataja Pratishyaya) by Pratimarsha Nasya as Nasal Drug Delivery System

Parikshit Debnath 1 , Shivakumar 1 , Subhadip Banerjee 2 , Arun Raj GR 1 , Prasanna N Rao 1

1 SDM College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India, 2 Bengal Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences Kalyani, West Bengal, India

Objectives: Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is an immunoglobulin (Ig) E mediated inflammatory disease caused by the inflammation of airway mucosa with hypersensitivity resulting from seasonal or perennial responses to specific allergens. Prevalence of AR is increasing and has risen considerably in the past few decades with self reported prevalence up to 41%. The objective of the study was to find the evidence of Ayurvedic texts indicating Anutaila (classical Ayurvedic oil preparation) used in the form of Pratimarsha Nasya a traditional nasal drug delivery system has been used for a long period has shown beneficial effects on diseases of head and neck. Materials and Methods: A pretest and post test design of single group consisting of 37 patients diagnosed as allergic rhinitis were administered Pratimarsha Nasya (PN) with Anutaila daily for a period of 60 days. Results: Effect of Pratimarsha Nasya with Anutaila on the chief complaints and totals nasal symptom score showed ameliorative improvement with statistical significance. Laboratory immunological parameters which included Total Leucocyte Count, Absolute Eosinophil Count, Neutrophils and Lymphocytes showed improvement with high statistical significance (< 0.001). Conclusion: At the end after 60 days of medication the patients showed marked relief in symptoms which can open a new direction in Ayurveda inspired novel targeted drug delivery systems.

IND-13

Antidiabetic Activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Punica granatum Linn. in Suitable Experimental Animal Models


Prithul Bhattacharjee, S.Rita

Department of Pharmacology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur-795004.

Objectives: Evaluation of the antidiabetic property of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum Linn. in suitable experimental animal models (albino rats) in comparison with standard drug glibenclamide. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) model was used for evaluation of antidiabetic activity. The rats were divided into five groups each consist of six rats. Significant hyperglycaemia was achieved within 48 hrs after streptozotocin injection. All the rats were checked for fasting blood glucose (FBG) level starting from day 0 till the 21 st day. In glucose induced diabetic model OGTT was performed from 0 hr till the 24 th hr. Results: The results were analysed by one way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's 't' test. Administration of ethanolic extract of P.granatum reduced significantly serum glucose level both in streptozotocin induced and in oral glucose induced diabetic model. P 0 < 0.05 was considered significant. Conclusion: The study suggests that the ethanolic extracts of Punica granum restored the metabolic changes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

IND-14

Evaluation of anti-convulsant potential of ethanolic extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. in experimental animals


Aich Biswajit*1, Dutta Sarmistha2

1
Post Graduate Trainee, 2 Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-convulsant potential of ethanolic extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Materials and Methods: The anticonvulsant activity was tested by Maximum Electroshock Seizure model. The mice were divided into 5 groups each consisting of 6mice. The groups received 10 ml/kg of normal saline, Phenytoin 25 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. p.o. respectively. One hour after administration of the test extracts the animals were subjected to maximal electroshock seizure (MES) by electro-convulsiometer with a current of 36 mA for 0.2 seconds via a pair of transauricular electrodes. Parameters measured were a) duration of hind limb tonic extension (HLTE) b) total recovery time c) Percentage protection. Results: Ethanolic extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. showed significant dose dependent decrease in HLTE and total recovery time. The percentage protection was maximum with the phenytoin treated group followed by the extract doses from maximum to minimum. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study substantiate the anticonvulsant effect of ethanolic extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn.

IND-15

Neuroprotective Effect of Pinus Roxburghii Sergent Against ICV-STZ Induced Behavioral and Biochemical Dysfunctions in an Animal Model of Neurodegeneration

Lalit Sharma12*, Shoumyo Bhattacharya2, G.l. Gupta1, Rohit Goyal2

1 Department of Pharmacy, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India

Objectives: To study the neuroprotective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Pinus roxburghii bark in wistar rats injected twice with ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg) bilaterally. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats (180-220g) were divided into 6 groups (n=6). Saline treatment was given to the animals of Normal group and Streptozotocin (3 mg/kg) bilaterally was administered intracerebroventricularly to the control group animals on the first and third day in two divided doses. Extract (100, 300 mg/kg, p.o.) was given along with ICV-STZ to the animals of different test groups. Donepezil (3 mg/kg, i.p) an acetylcholinestrase inhibitor was used as a standard drug. Behavioral assessments were done using Morris Water Maze and Elevated plus maze models on 20 th day. On the day of completion of experimental protocol, the animals were sacrificed; brain was isolated and homogenized for further biochemical determinations like malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Results: The extract showed significant neuroprotective activity at 100 and 300 mg/kg doses respectively. Behavioral models study showed that the extract enhances memory during the morris water maze and elevated plus maze as well as restore the level of MDA and GSH during biochemical parameters study. Conclusion: This study suggests that Pinus roxburghii bark has a strong potential as a useful therapeutic regimen for neurodegenerative diseases.

IND-16

Effect of Ashwagandha and Shilajeet on Attenuation of Alcohol Withdrawal in Mice


Priya Bansal, Sugato Banerjee

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

Objectives: Addiction can be defined as a habitual or psychological dependence on a substance or practice that is beyond voluntary control. Moreover, withdrawal is a psychological or physical syndrome caused by the abrupt cessation of the use of drug in the habituated person. In the present study we evaluate the effect of ashwagandha (ASW) and shilajeet (SJ) independently and in combination on attenuation of alcohol withdrawal using condition place preference model in mice. Material and Methods: Alcohol dependence was initially induced in mice by alternate administration of 10% v/v ethanol (2g/kg IP) for 8 days. Once the animals were withdrawn from the alcohol (5 days), the efficacy of ASW, SJ and their combination at different doses were compared with diazepam (1 mg/kg) in the attenuation of withdrawal using elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety and tail suspension test (TST) for depression. Results: Compared to ethanol withdrawn group, ASW (500 mg/kg) treatment increased the number of entries and time spends in open arm in EPM in ethanol withdrawn animals (p<0.001; n=5). SJ also showed similar (p<0.001; n=5) effect but was less effective than ASW. In TST ashwagandha and shilajeet treated animals also showed decreased immobility time (p<0.001; n=5) over ethanol withdrawn animals. Conclusion: In present study, we report that ASW alone or in combination with SJ may effectively reduce withdrawal effect of alcohol in mice.

IND-17

Antioxidant and Phytochemical Screening of Different Extracts of Dried Pulp of Garcinia pedunculata and Garcinia morella

Rahul Sarma, Rajlakshmi Devi

Institute of Advanced Study In Science and Technology (IASST), Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati, India

Objective: To evaluate antioxidant and phytochemical screening of two different extracts (i.e. hot and cold extract) of dried pulp of Garcinia pedunculata (GP) and Garcinia morella (GM). Methods: Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the aqueous extracts of GP and GM revealed that presence of anthraquinone, flavonoid, saponin, tannin, steroid, reducing sugar and cardiac glycosides. Analysis of polyphenols was performed by Folin-ciocalteau reagent method and Flavonoid was by Arvouet-Grand et al method. Antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by DPPH free radical, H 2 O 2 free radical scavenging activity, reducing power activity, in vitro lipid peroxidation etc. Analysis of fatty acids were done by GC-MS and mineral content was estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: High amount of polyphenols (5.87±0.06 mg catechin eqivalents/gm dry weight) and flavonoids (5.61±0.16 mg quercetin equivalents/gm dry weight) were found in cold water extracts of GP. The cold water extract of GP and GM showed very good DPPH free radical scavenging (IC 50 =3.53 and 1μg/mL), H 2 O 2 free radical scavenging activity (IC 50 =1.4 and 1.44 μg/mL) and in vitro lipid peroxidation (IC 50 = 42 and 30.36 μg/mL) in a dose dependent manner. In GC-MS analysis, it was found that the presence of some acid containing compounds like decanoic acid, palmitic acid, citric acid, succnic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid. Estimation of mineral content showed GP and GM is a rich source of K and Fe. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that GP and GM extracts could be a potential source of natural antioxidant that may have great importance as therapeutic agents in preventing diseases.

IND-18

Neutralization of Daboia russelli and Naja naja venom by the ethanolic root extract of Coix lacrymajobi

Rajesh, K. S1, Ishwara Bhat2., C. Vaman Rao3*

1 Research Scholar, Nitte University. 2 Professor and Head, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nitte University, Mangalore, India, 3 Professor and Head, Department of Biotechnology Engineering, NMAM Institute of Technology, Nitte, India

Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of ethanolic root extract of Coix lacryma-jobi L to inhibit the effects of Daboia russelli and Naja naja venom. Materials and Methods: Coix lacryma-jobi L, which is used to treat snake bite patients in Indian folk medicine, was tested in vitro to determine its ability to inhibit Daboia russelli and Naja naja venom phospholipase A, hemolytic activities and in vivo to determine its ability to inhibit venom induced lethality, hemorrhage, necrosis and edema. Results: In in vitro studies, ethanolic root extract effectively neutralized phospholipase A and hemolitic effects of both the venoms. Ethanolic root extract at doses of 200 and 400mg/Kg body weight significantly neutralized lethality, myotoxicity, edema inducing activity of both the venoms. Hemorrhage and necrosis induced by D.russelli venom was completely inhibited at dose above 200 mg/kg body weight. Conclusions: Coix lacryma-jobi L. has potent pharmacologicals that inhibit effects of D. russelli and N.naja venom. This necessitates further investigation to find out important pharmacological components of root extract that can help in the treatment of patients bitten by these snakes. This drug can be used along with conventional anti-venom therapy to reduce its dose and hence unintended effects like allergy, anaphylactic shock, serum sickness etc.

IND-19

Effect of Gymnema Sylvestre Leaf Extract on High Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidemia in Wistar Rats

Shukla P 1 , Shweta Singh 2 , Anjula Sachan 2 , Verma V K, Dixit RK 2 ,

1 Era Medical College, Lucknow, 2 King George Medical College, Lucknow, India

Objective: To study the effects of Gymnemasylvestre on lipid profile in rats and compare it with those of ' Amlodipine andAtorvastatin ' combination. Method: Dyslipidemia was induced in wistar rats of either sex by administering high fat diet for 7 weeks. Rats were then randomized into 3 groups of 6 rats each. Control group received High Fat Diet and normal Saline for 8 weeks. Gymnemasylvestre Group received High Fat Diet and Gymnemasylvestre extract (200 mg/kgbwt) for 8 weeks, Standard Group received Amlodipine, Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg; 80 mg/kg) combination along with high fat diet for 8 weeks. Lipid profile was measured using auto analyzer at day 0 and after 7 th ,15 th weeks. Result: High Fat Diet caused increase in the Lipid levels (HDL, LDL, Triglycerides, Cholesterol) at 7 weeks. After 8 weeks of treatment with Gymnemasylvestre, the rise in Lipid levels were significantly ameliorated in Gymnemasylvestre and also in Standard Group. Standard group underwent maximum increment in HDL level; followed by GS. GS caused reduction in mean TC, LDL, TG levels compared with Control. Conclusion: Gymnemasylvestre reduces Lipid levels in high fat diet induced obese Rats.

IND-20

To Evaluate Hypoglycemic Activity of Edible Camphor and Elucidate Its Mechanism of Hypoglycemic Action in Diabetic Rats


Dr. R.M. Manjare1, Dr. A.V. Tilak1, Dr. P.S. Worlikar*, Dr. V. Swami2, Dr. V. Bharambe2, Mrs. A.A. Barde1

1
Department of Pharmacology, Pd. Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra. 2 Department of Anatomy, Pd. Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra.* Retired Prof. and head, Department of Pharmacology, Pd. Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Objective: To evaluate hypoglycemic activity of edible camphor (EC) and elucidate its mechanism of hypoglycemic action in diabetic rats.

Materials and Methods : Neonatal streptozotocin (n2-STZ) induced diabetic rat model was used for the study. Group I was kept as diabetic control. Effects of three different doses of EC (100,200, and 400 mg/kg/day, orally), alone for 10 days and a combination of EC (200 mg/kg/day, orally) with gliclazide (5 mg/kg/day, orally, single dose) and metformin (100 mg/kg, orally, single dose) were studied. To elucidate mechanism of action, nicorandil was used. Blood samples were collected by tail vein puncture and were analyzed for random blood sugar level (BSL) by using a glucometer. Statistical analysis was performed using student's 't'- test and two-way ANOVA. The values of P 0 < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Treatment of diabetic animals with EC significantly lowered the blood glucose level. Maximum efficacy was seen with 200 mg/kg dose. EC potentiated antidiabetic effect of metformin, but not that of gliclazide. Nicorandil increased BSL significantly in diabetic rats. This hyperglycemic effect of nicorandil was reversed by EC. Conclusion: EC exhibited hypoglycemic effect. Potentiation of metformin effect and reversal of nicorandil induced hyperglycemia possibly explains mechanism of action through ATP sensitive K + channels.

MIS-01

Antiangiogenic Potential of Fisetin and Hesperidin on In-Vitro Angiogenesis Models


Abhishek Kumar, S. Jha, S.P Pattanayak

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra-835215, Ranchi, Jharkhand, INDIA

Objectives: Angiogenesis or neovascularization is a fundamental biological process involved in normal growth, development and many of human pathologies. A list of in-vitro and in-vivo models and assays are available for screening of compounds having activity on angiogenesis. Naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds known as flavonoids, are widely distributed, studied & used for preservation of integrity of vasculature system of body, in research as well as in medicine. Many flavonoids have been studied as promoters or inhibitors for in-vitro angiogenesis, cell proliferation and progression preventing the chronic diseases (tumors, malignancy etc.) associated with extensive neovascularization. Material and Methods: In present study, we explored the antiangiogenic potential of fisetin and hesperidin (flavonoids) on Chorio Allantoic membrane (CAM), dorsal skinfold chamber (DSFC), tube formation (TFA) and chick aortic arch (CAA), in-vitro angiogenesis assays in comparison to control of each assay separately. Results: Hesperidin exposed to have significant antiangiogenic efficacy among all desired concentrations (50μg and 100μg) then fisetin in CAM (n=10, p<0.001), DSFC (n=6, p<0.001), TFA (n=5, p<0.01) and CAA (n=3, p<0.001) assays. As calculated in our study hesperidin found to have an antiangiogenic potential of >55% in comparison to fisetin (>45%). Discussion: The two studied flavonoids concluded to have anti-angiogenic potential in a concentration dependant manner and comparatively hesperidin is more potent than fisetin. Conclusion: Many theories reported different mechanisms for various flavonoids to have activity on angiogenesis. The mechanistic pathway behind the activity of hesperidin and fisetin has to be explored in further ongoing studies.

MIS-02

Drug Compliance among Elderly Residing in Rani Block, Kamrup district, Assam


Annamika Hakmaosa 1 , Kanika K. Baruah 2

1 Post graduate trainee, Department of Community Medicine, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Kamrup, Assam, India, 2 Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Kamrup, Assam, India

Objectives: 1.To study the prevalence of drug compliance and noncompliance among elderly residing in Rani Block. 2. To find out the reasons for non compliance. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 elderly individuals for a period of one year from August 2013-July 2014. A pre designed pre tested schedule was used and house to house survey was conducted. Results: Out of 390 elderly, 378 elderly were suffering from chronic diseases of whom 272 (72%) elderly sought treatment for their chronic illness of whom 72.4% (males 69.3% and females 74.3%) were complying with their treatment regime. Out of 75 elderly who did not comply with the treatment regime, 34.6% felt of need to take medicine regularly, 32% forget to take drugs regularly, 13.3% said that there was unavailability of the drugs in the government hospital and 4% dint not take medicine regularly because they did not get relief from it. Conclusions: The compliance with the treatment was 72% and non compliance was 28%. The main reason for noncompliance was that they didn't feel the need to take medicine regularly. Geriatric patients should be educated about their disease, drug therapy and the importance of compliance to therapy.

MIS-03

An Assessment of the Preference and the Effectiveness of Different Teaching Aids Among Undergraduate Students Studying In Gauhati Medical College


Dutta S, Banerjee B

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam

Aim: To assess the preference and the effectiveness of different teaching aids among undergraduate students studying in Gauhati medical college. Materials and Methods: A detailed questionnaire based study is designed to assess the preference for various teaching aids from the perspective s of the undergraduate medical students and to determine the effectiveness of teaching methods. The study was done in Gauhati Medical College, Assam for duration of 3 months. Informed consent of the subjects and approval of Institutional Ethical Committee was taken. Inclusion criteria: 1. Students of either sex 2.400 undergraduate students of medical stream by random selection are included in the study. Exclusion criteria: 1. Students who have completed graduation or not undergoing graduation course. Result: Mean±SEM values were calculated for each group. The data were analyzed using Chi Square test and post analysis by Dunnett's test was done. Results were found to be significant (p<.05). Most of the students preferred Chalk and talk method combined with Power point Presentations of teaching over Power point Presentations alone. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that Chalk and Talk combined with power point presentations is the best mode of teaching in the present setting.

MIS-04

Factors Related To Compliance of Iron Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy - A Study In Rural Kamrup


Kabita Barua 1 , Rupali Baruah 2

1 Post Graduate Trainee, 2 Professor and Head, Department of Community Medicine, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati-781032

Objective: Compliance with iron therapy is a special case of medical compliance. The objective of the present study was to identify the factors related to compliance of iron folic acid supplementation in pregnancy in rural areas of Kamrup district. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional study with multistage random sampling design was conducted during August 2013 to July 2014 in rural areas of Kamrup district, Assam among 387 mothers who met with criteria for the study using a predesigned, pretested semi-structured interview schedule. Data were collected about their socio-demographic background and consumption of iron folic acid tablets during pregnancy. Inclusion criteria: All mothers who had delivered in the past one year and are residents of the study area and gave consent to the study. Exclusion criteria: Mothers who are non residents of the study area and did not give consent to the study. Results: Out of 94.8% women who were prescribed IFA tablets during pregnancy and received, only 27% consumed them for 100 days or more. Side effects were reported by 17% of the women. Others causes of poor compliance elicited were-unavailability; poor quality of supplied tablets, misunderstanding the instructions, lack of motivation, physical distance to health facility, economic constraints and poor provider behavior. Conclusion: Poor compliance was found regarding iron folic acid supplementation in pregnancy in rural areas of Kamrup district. Apart from side effects, some other factors were identified related to the compliance. Problems with miscommunication between patients and providers and product and service quality were found.

MIS-05

RP HPLC analysis for simultaneous estimation and validation of Amlodipine, Hydrochlorothiazide and Olmesartan Medoxomil in Combined Dosage Form


M. Rama Krishna, S. Shailaja, Y.V. Swamy

Department of Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, Telangana, India


Drug analysis reveals identification, characterization and determination of the drugs in mixtures like dosage forms and biological fluids. The number of drugs introduced into the market has been increasing at very fast rate and these drugs may be either new entities or partial structural modification of the existing drugs. Newer analytical methods are to be developed for these drugs or drug combinations due to official pharmacopeia may not reveal an analytical procedure for the drugs or its combination due to interference caused by excipients. The newly developed analytical methods have their importance in different fields like research and development centre, quality control department, approved testing laboratories and chemical analysis laboratories. There are no reports on the HPLC for simultaneous determination of amlodipine, olmesartan and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical formulations in the literature and in view of that the present study was taken up for method development and validation process for the analysis of combination of three drugs in dosage form by HPLC. The proposed method is found to be simple, rapid, precise with 99.99% accuracy and economical for simultaneous estimation of Amlodipine, Olmesartan and Hydrochlorothaizide in fixed dosage form. The optimised method showed good resolution with retention time for the respective peaks and good system suitability. Finally the proposed study suggests that the method can be easily and conveniently adopted for the routine analysis of assay and can also be used for dissolution of related substances.

MIS-06

A Questionnaire- based Survey of Medical Practitioners in a Tertiary Hospital in Rajasthan towards Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting


Mukul Mathur, Subash C. pingolia, Shruti Upadhyaya

Department of Pharmacology, S.M.S Medical College Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of the clinical doctors working in a hospital attached to a medical college towards Pharmacovigilance. Materials and Methods: The knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of medical practitioners regarding ADR was determined through a questionnaire. The response of 157 randomly selected doctors of the SMS, Hospital, a tertiary hospital in Jaipur, was obtained. Findings: The results reveal that about one third (32%) of the doctors were unaware about PvPI and that 36% had never reported an ADR. Eighty three percent of doctors examine more than 20 patients in each OPD and 88% observe 1-5 patients with ADR in each POD, however about 76% of them have reported less that 5 ADRs till study date. The study shows that the system has create awareness about Pharmacovigilance and about 90% feel that reporting should be made mandatory. Conclusions: Since the Doctors in this study had meager awareness about the importance and need for pharmacovigilance and spontaneous reporting system, interventions such as holding Pharmacovigilance workshops/CMEs in the hospitals to sensitize the clinical faculty on the aims of Pharmacovigilance and reporting methodology should contribute to increase patient safety.

MIS-07

Using a Flipped Classroom Model in Medical Education: A Promising Pedagogical Approach


Sandeep Bansal 1 , Minakshi Bansal 2 , Jyotsna Pandey 3

1 Department of Pharmacology, Ross University School of Medicine, Dominica. 2 MSN, Center for Teaching, Ross University School of Medicine, Dominica 3 Department of Pathology, Ross University School of Medicine, Dominica

Objectives: The study was designed to examine a flipped classroom model in delivering endocrine pharmacology and reproductive pathology topics to medical students at Ross University School of Medicine, Dominica. Methods: Students studied from pre-recorded lectures and lecture handouts before attending class. Classroom time was utilized for attempting application-based questions. A questionnaire was administered to 95 students to record their perceptions on the impact of the flipped classroom model on different aspects of learning. Exam scores were compared with scores obtained by previous classes who were taught these topics in the traditional style. Results: The following students showed significant preference for the flipped classroom approach (P <0.05): Students with bachelor degrees before entering the medical school, students who studied before attending the classroom application sessions, female students, and those who participated in the application sessions by coming to class rather than accessing them online. Various learning aspects were perceived to have improved significantly, as shown by the following results (mean ranks, P values): Integration of knowledge (34/54 for no pre-reading/pre-reading, P=0.005), application (54/44 for class/online, P=0.05; 37/54 for no pre-reading/pre-reading, P=0.01), engagement in learning (55/44 for class/online, P=0.04; 34/55 for no pre-reading/pre-reading, P=0.004), memorization (35/54 for no pre-reading/pre-reading, P=0.004), and knowledge analysis (36/54 for no pre-reading/pre-reading, P=0.008). Mean relevant exam scores were 14% higher compared to other classes who were taught these topics in the traditional lecture style. Conclusion: The flipped classroom is a potential pedagogical approach for effective utilization of medical student-faculty contact time in terms of improving learning outcomes.

MIS-08

Evaluation of Immunomodulators of Bacterial and Fungal Origin To Prevent Entero-pathogens In Avian System


A.K. Bera, D. Pan, B. Manna, Sanjit Maiti, J. Bam, D. Bhattacharya, S. K. Das, S. M. Deb

ICAR-National Research Centre on Yak, Dirang, West Kameng, Arunachal Pradesh- 790 101

Objectives: In this investigation heat killed  Mycobacterium phlei Scientific Name Search d mushroom polysaccharide from Pleurotus florida (MPOL) were used orally and evaluated against subclinical infection of Eimeria tenella in broiler chicken. Methods: The efficacy was evaluated in chicken model through Clinico-pathological, immunological and molecular methods. Results: The results revealed that percentage reduction of parasitic oocyst load in caecal content was highest in HKMP treated group (68.30%) followed by MPOL group (62.08%). Per day body weight gain, thymic index and IgA concentration in bile were significantly higher (p<0.05) in both the immunomodulated groups in comparison to infected control. Nitrite production in splenocytes was higher (p<0.05) in HKMP fed group whereas MPOL treated group showed higher cell proliferation index (p<0.05). Both the groups showed higher macrophage activity as compared to infected control group. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR on mRNA expression level of IFNγ and iNOS revealed that HKMP fed group showed up regulation of IFNγ. Both the treatments were able to up regulate iNOS in comparison to infected control group. Conclusion: Thus the study suggested that heat inactivated Mycobacterium phlei and edible mushroom polysaccharide can be utilized as immunomodulator to combat different enteric pathogens.

MIS-09

Monitoring of Pork Sausages for Chlorpyrifos Residues by HPLC


R. Gogoi, D.C. Roy, S.K. Laskar

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, CVSc, AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: The study was undertaken to monitor pork sausages for Chlorpyrifos pesticide residues using High Performance liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Materials and Methods: 100 samples were collected for the study. The samples after collection were preserved at -20°C. Analyses of the samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV-Vis Detector were done as per the method of Kumar et al., 2011. Results: Recovery ranged from 80-95%. Out of the tested samples, 6 samples were detected to be positive for trace residues of Chlorpyrifos pesticide which were found to be below the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL). Conclusion: The method may be used for monitoring of Chlorpyrifos residues in pork sausages.

MIS-10

The Role of Animal Experiments in Pharmacology Curriculum: A Teacher Student Perspective


DR.Shahid A Saache, DR S.A Divhare, DR.B.B Ghongane

Department of Pharmacology, B.J. Government Medical College, Pune.

Introduction: Since there are various views of different stakeholders about animal experiments pertaining to issues like ethics, animal sacrifice, and computer simulators etc., it is important to assess the view of postgraduate students and teachers about the same. Aim: To find out medical personnel's views on utility and importance of animal experimentation in Pharmacology. Objective: To assess knowledge and opinion of teachers and postgraduate students regarding animal experiments as a part of practical training in Pharmacology. Methods: This questionnaire based study was carried out in various medical colleges in Maharashtra amongst second, third year postgraduate students and teachers in Pharmacology. Results: 35 postgraduate students and 30 teachers participated in the study. 60% students and 83.3% teachers agreed with use of animal experiments in current pharmacology curriculum, especially procedures like Bioassay.74.2% students and 76.6% teachers thought animal experiments help to clear basic concepts and aid in teaching as well as understanding the subject better.54.2% students and 70% teachers opined that animal experiments have role in clinical subjects. However, 82.8% students and 93.3% teacher suggested alternatives like computer simulators. Among students, 68.6% and 54.2 % knew about CPCSEA and GLP guidelines respectively, while all teachers knew about both. 60% teachers were not in favor of animal experiments for undergraduates. Conclusion: The study expresses views of teachers and postgraduate students alike, who agree with alternatives to animal use in Pharmacology curriculum except certain experiments like bioassay. More studies across country are necessary to form a consensus and national guidelines regarding the same.

MIS-11

To Evaluate the Efficacy of Acamprosate as add on Drug in Subjective Tinnitus


Singh Sharmendra 1 , Kaur Jasleen 1 , Badyal Dinesh 1 , Varghese Ashish 2

1 Department of Pharmacology, 2 Department of Otolaryngology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India

Background: Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) is the main treatment strategy in subjective tinnitus. Certain pharmacological agents also have a role in tinnitus. Various studies have found Acamprosate, a glutamate antagonist and gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist to be effective in tinnitus. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of acamprosate as add on to TRT in subjective tinnitus. Methodology: It was a prospective, randomized, controlled study conducted in 60 patients visiting outpatient department of otolaryngology of Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana. Patients were divided in two groups. Group A (control) patients received TRT treatment. Group B (study) patients received TRT treatment + Acamprosate 333 mg thrice daily orally for 6 weeks. Patients were assessed at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 weeks for tinnitus severity on tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) scale. Results analyzed statistically. Results and conclusion: Baseline THI score for control (Group A) was 23.93+12.66 and study group (Group B) was 24.40+15.51 (p=.899). Mean THI scores decreased at each follow-up in both groups with p <0.05 at last follow up. After 6 weeks treatment THI score were 14.40+10.21 and 7.27+5.78 respectively (p=.002) for the two groups which were statistically significant. Thus, our study concludes that Acamprosate as add-on to TRT is more efficacious as compared to TRT alone in subjective tinnitus.

MIS-12

Practice of Self-Medication among Slum Dwellers of Guwahati City


Tanusri Bardhan 1 , Anku Moni Saikia 2

1 Post-graduate student, 2 Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Introduction: Self-medication products are those not requiring a medical prescription and which are produced, distributed and sold to consumers, for use on their own initiative. Though the responsible self-medication can be used to prevent and treat symptoms and ailments that do not need medical consultation and oversight, the irrational use of drugs has raised a public and professional concern. Objectives: To study the prevalence of practice of self-medication among slum dwellers of Guwahati city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three slums of the field practice area of Urban Health Centre, under the Department of Community Medicine, Gauhati Medical College during February-March 2014. An interview was conducted among 200 families using pre-designed and pre-tested schedule by house-to-house visits. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Results: Prevalence of practice of self-medication was found to be 42.5%. Fever, weakness, head/body/joint aches, diarrhoea and cough were the common ailments for which self-medication were opted for. Allopathic system (69.41%) was the most prevalent system of medicine used. Analgesics, antipyretics, vitamins, cough syrups and anti-motility drugs were most commonly used drugs. Doctors (38.82%) were the most common source of information about drugs. High cost of consultation of private doctors (47.06%) was the commonest reason for self medication. Only 22% had knowledge about the side-effects. Conclusions : The mass needs to be made more aware of the side effects and better regulation need to be imposed on over the counter sale of drugs to protect them against the harm.

MIS-13

Comparative Study of Antibacterial Activity of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) with Standard Antibiotics against Clinically Important Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria


Aich B, Bezbaruah BK, Hazarika NK

Department of Pharmacology and Department of Microbiology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, India

Objective: Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem all over the world. Widespread and indiscriminate use of antibacterial agents resulted in development of drug resistance and the clinical efficacy of many existing antibiotics nowadays is being threatened by rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Many infectious diseases have been known to be treated with herbal remedies throughout the history of mankind. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a rhizomatous plant grown throughout the world. Staphylococcus aureus is a common gram positive bacteria associated with many infections. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, and Pseudomonas spp. are some of the non-sporing gram negative bacteria commonly isolated from hospital. Hence the present study was carried out to explore the antibacterial potential of ginger against the above bacterial strains. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted after taking due permission from the institutional ethics committee. The antibacterial activity of ginger was compared to standard antibiotics by disc diffusion method by measuring the zone of inhibition. Results: Extract of ginger shows various zones of inhibitions in the above mentioned bacteria. It was observed that the ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale gave the widest zone of inhibition of 18mm in Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas and in Escherichia coli it gave a zone of inhibition of 16mm using the concentration of 100mg/ml each. Appropriate statistical analysis was done and p value came out to be statistically significant (≤0.05) when comparing with the standard antibiotics. Conclusion: The study shows that Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has got antibacterial activity against all the above bacterial strains.

MIS-14

Pattern, Awareness and Perceptions Of Health Hazards Associated With Self Medication Among Housewives Belonging To The Middle Income Family In Guwahati City, Assam


Rana Kakati 1 , Rupali Baruah 2

1 Post-graduate student, 2 Professor and Head, Department of Community Medicine, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Introduction: Self medication is one of the rapidly growing areas of concern to medical professionals, government and the general public. Initially it may result in reduction of distress but in the long-run however, it can leads to many serious problems. If action is not taken in time, the danger of side effects and drug interactions could increases. Objective: To assess the pattern, awareness and perceptions of health hazards associated with self medication among housewives belonging to the Middle income family in Guwahati City. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March -April 2014. 150 houses (Middle income) were selected randomly in the Guwahati city. 150 housewives irrespective of their age were included in the study. Results: 60.2% housewives had at least Secondary education. Most of housewives had habit of keeping of medicines and among them 65% were admitted using drugs in the past without prescription. Commonly consumed drugs were antacids (41%), analgesics (38.7%), Vitamins (35.9%), antibiotics (27.5%), cough syrup (25.8%).Common sources of medicines were drug retail outlets (67.8%) and market (18%). Common reasons for self medication were financial restraints and lack of time to go the medical practitioners. 42% were correctly perceived that self medication could be hazardous. Conclusion: This study shows that self-medication is quite prevalent among the housewives belonging to the middle income group. Drugs regulatory agencies should ensure that all the drug retail outlets and sellers are registered and controlled drugs are dispensed only on prescription of Physicians.

MIS-15

Traditional medicine inspired in Silico Drug Discovery to Identify Novel Natural Product Inhibitors against series of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Kinase Targets


Subhadip Banerjee 1 , Anil K Saikia 2 , Anjan Adhikari 3 , P.K Debnath 4

1 Bengal Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kalyani West Bengal India. 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam, India. 3 R.G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. 4 Gananath Sen Institute of Ayurvdiya and Research, Kolkata.India.

Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem with one-third of the world's population being infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and with emergence of M/XDR TB. Serine threonine protein kinases (STPKs) have emerged as major target against Mycobacterium tuberculosis due to the annotations found in their genome corresponding to eukaryotic cells. Out of the 11 STPKs of Mtb, PknA, PknB, and PknG, have been found to be essential for sustaining mycobacterial survival in the hosts. Successful identification and discovery of novel inhibitors using high-throughput screening libraries is quite rare and also expensive. However, antibacterial-drug discovery leveraging from structure-based drug design via virtual screening (VS) was explored in the study. Method: Traditional Chinese Medicine Database known as TCM Database @Taiwan ( http://tcm.cmu.edu.tw/ ) is currently the largest non-commercial TCM database available for screening of numerous TCM components. The virtual screening campaign incorporated techniques like Sitemap to identify druggable target protein pocket followed by sequential docking approach via Glide of Schrodinger to screen traditional natural products against novel protein kinase targets of Mtb. The final leads were optimized by MMGB/SA calculations. Results: The VS successfully identified novel natural products as lead compounds from the TCM Database@Taiwan. The docking score and lower MMGB/SA energy of the hits signified high reliability of energy stability and preferable localized conformations of the inhibitors to the protein pockets. Conclusion: The sequential docking guided virtual screening process of the TCM inspired drug discovery against MTb considering STPKs as portentous target was successful which may incite further drug discovery initiatives.

MIS-16

Randomized Single Blind Prospective Comparative Analysis to Assess the Efficacy of Caphosol Versus Hypertonic Saline Mouth Wash in Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) Patients


Dr. A. Meeradevi, Dr. Malar Sivaraman

Department of Pharmacology, Government Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India

Introduction: Radiotherapy is a key line management of Head & Neck Cancer. It is often associated with radiation induced oral mucositis. Many symptomatic treatments like saline gargles, antiseptic mouthwashes and antifungal rinses are available to tackle it. Maintaining the optimal salivary pH, providing lubrication and preventing opportunistic infection plays a key role in promoting oral hygiene. Caphosol is hypersaturated calcium solution that mimics human saliva. Hence this current study attempts to compare the efficacy of Caphosol versus Hypertonic saline in management of radiation induced mucositis in HNC patients. Methodology: Randomized, single blind, prospective comparative study conducted in Outpatient clinic, Department of Radiotherapy, Govt. Royapettah Hospital, Chennai between September 2014 - December 2014. Sample size: 60 (n=30/group) Adult HNC patients with radiotherapy induced oral mucositis will be recruited for the study after obtaining informed consent. Oral mucositis assessed by WHO scale and symptomatic questionnaire. Randomized into 2 groups by computerized random numbers. Group A- Hypertonic saline mouth rinse+ standard therapy. Group B- Caphosol mouth wash+standard therapy. Participants will be prospectively followed up on weekly basis for 3 months and reassessed on review visits. Student paired't' test for statistical analysis. Results and Conclusion: The study is ongoing. The results will be presented in the conference. Based on the study results, a more rational and efficacious treatment modality to manage radiotherapy induced oral mucositis among head and neck cancer patients could be addressed.

NEU-1

Efficacy of Lemon Extract in Attenuating Prenatal Stress-Induced Changes on Hippocampal Neurons in Rats - A Qualitative Study

Abhinitha P, Mohandas Rao K G, Kiranmai S Rai

Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, India

Objectives: To study the efficacy of lemon extract treatment on morphology of hippocampal CA3 neurons in prenatally stressed young rats. Materials and Methods: Albino wistar rat dams were divided into 3 groups-Normal Control group (NC); which remained undisturbed in home cage, restraint stress group (RS); which were subjected to restraint stress for 6 hrs/ day from gestation days 11 to 17 and restraint stress + lemon extract group (RS+L) which received restraint stress (6 hrs/ day) and lemon extract (200mg/day/kg body weight) orally from gestation days 11 to 20. On postnatal day 61, the rats were sacrificed. Hippocampi were processed and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Hippocampal CA3 neurons were qualitatively analysed using light microscope. Results: When hippocampal CA3 neurons were qualitatively analysed, RS group showed decreased number of healthy neurons when compared to that of NC group. However, number of healthy neurons were increased in RS+L group when compared to that of RS group. Conclusion: Treatment with lemon extract may nullify the effect of prenatal stress on hippocampal CA3 neurons. However further study on quantitative analysis has to be carried out to confirm this.

NEU-2

Evaluation of Antidepressant activity of Methanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (bilwa) in albino mice

Dr. Jyothi R, Dr. Basavaraj Bhandare, Dr. Satyanarayana V

Department of Pharmacology, Rajarajeswari Medical College, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India

Objectives: To evaluate the antidepressant activity of aegle marmelos (AM) leaves in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino mice of either sex weighing 25 to 30g was randomly selected from the central animal house facility of RRMCH, BANGALORE. Animals are divided into 5 groups of 6 mice each. Group 1 - Control group treated with 2% gum acacia (0.1 ml/10gm). Group 2 - Standard group treated with 10 mg/kg of imipramine. Group 3 - T1 treated with 75 mg/kg of AM extract. Group 4 - T2 treated with 150 mg/kg. Group 5 - T3 treated with 300 mg/kg. Laboratory models used:1.forced swim test 2. tail suspension test. Stastically Analyzed using ANOVA test. Results are represented as Mean±SEM. P 0 < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Mice treated with AM (75 mg/kg) did not show significant decrease in duration of immobility in FST and TST (P>0.05). Animals received AM (150 and 300 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 mg/kg) showed decrease in mean duration of immobility as compared to control. Anti-immobility activity due to AM (150 and 300 mg/kg) were dose dependent and significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The present study provides the evidence indicating that methanolic extract of Aegle marmelos leaves showed significant antidepressant activity in TST and FST models of depression.

NEU-3

Effect of Ethanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera on locomotor activity and motor co-ordination in albino rats

Ayon Bhattacharya, Monalisa Jena, Swati Mishra, Pratap K Sahu, Sanjay Kumar, Sudhanshu S Mishra

Department of Pharmacology, IMS and SUM Hospital, SOA University, Bhubaneswar, India

Objectives: The rampant use of skeletal muscle relaxants for both muscle spasm and spastic conditions make it almost impossible to escape from its side effects . The present study has been undertaken to study the locomotor activity and muscle co-ordination effects of the leaf extract of this plant. Material and Methods: The present study consists of two experimental models. It is a randomised control study. The CNS depressant action was studied in the acto-photometer test and muscle relaxant by rotarod test. The albino rats were divided into six groups of 6 rats each in each experiment. Group I: Control (normal saline 2 ml/kg p.o); Group II: Standard (Diazepam 10 mg/kg p.o); Group III, IV, V, VI, Ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (EMO) at 50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg respectively. EMO leaves and diazepam were given orally 1 hour before the experiments. Results: Results were expressed as mean ± SE. ANOVA followed by post hoc tests were applied to both the experiments. In acto-photometer, both standard (diazepam at 10 mg/kg p.o) and test drug (EMO 100,200,400 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) reduced the locomotor activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera exhibited both CNS depressant and muscle relaxant activity.

NEU-4

Neuropharmacological effects of Phyllanthus acidus in swiss albino mice

Borah A, Devi D

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam. India

Objective: To evaluate the neuropharmacological effects of Phyllanthus acidus in swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted was obtaining approval from the institutional animal ethics committee. The following properties were evaluated:1. Anticonvulsant. 2. Anti depressant. 3. Anti anxiety 4. Cognition enhancement. The ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus acidus was employed as the test drug. All the experiments were carried out in swiss albino mice. The animals were divided into five groups containing six animals each for each of the properties. The anticonvulsant effect was screened using the electroshock induced seizure model and phenytoin was used as the standard anticonvulsant drug. The anti depressant effect was screened using the despair swim test in swiss albino mice and fluoxetine was used as the standard anti depressant drug. The anti anxiety effect was screened using elevated plus maze model and diazepam was used as the standard anti anxiety agent. The cognition enhancement effect was screened using the morris water maze apparatus and piracetam was used as the standard cognition enhancing drug. Results: Administration of Phyllanthus acidus ethanolic extracts showed significant percentage inhibition in the appearance of THLE (tonic hind limb extension) in electroshock induced seizure model in swiss albino mice. It also showed significant anti depressant property and cognition enhancement efeect in swiss albino mice. Conclusion: The leaves of Phyllanthus acidus possess significant neuropharmacological effect and further research must be directed towards better understanding of the mechanism of its action and development of drugs from it.

NEU-5

Ameliorative Effects of Andrographis paniculata Extract and Andrographolide on Memory Impairments in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

Ajit K. Thakur1, Geeta Rai2, Shyam S. Chatterjee3, Vikas Kumar1

1
Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, India, 2 Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India, 3 Stettiner Str. 1, Karlsruhe, Germany (Retired Head of Pharmacology Research Laboratories, Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH and Co. KG, Karlsruhe, Germany)

Objective: To study the beneficial effects of a standardized Andrographis paniculata extract (AP) and isolated pure andrographolide on cognitive functions, oxidative stress and cholinergic function in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intra peritoneal (i.p.) injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin, followed by 120 mg/kg, i.p. nicotinamide. Learning and memory behaviours were explored using a spatial version of the Morris water maze test followed by assay of antioxidant activity, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Results: Treatments with AP, andrographolide, or piracetam in diabetic rats significantly decreased escape latencies during spatial reference memory test compared to diabetic control rats. During the probe trial, there were significantly higher time spent in targeted quadrant than those observed in the diabetic control group. There was significant increase in lipid peroxidation (by 62.9%), and decrease in enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (by 56.3%) and catalase (by 44.9%) in pre-frontal cortex region of diabetic rats compared to nondiabetic rats. AChE activity in pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus of diabetic rats was significantly increased (by 110.2% and 162.2%, respectively) in comparison to nondiabetic rats. Ten daily oral treatments with AP (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) or with andrographolide (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg, p.o.) to diabetic rats significantly attenuated cognitive deficits, reduced acetylcholinesterase activity and oxidative stress, and afforded better control over diabetic hyperglycemia. Conclusion: The results emphasize the therapeutic potentials of AP and andrographolide in diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunctions through their modulating effects on biological processes regulating antioxidative defence and central cholinergic systems.

NEU-6

Protective Effect of Hypericum perforatum in Alcohol Deprivation Effects Following Long Term Voluntary Alcohol Consumption in Rats


Aditi Sharma1,2, Lalit Sharma1, G.L. Gupta1

1
Department of Pharmacy, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India

Objective: Abrupt reduction or total cessation of long-term alcohol consumption produces a well-defined cluster of symptoms. The present investigation was designed to explore the effect of Hypericum perforatum in alcohol deprivation effects following long term voluntary alcohol consumption in rats. Materials and Methods: Young healthy male Sprague Dawley rats (200-240g) were allowed to voluntary intake of ethanol (day 1: 4.5 % v/v, day 2: 7.5% v/v, day 3- day 15:9% v/v Ethanol) for 15 days. The behavioral assessments were done using elevated plus maze, light-dark model, tail suspension test, forced swim test and actophotometer on 16 th , 17 th and 18 th day and peak ethanol withdrawal symptoms were measured. The vehicle, hydro-alcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) and standard drug diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p) were administered on peak withdrawal symptoms. Biochemical parameters like SGPT, SGOT, GGT and Serum alkaline phosphatise were also determined. Results: Hypericum perforatum showed significant protective effect in alcohol withdrawal anxiety, depression and seizuresat the doses 300 and 500 mg/kg. Biochemical parameters studiesalso showed that extract decreased the elevated levels of SGPT and SGOT and also maintained the levels of GGT and Serum alkaline phosphatase. Conclusion: The results from the present study suggest the preventive effect of Hypericum perforatumin alcohol deprivation effects.

NEU-7

Animal Model for Type 2 Diabetes Associated Cognitive Impairment


Bina K Mehta, Ashish K Singh, Sugato Banerjee

Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi -835215, Department of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology

Objective: Present study focuses on development of animal model simulating human Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus which will also display memory impairment. Materials and Methods: 12 Sprague Dawley rats were divided equally into 2 groups viz control and high fat diet (HFD) + Streptozotocin (STZ). Rats were fed with high fat diet for 30 days followed by dual dose of Streptozotocin (30 mg/kg IP) at 2 weeks interval. The animals showed elevated fasting blood glucose level (250mg/dL) for the next 2 months. Memory impairment was evaluated by change in transfer and step down latency using elevated plus maze test and passive avoidance test. Biochemical assays were also performed to determine oxidative stress by measuring reduced glutathione levels and acetyl cholinesterase activity which relates to memory impairment were also measured. Result: A reduction in transfer latency (p<0.001, n=6) and step down latency (p<0.01, n=6) in HFD+STZ when compared to control was observed. Significant decrease in reduced GSH (p<0.001, n=6) which reflects oxidative stress and increase in AChE level (p<0.004, n=6) corresponding to memory impairment were observed in these HFD+STZ rats compared to control animals. Conclusion: The above result suggests successful development of cognitive impairment in HFD and dual dose STZ induced Type 2 diabetic rats.

NEU-8

Enhancing Brain Performance Through Brain Challenging Exercises


Dr Hardyal Singh

Director (Retd.) Research and Medical Education, Punjab (Retd), 183-A Shastri Nagar, Amritsar

The brain challengers are a set of mental exercises which boost memory, skill, flexibility and improve attention, quick decisions, and problem solving. They reduce aging and prevent Alzheimer Disease. The brain challenging exercises come in the category of neurobics. coined by Katz in 1999. While aerobic exercises improve physical activity they improve mental performance. Routine activities are automatic needing less exercise and brain activity but non-routine and unusual exercises e.g. using left hand for computer mouse or tooth brush or writing with closed eyes and doing brain activities like solving cross-word sudoku, playing chess, doing yoga etc cause relaxation, improve concentration of mind, memory and help learning skill. Brain Challengers could be future addition to non-drug therapy for many disorders.

NEU-9

Anticonvulsant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds of Brassica Napus in Laboratory Animals.


Khawade Ajinkya, Aswar Manoj, Aswar Urmila, Hiwarkar Manjiri, Bidkar Abhijeet

Department of Pharmacology, Sinhgad Institute of Pharmacy, Narhe, Pune, India

Objective: To evaluate hydro alcoholic extract (HBN) of seeds of Brassicaa napus for anticonvulsant activity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The Acute oral toxicity (AOT) of hydro alcoholic extract of Brassica napus seeds (HBN) was done as per OECD-425 guidelines. Male swiss albino mice were administered with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ 70 mg/kg i.p) and Latency and duration of convulsion were recorded. In maximal electroshock (MES) induced convulsion, 50 mA current was delivered transauricularly for 0.2 sec to mice through small alligator clips attached to each ear pinna by electroconvulsiometer. HBN (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o) was administered 30 minutes before PTZ and MES and then anticonvulsant activity in mice was observed. Results: The AOT results indicated HBN to be safe up to 2000 mg/kg p.o. HBN showed increase in duration and decrease in latency for induction of seizures towards PTZ induced seizure test (P<0.001) and MES (P<0.001). Conclusion: Anticonvulsant activity of a hydro alcoholic extract of Brassica napus seeds were evaluated in this study. The outcome of present study demonstrates that the Brassica napus produced anticonvulsant effects. Further investigation for involvement of chemical constituent is needed.

NEU-10

Possible Involvement of Nitric Oxide Mechanism in the Protective effect of Ashwagandha Root Extract against Chronic Constriction Injury Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats


Madhurima Mukherjee, Anil Kumar, Raghavender Pottabathini

Pharmacology Division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC Centre of Advanced Study, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India

Objectives: The objective of the present study was to explore the action of WS against neuropathic pain induced in rats by chronic constriction injury (CCI). Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats were used as the model for CCI induced neuropathic pain. Aswangandha root extract (50-200 mg/kg) was administered orally. Various behavioral tests (cold allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia) and biochemical estimations (LPO, protein, catalase and nitrite levels) were carried out to study the effect of WS against NP. Results: Ashwagandha (100,200 mg/kg) root extract significantly reversed various behavioural alterations (cold allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia) and caused antioxidant like effect (reduced lipid peroxidation, nitrite, and restored GSH, SOD and catalase activity) as compared to control. Further, the protective effect of ashwagandha (100 mg/kg) was reversed by L-arginine pretreatment. Similarly, L-NAME pretreatment significantly potentiated the protective effect of ashwagandha (100 mg/kg) which was significant as compared to their effect per se. Conclusion: The present study highlights the protective role of WS against CCI induced behavioral and biochemical alterations. It also shows the involvement of NO pathway in potentiating the effect of WS.

NEU-11

Neuroprotective effect of combined treatment of metformin and folic acid in MPTP induced Parkinson's disease in mice


Malathi Medikonda, Eshvendar Reddy Kasala, Neha Mishra, Lakshmi Narendra Bodduluru, Managla Lahkar

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam, India

Aim: This study was designed to investigate the combined neuroprotective effects of metformin and folic acid in MPTP induced  Parkinsonism More Details in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Animals were pretreated with metformin (100 mg/kg bw/day, i.p) and folic acid (4 mg/kg bw/day, i.p) for 7 days. Four doses of MPTP (15 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally with an interval of 2 h in between on third day 30 min after drug treatment. The behavioural recovery in treated mice was investigated using the tail suspension test and open field tests. Animals from all the groups were sacrificed on 14th day after behavioral studies and indicators of brain oxidative stress level such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed in the midbrain. Dopaminergic degeneration was evaluated by analyzing the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity using immunohistochemistry. Results: The combined treatment with metformin and folic acid showed significant improvement in all the behavioral studies. There was a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (p<0.05) and improvement in the antioxidant status. Neuroprotective effect of combined treatment was further confirmed by the increase in number of TH-positive cells in the substantia nigra region of brain. Conclusion: These results suggest that metformin and folic acid combination possesses neuroprotective activity in MPTP induced PD in mice.

NEU-12

Protective Effect of Hesperidin against Ischemic Reperfusion Injury and Memory Dysfunction- Possible Involvement of NO Pathway

Varun Gupta, Vaibhav Gaur, Anil Kumar

Pharmacology Division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC Centre of Advanced Study, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate the possible involvement of nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effects of Hesperidin against ischemic reperfusion cerebral injury induced memory dysfunction. Methods: Wistar rats (Male, 200-220 g) were subjected to bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 30 min followed by 24 h reperfusion. Animals were pre-treated with Hesperidin (50 and 100 mg/kg, po) for 7 days before being subjected to cerebral I/R injury. Behavioral tests (rotarod performance and memory retention), biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase activity and catalase activity), mitochondrial complex enzyme dysfunctions (complex I, II, III and IV) and histopathological alterations were subsequently assessed in hippocampus. Results: Seven days of hesperidin (50 and 100 mg/kg) treatment significantly improved neurobehavioral alterations (delayed fall off time and increased memory retention), oxidative defense and mitochondrial complex enzyme activities in hippocampus as compared to control (I/R) animals. In addition, hesperidin treatment significantly attenuated histopathological alterations as compared to control (I/R) animals. L-arginine (100 mg/kg) pretreatment significantly reversed the protective effect of hesperidin on memory behavior, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction as compared with hesperidin alone. However, L-NAME pretreatment significantly potentiated the protective effect of hesperidin as compared to their effect alone. Conclusion: The study suggests the involvement of nitric oxide modulatory mechanism in protective effect of Hesperidin against cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury induced memory dysfunction.

OCU-1

Analysis of the Lipofusion Components of Ageing Retina Involved in Age Related Macular Degeneration


Kotnala A 1 , S Senthilkumari 3 , Halder N 1 , Jayaram B 4 , Kumar A 2 , Velpandian T 1

1 Ocular Pharmacology and Pharmacy Division, 2 Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. 3 Aravind Medical Research Foundation (AMRF), Madurai (TN), 4 Department of Chemistry, IIT (Delhi), India

Objective: Understanding lipofuscin components in ageing human retina is expected to reveal the mechanisms involved in progress of Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) for the development of suitable therapeutic interventions. Materials and Method: Lipofuscin components of cadaver retina (collected from >80 years old subjects of either sex), of age was subjected for analysis using ESI-LC-MS/MS for the masses between 250-900 a.m.u. Briefly, macula was dissected out from donor cadaveric eye balls (n=20) at AMRF were subjected for hydrophobic lipid extraction using a mixture of organic solvents and was evaporated under reduced pressure. The samples were analysed using a gradient ESI-LC-MS/MS method. Initial profiling was achieved by using Information Dependent Acquisition (IDA) protocol and subsequently, their accurate mass and fragmentation pattern were confirmed for their structure elucidation. Results: IDA acquisition revealed the presence of 9 related substances having higher lipophilicity in the analysis. Among them lipofuscin components were identified and characterized as 258.2 for all-trans retinal, 592.4 for A2E, 551.5 for all-trans-retinal dimer, 595.8 for all-trans-retinal dimer ethanolamine, 594.9 for A-2-dihydrophosphoethanolamine, 608.4 for monofuranA-2-E, 624.9 for monoperoxy A-2-E and 746.9 for A-2-glycerophosphoethanolamine. Interestingly, this study revealed the presence of 6 distinct lipid components having a.m.u of 627.2, 618.1, 485.4, 453.3, 433.4 and 895.0. The known lipofuscin components were further characterized by their fragmentation pattern using mass spectrometry. Conclusion: This study revealed the presence 6 hydrophobic unknown compounds expected to be the component of lipofuscin in the aging cadaveric retina. Further studies are in progress regarding their likely structure and alteration of their levels among various age groups.

OCU-2

A Study on Ocular Side Effects of Darifenacin and Trospium in Overactive Bladder (OAB): A Randomized, Pilot Study

Dr Manjunatha R, Dr H P Pundarikaksha, Dr Hanumanthraju B K, Dr Sowbhagya H N, Dr Manjunath N.

Department of Pharmacology, Department of Urology, Department of Ophthalmology, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India

Objective: To assess feasibility of the study in terms of processes and scientific parameters. Materials and Methods: of the ten subjects included, five received darifenacin 7.5mg and five received trospium 60mg, OD for 2 weeks. Near-vision distance (NVD), pupillary diameter (PD), schirmer I and II tests and tear film break-up time (TFBT) were performed on day 0 and 14. Subjective assessment of dry eye was made by ocular surface disease index (OSDI). Results: NVD (atleastby+1mm) and PD (atleastby+1mm) increased in all subjects except one. All the subjects showed decreased wetting of the filter paper with Schirmer I and II tests (atleastby-10mm). However, TFBT increased in 2 subjects (atleastby+4seconds) suggestive of better tear production after antimuscarinic therapy, while the rest showed decreased TFBT (atleastby-4seconds). OSDI scores remained the same in all the subjects. Conclusion: A mild impairment in pupillary and ciliary muscle contractions and tear secretion were noted on day 14. This may further worsen over time. Therefore, duration of study must be increased and inclusion criteria must be streamlined to include subjects likely to be more affected by ocular side-effectslike elderly, night drivers, people working with computers or primarily perform prolonged near vision activities. Paradoxical results with TFBT could be because of observer bias, reflex eye stimulation with light, emotions, etc. Schirmer test alone seems sufficient and reliable to evaluate tear production.

OCU-3

To Compare the Intraocular Pressure Lowering Efficacy and Cost Effectiveness of Latanoprost vs. Bimatoprost in Cases of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension

Shaunik Singh, Gursatinder Singh,

Department of Pharmacology, PGIMER, Chandigarh.

Objective: To compare the intraocular pressure lowering efficacy and cost effectiveness of latanoprost vs. bimatoprost in cases of primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on patients coming to the Ophthalmology OPD, Rajindra Hospital and Govt. Medical College, Patiala. The study included 60 patients of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). Patients were randomized into two groups of 30 each receiving latanoprost or bimatoprost. The duration of study was 12 weeks, during which the IOP was measured at 1 st visit (baseline) and then at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Effectiveness of the drugs was calculated in terms of mm Hg fall in mean intraocular pressure. The daily cost for each medication was noted and total cost of drugs taken over 12 weeks was calculated. Results: Patients of group I, received latanoprost and their mean pre-treatment IOP, mean post- treatment IOP after 12 weeks and mean IOP reduction after 12 weeks were 24.63± 1.76 mm Hg, 16.47± 1.4 mm Hg and 8.16 mm Hg (33.13%) respectively. Patients of group II, received bimatoprost and their mean pre-treatment IOP, mean post-treatment IOP after 12 weeks and mean IOP reduction after 12 weeks were 26.58 ± 1.96 mm Hg, 17.47 ± 1.36 mm Hg and 9.11 mm Hg (34.27%) respectively. While cost of latanoprost was Rs. 54.50 per mm Hg lowering of IOP, cost of bimatoprost was Rs 37.52 per mm Hg lowering of IOP over the study period of 12 weeks. Conclusion: Bimatoprost showed an overall higher lowering of IOP and was more cost-effective as compared to latanoprost.

PKN-1

Understanding the Function of Organic Cation Transporters (Oct) in Blood Ocular Barriers for Rationalizing Ocular Drug Therapy

Velpandian Thirumurthy

Ocular Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Center for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, New Delhi, India

Objective: OCTs are expressed in various tissues for the selective transport of endogenous substrates. The present report updates various studies conducted to analyse the functional importance of OCT along with their gene expression in various ocular tissues. Materials and Methods: New LC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantification ofsubstrates and blockers of OCT. Albino rabbits were used for these studies. The functional importance of OCT were carried out by applying OCT substrates topically, intravitreally, intravenously with or without blockers. Plasma, ocular fluids along with tissues were subjected for quantification of substrates and blockers by LC-MS/MS at various time intervals after their respective mode of administration. Ocular tissues were also subjected for OCT gene expression study. Proof of the concept was conducted using gamma scintigraphy. Results: Topical studies revealed that OCT is functionally active in cornea from tear to aqueous humor. OCT substrate might be following anterior elimination after intravitreal administration and was not modulated by OCT blockade. Intravenous studies indicated that OCT substrates are capable of reaching precorneal area through tear secretion and OCTs are functionally active in ocular barriers and involved in the transport of their substrates from plasma to eye. Gene expression studies revealed the differential distribution of OCTs. Conclusion: Increasing evidences along with the studies conducted in our laboratory showed that in majority of tissues OCT is present from apical to basolateral position indicating their predominate uptake mechanism. This study also explains the role of OCT played in the anterior elimination pathway involved in ocular disposition of drugs.

PKN-2

Evaluation of the Aqueous Humor Kinetics and Efficacy of the Novel Soluble Natamycin Formulation (Natasol p ) in Rabbits

Sharma H P, Nirmal J, Sharma N, Ravi Ak, Ghose S, Velpandian T

Ocular Pharmacology and Pharmacy Division, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Objective: Being a poor water soluble drug, natamycin is only available in the suspension form. A novel water miscible drug formulation of natamycin (1% w/v) has been made (Natasol P ) and evaluated in rabbits for its intraocular penetration as well as efficacy and compared to its suspension form (5%w/v). Materials and Methods: New Zealand albino rabbits having body weight 2.0 - 2.5 kg were divided into two groups (ethically approved study). One group received 1% Natasol and another group received 5% Natamycin suspension. Briefly 50 μl of either formulation was instilled into the cul-de-sac of rabbit eye. Aqueous humor was aspirated at 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 min after instillation (n=3; each time point) via paracentesis using 30 G needle following corneal anaesthesia. Collected aqueous humor was subjected for LC-MS/MS analysis for drug analysis and quantification. The efficacy was also assessed in Fusarium induced corneal ulcer model in rabbits. Results: Novel Natasol1% formulation reached to the maximum concentration in just 60 min as compared to 5% natamycin suspension where it was 120 min. Aqueous humor drug concentration for Natasol1% at 240 and 360 min was significantly high (p≤0.05) as compared to natamycin 5% suspension. Corneal ulcer studies showed non-inferiority ofNatasol 1% to suspension (5%). Conclusion: Novel formulation is reaching to the aqueous humor quickly then suspension formulation. Natasol 1% is able to maintain its intraocular concentration upto 360 min as compared to 5% natamycin suspension. Further studies are in process about its toxitity.

PKN-3

Evaluation of the Expression of Transporters in An Experimental Model of Diabetes


Sharmilee Vetrivel1, Madhu Nath2, Kanuj Mishra1, Nabanitha Halder3, H.K.prasad1, Velpandian Thirumurthy3

1
Department of Biotechnology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 2 Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. Rpc, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 3 Ocular Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Dr. Rpc, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the expression of retinal glutamate transporters in the streptozotocin induced model of diabetes in rats. Materials and Method: Wistar Rats of either sex weighing 100-120gm were subjected for the induction of diabetes using STZ at the dose of 45 mg/kg. The diabetic state was characterised by analysing blood glucose levels. Periodic intervals function of retina was assessed using electroretinogram and photo-documentation was made using fundus angiography. Expression of glutamate transporters was done using qRT-PCR on day 10, 20, and 30. Integrity of blood retinal barrier was assessed using vitreous to blood ratio of Ofloxacin levels by LC-MS/MS. Results: In the experimental period of 30 days significant changes in ERG were observed along with concordant 40 fold increase in glutamate transporters expression (SLC1A1, SLC1A3). No significant changes in retinal vasculature was observed and the Vitreous to blood ratio of our probe was not altered during the period. Conclusion: This study indicate possible involvement of excitotoxicity in diabetes preceding vascular changes in diabetes. Further studies are in progress to specify the dominant nature of neuronal changes leading to diabetic complications.

RDU-1

Evaluation of the Prescription Patterns and Utilization of Antimocrobials in ENT OPD of Tertiary Care Hospital, Nanded


Deshmukh Amol C, Ghadlinge Manik S, Tamboli Saleem B, Deshmukh Jagjeevan B, Shirure Prashant A, Chhabra Rajat R

Department of Pharmacology, Dr.Shankarrao Chavan Government Medical College, Nanded, Maharashtra, India

Objectives: To evaluate the prescription pattern and utilization of AMA in ENT OPD of tertiary care hospital Nanded. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in ENT OPD of Dr SCGMC, Nanded for three months. During this period approximately 1100 patients visited ENT OPD and 600 prescriptions were evaluated. The excluded patients were of postoperative follow up and of patients undergoing medical examination for fitness and handicap certificate. Data was collected by using specially designed CRF. Appropriateness of AMA was assessed by Kunin's Modified Criteria. Results: Total 600 prescriptions were analyzed out of which (91%) consist of AMA. Most of them reported with URTI (30.4%), CSOM (21.4%), ASOM (10.4%), Tonsillitis (3.3%), Sinusitis (2.7%) and others (15%). Amoxicilline (43.9%) was preferred AMA followed by Ciprofloxacin (30.6%), Cotrimoxazole (5.8%), Azithromycin (3.2%), Doxycycline (3.2%) Cefixime+clavulanate (3.2%) and Amoxicilline+clavulanate (1.8%). Single antibiotic was preferred in all prescriptions. In the concomitant medications, antihistaminics were prescribed in (90%), NSAIDS (88%) and antacids (81%). FDCs were used in (10%) prescriptions. Brandnames of AMA was used in (10%). As per the Kunin's Modified criteria (83%) of patients received AMA therapy appropriately, while (17%) patients inappropriately. Conclusions: Amoxiciline is the most common AMA prescribed and URTI is the most common diagnosis made.

RDU-2

A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pharmacovigilance in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Andhra Pradesh

Das A 1 , Ravi Babu K, Murthy KSN

Department of Pharmacology, GSL Medical College, Rajahmundry, A.P, India

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of pharmacovigilance among doctors in a teaching hospital. Material and Methods: This observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital, GSL Medical College, Rajahmundry. A pretested, pre designed questionnaire was used to conduct the study. The questionnaire contained a total of 25 questions. Questions were based on knowledge regarding ADRs, Pharmacovigilance Program of India (PVPI) and ADR reporting, attitude and practice towards pharmacovigilance. The questionnaire was distributed among 250 doctors, who included interns, post graduate students and faculty members. After obtaining the completed questionnaires, the data was analyzed by using MS-Excel 2007 and SPSS trial version 16. Results: Although 77% of the subjects had satisfactory knowledge regarding ADRs, only 59% were aware of the existence of PVPI. 73% volunteered to report ADRs, but 62% doctors did not have adequate knowledge as to where to report the ADRs. Conclusion: Results indicate that there is insufficient knowledge of pharmacovigilance and hence there is a need to implement regular sensitization programs for the enforcement of ADR reporting to the health care professionals.

RDU-3

Prescribing Patterns of Antibiotics in Outpatient Department of Tertiary Healthcare and Teaching Hospital

Ghorpade VV Hiray RS, Bhamare CG, , Ghongane BB

Department of Pharmacology, B.J. Govt. Medical College and SGH, Pune, India

Objectives: The present study was undertaken to screen prescriptions for rational use of antimicrobials in Out Patient Department (OPD) of Tertiary Healthcare Teaching hospital. Material and Methods: 200 prescriptions from various departments were collected randomly over 2 months and analyzed. Results: Out of 200 prescriptions, age wise distribution is 13%( < 12yrs), 74.5% (13-60yrs), 12.5%(>60 yrs). The total number of drugs were 691 in 200 prescriptions. The number of antibiotics was 122. i.e. 3.4 drugs and 0.61 antibiotics per prescription. Most common infection was related to respiratory tract (26.86%). The most common antibiotics prescribed were from Beta lactum group (34%). NSAIDS (63%) and Antacids (60%) were most commonly coadminstered drugs. Most of the prescriptions were appropriate in terms of strength (99.99%), dose (99.67%), form (100%), frequency (100%) and duration (97.4%). Discussion: The study will give the baseline data regarding the current prescribing trend of Antibiotics in Tertiary Healthcare Teaching hospital. Conclusion: Most of the drugs and antibiotics were rationally used.

RDU-4

A study on Availability and Pricing of paediatric antibiotic formulations in private sectors of Urban district i.e. Cuttack district of Odisha

Mohapatra J, Swain TR, Pattanaik KP, Mohanty S

Department of Pharmacology, SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Orissa, India,

Objective: Assessing the availability and pricing of medicines leads path for strategic intervention for better availability of medicines. Urban Cuttack district is the natural referral centre for the whole district. Use of higher antibiotics for the management of common disorders can lead to development of resistance. Materials and Methods: This Cross sectional community based study was conducted for duration of six months in the year 2014. Information on availability was collected from 50 outlets selected randomly, that surround tertiary care hospitals of urban Cuttack district. Data regarding the availability of different antibiotic formulations were collected by using WHO - HAI methodology. Results: Mean availability was hundred percent for Amoxicillin Clavulanic acid combination and Cefixime tablets. This is followed by Azithromycin in 90% facilities and cefpodoxime 70 % of facilities. Plain Ofloxacin was available in only 35% of facilities though ofloxacin cefixime combination was available in 55% of facilities. Unfortunately, plain erythromycin and ciprofloxacin formulation was available in only 20% of the facilities though it was available in combinations. Significant price variation of same antibiotic formulations was observed depending upon brand (50-200%). Available antibiotic combinations cost significantly more compared to individual formulation. Conclusions: Availability of conventional antibiotic without combination is poor in urban Cuttack district. Higher antibiotics cost high and available sufficiently in urban Cuttack district.

RDU-5

A Drug Utilization Study in Patients with Cardiovascular Emergency Coming to Emergency Unit of Tertiary Care Hospital Attached with Medical College: A Six Month Analysis


Jamadar PM, Abdul Hannan, Beldar AS, PATEL SB

Department of Pharmacology, Grant Govt. Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospital

Objective: To evaluate the drug utilization pattern among cardiovascular emergency patients attending emergency ward of our tertiary care hospital, so that such information would help in improving the quality of care provided. Material and Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study conducted by Department of Pharmacology in association with Department of Cardiology (CCU), at Grant Govt. Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospital, Mumbai in serially admitted patients over a period of 6 months. Results: A total of 600 patients were enrolled in the study. In our study 360(60%) patients had Myocardial infarction, 220 (36.7%) patients had Angina pectoris or other conditions labeled as IHDs and 20(3.3%) patients had arrhythmias. Out of 600 patients 407 (67.8%) were males and 193 (32.2%) were females. The incidence of cardiovascular emergencies in our study was highest in the age group of 61-70 years. The most common associated comorbidity was Hypertension (64.7%) and the next most common associated comorbidity was Diabetes mellitus (15.8%). Out of 600 patients 552(92%) patients were discharged, 35(5.8%) patients left the hospital against medical advice and death was observed only in 13(2.2%) patients. In our study the top three prescribed cardiovascular drugs were Glyceryl trinitrate (97.5%), β blocker (Metoprolol-97.5%) and Aspirin (97.5%). In the remaining drug classes relatively high utilization was seen in Enalapril (91.5%), Atorvastatin (80.34%), Clopidogrel (77.43%). Conclusion: Protocol of management strategy of cardiovascular emergencies in our tertiary care hospital is near to standard recommended guidelines and the clinical outcome of the patients is favorable.

RDU-6

Evaluation of Prescription Pattern in Hyderabad, INDIA

Rajshekar K, Shailendra D, Subbaratnam Y, Prasuna G

Department of Pharmacology, MediCiti Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS), Hyderabad

Objective: To evaluate the pattern of prescriptions written by allopathic doctors practicing in various health care centers in Hyderabad. Materials and Methods: 200 prescriptions were collected from patients attending various health care centers from different locations of Hyderabad from Jan 2013 till Aug 2014. Results: 60% of prescriptions had names of drugs written in small letters. 58% of prescriptions were found without doctor's registration numbers. 33% of prescriptions were not having doctor's signature. 29% of prescriptions had not mentioned patient's gender. 25% of prescriptions did not have patients age. 6% of prescriptions did not have patient's name. 2% of prescriptions were complete in all aspects. Conclusion: A significant proportion of prescriptions lacked critical components such as doctor's signature and registration number, patient's age and gender. More than half of the prescriptions had medicines prescribed in small letters, contrary to recommendations of medical council of India.

RDU-7

Prevalence, Pattern and Practices of Self-Medication among Medical Students in North East India

Khan Soleman K, Gohain K

Department of pharmacology, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, India

Objectives: The present study was carried out to study the prevalence, pattern and practice of self-medication among medical students from 2 nd MBBS to 3 rd MBBS part II. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out among under graduate medical students of Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh during the month of October 2014. Ethics Committee approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee of Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh, India prior to the commencement of the study. All the students from 2 nd MBBS to 3 rd MBBS part II were covered under this study. A pre designed semi structured questionnaire was used to collect the relevant information pertaining to the study variables. Results: The pattern of self-medication practice changes with time and advancement of knowledge. The prevalence of selfmedication among medical students is high, facilitated by the easy availability of drugs and information from textbooks or seniors. A significant number of students are unaware of the adverse effects of the medication that they themselves take and suggest to others. Conclusion: Self medication by itself has both pros and cons that depends on who and what one chooses to self medicate. Since inappropriate selfmedication has the potential to cause serious harm, not only to the students themselves but also to those whom they suggest medication, potential problems of self medication should be emphasized to the students to minimize this risk.

RDU-8

Prescribing Pattern Among Private Practitioners of Metropolitan City of Eastern India

Choudhuri A, Paul S, Sarkar D, Mondal P

Departments of Pharmacology, Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Objective:
To assess the prescribing practice of private practitioners of a metropolitan city of eastern India. Materials and Methods: It is an ongoing observational, cross-sectional survey over a period of 6 month (July- Dec, 2014). We plan to audit at least 2000 prescriptions during this period. At the end of 3 month 1130 prescriptions of clinicians who practice medicine in self owned clinics, nursing home and hospitals were collected and assessed using core prescribing indicators as per WHO `How to investigate drug use in health facilities' tool. The prescriptions were assessed by using the prescribing indicators: 1. Average number of drug per prescription 2. Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic names 3. Percentage of prescription with an antibiotic prescribed 4. Percentage of prescription with an injection prescribed 5. Percentage of drugs prescribed from Essential Drug List (EDL) Results: Overall the average number of drug per prescription was 3.05 ± 0.91. Only 84/3447 (2.4%) drugs were prescribed by generic name. Prescriptions with antibiotics and injections were 29.7% (336/1130) and 8.12% (92/1130) respectively. Drugs prescribed from Essential Drug List were 25.6% (882/3447). Conclusion: Poly-pharmacy, Low rate of prescription of generics and essential drugs among the private practitioner indicates lack of awareness in rational use of medicines. Regulation and interventions are required to improve the prescribing practices. However the final conclusion may be made only after completion of study.

RDU-9

Knowledge, attitude and practice of pharmacovigilance among the nurses and midwives in a tertiary care hospital

Ahmed A , Singha B, Lahkar M

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam

Objective: To study the knowledge, attitude and practice of pharmacovigilance among the nurses and midwives in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among the nurses and midwives of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital. The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire based study. The participants were explained the purpose of study and requested to fill up three sets of questionnaires each of knowledge, attitude and practice which they will fill up and return immediately. Result: The practice of pharmacovigilance among nurses and midwives of Gauhati Medical College has been found to be significant as compared to the knowledge and attitude. Conclusion: The knowledge and attitude of the nurses and midwives regarding pharmacovigilance need to be improved in order to reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions in tertiary care hospitals.

RDU-10

Study and Analysis of Adverse Drug Reactions of Antibiotics at LLR and Associated Hospitals, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur

Kumar D, Singh SP, Gupta A, Agarwal P, Singh RP, Kumar V

Department of Pharmacology, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur (UP), India

Objectives: To study and analyze the pattern of adverse drug reactions of antibiotics at LLR and Associated Hospitals, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur. Materials and Methods: Spontaneous ADR reporting technique was used for data collection using "Suspected Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Form" provided by Central Drug Standard Control Organization. Causality assessed by using WHO-UMC scale. ADRs were analyzed for demographic characteristics, Types (expanded Rawlins and Thompson's), severity (Modified Hartwig) and Seriousness (WHO). Results: A total of 62 ADRs were reported due to antibiotics (Cephalosporins-48%, Quinolones-31%, Macrolides-8%, Glycopeptides-6%, Penicillins-3%, Nitroimidazoles-2%, Cotrimoxazole-2%), out of which 55% were in male and 45% in female patients. In relation to age 52% ADRs were in adult, 32% in pediatric, 11% in adolescents and 5% in elderly. On causality assessment 79% of ADRs were probable, 18% certain and 3% of possible category. 95% of all ADRs were of type B and 5% of type A. On severity scale 18% ADRs were of mild and 82% of moderate and none of severe variety. 12 out of 62 ADRs (19%) were serious in nature (6% pediatrics, 6% adults, 5% adolescents, 2% elderly). Conclusion: Most of the time antibiotics have caused type B ADRs and cephalosporines are the cause of maximum number of ADRs followed by quinolones. A significant number of ADRs are serious in nature (19%) and of moderate severity.

RDU-11

To Observe the Pattern of Antibiotics Used in the Pediatrics Indoor Department at Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Assam


Choudhury D

Department of Pharmacology, SMCH, Silchar

Objective: There is a need of rational prescribing of antibiotics in children. Moreover there is the emergence of antibiotic resistance. India being a developing country, emphasis has to be on rational use of antibiotics so that cost effectiveness can be achieved with the proper treatment. In this context, the present study will be carried out for hospitalized patients in the indoor department of pediatrics department on the pattern of the antibiotics used. Materials and method: An observational study will be conducted for 3 months at the Pediatrics indoor department at SMCH, Assam. Patient data collection form is prepared based on study objectives. Pediatric indoor bed head tickets dealing with antibiotic usage will be analyzed. Results: Data are analyzed by using indoor prescribing pattern of antimicrobials for every infections of respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary tract, central nervous system, genitourinary tract, soft tissue infections, pyrexia of unknown origin etc. Total prescriptions till now are 70. Total number of antibiotics prescribed till now are 90 and the average number of antibiotics per prescription till now are 1.29. The most commonly used antibiotics are beta-lactam antibiotics (ceftriaxone), followed by azoles (metronidazole) and aminoglycosides (amikacin). Most common route is IV route. Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn after completion of the study.

RDU-12

Evaluation of prescription pattern of steroids in Dermatology OPD in a tertiary health care institution and study of adverse events reported with steroid use


Adhikari K*, Bezbaruah BK

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: To evaluate the prescription pattern of steroids in Dermatology OPD and the adverse events reported with steroid use. Materials and Methods: The prescriptions of both genders and of all age groups attending Dermatology OPD with moderate to severe dermatological problem, receiving corticosteroid were included. A total of 100 prescriptions were analyzed for 3months. The parameters assessed were corticosteroids prescribed, their route and frequency, demographic profile of patients and the adverse events reported. Results: The majority (54.5%) of cases were males in the age group 35-50 years. About 85% of the prescriptions contained four to five drugs per prescription. In 72% instances injection dexamethasone and in 53% cases oral prednisolone was prescribed. The prevalence of pemphigus vulgaris is highest followed by systemic sclerosis. Cutaneous adverse effects were the maximum most frequent being atrophy, acne, and purpura. Systemic reactions such as hyperglycemia and glaucoma were found in some cases. Conclusion: Our study confirms that steroids are used frequently in the Dermatology OPD and are associated with adverse drug reaction which could be minimized by their judicious use.

RDU-13

Analysis of Prescribing Pattern of Drugs Used in Treatment of Acne Vulgaris in the Dermatology OPD of a Tertiary Care Hospital in India


Naik MS, Patil JS, Nerurkar RP

Department of Pharmacology, Topiwala National Medical College and B.Y.L. Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai Central, Mumbai, India

Objectives : To study the prescribing pattern of drugs used in treatment of Acne vulgaris and adherence to Indian Acne Alliance (IAA) 2009 guidelines. Materials and Methods: An observational study was done in patients of either gender above 18 years of age suffering from Acne Vulgaris attending Dermatology OPD of Nair Hospital, Mumbai. The demographic details and details of drug therapy in mild, moderate, severe acne were entered into a structured case record form. Results: The data collected from 183 patients was analyzed. The mean age of patients enrolled was 22.70 ± 3.24 years and M:F ratio was 1.5:1. In the mild acne group, most commonly prescribed drugs were topical retinoids (64%) followed by topical antibiotics (32%) and topical benzoyl peroxide (32%). In the moderate acne group, drugs prescribed were topical antibiotics (81%) and oral antibiotics (66%) followed by topical retinoids (64%) and topical benzoyl peroxide (64%). In the severe group, oral antibiotics and benzoyl peroxide were most commonly prescribed (100%) followed by topical retinoids (75%) and oral isotretinoin (61%). Analysis of adherence to IAA 2009 guidelines revealed 75% overall adherence. Conclusion: The prescribing pattern of anti-acne medications revealed good adherence to IAA 2009 guidelines. The present study is expected to give an insight into drug usage for Acne vulgaris and to recognize areas of improvement in the treatment pattern.

RDU-14

Impact of Educational Session on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Antibiotic Use and Resistance Among Undergraduate Medical, Dental and Nursing Students: A Comparative Study

Jayant TT, Pundarikaksha HP, Manjunatha R

Department of Pharmacology, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore

Objective: Comparison of knowledge, attitude and practice aboutantibiotic use and resistance amongstmedical, dental and nursing undergraduates before and after an educational session on antibiotic use and resistance. Materials and Methods: A pre-validated 35-item questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice about antibiotic use and resistance was distributed to second year medical (80), dental (61) and nursing (37) students before and after educational session. Results obtained were compared within and between the groups by using Z test and One-way ANOVA respectively. P-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: All groups showed statistically significant improvement in knowledge and attitude scores following antibiotic use and resistance educational session (p=0.0005). Post-test attitude score of medical students was better than that of dental and was statistically significant (p=0.006). The pre-session evaluation showed that medical students had better knowledge and attitude about antibiotic use and resistance as compared to dental (p=0.0005) and nursing students (p=0.0005) with no significant difference in the practice scores. Conclusion: Significant improvement in attitude and basic knowledge following an educational session about antibiotic useand resistance in the students with poor pre-session antibiotic practice scores suggest establishment of special course on rational prescription of antibiotics stressing more on behaviour of undergraduates towards antibiotic use and resistance.

RDU-15

Cost-Effectiveness of Methotrexate and Sulfasalazine in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparative Study

Bhatt K, Girish K, Pundarikaksha HP, Tamboli T

Department of Pharmacology, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore

Objectives: Comparison of cost-effectiveness of methotrexate and sulfasalazine in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Materials and Methods: 30 subjects with rheumatoid arthritis were randomized into two groups to receive either methotrexate 7.5mg/week orally with incremental dose of 2.5mg/week upto a maximum of 15mg/week if required or sulfasalazine 500mg/day orally in 1 st week with an increase of 500mg every week upto maximum of 2g/day. Oral folic acid 4mg will be given 24 hours after weekly dose of methotrexate. All the study subjects will receive NSAIDs for symptomatic relief of pain. Subjects are followed up for 6 months and the therapeutic outcome will be assessed by DAS-28 score and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI). Liver function tests (LFT) will be done at baseline and at an interval of every 3 months. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed by average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results and conclusion: Treatment with both methotrexate and sulfasalazine showed marked and comparable improvement in the DAS-28 scores and CDAI at the end of weeks 4, 12 and 24. However, methotrexate was noted to be more cost-effective than sulfasalazine.

RDU-16

Audit of Use of Antibiotics in Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural Areas of Kamrup District, Assam.

Yesmin F1, Baruah R 2

Department of Community Medicine, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: To evaluate the appropriateness of antibiotics prescribed for childhood diarrhoea and to look for the prevalence of ORS and zinc prescriptions for childhood diarrhea. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from January to June 2014 in 10 villages under Rani Community Development Block and prescription audit was done of 100 cases of acute diarrhea in children under 5 years. Data was entered into MS-Excel spread sheets and analysed using SPSS 16 software. Results: Only 19 patients out of the 100 were prescribed antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics was cotrimoxazole followed by norfloxacin, metronidazole and cefixime. A total of 61% of the patients were advised ORS and 48% were prescribed zinc. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the number of irrational prescription of antibiotics in childhood diarrhea is less in the study area and most of the prescriptions follow the standard treatment protocol suggested by the WHO.

RDU-17

A Comparative Study of Drug Therapy in Patients Suffering from Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain (DPNP)

Burman MS, Tekur U, Puri V, Roy V

Department of Pharmacology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, Ibdia

Objective: To assess the Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain (DPNP) based on WHOQOL-BREF score, Depression score and Pain score. Materials and Methods: A comparative study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology, Maulana Azad Medical College and Department of Neurology, G.B. Pant Hospital. 150 DPNP patients were included. Quality of life was assessed using WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, Pain score using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Depression score using Personal Health questionnaire (PHQ-9). Medications for treatment of DPNP in study were Gabapentin, Pregabalin, Carbamazepine, Duloxetine and Amitriptyline. 150 DPNP patients were divided into 6 groups of 25 patients each. Five groups received one of the above medications and 6 th group combination of drugs. Result: Best outcome for WHOQOL-BREF score is with Combination of 2 drugs (78.5+4.7) followed by Pregabalin (73.52+5.13) and Duloxetine (70.88+4.01). For Depression score best outcome was with Combination therapy (7.32+1.84), Pregabalin (8.72+2.63) and Duloxetine (9.36 +1.15) in descending order. For Pain score best was with Combination therapy (2.88+0.67), Duloxetine (3.04+0.67) and Pregabalin (3.2+0.59). The analysis shows significant difference in between the 6 groups. In post hoc analysis for WHOQOL- BREF score Combination therapy had best outcome followed by Pregabalin> Duloxetine> Gabapentin= Carbamazepine= Amitriptyline. Same pattern was observed for Depression score and Pain score. However, Duloxetine showed better outcome in the Pain score compared to Pregabalin. Conclusion: Combination of 2 drugs showed the best outcome. In the monotherapy Pregabalin followed by Duloxetine showed the best outcome. Gabapentin, Amitriptyline and Carbamazepine had similar outcome when compared with each other and did not show much improvement.

RDU-18

A Cross-Sectional Study on Compliance of Anti Microbial Therapy Among Adult Population in a Rural Area of Kamrup (Assam)

Bharali MD, Baruah R.

Department of Community Medicine, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: To study the prevalence of compliance towards anti microbial therapy. And to evaluate the factors affecting it. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional retrospective study by interview method giving house to house visit in Rani community Development Block of Kamrup, Assam. And randomly selecting 100 adults who gave consent for the study. A pretested pre-designed schedule will be used. Data will be compiled in Microsoft Excel and analyzed using SPSS 17. Results: The results are calculated using mean ±SD, Chi-square and student t test. A P 0 < 0.05 is taken to be significant. Conclusion: It was found that there was a poor compliance to anti microbial therapy.

RDU-19

A Comparative Study of Efficacy and Tolerability Between Escitalopram and Desvenlafaxine in Moderate to Severe Depression

Moulyanagraj, Girish K

Department of Pharmacology, Kempe Gowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India

Objectives: To compare efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram and desvenlafaxine in moderate to severe depression. Materials and Methods: This was an open label, standard controlled, parallel group 8 week study, randomized into 2 groups (n=30 in each) escitalopram 10mg or desvenlafaxine 50mg, the dose which may be further increased if necessary at an interval of 2 weeks. Clinical assessment was done by MADRS score and tolerability by the nature and severity of adverse events and QoL by SF-12. Results: Escitalopram and desvenlafaxine showed a significant reduction in the total MADRS scores. However, escitalopram showed faster onset and better efficacy than desvenlafaxine with significant reduction in MADRS score between the groups, benzodiazepines was supplemented for insomnia in both the groups. Study drugs were well tolerable, nausea (n=4) was complained only for desvenlafaxine. QoL showed significant improvement from baseline with study drugs. Conclusion: Escitalopram shows faster onset of action, better efficacy compared to desvenlafaxine in moderate to severe depression.

RDU-20

Study of Prescribing Pattern in Elderly Patients Visiting Medicine OPD at a Tertiary Care Hospital


Wandalkar P, Pandit PT, Ghongane BB

Department of Pharmacology, B.J. Government Medical College, Pune, India

Objectives: (i) To delineate pattern of drug prescription in elderly outpatients (ii) To determine frequency of prescription of Potentially Inappropriate Medicines (PIMs) according to Beers criteria (iii) To evaluate prescriptions according to WHO drug use indicators Materials and Methods: Prescription details of patients 60 years and above visiting Medicine OPD were collected and evaluated for most commonly prescribed drugs along with indications, frequency of PIMs, prescription pattern according to WHO indicators and comparison between different units of Medicine OPD, as well as based upon experience of prescriber. Results: Hypertension was the commonest diagnosis in 24.3 % of elderly, Tablet Ranitidine was the most frequently prescribed medication to 43.6 % patients. PIMs were minimal (1.26 %). On average, 3.7 drugs were prescribed per patient. 95.79 % of drugs were prescribed by generic name, 94.53 % from Essential drug list. Percentage of encounters with an antibiotic prescribed was 13.9 %. Statistical difference in prescribing Antibiotics was found amongst different OPD units, and based on experience of prescriber. Conclusion: Prescription pattern was rational with respect to WHO drug use indicators in most patients. Lacunae like overuse of multivitamins and prescription of PIMs came forth. More studies in other specialties and general practice are necessary to sensitize practitioners towards rational prescribing.

RDU-21

Drug Utilization Study in Outpatient Ophthalmology Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in West Bengal

Santra (Dhali) R1, Dhali D2, Santra S2, Banerjee P3, Biswas M4

1
Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, 2 Department of Opthalmology, Midnapore Medical College, Midnapore, 3 Department of Pharmacology, Sagar Dutta Medical College, Kolkata, 4 Department of Opthalmology, Midnapore Medical College, Midnapore

Objective: This study was designed with the aim to investigate the utilization pattern in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 2 months. The prescriptions for all consecutive new patients attending the OPD were included and audited using a pre-designed form to record information from the OPD prescription cards of each patient. Data analysis was carried out using the descriptive statistics Results: A total of 600 prescriptions were analyzed with the average number of drugs per prescription being 2.6 (0.9). The most common disorders diagnosed were refractive errors (13.3%) followed by cataract, glaucoma and others. 1400 drugs were prescribed in six dosage forms with eye drops being the most common (57.14%) followed by tablets (14.28%), ointment (6.42%), syrup (3.92%) capsules (4.28%), lotion (0.57%) injections contributed 2.14% of the dosage forms prescribed. The frequency of drug administration was recorded in 96.6% and the duration of treatment was mentioned in 80% of the drugs prescribed. Antimicrobials were the most commonly prescribed (39.6%) followed by anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic (26.0%), antiglaucoma drugs (23.0%), mydriatic and cycloplegics (12.8%), miotics (7.00%). Drugs were prescribed in brand name in 65.6% and that accounted for generic name in 34.3% (481/1400). Conclusion: The study revealed that prescription writing errors were minimum but generic prescribing was low which adds to the economic burden indirectly leading to non-compliance.

RDU-22

Study on the Awareness of Clinicians and Postgraduates About Generic Versus Branded Drugs in Andhra Medical College.

Santhilakshmi CH, Sudha J, Lalitha K, Sureshbabu N.

Department of Pharmacology, Andhra Medical College

Objective: To study the awareness of clinicians and postgraduates about generic versus branded drugs. Materials and Methods: An observational study of awareness of PGs and clinicians regarding generic compared to branded drugs with the help of a questionnaire (like are generics equivalent, cheaper compared to branded ones). The collected data is represented in Microsoft excel 2007 for data analysis and percentage calculation. Result: 87% of PGs and 94% of clinicians are aware of generic drugs.65%,85%,100% and 98% of PGs and 44%,63%,94% and 94% of the Clinicians feel that Generic drugs are equivalent, safer, cheaper and reduce Pharmacoeconomic burden respectively. 87% of PGs and 100% of clinicians are aware of Jana Oushadi outlets. 91% of PGs and 75% clinicians support generic substitution. 74%, of PGs and 94% of clinicians opine that emphasising the importance of Generic drugs in Undergraduate education. Conclusion: Majority of doctors are aware of generic drugs and consider generics are safe and cheaper and support generic substitution in most cases. But strict Quality control studies should be done to maintain efficacy and safety of generic drugs as only few of them feel that generic are therapeutically equivalent to branded drugs. Majority doctors support media publicity, political commitment and increase in Jana Oushadi outlets to encourage Generic prescription. Generic prescription should be a part of undergraduate education to have an effect from grass root level.

RDU-23

Study on Awareness and Attitudes of Clinicians and Postgraduates Regarding Reporting of Adverse Drug Reaction in Andhra Medical College.


Santhi Lakshmi CH, Sudha J, Lalitha K, Suresh Babu N.

Department of Pharmacology, Andhra Medical College

Objectives: To study and compare the attitudes and awareness of ADR reporting among clinicians and postgraduates in Andhra Medical College. Materials and Methods: An observational study with the help of a questionnaire to assess the awareness of ADR reporting, reasons for underreporting and suggested methods for improving ADR reporting among a sample of 118 containing Clinicians and Postgraduate students. Results: 31% of the clinicians and 29% of the PGs are aware of ADR reporting system. Only 21% clinicians as compared to 4.9% PGs identified correctly the regional Pharmacovigilance Centre for AP. 52% of clinicians and 34.4% PGs encountered a potential ADR within the last 12 months. But only 17.5% clinicians and 4.9% PGs reported an ADR within the same period. 95% of clinicians and 100% of PGs felt that Lack of awareness of channels for reporting as the major cause for under reporting. 89% of clinicians and 100% of PGs felt that there should be CMEs regarding ADR reporting from undergraduation. 100% clinicians and 85% PGs felt that every medical college should be a Peripheral Pharmacovigilance Centre. Conclusion: Only a few clinicians and PGs are aware of ADR reporting system and very few reported ADRs encountered by them. There is no major difference in the response of Clinicians and PGs regarding ADR reporting system and most of them felt Lack of awareness of proper channel as the most important cause of under reporting.

RDU-24

Drug Utilization Pattern in Cases of Bronchial Asthma in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Samajdar SS, Panda P, Patel D, Prasad A, Pattanayak C, Singh A

Department of pharmacology, Hi-Tech Medical College and Hospital, Bhubaneswar

Objective: To evaluate drug utilization pattern in cases of bronchial asthma in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India; Hi-Tech Medical College and Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. Materials and Methods: Observational study to be done on 200 admitted and outdoor patients of bronchial asthma in Hi-Tech Medical College and Hospital, Bhubaneswar for the time period of June 2014 to November 2014. Their prescription would be analysed on following parameters- i) name of drugs prescribed, ii) average number of drugs per prescription, iii) percentage of drugs prescribed in generic name, iv) percentage of patients treated with antibiotics, v) percentage of patients treated with injectable drugs, vi) percentage of drugs prescribed from essential drug lists, vii) percentage of drug used via inhalational route, viii) percentage of prescriptions of steroid use, ix) cost per prescription. Permission from institutional ethics committee is already granted. Result: After data collection it will be compiled, tabulated and analysed in SPSS software (version 16) using logistic regression analysis to predict the pattern for a particular patient. Conclusion: After the results are analysed it can be concluded whether the present drug utilization pattern on asthma patients meets the standard guidelines of asthma treatment or not.

RDU-25

Drug Audit of Intravenous Anesthetic Agents in a Tertiary Care Hospital

More SR, Ghongane BB, Dr Dabhade S

Department of Pharmacology, B.J. Government Medical College and SGH Pune, India

Objectives: i) To find the quantity of utilized and un-utilized intravenous anesthetic and pre-anesthetic drugs in a tertiary care hospital ii) To determine cost of utilized and un-utilized drugs used during general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Prospective observational study was conducted for 3 months and200 cases above 12 years were recorded undergoing surgical procedures under intravenous general anesthesia. The data for drugs utilized and un-utilized was collected. Cost estimation was done. Results: Thiopentone sodium was frequently used intravenous inducing anesthetic agent in 74% of patients. On average 6.5 drugs were prescribed per patient as pre-anesthetic and anesthetic medications. 100% of drugs were prescribed by generic name, 92.30% from National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM). Amongst intravenous anesthetic agents maximum unused quantity was associated with Propofol of about 36.59% and in pre- anesthetics, unused quantity was maximum for Atropine 79% followed by Glycopyrrolate 45.99%, Pentazocine 45.98%. The cost of unused quantity of drugs for study duration was 36.91% (Rs. 12,013.82) of the total cost of drugs was ordered (Rs. 32544.8). The cost of unused quantity of drug per case was maximum for Rocuronium being (Rs. 237.12). Conclusion: Need to formulate policy for drug utilization during intravenous general anesthesia. Most commonly prescribed drug Glycopyrrolate is still not in NLEM. Judicious use of these drugs and appropriate measures can effectively decrease the cost burden.

RDU-26

Prescribing Patterns of Commonly used Analgesics in Orthopedic in-Patient Department, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam

Choudhury DK, Bezbaruah BK

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objectives: To determine the prescriptions pattern of commonly used analgesic and to analyze the rationale use of analgesic in orthopedic in-patient department of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati (GMCH), Assam. Materials and Methods: An observational and prospective study was carried out for 1 month duration from April through May 2014. The details of the patients were being recorded in a specific format and results were analyzed by descriptive statistic and expressed as mean ±SD. Results: Out of 200 prescriptions, 123 were male and 77 were female. The mean age of the patients was 32.52 ± 18.64 years. The number of analgesic per prescription was 1.50 ± 0.59. The duration of analgesic therapy was 5.13 ± 4.65 days and length of hospitalization was 10.38 ± 7.28. In our study, 53.5% of orthopedic patients were on single analgesic. During the time of hospitalization and discharge, most of the patients were receiving oral preparation. Maximum Gastro-protective agents, enzymes and antibiotics were prescribed along with analgesics. Diclofenac Injection (42.47%) was the most commonly prescribed analgesic followed by combination of Aceclofenac-Paracetamol tablet (41.14%). The combination of Aceclofenac-Paracetamol tablet was the most commonly found FDC (fixed dose combination) analgesics during hospitalization (41.14%) and discharge time (77%). Maximum analgesic drugs were prescribed in generic (89.97%) name. Conclusion: The most commonly prescribed analgesic was Diclofenac Injection (42.47%) followed by the combination of Aceclofenac-Paracetamol tablet. The rational strategies should be implemented in prescribing analgesics.

RDU-27

Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Water Samples Collected From in and Around a Suburban Area of Chennai


Farhana R, Arul Amutha, Revaty AR

Department of Pharmacology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, India

Objective: Prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in water samples collected from in and around a suburban area of Chennai- 1) To detect microbial contamination of water (drinking water source by the road side and seepage water, i.e, water pools in the street). 2) To perform antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and biochemical test for the isolates cultured from the water samples. Materials and Methods: 50 samples (10 ml) of water from different source of road side drinking water and 50 samples from seepage water were collected from a suburban area named Chrompet of Chennai city. Water was transferred to Muller Hinton agar for bacterial growth. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines and antibiotic used were - AMP: Ampicillin (10mcg), CAZ: Ceftazedime (30mcg), CIP: Ciprofloxacin (5mcg), CX: Cefoxitin (30mcg), MRP: Meropenam (10mcg), GEN: Gentamicin (10mcg), AK: Amikacin (30mcg), AMK: Amoxicillin (10mcg), CET: Cephalothin (30mcg). Biochemical test were also done for the isolates. Results: Bacteria were isolated from the water sample. The strain identified belonged to Enterobacteriaceae group amongst which  Enterobacter cloacae Scientific Name Search x were abundantly found. These bacteria were found to be gram negative and oxidase negative. Biochemical test gave positive reactions in test for methyl red, citrate utilization, urea hydrolysis. They gave negative reactions in test for indole production, in test for H 2 S production. For antibiotic susceptibility test; amikacin, amoxicillin, cefoxitin and cephalothin showed 100% resistance to the isolates. Conclusion: The study of resistance in the environmental bacteria helps predict future emergence and guide for the development of stratagies to counteract this resistance.

RDU-28

A Drug Utilization Study of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents Prescribed in the Medicine Outpatient Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital

Deokate M, Kamble S, Patel SB, Khobragade A


Department of Pharmacology, Grant Govt. Medical College and Sir J. J. Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India

Objective: Diabetes mellitus is the chronic disorder emerging as a major world health problem. The aim of the present study was to ascertain prescription patterns of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) to type 2 diabetic patients attending a tertiary health care hospital. Material and Methods: It was a retrospective, observational study. The data was collected from 600 patients in the diabetic OPD over a period of 6 months. The data was analyzed using the various drug use indicators given by the WHO. Results: The study found that 52% patients were males. The majority of patients (38.61%) were in the age group of 61-70 years. Sulfonylurea and biguanide combination (46.49%) was the most common class of drugs among the various OHAs prescribed. Average number of drugs per prescription was 4.85 + 1.45 and the average number of antidiabetic drugs per prescription was 1.58. Hypertension was the commonest comorbid disease (65.83%) with enalapril being most prescribed (64.33%) antihypertensive drug. Drugs prescribed by generic name were 97.48%. Average total cost per prescription was 321.47 INR, from which cost borne by the hospital was 149.72 INR and by the patient was 171.75 INR. Average cost per prescription due to OHAs was 73.52 %. Conclusion: The most commonly prescribed single dose and fixed dose combination were metformin and metformin + glibenclamide, respectively. Overall the principles of rational prescribing were followed according to the various drug use indicators mentioned by the WHO. However, a major part of the total cost per prescription was borne by the patient.

RDU-29

Introduction of Case Based Teaching to Impart Rational Pharmacotherapy Skills in Undergraduate Medical Students of Silchar Medical College


Dr. Bikash Gairola

P.G.T. Department of Pharmacology, SMCH, Silchar

Objective: To assess the impact of case based teaching on learning rational prescribing. To compare case based teaching with the traditional method of teaching. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted on second year Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students (n = 80). This study consists of 3 sessions one open session and two closed sessions. A pre-test is conducted before the teaching on rational use of medicine, then the students are given teaching on rational use of medicine based on traditional method of teaching and a test is conducted. After this the same group are given teaching on rational use of medicine based on case based teaching and a test is conducted. Marks obtained in the test in each session will be graded and analysed. Results: Results will be drawn at the time of presentation. Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn at the time presentation.

RSP-1

Potential for systemic pyocyanin-mediated toxicity


Arora D1,2, Grant G1,2, Morrison R1, Mcfarland A1, Hall S1, Anoopkimar-Dukie S1,2, Perkins AV, Davey Ak1,2

School of Pharmacy, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia

Objectives: This study sought to investigate the diffusion of PCN through the pulmonary membrane and identify any potential barriers to diffusion. This was followed by studies of mice and human blood following exposure to PCN. Materials and Methods: Permeability and metabolism were assessed in silica. C57BL/6J male mice were inoculated by intranasal route with 50μg PCN, and plasma levels were detected by validated HPLC method. Open field and forced swimming test were performed to assess the effect of PCN on mouse behaviour. PCN in CF patients chronically infected withP. aeruginosawas determined by HPLC. Results: This study found that PCN is readily diffusible in silica in a concentration-pH-dependent manner. PCN was not readily metabolised by CYP enzymes in silica and demonstrated to be NADP + dependent. Significant levels of PCN were detected in mice plasma samples following short-term exposure, and in the sputum of some samples from subjects chronically exposed to PCN producing P. aeruginosa. Our data demonstrated that PCNcan diffuse from the lungs into systemic circulation following both chronic and acute exposure. No significant barriers to diffusion exist. Conclusion: This study provides novel evidence for the role of pyocyanin in systemic damage in cystic fibrosis.

RSP-2

Prescribing trends in respiratory tract infections used as a teaching tool for rational therapy for MBBS students in a Medical College at Dehradun, Uttarakhand


Dutta SB, Beg MA, Bawa S, Kaur A

Department of Pharmacology, SGRR Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Dehradun, India

Objective: There is a need to introduce clinical pharmacology at the undergraduate level in order to improve rational prescribing of medicines. Respiratory tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The present study was undertaken to analyze drug utilization pattern of respiratory infections to teach certain basic skills to MBBS students which will form an integral component of practicing rational therapeutics. Material and Methods: The retrospective study was conducted by Pharmacology department in SGRRIM and HS. A total of 195 prescriptions were collected by 2 nd professional MBBS students entering 5 th semester and randomly evaluated for prescribing pattern using WHO drug indicators. Results: A total of 195 prescriptions were analyzed. Male:Female ratio was 1:0.38. Age wise distribution was done: 0-15 years were 27(13.84%), 16-30 years were 18(9.23%), 31-45 years were 66 (33.84%), 46-60 years were 25 (12.82%) and >60 years were 59 (30.25%). A total of 1623drugs were prescribed.918(56.56%) antibiotics, 225 (13.8%) bronchodilators, 210 (12.93%) corticosteroids, 101 (6.22%) antacids, 169(10.41%) in miscellaneous category were prescribed.854 (52.61%) oral drugs and 497 (30.62%) injectable drugs 272 (16.75%) inhalational drugs were prescribed. Numbers of Fixed dose combinations were 215 (13.24%).8.32 drugs were prescribed per prescription. 803 (49.47%) drugs were prescribed from national essential medicine list. 1440 (88.72%) drugs were prescribed by their brand names. Conclusion: Majority of prescriptions revealed polypharmacy. The main purpose of undergraduate medical curriculum is to develop the requisite diagnostic and therapeutic skills of a basic doctor. It is only by drug utilization studies that burden of diseases and corresponding utilization of drugs can be measured.

RSP-3

Outcomes Research - DOTS Treatment in Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis of Different Organ Systems Under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program - South Kerala


Dr. Jerin J. Cherian1, Dr. K.P. Kiruthika1, Dr. Jaysankar Subramoniapillai2, Dr. Pradeep S. Pillai1

1 Department of Pharmacology, Govt. Medical College, Trivandrum, 2 Addl. Director of Health Services-TB/State TB Officer, Directorate of Health Services, Trivandrum

Objectives: To stratify treatment outcomes of Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) in Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis (EPTB) according to the organ system involved in South Kerala. Methodology: Data was collected from the TB registers maintained either at the DTC or respective TU. All the EPTB patients registered for DOTS from the selected districts between Jan 2010 and Jan 2013 were included in the study. The recorded data included demographic variables, disease variables, RNTCP enrolment details and outcome of treatment. Data retrieved from the registers were recorded in a predesigned electronic CRF using Epi Info™ version 7.0. Results: A total of 1966 cases were studied out of which 55.1% were males. There were 230 patients below 18 years of age and 243 above 60 years. 4.9% of them were HIV positive. The most common site of involvement was Lymph Node (33.7%) followed by Pleural Effusion (16.9%) and Bone-Joint (9%). Even though out of 1966 patients, 85.4% completed treatment; poor treatment outcome was associated with CNS tuberculosis, >60 years of age, male gender and HIV positive patients; with only 65.3%, 80.2%, 83.6% and 60.8% completing treatment respectively in these groups. Conclusion: 75.9% of patients were in economically productive age group (18-60). Most of the cases were new and started on Cat I treatment. 50.6% of cases were comprised of lymph node and pleural effusion cases. 85.4% of all the EPTB cases completed treatment. Poor treatment outcome in EPTB was associated with male gender, older age and HIV positivity. The worst treatment outcome was for CNS tuberculosis.

TOX-1

Morin Hyrate Synergizes Anticancer Activity of Cisplatin and Reduces its Toxicity in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Bearing Swiss Albino Mice


Athira.K.V, Shubham Dwivedi, Pavan Kumar Samudrala, Parveen Kumar, Mangala Lahkar, Ranadeep Gogoi1

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, India, 1 Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, India

Objective: To evaluate the effect of morin hydrate, a flavonoid, on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and myelosuppression, and its anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: EAC cells were inoculated intraperitoneally (2x10 6 cells/mice) to all the groups (n=12) except normal control. Mice were subjected to treatment with cisplatin (7 mg/kg; i.p.), morin hydrate (100 mg/kg; oral) and combination of above. Cisplatin was administered at the onset of initial and/or disseminated stages of cancer while morin hydate was administered throughout. Half of the animals of each group were kept aside to study changes in the body weight and survival period (median survival time and % increase in life span). Remaining half of the animals was sacrificed for evaluation of antitumor activity, toxicological investigations (hematological, clinical chemistry and histopathology) and oxidative stress parameters. Results: Of the entire treatment regimen, administration of two doses of cisplatin in combination with morin hydrate resulted in most significantly synergized anticancer activity along with significantly attenuated toxicities. The results of the combination were dependent on the stage of tumor progression as well as the number of doses of cisplatin. The treatment acted via compensation of deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms by increasing the levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase and suppressing lipid peroxidation. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that anticancer efficacy of cisplatin can be enhanced by administration of morin hydrate with simultaneous attenuation of toxicity by abating oxidative stress damage.

TOX-2

Pharmacobezoar: Its Etiopathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management through the Review of Case Reports


Choudhury Anup, Chaudhary Shailesh

Senior Pharmacovigilance Experts, Novartis Healthcare Pvt.Ltd.

Introduction: Pharmacobezoars are concretions of pharmaceutical products, especially of insoluble drug delivery systems that form and retained in the gastrointestinal tract. It is a very rare but serious and life-threatening condition and can be fatal if not treated timely and properly. Objective: To evaluate the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management of Pharmacobezoars in clinical settings. Materials and Methods: We performed a cumulative literature search for individual case reports published in 3 variable public databases; OVID MEDLINE, PubMed and Embase using the keywords "pharmacobezoar," AND "case reports" and the results were limited to "English language" and "Human". Case reports with confirmed diagnosis of pharmacobezoar were further analyzed. Results: The search revealed 32 cases (N=32). Antipsychotic medications are most commonly implicated (34%) followed by Antihypertensives (15%); 43% consisted sustained or extended release formulations alone. The risk was mostly seen in psychiatric patients. There was no particular age trend observed (ranged 16-77 years). The techniques used for successful diagnosis was abdominal X-Ray's and CT scan and the successful management procedure wasendoscopic removal and symptomatic management. The prognosis was favorable with efficient management; 56% recovered without any sequel and 9% had fatal outcome. Conclusion: Pharmacobezoar are most commonly observed with Antipsychotic medications especially with SR/ER formulations. Although rare, these cases can be managed effectively using early diagnosis (X-rays and CT abdomen) and endoscopic removal of pharmacobezoars. Awareness of the physicians prescribing such medications especially SR/ER formulations and early monitoring of sign/symptoms of such complication is the key to prevent Pharmacobezoar.

TOX-3

Toxicological Evaluation of Inhalational Transfluthrin Insecticide Using Experimental

Animal Model


Himangshu Mahato, Tanima Saha, 1Swati Bhattacharyya, 2Bipasa Majumdar, 3Vaswati Das, Supreeti Biswas.

1 Department of Pharmacology, R.G.KAR Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal, India, Department of Pharmacology and 2 Pathology, Burdwan Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal, India, 3 Department of Pathology, North Bengal Medical College, West Bengal, India

Objective: Inhalational mosquito repellent use has been increasing day by day due to high malaria burden in the Indian subtropics. Transfluthrin, an inhalational pyrethroid insecticide, commonly used in household mosquito repellents, also acts against flying insects and material pests. This study thus aimed at assessing the transfluthrin exposure using the rat model. Materials and Methods: Healthy rats, 5 groups of 6 rats each were exposed to transfluthrin 0.88% w/w by inhalation at a rate of 8hrs/day, through common electronic mosquito repellent machine in a large stainless steel cage maintaining standard conditions. Trachea, lungs, liver, brain and kidney were dissected out and sent for histopathological examinations. Blood samples were taken and compared for biochemical tests (urea, creatinine, liver function tests, malondialdehyde etc.) before and after different duration of exposure [ Day O: Positive control with air ; Day 2; Day 8; Day 15; Day 22 ]. Results: Transfluthrin created significant ballooning degeneration in hepatocytes and micro vesicular periportal fatty changes with inflammatory sparse. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia found in lungs with mononuclear cell infiltration and peribroncheolar brown pigmentary deposits. Trachea shows loss of cilia, surface mucosal ulceration and sub mucosal lymphoid aggregations. Vascular congestion and haemorrhages were found in kidney. Significant abnormal changes were observed in liver function tests and in malondialdehyde. Conclusion: Transfluthrin have toxicological potential on liver, lung, trachea and kidney.

TOX-4

A Case Report on Contact Dermatitis and Acute Renal Failure Following Topical Administration of Heparin Gel

Banerjee B, Borah A, Bezbaruah B K.

Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Introduction: Heparin gel is a commonly used anticoagulant for thromophlebitis in surgical wards. The common side effects associated with topical heparin are bleeding, thrombocytopenia, osteoporosis, hypersensitivity. Case History: We report a case of a 40 year old woman, a known case of carcinoma rectum for the past 6 months, who underwent Lower Anterior resection. One day after the surgery she complained of itching and pain in the cannula site for which she was prescribed with Topical Heparin gel. 6hrs after application of the Heparin gel she developed redness and fluid filled blisters all over the body. Extensive erythematous rash were present all over the body. On the 3 rd day the patient developed oliguria. The following day she developed anuria and was taken for dialysis. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis and Acute Renal Failure following topical administration of Heparin gel was made with convincing evidence for its causality due to the drug. Conclusion: Heparin is a commonly used drug and so the physician should always keep in mind the possible risk of this dangerous condition while prescribing this drug

TOX-5

Effect of N-acetylcysteine on Drug Induced Nephrotoxicity in Suitable Experimental Animal Models

Elizabeth L, Prasad Vn, Subhalakshmi A.

Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, India

Introduction: Nephrotoxic potential and adverse effect of NSAIDs on renal physiology are well documented requiring monitoring of serum creatinine level. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been claimed to have nephroprotective potential and has been used in renal impairment whereas its efficacy is not very well documented despite being thoughtfully studied in vivo and vitro. Objective: The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the role of N-acetylcysteine in impaired kidney function in rat models. Materials and Methods: Renal failure were induced in 15 adult healthy albino rats by Diclofenac (13.5 mg/kg) intramuscular for 14 days. And varying doses of NAC ( 20 and 40 mg/kg) were g ven orally for 3 wks starting from day 5 of the experiment. Blood urea and creatinine levels were measured on day 5, 15 and day after completion of treatment of NAC. Results: Intramuscular injection of high dose of diclofenac significantly produced biochemical signs of nephrotoxicity. Serum urea and creatinine level were significantly lowered in NAC treated group compared to the control group. The group treated with NAC 40 mg/kg for 3wks had significantly lower renal biochemical parameters compared to group treated with NAC 20 mg/kg. Conclusion: N-acetylcysteine dose dependently ameliorates diclofenac induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats.

TOX-6

Chemopreventive effects of chrysin in Benzo(a) Pyrene induced oxidative stress and clastogenicity in Swiss albino mice


Eshvendar Reddy Kasala 1* , Lakshmi Narendra Bodduluru 1 , Babul Kumar Bezbaruah 1 . Ranadeep Gogoi 1 , Nitul Sarmah 1 , Chandana C Barua 2

1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati, Assam. 2 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of veterinary Sciences, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam, India

Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutants. Benzo(a)Pyrene [B(a)P] is one of the PAH, a classified carcinogen to humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Since B(a)P is an omnipresent environmental pollutant and is believed to be a risk factor for human chemical carcinogenesis, it is important to identify potent naturally occurring/synthetic agents that could modulate B(a)P-induced toxicity. Objective: The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anticlastogenic effects of the flavone chrysin against B(a)P in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Mice were pretreated with chrysin (50 and 100 mg/kg) orally in corn oil for 7 days; and subsequently, after 2 h of last pretreatment, B(a)P was administered orally in corn oil (125 mg/kg body weight). 24hrs after B(a)P intoxication, mice were sacrificed and antioxidant, biochemical, and mutagenic parameters were estimated. Results: Single dose of B(a)P in normal mice significantly increased the levels of lipid peroxides (LPO), chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) content with subsequently decreased the levels of endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Moreover, increase in the Phase 1 enzymes (total CYP content) and decrease in Phase II enzymes (Glutathione-S-Transferase [GST] and Quinone reductase [QR]) were also observed in B(a)P treated animals. Pretreatment with chrysin significantly and dose dependently reversed the all the parameters towards near normal. Conclusion: The results suggest the chemopreventive role of chrysin in B(a)P-induced oxidative insult and clastogenicity.

TOX-7

Ridaifen-B Induces Apoptosis in Lung Carcinoma Cell Line via Activation of Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway

Lakshmi Narendra Bodduluru1*, Kulkarni Prasad2, Eshvendar Reddy Kasala1, Ramakrishna Sistla2

1 National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam, India, 2 Council of Scientific and Industrial Research- Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

Objective: The objective of the study is to determine the cytotoxic activity of Ridaifen-B on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative cancer cell lines and to decipher the molecular mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: Cells were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS in a standard environment at 37 0 C and 5% CO 2 . The cell viability was determined by MTT, and the morphological changes were analyzed by microscopy. The cell cycle distribution and annexin-V assay was performed by flow cytometry. The role of reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium and mitochondria in Ridaifen-B induced cytotoxicity was studied by fluorescence microscopy. The involvement of caspases in inducing apoptosis, and the damage to DNA was also evaluated. Results: This study demonstrates that Ridaifen-B was able to inhibit the cell proliferation of A549, DU-145 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Ridaifen-B induced cell death was characterized with changes in nuclear morphology and cell morphology. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that Ridaifen-B blocked the cell cycle progression at G 0 /G1 phase. Furthermore, Ridaifen-B was shown to induce apoptosis through an increase in intracellular calcium levels , generation of ROS and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. The annexin V-FITC and PI assay also confirmed apoptosis when analyzed by flow cytometry. These results demonstrates that Ridaifen-B induced apoptosis in A549 cells through activation of mitochondrial mediated pathway via increase in intracellular ca 2+ , generation of ROS and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential leading to activation of caspases and eventually apoptosis. Conclusion: Ridaifen-B inhibited the cell growth and also induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines through activation of intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway.

TOX-8

Mangiferin Protects Against Aluminium Chloride-Induced Liver Injury by Inhibition of Oxidative Stress in Mice


Mohit Kwatra1, Ashok Jangra1, Sr Chandershaker1, Babita Saroha3, Mangala Lahkar1,2

1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam, India, 1,2 Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India, 3 University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India

Objective: Previous reports demonstrated that free radicals generation mediates the aluminium-induced tissue injury. Mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone possesses anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these facts, we have investigated the effect of aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) on hepatic oxidative stress and the consequence of concomitant administration of mangiferin in mice. Materials and Methods: Male swiss albino mice (20-25 g) were taken for the experimental study and randomly divided in to six groups. AlCl 3 (100 mg/kg; p.o.) was administered for 8 weeks and concurrently treated with mangiferin (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) for the same period. Animals were sacrificed on after 8 weeks and liver samples were collected and homogenized for biochemical analysis. Hepatic biochemical markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated. Oxidative stress was measured through estimating the lipid peroxidation level, reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver homogenates. Results: There was a significant increase in the hepatic AST, ALT and ALP level in AlCl 3 -treated group compared to the normal control. AlCl 3 significantly increased the lipid peroxidation, and reduced the GSH level, SOD activity which indicates the existence of oxidative stress in AlCl 3 -induced hepatic injury. However, Mangiferin significantly abrogates the AlCl 3 -induced oxidative stress along with restoration of hepatic functional parameters in liver. Conclusion: Our study reveals the anti-oxidative property of mangiferin towards AlCl 3 -induced liver injury in mice.

TOX-9

Hesperidin, a Flavoglycone Ameliorates Aluminium-Induced Behavioral and Biochemical Alterations via Suppression of Oxido-nitrosative stress and Pro-inflammatory cytokines in Swiss Albino Mice

Prajapati Kasbe, Ashok Jangra, Shubham Dwivedi, Sr Chandershaker, Satendra Singh Gurjar1, Mangala Lahkar2

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam, India, 1 Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam, India, 2 Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India

Objective: The Present study was aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Hesperidin against aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 )-induced neurotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. Methodology: Swiss albino mice (males) weighing 22-25 g were employed in the present study and were divided randomly in to four groups. AlCl 3 (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 42 days in swiss albino mice. 42 days of co-treatment with Hesperidin (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the behavioural and biochemical anomalies caused by AlCl 3 treatment. Morris water maze test was conducted on 42 nd day to assess the cognitive impairment. On 43 rd day, animals were sacrificed by decapitation and quickly isolated the brain for biochemical and histological estimation. Results: AlCl 3 treated animals exhibited cognitive impairment and significant increase in brain Pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) level and oxido-nitrosative stress markers (Lipid peroxidation, Glutathione level, and nitrite level). Brain acetylcholinesterase level was significantly increased in AlCl 3 treated group as compared to control group. Hesperidin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly prevented the development of cognitive impairment in AlCl 3 treated animals. Moreover, Hesperidin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly suppress the Pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxido-nitrosative stress parameters. Congo red staining shows the presence of β-amyloid plaques in the hippocampus of AlCl 3 treated animals. Chronic Hesperidin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment significantly reduces the amyloid plaques in the hippocampus. Conclusion: Thus, it may be concluded that chronic Hesperidin treatment may prevent the development of cognitive impairment in AlCl 3 -induced neurotoxicity, through an activation of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant mechanisms.

TOX-10

Hesperetin Attenuates Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity via Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Renal Inflammation in Male Wistar Rats

Mukesh Kumar Budhani1*, Vicky Dahiya1, Lakshmi Narendra Bodduluru1, Eshvendar Reddy Kasala1, B.K Bezbaruah1, Mangala Lahkar1

1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati, Assam.

Background: Cisplatin is one of the highly effective chemotherapeutic agent but nephrotoxicity is the serious dose limiting side effect when used in the treatment of various malignant conditions. Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress caused by free radicals and inflammation in renal cells contributes to the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Objective: In this study we investigate the protective effect of hesperetin against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Cisplatin at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally to induce nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Animals were treated with hesperetin at the doses of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg b.wt orally for 10 consecutive days Results: Single dose of cisplatin administration resulted in acute nephrotoxicity, characterized by significant reduction in body weight and increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Cisplatin also increased lipid peroxidation and depleted antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked proinflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and NF-kB. Pre-treatment with hesperetin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of hesperetin, as it ameliorated the pathological changes seen in cisplatin administered animals. Conclusion: Thus, our results propose that hesperetin co-administration may serve as a novel and promising preventive strategy against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via modulation of oxidative stress and renal inflammation.

TOX-11

Anti-mutagenic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cleome Viscosa (EECV) and its Effect on Hepatic Damage caused by Benzo(a)Pyrene.

Eshvendar Reddy Kasala, Vicky Dahiya*, Lakshmi Narendra Bodduluru, Kalyani Chowdary Karnam, Raman Reddy, Suseela Reddy Maramreddy, Maheshwara Prasad, Pavan Kumar Samudrala, Managla Lahkar

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati, Assam, India

Background: Benzo(a)Pyrene [B(a)P] is one of the most potent and well-studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, classified as a class-I carcinogen to humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer. Numerous studies have confirmed its mutagenic and hepatic damage causing effects in rodents. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of ethanolic extract of Cleome viscosa (EECV) on B(a)P induced mutagenicity and hepatic damage. Material and methods: Male Swiss albino mice were pretreated with EECV (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight, orally) for 7 days before treatment with single oral dose of B(a)P (125 mg/kg body weight). Animals from all the groups were killed at sampling time of 24 h and their bone marrow cells were analyzed for chromosomal damage. The effect of extract on hepatic lipid peroxides, antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase) and liver marker enzymes, such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were evaluated. Results: Single dose of B(a)P administration resulted in increase in hepatic lipid peroxides, frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and alteration in the activities of liver marker enzymes in serum with subsequent decrease in hepatic antioxidants were observed. Pretreatment with EECV extract significantly reversed all these parameters towards near normal. Conclusion: These results suggest that ethanolic extract of Cleome viscosa possess protective effect on B(a)P induced mutagenicity and hepatic damage.




 

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