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ABSTRACTS
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 43  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 41-197
 

Abstracts of Papers for Poster Sessions



Date of Web Publication13-Dec-2011

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How to cite this article:
. Abstracts of Papers for Poster Sessions. Indian J Pharmacol 2011;43, Suppl S1:41-197

How to cite this URL:
. Abstracts of Papers for Poster Sessions. Indian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2011 [cited 2017 Sep 26];43, Suppl S1:41-197. Available from: http://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2011/43/7/41/90793



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AIN-1

Evaluation of burn wound healing activity of topical regular insulin in normal and diabetic rats


Bairy KL, Abhinav R.

Dept. of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Karnataka - 576104.

Aim: To determine the effects of topical insulin administration on burn wound healing in rats with or without acute diabetes. Methods : This study was conducted using six groups of Wistar strain adult rats of either sex each group having 6 rats each. First three groups had non-diabetic (ND) rats and the other three had diabetic (D) rats:(i) ND control (sterile water); (ii) ND standard (silver sulfadiazine cream); (iii) ND test(topical Insulin); (iv) D control (sterile water); (v) D standard (silver sulfadiazine cream); (vi) D test(topical insulin). Wound healing was assessed by wound contraction rate and complete epithelialization time. Results : There is significant (P<0.05) delay in wound healing in diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. It was found that topical insulin administration enhanced burn wound healing by shortening the time needed for complete epithelialization in the non diabetic and diabetic group. Conclusions: This study revealed that topical insulin application to partial thickness burn wounds accelerates wound healing in rats with or without acute diabetes.

AIN-2

Experimentally induced burn wound healing

Savin C.G , Kirankumar N, Avinash M, Satishkumar M.C, Bairy KL

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 576104

E-mail: savincg@gmail.com

Objective : To study the effect of various formulations of silver sulfadiazine cream on experimentally induced burn wound healing in male Wistar rats. Methods : Partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted on Wistar rats (180-200g). and were divided into 5 groups (n=10). Group 1 did not receive any drug and served as control group. Group 2, 3 and 4 were applied topically silver sulfadiazine A, B, C creams of Apex lab and group 5 Silverex AV creams once daily for 21 days or till complete healing whichever was earlier and results were analysed by one way ANOVA. Observation : Wound contraction was monitored on alternate days till the wounds were completely healed. Epithelialization was noted by recording the days required for fall of scab leaving no raw wound behind. Results : Mean period of epithelialization was found to decrease significantly in silver sulfadiazine C treated group when compared to control and it is in line with Silverex. Wound contraction was significantly better in silver sulfadiazine A, B, and C treated groups in comparison to the control groups. Conclusion : In the present study Silver sulfadiazine C possess significant prohealing properties which is comparable with Silverex.

AIN-3

Effect of ethanolic extract of the leaf of Plectranthus amboinicus on the healing of burn wounds in wistar rats

Sukesh , Vinod M.S, Shruthi, Smita Shenoy, Mohan Amberkar, Arul Amuthan 1

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal - 576104. Department of Pharmacology, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal - 576104

AIM: To study the effect of ethanolic extract of the leaf of Plectranthusamboinicus on the healing of burn wounds in wistar rats and compare it with control and silver sulfadiazine treated group. Materials and methods: Three groups of rats were used in the study . Partial thickness burn wounds were made on each rat under ketamine anesthesia intraperitonialy (50mg/kg). The wounds in the three groups of rats were treated topically with petroleum base, 1% silver sulfadiazine and 2% ointment of ethanolic extract of Plectranthusamboinicus, respectively once daily for 21 days or till complete healing whichever was earlier. The wound contraction rate was monitored on alternate days till the wounds were completely healed. Epithelialization was noted by recording the days required for the fall of scab leaving no raw wound behind. Data was analysed by one way ANOVA. Results: Mean period of epithelialization was found to decrease significantly (P< 0.0001) in Plectranthusamboinicus treated group when compared to control and silver sulfadiazine treated groups. Percentage of wound contraction was significantly more on 5 th day (P = 0.001), 9 th day (P = 0.001), 13 th day (P < 0.0001) and 17 th day (P < 0.0001) in Plectranthusamboinicus treated groups in comparison to the control group. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Plectranthusamboinicus promoted healing of burn wound in wistar rats.

AIN-4

Screening for anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activity of bharangi (Clerodendrum serratum moon)

Nanasahebk.Bhangare, Tabassumpansare, Ghongane B.B.

Department of Pharmacology, B.J.Medical College and Saaoon General Hospital, Pune, India

Objectives : The currently available anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory drugs have certain limitations. Therefore in this study anti- inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of bharangi root and stem were studied in comparison to dexamethasone using animal models. Methods: 1) anti-inflammatory action in rats (6 groups, n=6 each) was by granuloma pouch method. Bharangi root and stem in low (ld) i.e.18mg and high dose (hd) i.e.36mg was given to respective groups for 7 days. Weight of pouch and amount of exudates was measured at end 10th day.2) milk induced leukocytosis was studied in mice (6 groups, n=6 each) bharangi root and stem was given in ld (2.6mg) and hd (5.6mg) respectively for 14 days.And decrease in milk induced leukocytosis was noted.3) bronchial hyper-reactivity in guinea pigs (6 groups, n=6 each)was produced by sensitizing with egg albumin on day 1 and the animals were treated for 21 days using 31mg (ld) and 62 mg (hd) of bharangi root and stem. At the end of 22nd day, they were challenged with egg albumin and pre-convulsion time was noted. Results : This study demonstrated that ld of bharangi root and stem shows efficacy equivalent toDexamethasone (23%), but in hd it has more anti-inflammatory activity (44%). In case of anti-allergic activity, ld of bharangi root and hd stem shows same efficacy as that of dexamethasone (21.3%), but ld stem shows only 8.6%activity. Hd root shows higher anti-allergic activity (35%). Conclusion: This study indicates that bharangi root is more effective than stem and its hd would be useful for anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory diseases like asthma; which needs to be further confirmed

AIN-5

Effect of oral extract of Areca catechu on burn wound healingin albino Wistar rats

Masuram Bharat Kumar , Deepak Kumar Verma, Deepak Nayak, Tara.V. Shanbhag, Ravindra Singh Rajput

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 576104.

E-mail: Bharatshah.m@gmail.com

Aim : To study the effect of oral alcoholic extract of Areca catechu on experimentally induced burnwound healing in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods : Partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted on Wistar rats (180-250g) and divided into the 3 groups (n=6). Group I received gum acacia (Oral) and served as control group. Group II and III were given orally 300 and 100 mg/kg of Areca catechu extract respectively. The parameters studied were the wound contraction and the period of epithelialisation. Results : In burn wound model, oral administration of Areca catechu showed significant (P< 0.05) improvement in the rate of wound contraction on day 5 as compared to control. Oral administration of Areca catechu significantly (P<0.05) reduced the period of epithelisation as compared to control in the burn wound model. Conclusion : Oral administration of ethanolic extract of Areca catechu showed burn wound healing activity.

AIN-6

Biological and chemical validation for the traditional use of physalis peruviana leaves in the treatment of rheumatism

Mahibalan S ., Rukaiya S. Khan, Patnaik A., Sajeli Begum A.

Department of Pharmacy, BITS-Pilani Hyderabad campus, Jawahar Nagar, R.R.Dist, Andra Pradesh, India.

Objective : Physalisperuviana (Family: Solanaceae) has been used for treating diseases like malaria, asthma, hepatitis, dermatitis and rheumatism in folk medicine. However, there are no scientific studies to confirm this. Hence, a biological and chemical validation for the traditional use of P. peruviana in the treatment of rheumatism was attempted. As a lead up step, the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of methanolic extract of P. peruviana leaves (MPPL) were evaluated using animal models. Method : Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed through carageenin-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma methods. Analgesic activity was studied using hot plate method and acetic acid induced writhing test. Chemical investigation was carried out utilising different chromatographic techniques followed by spectroscopic analysis to isolate and characterize the major active constituents present in MPPL. Results and Conclusion : The MPPL was effective in both acute and chronic inflammation studies. It produced significant inhibition of edema at a dose of 400 mg/kg under carageenin-induced edema model. Similarly, in the cotton pellet induced granuloma model, it dose-dependently inhibited granuloma formation and the higher dose of 400 mg/kg was found to be comparable to that of Indomethacin. MPPL demonstrated analgesic activity by increasing latency to pain response and minifying the writhing response in a dose-dependent manner. However, only 400 mg/kg dose was found to be significantly effective in hot plate as well as writhing methods. Furthermore, MPPL under chromatographic separation yielded physalolactone and campesterolglucoside as major constituents. Thus, the traditional claim of usage of P. peruviana as a pain reliever in treating rheumatism is proved through this study.

AIN-7

Effect of topical extract of Areca catechu on burn wound healing in albino Wistar rats

Deepak Kumar Verma , Masuram Bharat Kumar, Deepak Nayak, Tara.V. Shanbhag, Ravindra Singh Rajput

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 576104.

E-mail: deepakvermachintu@gmail.com

Aim: To study the effect of topical alcoholic extract of Areca catechu on experimentally induced burn wound healing in Wistar rats. Materials and methods : Partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted on Wistar rats (180-250g) and divided into the 3 groups (n=6). Group I received gum acacia (Topical) and served as control group. Group II received topical silver sulfadiazine and served as standard group. Group III was received topical 2% Areca catechu extract ointment. The parameters studied were the wound contraction and the period of epithelialisation. Results : In burn wound model, topical administration of Areca catechu showed significant (P< 0.05) improvement in the rate of wound contraction on day 5 as compared to control but not with standard. Topical application of Areca catechu significantly (P<0.05) reduced the period of epithelisation as compared to control in the burn wound model. Conclusion : Topical administration of ethanolic extract of Areca catechu showed burn wound healing activity

AIN-8

Anti-inflammatory activity of portulaca quadrifida- an in vitro analysis


S. Seethalakshmi, S. Latha, Fathima Grace, D. Chamundeeswari, K. Karthika, V. Srinivasan

Department of Pharmacology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institue, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai- 600116, India

Objectives: Before doing in-vivo studies to standardize the disease, we did a preliminary in vitro study to assess its anti inflammatory property. Methods : The aerial parts of plants were collected and processed to obtain a mucilage. There are various evaluations useful to assess the anti inflammatory properties of an compound. For this, we selected HRBC membrane stabilisation method, which is proved as a standard method to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of any unknown compound. Different concentrations varying from 10 mcg/ml to 1000 mcg/ml were done by this method using UV spectrometry at 560 nm. Results : The results of our study showed that with 1000 mcg/ml, the percentage of protection was 76%. With further doses, 800 mcg/ml->61%, 400 mcg/ml->42%, 200 mcg/ml->26%, 100 mcg/ml->13%, 50 mcg/ml->5% and 10 mcg/ml->1%. The results were analysed based on its percentage of protection against Hyposaline induced Haemolysis. Conclusion : The mucilage obtained from Portulacaquadrifida has dose dependent anti inflammatory activity, (ie) increase in concentration leads to increase in activity in comparison to the standard drug Diclofenac Sodium. This proves that Portulacaquadrifida possesses anti inflammatory activity.

AIN-9

Effect of eucalyptus oil and olive oil on wound healing an experimental study

Venkataramanan V. , K. Chandrashekar, Vinayak Meti, Ruckmani A.

Department of Pharmacology, Chettinad Hospitals and Research Institute, Rajiv Gandhi salai, Kelambakkamkanchipuram dist, Tamil Nadu-603103, India

Background: Drugs like eucalyptus oil which has been used in treatment of pain. Reported to cause burning sensation on the wound but olive oil known for enhancing wound healing activities. Due to paucity of information in combining eucalyptus and olive oil. Objectives: The present study was planned to investigate theEffect of this combination on resutured incision, excision wound in Wistar rats. Methods: Resutured incision, excision were inflicted under light etherAnaesthesia aseptically. Control animals received vehicle and other groups received combination of eucalyptus and olive oil topically for a period of 10 days in the incision,Whereas in excision wounds till complete closure. Results: Combination of eucalyptus oil and significantly promoted the healing process in all the two wound models. Interpretation and Conclusion: In all the two wound models combination of eucalyptus oil and olive oil promoted wound healing the pro healing effect of above combinationneeds to be explored clinically.

AIN-10

Effect of oil extract of ficus religiosa bark on burn wound healing in rats

Prathibha M. , Bairy K.L 1 , Tatiyana M. 2 , Sunitha K. 2 , Adiga S. 3

Department of Physiology, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus) Manipal University, Manipal, 1 Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical college, Manipal University, Manipal, 2 Department of Pharmacology, Melaka Manipal Medical college (Manipal Campus), Manipal University, Manipal, 3 Department of Ayurveda, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal - 576 104, India

E-mail: prathibha.almeida@yahoo.com

Objective : To study the effect of topical application of oil extract of Ficusreligiosa stem bark on burn wound model in rats. Materials and Methods : Animals were divided into 4 groups (control, vehicle control -coconut oil, standard - aloe vera, test -oil extract), n=6 . Oil extract was prepared by using 1 part paste of stem bark + 4 parts decoction of stem bark+ 16 parts coconut oil and the mixture was heated on low flame. Parameters studied were percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelisation in burn wounds. Results: A significant decrease in periods of epithelisation (P< 0.01) and increase in percentage of wound contraction (P<0.001) was observed in burn wound models when compared to the control. Discussion and conclusion : This study substantiates the use of F.religiosa bark in Ayurveda for treatment of wounds.

AIN-11

Evaluation of burn wound healing activity of oil extract of tectona grandis leaves in rats

Tatiyana M. , Bairy K.L. 1 , Sunitha K., Prathibha M. 2 , Adiga S. 3

Department of Pharmacology, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal campus), Manipal University, Manipal, 1 Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, 2 Department of Physiology, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal campus), Manipal University, Manipal, 3 Department of Ayurveda, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal - 576 104.

E-mail: bbeeas@gmail.com

Objective : To study the effect of topical application of oil extract of Tectonagrandis leaves on burn wound models in albino rats. Methods : Frontal fresh leaves of the Tectonagrandis were collected. One part of paste, four parts of juice and sixteen parts of the coconut oil were heated on a low flame to obtain oil extract. 4 groups (control, vehicle control -coconut oil, standard - aloe vera, test -oil extract) of animals each containing 6 rats were used. Parameters assessed were percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelisation. Results : A significant decrease in period of epithelisation (P<0.05) and increase in wound contraction (P<0.001) were observed in burn wound models when compared to the control. Discussion and conclusion : The present study has demonstrated that oil extract of Tectonagrandis leaves has burn wound healing properties.

AIN-12

Differential anti-inflammatory activity of indomethacin in different experimental models of inflammation


Suresha R.N., Sushma Naidu V.

Department of Pharmacology, JSS Medical College (Constituent of JSS University), Mysore- 570015, India

Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of indomethacin in different experimental anti-inflammatory animal models. Methods : Swiss albino rats weighing around 150 g - 250 g of either sex were randomly selected and divided into 6 groups (n=6) for 3 models, each having control and Standard. Materials used are Carrageenan, Formalin, Cotton pellets, Mercury and water plethysmographs. Methods adopted in this study are (1) Carrageenan induced rat-paw edema (paw volume measured through mercury and water plethysmographs).(2)Formalin induced experimental peritonitis (measured through quantity of peritoneal exudate), as models of acute inflammation. (3)Cotton pellet induced granuloma (measured through dry weight of granulation tissue) as model of sub-acute inflammation. Results: The following observations were made. Indomethacin exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced edema model (84.4% inhibition in mercury plethysmograph and 80.1% inhibition in water plethysmograph) compared to control. But its anti-inflammatory activity is of lower order both in formalin induced peritonitis and cotton pellet granuloma model (26.2% and 37.1% inhibition respectively). All the results obtained were statistically significant with P< 0.001 in all four investigated methods Conclusion : In the light of the above mentioned observations even an established anti-inflammatory agent (Indomethacin) has not shown considerably equal anti-inflammatory activity against all conventional models of experimental inflammation. So, a drug capable of inhibiting only one particular model of experimental inflammation might still be an effective anti-inflammatory agent.Hence, it may be suggested that any new drug to be evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity must be screened for more than 2-3 conventional models of inflammation.

AIN-13

Evaluation of the antiarthritic activity of dantrolene sodium in an experimental model

Vinod Nair , Rohit Kumar, Surender Singh, Y. K. Gupta

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi - 110029

E-mail: vinodnair1979@hotmail.com

Objective : The present study evaluates the antiarthritic activity of dantrolene sodium in pre-treatment and post-treatment protocols of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in rats. Methods : After measurement of baseline joint diameters, arthritis was induced by a subplantar injection of 0.1mL of CFA into the left hind paw of adult Wistar rats. Animals were administered either vehicle (control: 1% gum acacia), indomethacin (3mg/kg) or three escalating doses of dantrolene sodium (9, 18, 36mg/kg) in a pre-treatment and post-treatment protocol. Joint diameters were measured on days 3, 7, 14, 21 after CFA administration in the pre-treatment protocol and on days 14, 21, and 28 after CFA administration in the post-treatment protocol. Results:Injection of CFA into the hind paw produced an increase in the joint diameter of all tested animals. Joint swelling peaked on day 3 after which there was a gradual decrease till day 14. This was followed by an increase in joint swelling from day 14-28 in the control animals. This delayed increase in joint swelling was not observed in any of the drug treated groups. Indomethacin treatment produced a significant reduction in joint swelling throughout the observation period in both the protocols. However, the antiarthritic activity of dantrolene sodium was significant only after day 14 in pre-treatment and day 21 in post-treatment protocol. Conclusion:Result of the present study demonstrates the antiarthritic activity of dantrolene sodium in CFA induced arthritis in rats which was comparable to indomethacin (3mg/kg) on days 21 and 28 in pre-treatment and post-treatment protocols respectively.

AIN-14

Anti inflammatory and analgesic action of leaf extract of punica granatum

Arulraja S, Balamurugan M, Ruckmani A, Lakshmipathyprabhu R, Madhusudhanan N, Soundharya V.

Department of Pharmacology, Chettinad Hospitals and Research Institute, Rajiv Gandhi salai, kelambakkamkanchipuram dist,

TN-603103, India

Objectives: To evaluate the anti- inflammatory and analgesic activity of leaf extract of Punicagranatum in rats and mice. Methods : The aqueous extract of Punicagranatum leaf (PLE) was prepared and tested for analgesic and anti inflammatory activity in mice and rats. The animals were randomly divided into four groups of 6 each. One group served as control, other three groups treated with Standard (Aspirin), PLE (50, 100 mg/kg) respectively. The analgesic activity was evaluated by hot plate method and tail immersion method and the anti inflammatory activity by carageenan induced rat paw edema. Results: Aqueous extract of PLE showed analgesic and anti inflammatory effects at both the doses (50, 100 mg). There was significant increase (P<0.05) in the tail flick latency in tail immersion method and reaction time in hot plate method. The aqueous extract of PLE also showed (P<0.05) inhibition of carrageenan induced hind paw edema in wistar rats. The effect was higher at 100 mg than at 50 mg. Conclusion : The present study has shown that aqueous extract of Punicagranatum leaves has both analgesic and anti inflammatory activity in mice and rats. Key words: Analgesic, anti inflammatory, aqueous extract, PLE, Punicagranatum

AIN-15

Antiarthritic activity of methanolic extract of Sida cardiofolia against freunds complete adjuvant in male rats

Rajyalakshmi K.G. , Malleswari I., Meganath Reddy G., Swetha K., Rajaram C.

Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy, Mohan Gardens, Vaishnavi Nagar, Tiruchanoor-517503

Objective: Sidacardiofolia (Family: Malvaceae) is used in the indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of arthritic conditions. However, there is no reported literature on detailed investigation to support the rationale behind its use in arthritis. Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the anti arthritic activity of methanolic extract of S. cardifolia (MESC) against Freunds complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis in male rats. Methods: Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of FCA in to the sub plantar region of the left hind paw. After induction, male wistar rats (150 -200 gm) were randomly divided in to 5 groups (n=6) and treated for 28 days. Group I serves as normal and treated with vehicle, Group II serves as control and received FCA alone, Group III serves as standard treated with Ibuprofen (15 mg/kg per oral) along with FCA, Group IV and V serves as Test 1and Test 2 treated with 200 mg / kg p.o and 400 mg/ kg p.o of MESC along with FCA respectively. Results: After 28 days of treatment the parameters monitored in the present study were paw volume, paw diameter, mean diameter, X- ray of rat paw, haematological parameters (WBC and ESR) and in vitro heat induced haemolysis. The in vivo anti oxidant parameters like lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were also assessed in the blood.Treatment with MESC at both the doses cause siginificant reduction in paw volume, paw diameter, mean diameter and haematological parameters (WBC and ESR) were noted when compared to the control group. A significant stabilization of lysosomal membranes was observed with MESC in in vitro heat induced haemolysis and significant protection against oxidative stress was also noted with both the doses of MESC as shown by increased levels reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and decreased levels of lipid peroxidation.The antiarthrtic activity of MESC was further supported by the X- ray of rat paw, which indicated marked decrease in destruction of bone cartilage when compared to the control group. Conclusion: Hence the results obtained in this present study indicates that MESC not only directs towards the control of arthritis progression and/or the inflammation associated with joint synovitis, but also prevents cartilage and bone destruction of the arthritic joints of AIA rats. Hence, orally applicable MESC may have great potential as an alternative to therapeutic agents currently available for treatment of RA

AIN-16

A study of the antiinflammatory activity of leaves of mikania micrantha on albino rats

Bhattacharyy A.M., Deori C., Phukan D., Das S.

Department of Pharmacology, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh-786002, Assam

Objective : To study the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Mikania micrantha (family- Asteraceae) on albino rats. Method : Healthy albino rats weighing 100-150gm of either sex were taken. The animals were fasted overnight and water was given ad libitum during the experiment. The animals were divided into three groups of six animals each and treated as follows: GROUP A: Control (3% gum acacia-10ml/kg orally), GROUP B: Test drug (EEMM-500mg/kg orally), GROUP C: Standard (aspirin-100mg/kg orally, single dose).Acute inflammation was produced by sub-plantar injection of 0.1 ml of freshly prepared 1% carrageenan in normal saline in left hind paw of rats. The animals were treated with 3% gum acacia, EEMM and aspirin in the respective groups 1 hour before carrageenan injection. The paw volume was measured plethysmometrically just before carrageenan injection at 0 hour then at 1, 2, 3 and 4th hour after carrageenan injection. Increase in paw volume was measured as the difference between the paw volume at '0' hour and paw volume at respective hour. Data were then subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's Multiple Comparison Test. Result : EEMM in the dose 500mg/kg showed significant (p<0.05) inhibition of carrageenan induced paw edema. Maximum activity was seen at 1 hour. The percentage inhibition of paw edema at the end of 1, 2, 3 and 4th hour of carrageenan injection was 83.8%, 78%, 52.3% and 39.6% respectively for EEMM and 87%, 58.5%, 55.5% and 50.3% respectively for standard (aspirin). Conclusion : The above study revealed that Mikania micrantha possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats.

AIN-17

Prescription pattern of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in orthopaedic out-patient clinic of a Rural Teaching Hospital

Kulkarni Dhananjay, Jayanti Chekuri

Department of Pharmacology, K.V.G. Medical College, Sullia, D.K, Karnataka.

Objectives: 1. To record prescribing trends of NSAIDs to out-patients attending the Orthopaedic Department. 2. To evaluate type and frequency of Gastro-protective agents (GPAs) prescribed. 3. To determine the number of NSAIDs falling within Drug Utilization (DU) 90% segment. Materials and Methods: A prospective, cross sectional, observational study was carried out in the Orthopaedic Out-Patient Department for a period of 3 months. All prescriptions were screened for NSAIDs. Details of prescriptions containing NSAIDs were documented in a specially-designed proforma . Results: Of 326 prescriptions screened, 200 patients received NSAIDs (males 104 and females 96). Diclofenac (38.5%) was the commonest drug prescribed followed by ibuprofen (26.5%), nimesulide (14.5%), ibuprofen + paracetamol (11%), etodolac (3%), eterocoxib (2.5%), aceclofenac (2%), piroxicam (1%), and indomethacin (1%). The first four of these drugs were found in DU90% segment. Ibuprofen + paracetamol, was the most commonly prescribed fixed dose combination (FDC). GPAs were prescribed in 87.5% cases. Ranitidine (60.5%) was the most frequently prescribed GPA. Conclusion: Non-selective NSAIDs were more preferred than selective COX-2 inhibitors. Exclusion of eterocoxib from the DU90% segment further confirms this finding. Use of GPAs was high. Overall, the prescription pattern was in accordance with standard guidelines, as suggested by the fact that the DU90% segment constituted by only few drugs.

AIN-18

Pharmacological evaluation of 2-chlorosubstituted thiophene compound for anti-inflammatory activity in rats

Niroop R., A. Revanna Swamy, P. Muralidhar, G. Surendra Kumar, Ambrish C., Sharath S.S.

Department of Pharmacology, PES Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Kuppam, Chittoordistrict, Andra Pradesh, 517425, India

Objectives: To evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of 2-chlorosubstituted thiophene compound in rats by Carrageenan induced pawe demand Cotton pellet induced granuloma method. Methods: Wistaral bino rats, arranged in five groups of six each were used for experiments. The models used for acute inflammation was carrageenan induced pawe demand for chronic inflammation, cotton pellet induced granuloma method. Oral administration of 2-chloro thiophene at 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 40mg/kg was administered and was compared with control and standard drug, in domethacinat 10mg/kg for acute model and at 3mg/kg for chronic model. Results: The anti-inflammatory activities of 2-chloro thiophene were significant (p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant). In the carrageenan-induced rat pawe dema model, 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 40mg/kg doses of 2-chlorothiophene was found to exhibit reduction in paw volume at 3, 6 and 24 hours in a dose-dependent manner. At the dose of 20mg/kgp.o., 2-chlorothiophene showed maximum inhibition of 40%, 69.23% and 84.62% in rat pawed ema volume at 3,6 and 24 hours respectively. In the cotton pellet granuloma method, 2-chlorothiophene was found to exhibit reductionin granuloma weight in a dose-dependent manner and a dose of 20mg/kg showed maximum reduction in granuloma weight (27.75%). Conclusion: 2-chloro substituted thiophene compound has shown significant anti inflammatoryactivityat 20mg/kg by inhibiting pawed ema and by reduction in granuloma weight and can be a promising anti- inflammatory agent.

AIN-19

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Tinospora Cordifolia


Siddalingappa C.M., Rajesh T., Krishnakanth, Sujith

Department of Pharmacology, Narayana Medical College, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh.

Objective: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of Tinosporacordifolia in rodents. Materials and Methods : The leaves of Tinosporacordifolia were identified and authenticated by Botanist. The air dried course powdered leaves were extracted with distilled water and used to evaluate analgesic action by Eddy's hot plate analgisiometer in mice and anti-inflammatory action by carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. It was tested in five groups of rodents (n=6) for each activity, using 100 and 200mg/kg of the test drug, 100mg/kg of test drug with 5mg/kg of diclofenac. Diclofenac 5mg/kg and distilled water were used as standard and control, respectively, for both analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Results : Tinosporacordifolia showed significant increase in the reaction time (pain threshold) in doses of 100, 200mg/kg, 100mg/kg with 5mg/kg of diclofenac after 30, 60 and 90 minutes of administration. In the same above doses, Tinosporacordifolia showed 32.63%, 36.63% and 40.5% inhibition of paw edema respectively at the end of three hours. With diclofenac the percentage of inhibition was 35.64. Conclusion: The present study has shown that aqueous extract of Tinosporacordifolia has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. The results indicate that identification of active principle from the leaves may add a new, potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug to treat acute conditions.

AIN-20

Evaluation of two 2, 5-disubstituted- 2, 3- dihydro-1, 3, 4-oxadiazoles for anti inflammatory and analgesic activities


Amit Tiwari, Satish Gunda, Thammera Saimithra , N. Gopalan Kutty

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka.

Objectives: To evaluate the two novel 2,5-disubstituted- 2,3- dihydro-1, 3, 4-oxadiazoles namely, 3-{3-acetyl-5-[(4-chlorophenoxy) methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole-2-yl}phenyl acetate (OX-11) and 2-acetyl-5-[(4-chlorophenoxy) methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole-2-yl}phenyl acetate(OX-12) for their analgesic and anti inflammatory activities by employing different invivo models of pain and inflammation. Methods: Animals - Swiss albino mice (25-30g) of their sex for analgesic activity; Wistar rats (150-200g) of either sex for anti inflammatory activity. Standard Drug: Diclofenac suspension in 0.25% CMC. Screening of analgesic activity - Acetic acid induced writhing in mice; Pain in inflamed paw of rat (Randall Selitto model) Screening of acute anti inflammatory activity - Carrageenan induced rat hind paw oedema. Screening of Sub acute anti-inflammatory activity - Carrageenan induced inflammation in rat air pouch model. Screening of Chronic anti inflammatory activity - Freund's complete adjuvant arthritis and radiological analyses were also performed. Results: Screening of analgesic activity: (Acetic acid induced writhing in mice)- OX-11 and OX-12 significantly reduced the no. of writhings induced by acetic acid in mice; (Randall Selitto model)- OX-12 was found to be effective against pain induced by inflammation. Screening of acute anti inflammatory activity: OX-11 significantly reduced the paw volume induced by carrageenan whereas OX-12 did not produce any reduction in volume increase. Screening of sub acute anti-inflammatory activity: Both the test compounds reduced the leukocyte infiltration when compared to control.Screening of Chronic anti inflammatory activity: neither Neither OX-11 nor OX-12 showed any significant activity. Conclusion: The test compounds OX-11 and Ox-12 have modest anti-inflammatory activity in animal models of inflammation in comparison with diclofenac. OX-12 with a potential ortho substitution appeared to be better in activity score in most tests than OX-11 with meta substitution.

AIN-21

Pharmacological investigations on the stem bark of Polyalthia longifolia as a potential anti-arthritic agent in adjuvant induced arthritis.

Raja Shekhar V., Chaitanya P., Bhavin P., Prasanna G.S.

KLE University's College of Pharmacy, Rajajinagar II Block, Bangalore, Karnataka - 560 010, India

Objective: To evaluate the ethanolic extract of stem bark of Polyalthia longifolia Var. Pendula (Family: Annonaceae) for anti-arthritic activity in CFA induced arthritic animals in view of unsubstantiated claim as anti-rheumatic. Methods: Anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Polyalthia longifolia was evaluated in CFA induced arthritic Albino Wistar rats by assessing Primary lesions, pain associated with arthritis at periodic intervals and thymus and spleen weight at the end of the study. Result: In ethanolic extract treated arthritic animals significant anti-arthritic activity was observed - the edema inhibition rate, edema rate and other related changes (pain scores) reflecting symptomatic relief in arthritic status and such an activity was comparable to Diclofenac sodium and Prednisolone. Conclusion: The results are suggestive of potent anti-arthritic activity of the ethanolic extract of stem bark of Polyalthia longifolia substantiating its claimed use.

AIN-22

Invivoscreening of extract shatiyadiquathar for treatment of arthritis byusing Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis

Sri Divya R.B., Ravali B., Sunitha M., Shubapriya K., L. Sutharson, B.A.Vishawanath

Adithya Bangalore Institute for Pharmacy Education and Research, #12 Kogilu Main Road, Behind Anna Porneswari Temple, Yalahanka, Bangaluru-560064.

Objectives : Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, chronic, inflammatory disease characterised by progressive arthritis, production of rheumatic factor and extra articular manifestations. Rheumatoid arthritis is a common disease in consistent worldwide, affecting 0.5-1% population, 3-4 times higher in females. Ayurvedic medicines have been used for many years for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Shatyadiquathar (SQ) formulation was believed to have potential for providing relief in Rheumatoid Arthritis according to Bhaishajayaratanavalli. Methods: Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis. Changes in paw volume with adjuvant induced arthritis during treatment periodfor left paw. Changes in paw volume with adjuvant induced arthritis during treatment period for right paw. Results : The effect of the formulation SQ (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) in adjuvant induced model in both right and left paw observed on the 8 th day of treatment showed significant decrease in paw volume and effect was equipotentto Prednisolone (10mg/kg). Conclusion : This formulation was selected to test its efficacy towards freund'sadjuvant induced arthritis by using paw induced arthritis by plythesmometer. The study of pharmacological activity of the shatyadiquathar with a view to justify the use of formulation for treatment of arthritis

AIN-23

Assessment of anti-inflammatory, membrane-stabilizing and neutrophil adhesive potential of Pergularia daemia in rats

B.N. Patel , B.A. Vyas, S.V. Joshi, P.D. Shah, H.G. Vyas, D.D. Santani 1

Maliba Pharmacy College, Gopal Vidyanagar, Bardoli-Mahuva Road, Tarsadi-394 350, Dist Surat, Gujarat, 1 Rofel, Shri G. M. Bilakhia College of Pharmacy, Vapi, India

Objective: This study reports the anti-inflammatory, membrane-stabilizing and neutrophil adhesive potential of an aqueous extract of Pergulariadaemia (Whole plant) in rats. Methods: The carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema was utilized as the model for acute inflammation. The probable mode by which P. daemia mediates its effects on inflammatory conditions was studied on rat blood cells (RBC) exposed to hypotonic solution, while process transmigration or diapedesis of neutrophil was studied by adhesion of neutrophils to nylon fibers. Results : The results of the study revealed that the aqueous extract possesses anti-inflammatory property. P. daemia (100 and 200 mg/kg) orally was found to significantly (P < 0.01) reduce the oedema swellings induced by the phlogistic agents in rats. However, the extract did not exhibit membrane-stabilizing property, as it failed to significantly reduce the levels of haemolysis of RBC exposed to hypotonic solution, while extract at 200 mg/kg had significantly reduced adhesion of neutrophils to nylon fibers. Conclusion : The results of the study suggest that the antiinflammatory activity demonstrated by Pergulariadaemia may not be related to membrane-stabilization but may be due to prevention transmigration process.

AIN-24

To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of the leaves of Vitex trifolia linn. In carageenan induced paw oedema in albino rats

Ashuli P. , Khumbongmayum S., Rajkumari B.D.

Department of Pharmacology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal.

Objectives: Vitextrifolia belongs to the family lamiaceae. The aerial parts have been used traditionally in the treatment of rheumatic pains, sprains and fever etc. Therefore the present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Vitextrifolia Linn. in albino rats. Methods : The anti-inflammatory property was evaluated by carrageenan induced rat paw oedema. Aqueous extract of the leaves of Vitextrifolia was administered at the varying doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight per oral to three groups of six animals each. Aspirin (100mg/kg body weight) was used as the standard drug. Results : Single administration of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Vitextrifolia at the doses (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) showed a significant reduction in paw oedema as compared to the control group but reduction in paw oedema was lesser than that of the standard drug. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the aqueous extract of the leaves of Vitextrifolia Linn. have some anti-inflammatory property.

AIN-25

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of aqueous extract of emblica officinalis leaves in albino rats.

M. Prakash , T. Jayasree

Department of Pharmacology, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh.

Objective : To evaluate acute anti-inflammatory activity of Emblicaofficinalis in albino rats. Methodology : Aqueous Extract of EmblicaOfficinalis Leaves is prepared using soxhlet's apparatus. By rat paw oedema method, oedema is induced in all 5 groups (each containing 6 animals) using 0.2% Carrageenan and oedema volume is measured using Plethysmograph at 0, 3 rd and 6 th hour. First group is used as control, normal saline is administered orally. In the second group Indomethacin 20 mg/kg is given orally 1 hr before inducing inflammation. In the third, fourth, and fifth group, test compound of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg respectively is administrated orally 1 hr before inducing inflammation. Results and Conclusion : Will be discussed at the time of presentation.

AIN-26

Analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiarthritic and ulcer protective activity of ethanolic extract of Rumex maritimus in laboratory animals


Jitendra Bhangale, Parag Patel , Hitesh Jagani, Ravi Patel, Satish Kosalge, Nilesh Gorde 1

Smt. N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, 382210, India. 1 Ideal College of Pharmacy and Research, Kalyan, Maharashtra, India.

E-mail: patelparag14@gmail.com

Objective: The objective of the present work was to evaluate the analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiarthritic and ulcer protective activity of the ethanolic extract of Rumex Maritimus (ERM) in laboratory animals. Methods : Antinociceptive activity was assessed by writhing, tail immersion, and hot plate test. For antiinflammatory activity, carrageenan induced paw edema served as acute model. For antiarthritic activity, the animals were divided into three groups with 6 rats each. Group I- vehicle, Group II- standard i.e. Diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg, p.o.), Group III- ERM (100 mg/kg, p.o.). On day 0, 0.1 ml of FCA was injected into the sub planter region of the left hind paw. ERM was administered from day 13 to 22. At the end of the 22nd day, animals were sacrified and blood was collected for further biochemical assays. Arthritis was assessed by body weight, arthritic score, non injected and injected paw volume and biochemical assays (Hb, RBC and WBC counts, ESR).For screening of ulcerogenicity, Stomach were isolated and scanned by crystal clear display (CCD) scanner. Results : The peripheral analgesic action on writhing test, the central analgesic action on hot plate and tail immersion test and anti-inflammatory effect of ERM (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) were found to be significant (p<0.001 ) as compared to control group. A significant increase in body weight, reduction in paw volume of both hind legs and total arthritic score were observed. There was a significant improvement in the level of Hb and RBC, reduction in elevated WBC, ESR in ERM treated rats. Gastric mucosa under treatment with ERM (100 mg/kg, p.o.) appeared normal.

AIN-27

Evaluation of pain and its management in postoperative patients


P.R. Anand Vijaya Kumar, Devi T.V.R, Jennifer Jessintha P.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, 643001.

E-mail: jennifer.jessintha@gmail.com

Objectives : The purpose of the present pilot study is to describe postoperative pain, medication use immediately and 7 days after surgery. While no single cause of chronic post surgical pain has been identified, recent evidence suggests that the effective treatment of acute pain after surgery can reduce hospital length of stay, enhance functional recovery and improve long-term functional outcomes. Methods : The study is conducted in a tertiary care hospital for a period of 6 months. The drug used in the study is diclofenac injection. Postoperative data and follow-up data taken 7 days after post operation will be evaluated. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) will be used as a measurement tool for evaluation of pain. Results : The study is in the process, as per the data obtained till date the pain scale is below or equal to 2cm in 6 patients and is above 2 cm in 2 patient during 7 day stay in hospital. During 4 day stay, the pain scale is below or equal to 2cm in 3 patients and above 2cm in 6 patients. Conclusion : The data from this study provide a unique insight into pain; medication in surgical inpatients following discharge from hospital.

AIN-28

Evaluation of pain behavior in arthritic model of adjuvant induced arthritis treating with Calotropis procera root bark

Gaurav Parihar , Neelam Balekar, D.K. Jain

College of Pharmacy, IPS Academy, Rajendra Nagar, A.B. Road, Indore, Madhya Pradesh-452012.

E-mail: gauravpariharr@gmail.com

Objectives : The aim of the study was to explore the analgesic effect of alcoholic (90%) extract of Calotropisprocera Ait. root bark (CPE) in arthritic model of adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) in rats. Methods : Alcoholic extract (90%) of the plant root bark from Calotropisprocera was evaluated for antinociceptive activity. Arthritis was induced by administering 0.1 ml of complete freund's adjuvant (CFA) in rats. Arthritic animals were treated with CPE (100/200 mg/kg) orally from day 14 to day 28 after immunization. Antinociceptive behavior was studied by using three pain models: hot plate paw withdrawal latency (PWL), measurement of hypernociception (Dorsal Flexion pain), vocalization evoked by compression of knee (Compression test). Results : In the present study, ethanolic extract of Calotropisprocera (Asclepediadaceaee) root bark at the dose levels of 100-200 mg/kg, once daily exhibited significant (P < 0.01) resistance against hot plate induced pain after 28 days in arthritic rats. The latency of heat tolerated by arthritic rats reduced when compared with normal rats 4.36 folds. The hot plate reaction time was decreased, 3.06 (P < 0.05) and 2.17 (P < 0.01) folds respectively in 100 and 200 mg/kg treated groups. In compression test pain threshold in CPE treated paw was much lower as compared to paw in model control and the paw could be compressed only by 1.15 ± 0.13mm (P<0.05) and 1.27 ± 0.03mm (P<0.01) against 0.16 ± 0.04 mm in model control group. As the inflammation declined, the extent of compression required to elicit pain increased. In dorsal flexion pain test, thetime course study was carried out and a maximum medianscore of 5.0 was obtained after 28 days in model control animals. CPE wasfound to be significant (P<0.05) in decreasing the pain responseand a score of 2.8 and 2.0, respectively. Conclusion: The increased pain threshold and protective effect against complete freund's adjuvant (CFA) by Calotropisprocera indicated its medicinal value in treatment of pain and arthritis.

AIN-29

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of patented polyherbal formulation SJT-OB-01

Busa HM, Raja JV, Kyada CB, Bhalodi DV, Rachchh MA, Gokani RH, Kyada AV

Dr. Rina Gokani, "Shree Kunj", 3-Archna park Society, B/H Krishna Complex, University Road, Rajkot, Gujarat (India).

Objective : The present study was aimed to evaluate anti inflammatory activity of patented polyherbal formulation SJT-OB-01 (Anti-obesity) using acute and chronic animal model. Materials and Methods: The Polyherbal formulation, SJT-OB-01 was studied using carrageenan induced rat paw edema (acute) and cotton pellet induced granuloma (chronic). The animals were randomaly divided into 3 groups of 6 each, one group served as control other two groups received SJT-OB-01 (300mg/kg, p.o) and indomethacin (10mg/kg, p.o) 1 hr prior to injection of 0.1 ml, 1% carrageenan in sub-plantar region of paw to induce edema. The volume of paw was measured at an time interval of 1 hr up to 5 hr. In chronic model, granuloma induce by inserting sterile 10 mg cotton pellet in the intra scapular region of shaved dorsal surface of the rat and the above mention treatments were given for 7 days, once daily. On the 8 th day, the inserted cotton pellets were removed, dried and weighed. Results: Pretreatment with a single dose of SJT-OB-01 (87.47%) and indomethacin (85.64 %) produced significant (P< 0.0001) inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema on 3 rd hr of carageenan administration. In a 7-day study of cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma formation, daily administration of SJT-OB-01 significantly suppressed the formation of granuloma. Conclusion: This study scientifically demonstrates promising anti-inflammatory activity of patented polyherbal formulation SJT-OB-01. This is an important finding, both globally and locally, because inflammation is a common medical condition for which available drug therapies are poor.

AIN-30

Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory activity of patented polyherbal formulation SJT-ONC-01

Bhut VS, Patel HS , Prajapati HS, Rachchh MA, Gokani RH

Dr. RinaGokani, "Shree Kunj", 3-Archna park Society, B/H Krishna Complex, University Road, Rajkot, Gujarat (India).

Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate anti inflammatory activity of patented polyherbal formulation SJT-ONC-01 (Anticancer) using acute and chronic animal model. Materials and Methods : The Polyherbal formulation, SJT-ONC-01 was studied using carrageenan induced rat paw edema (acute) and cotton pellete induced granuloma (chronic). The animals were randomaly divided into 3 groups of 6 each, one group served as control other two groups received SJT-ONC-01 (300mg/kg, p.o) and indomethacin (10mg/kg, p.o) 1 hr prior to injection of 0.1 ml, 1% carrageenan in sub-plantar region of paw to induce edema. The volume of paw was measured at an time interval of 1 hr up to 5 hr. In chronic model, granuloma induce by inserting sterile 10 mg cotton pellet in the intra scapular region of shaved dorsal surface of the rat and the above mention treatments were given for 7 days, once daily. On the 8 th day, the inserted cotton pellets were removed, dried and weighed. Results : Pretreatment with a single dose of SJT-ONC-01 (85.42%) and indomethacin (85.64 %) produced significant (p< 0.05) inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema on 3 rd hr of carageenan administration. In a 7-day study of cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma formation, daily administration of SJT-ONC-01 significantly suppressed the formation of granuloma. Conclusion: In conclusion, patented polyherbal formulation SJT-ONC-01 possessed significant anti inflammatory activity and it can be a promising antiinflammatory agent.

AIN-31

Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory activity of patented polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03

Chudasama KM, Banker CA, Yadav PN, Rachchh MA, Gokani RH

Dr. Rina H. Gokani., "Shree Kunj", 3-Archna park Society, B/H Krishna Complex, University Road, Rajkot, Gujarat (India).

Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate anti inflammatory activity of patented polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 (Antihypertensive) using acute and chronic animal model. Materials and Methods: The Polyherbal formulation, SJT-HT-03 was studied using carrageenan induced rat paw edema (acute) and cotton pellete induced granuloma (chronic). The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 each, one group served as control other two groups received SJT-HT-03 (300mg/kg, p.o) and indomethacin (10mg/kg, p.o) 1 hr prior to injection of 0.1 ml, 1% carrageenan in sub-plantar region of paw to induce edema. The volume of paw was measured at antinterval of 1 hr up to 5 hr. In chronic model, the granuloma induce by inserting 10 mg cotton pellet in the intra scapular region of shaved dorsal surface of the rat and the above mention treatments were given for 7 days, once daily and on 8th day the inserted cotton pellets were removed, dried and weighed. Results : The SJT-HT-03 (81.77% ) and indomethacin (85.64%) showed significant inhibition (P<0.05) on 3 rd hr of carageenan administration in carrageenan induced paw edema test. With daily administration of SJT-HT-03 for 7 days, there was a significant reduction in granuloma tissue formation in cotton pellet implanted rat. Conclusion: In conclusion, as the patented polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 showed significant anti inflammatory activity in acute and chronic models, it can be a promising anti-inflammatory agent.

AIN-32

Antiarthritic activity of lupeol isolated from stem bark of Alstonia scholaris in pristane induced arthritic rats.


Swapnil Goyal, Kuldeep Singh Baghela 1 , Navin Sheth 2 , D.N. Srivastav 1

Research Scholar, Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun (U.K.), 1 B.R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mandsaur-458001 (M.P.). 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot (Gujarat)

Objective : Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder with chronic inflammation in joints caused by over activity of immune system and proinflammatory mediators i.e. cytokines. Our main aim is to treat this chronic inflammatory disorder by isolated triterpenes (lupeol) from stem bark of Alstoniascholaris. Methods: Arthritis was induced in Wistar albino rats by a single injection of pristane in tail vein. Animals were divided into five groups. On the 14 th day, Arthritis were determined by swelling of joints and on 35 th day various biochemical markers i.e. AST, ALT, SGOT, IL-1, TNF-α were measured. Results: On the 14, 21, 28 and 35 th day, lupeol significantly decreased the IL-1 and TNF-α. Lupeol also causes significant changes in the AST and ALT levels. This effect of lupeol may be due to its antioxidant as well as potent anti-inflammatory activity.

AIN-33

Evaluation of efficacy of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn. On freund's adjuvant induced arthritis model in rats


Buddhadev Akash N., Vipul Gajera, Kirti V. Patel,

Tejal Gandhi Anand Pharmacy College, Near Town Hall, Anand, Gujarat

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of Trigonellafoenumgra ecum Linn. on Freund 's adjuvant induced arthritis model in rats. Methods and Materials : Female wistar rats (130 to 200 gm) were randomly allocated to five groups (n=6). Arthritis was induced in animals of group 2-5 on day one by injection of 0.2 ml complete freund's adjuvant (6mg/ml). Group 1 (normal Control), group 2(model control), group 3 (std.), group 4 (MTfg 200) and group 5 (MTfg 400.) received distilled water, freund's adjuvant (6mg/ml). prednisolone (5mg/kg), MTfg (200mg/kg), MTfg (400mg/kg) respectively from day 1 to 21. Paw volumes of both sides was measured by plethysmography and body weight was recorded on day 0, 7, 14, 21. On day 21, the severity of secondary lesions was evaluated by measuring body weight, arthritic index; paw edema, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Serum Rheumatoid Factor (RF), Serum C - reactive protein (CRP), Serum albumin/globulin ratio (A/G ratio), x ray, histopathology of synovial joints. Results: Freund's adjuvant administration induced significant decrease in body weight, serum A/G ratio and increased arthritis index, paw edema, ESR, RF and CRP. These changes were significantly prevented by treatment with prednisolone and MTfg. Conclusions : Antiarthritic activity of methanolic extract of Trigonellafoenumgraecum can be attributed to phyto constitute like glycoside and steroidal moieties.

AIN-34

In vitro inhibition of lps0 -induced inflammatory biomarkers by heterocyclic homoprostanoids and thiazolidin-4-ones derivatives

Jayesh Mudgal , S. A. Manohara Reddy, S. G. Vasantharaju, N. Gopalan Kutty

Department of Pharmacology, MCOPS, Manipal-576104, Karnataka

Objectives: To study the effect of heterocyclic homoprostanoid and thiazolidin-4-one derivatives against LPS-induced IL-6 and nitric oxide generation in mouse whole blood and Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) respectively. Methods: Fifteen heterocyclic homoprostanoid and ten thiazolidin-4-one derivatives were screened against LPS (1 μg/ml)- induced IL-6 production in mouse whole blood. In brief, blood was collected from mouse and incubated in the presence/absence of compounds (100 μM). After 4 h, plasma was obtained and IL-6 was estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), according to manufacturer's instructions.In another study, above mentioned compounds were screened against LPS (1 μg/ml)-induced nitric oxide production in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79). In brief, V79 cells were incubated in the presence/absence of compounds (100 μM). After 4 h, nitrite levels were estimated in media using Greiss reagent. Results: Among all tested compounds, four heterocyclic homoprostanoids and two thiazolidin-4-one derivatives showed > 45 % inhibition of LPS-induced IL-6 generation in mouse whole blood, whereas in V79 cell, six heterocyclic homoprostanoids and two thiazolidin-4-one derivatives inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide generation. Among these active derivatives, two heterocyclic homoprostanoids and one thiazolidin-4-one were effective in both the assays. Conclusions: Study reports the potential of heterocyclic homoprostanoid and thiazolidine-4-one derivatives against inflammatory disorders through modulation of the inflammatory biomarkers such as IL-6 and nitric oxide

AIN-35

Finding an ideal chemically induced animal model of human inflammatory bowel diseasefor drug discovery and therapeutic intervention

Ganga Prasad Vutturu , Phani Krishna K, Rekha R. Shenoy, C. Mallikarjuna Rao

Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (MCOPS), Manipal-576104.

Objective : This review was aimed to identify an animal model which mimics human IBD by comparing between various chemicallyinduced [DSS (Dextran Sodium Sulphate), TNBS (TrinitrobenzeneSulphonic acid), DNCB (Di-nitrochlorobenzene) with AA(Acetic acid)] models of IBD. Methods : Several research papers, describing IBD induced by chemical agents were referred. These were compared for finding themost suitable and economical model of IBD to investigate new drug candidates. Results and Discussio n: It was found that there are a number of patho-physiological changes that occur during the progress of IBD which include weight loss, colonic ulceration, bloody diarrhoea, fatigue due to excessive blood loss (anaemia) and risk of coloncancers. Among the models searched, DSS/TNBS/DNCB combination with AA-induced colitis showed most of the pathological changes of IBD. However, DSS and TNBS models were found to be quite expensive. The third model is economical and showsreduced mortality. Further, it closely mimics human IBD. This model can be employed in normally available strains like Wistar ratswhereas TNBS or DSS are strain specific (BALB/c, SJL/J and C57BL/6 mice, etc). Conclusion: Evaluation of the available literature data shows that the DNCB with AA model is a suitable one to understand thevarious patho-physiological changes during the development of IBD. It is concluded that DNCB with AA model is an appropriate one for IBD.

AIN-36

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of root extract of lawsonia inermis in subacute inflammatory model


Sweety Javia , Bharath, Manjula S.N, Mruthunjaya K

JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore - 570 015, Karnataka, India.

Objective: Evaluation of in-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity of alcoholic extract of root of Lawsonia inermis (LIALC). Methods: In- vitro membrane-stabilizing activity of LIALC was tested at the concentration range of 50-400 μg/ml by assessing its ability to prevent the heat induced hemolysis and percentage inhibition of hemolysis was calculated by measuring the Optical density. Cotton pellet induced granuloma model was selected for assessing the in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Wistar rats were implanted sterile cotton pellets subcutaneously in the groin regions under anesthesia. The animals were treated with LIALC (200, 300, 400mg/kg), Diclofenac (5 mg/kg) once daily orally for seven consecutive days. On 8 th day cotton pellets were removed, dried and weighed. The Changes in the dry weight of the pellets before and after implantation was taken as measure of granuloma formation and percentage inhibition was calculated. Results: In the in-vitro model, LIALC at the concentrations of 200 μg/ml exhibited membrane stabilizing activity. In the sub-acute model LIALC significantly reduced the dry weights of cotton pellet, an index of granuloma formation, in a dose-dependent manner. The percentage inhibition was 36.4, 46.4 and 50.5 at 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg of LIALC respectively. The efficacy was comparable to diclofenac. Conclusion: The present findings substantiate the in-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity of LIALC. The anti-inflammatory activity of LIALC might be due to its action on multiple pathways of inflammation such as membrane-stabilization activity, inhibition of COX, free radical scavenging. Thus the study is an initial step in identification of novel anti-inflammatory agent.

AIN-37

Anti diabetic activity of stem bark of Jatropha multifida in alloxan induced diabetic rats

Madhu S , Kannabirran V, Royal Frank P, Ravi Kumar M.

Kamalakshi Pandurangan, College of Pharmacy, Ayampalayam, Thiruvanamalai, Tamilnadu, India.

Objective: In our study, the antidiabetic effect of ethanolic stem bark extract of Jatropha multifida (EEJM) family-Euphorbiaceae was investigated in wistar strain of albino rats using alloxan-induced diabetes. Methods: The stem bark of Jatropha multifida were collected, and extract was obtained by using 95% ethanol. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by injecting 120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally. After 72h of injection, rats with marked hyperglycaemia (fasting blood glucose > 250 mg/dl) were used for the study. The animals were divided into five groups with six animals in each group. Group I-Normal control rats administered vehicle 2% gum acacia. Group II-Diabetic control rats administered vehicle 2% gum acacia. Group III-Diabetic rats administered Glibenclamide (6 mg/kg, b.w, p.o).Group IV-Diabetic rats administered EEJM (250mg /kg, b.w, p.o).Group V-Diabetic rats administered EEJM .(500mg/kg, b.w, p.o). For 21 days to the entire group. Blood samples were collected 1 hr after drug administration on days of 1, 7, 14 and 21 for glucose estimation. Result and Discussion: The antidiabetic effects of EEJM on the fasting blood sugar level of diabetic rats are noted. The treatment of EEJM (250 mg/kg) and (500 mg/kg) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the elevated blood glucose levels as compared to the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic stem bark extract of Jatropha multifida has beneficial effects on blood glucose level. It has the potential to impart therapeutic effect in diabetes.

AIN-38

Effect of distilled cow urine on excision wound in albino mice

Belsare S.L. , Vyas J.V., Paithankar V.V, Padole S.P.

Department of Pharmacology, Vidyabharati College of Pharmacy, Camp Road, Amravati, Maharashtra, India - 444602

Objective: To evaluate the effect of Distilled cow urine on experimentally induced excision wound model on Swiss albino mice and to evaluate whether it reverse the wound healing. Method: Excision wound was inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control, Group II was treated with distilled cow urine (0.2ml) topical. Group III was treated with standard (5%w/w) betadine (0.2 ml) topical. The parameters observed were wound closure, epithelialization period. Result: In the excision wound model administration of Distilled cow urine show increased in wound healing activity compared to control. In period of epithalization group III std betadine ***P<0.001 compared with control group and distilled cow urine group, Group II distilled cow urine vs. group I showed *P<0.05 using a One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test. By this group III betdine and II Distilled cow urine is significant, group III betadine was more significant than group II Distilled cow urine group. Conclusion: Topical administration of Distilled cow urine is found to reverse excision wound healing.

AIN-39

Studies on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of n-[2-(1h-indol-3-yl) ethyl] quinoxalin-2-caboxalicacid (qcf-20), a novel serotonin type-3 (5-ht 3 ) receptor antagonist


Radhakrishnan Mahesh, Srinivasarao B , Thangraj Devadoss, Ankur Jindal, Shvetank Bhatt, Baldev Kumar

Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, Rajasthan, India

Objective: The present study was investigated to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity ofN-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]quinoxalin-2-caboxalicacid (QCF-20) , a novel 5-HT3 antagonist on various animal models at a dose range of 1-4 mg/kg. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the analgesic activity of QCF-20 was evaluated by using in-vivo model such as tail-flick method, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced pain whereas, the carrageenan induced oedema in rats used as inflammatory model. All the experiments on animals were in compliance with the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India (Protocol No. IAEC/RES/13/03). Results : Acute treatment with QCF-20 (2 and 4 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased the no. of writhing responses (abdominal constriction and extension of hind limb) as compared to vehicle treated group in the acetic acid induced writhing model. Moreover, QCF-20 significantly decreased the flinching response in formalin-induced pain model. Furthermore, in the tail flick model, QCF-20 ha shown no significant effect on the latency of tail flicking as compared to vehicle treated group. However, QCF-20 did not produce any significant effect in carrageenan-induced paw oedema used as a model of inflammatory activity. Aspirin (200 mg/kg, i.p.) used as a standard reference produced the analgesic activity in acetic acid induced writhing model, formalin-induced flinching response and carrageenan induced paw oedema, whereas tramadol (20 mg/kg, i.p.) in tail flicking model, as expected. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results obtained in present study exhibited that QCF-20, a serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist has shown analgesic activity.

AIN-40

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of root extract of lawsoniainermis against complete fruend's adjuvant induced arthritis model.

Madhu Raghav M , Bharath E.N., Manjula S.N., Mruthunjaya K.

JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore - 570 015, Karnataka, India.

Objective: Evaluation of in-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity of alcoholic extract of root of Lawsoniainermis (LIALC) against complete Fruend's Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis. Methods: In-vitroCyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory assay of LIALC, enzymatic activities of COX-1 and COX-2, was performed using a chromogenic assay based on the oxidation of N,N,N,N,-tetra methyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) during the reduction of PGG2 to PGH2 and absorbance was measured to determine the percentage inhibition of COX. Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the in-vivo chronic anti-inflammatory model in whichCFA (0.1ml) was injected into the right hind paw of animals to induce arthritis on alternate days up to 28 th day. LIALC (300 and 400 mg/kg) treatment started from 15 th day to 28 th day and blood was collected for assessment of hematological parameters and paw homogenate for nitrate measurement and were compared with standard diclofenac (5 mg/kg). Results: A dose dependent inhibition of both COX-1, COX-2 was observed with anwith IC 50 values of 58.2 μg/ml for and 7.38 μg/ml respectively. In the In-vivo model CFA induced group has shown significant increase in the WBC, nitrate content and significant decrease in RBC,heomoglobinecount. The above hematological parameters were reversed with LIALC (300 and 400mg/kg) treated group in a dose dependant manner. Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory activity of LIALC might be due to, inhibition of COX, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of release of inflammatory mediators.

AIN-41

Varies in Carrageenan inflammatory profile of different species

Venugopal Racha , Chetan Nimgulkar, B. Annapurna, B. Dinesh Kumar

Food and Drug Toxicology Research Centre, National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR), Tarnaka, Hyderabad - 500 070, India.

E-mail: venuniper@gmail.com

Background: Rat/mice paw edema inflammatory response induced by carrageenan is a well known technique for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory response. The inflammatory response involves acute and delayed phases. This response of inflammation is varied with species to species. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the biphasic response both mice and rat species. Materials and Methods: Experiment has been conducted in C57/BL6 mice (n=18) and WNIN rat (n=18) species. Both the species were randomly divided to three respective groups to receive vehicle (negative control), intraplantar injection of carrageenan (Positive control) and standard drug Aspirin (91 mg/Kg P.O.) along with intraplantar injection of carrageenan respectively. Paw edema of rat and mice was measured by means of a plethysmometer at several time points (1/2, 1, 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Percentage inhibition was calculated. Result: Mouse paw produced a biphasic inflammatory response by carrageenan, which peaked at 6 to 7h (~125 μL) (Immediate Phase) and again at 48 to 72 h (166 μL) (Late Phase). The treatment of animals with a single dose of the Aspirin (91 mg/Kg P.O, 30 min before) significantly reduced the early, as well as late, phase of carrageenan evoked oedema. Whereas, Rat could produce immediate phase of inflammation at 7h (1263 μL), the late phases of inflammation was not observed. Aspirin significantly reduced odema from 3h as compare with control in both the species. The percentage inhibition of aspirin was significantly increased in second phase of inflammation in mice. Conclusion: Results of the present study demonstrated that, inflammatory process is biphasic. Mice paw oedema model better than rat paw odema model to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of various compounds.


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AUT-1

Evaluation of analgesic activity of vanillin in wistar rats

Srikanth D , Rathnakar UP, Vishma Hydie Menezes, Vani Bhagwat, Umma Habeeba

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore - 575001

Objectives : To evaluate analgesic activity of vanillin in wistar rats. Methods : Inbredadult wistar rats of either sex weighing 150-200 grams were used for the study. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups [Control, morphine 2mg/kg, Vanillin 10 mg/kg (V1), Vanillin 100 mg/kg (V2), Vanillin 200 mg/kg (V3)] of six animals each. Eddy's hot plate method was used to evaluate analgesic activity. For the hotplate test after naloxone pretreatment, rats in five groups received naloxone subcutaneously 30 minutes prior to administration of vehicle or drugs. Reaction time was observed before and after the administration of drugs or vehicle. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results : There was significant increase (P<0.05) in latency period at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg doses of vanillin when compared to standard. Naloxone pre-treatment significantly reduced the latency period in hot-plate test for both vanillin and morphine treated groups as compared with corresponding groups that did not receive naloxone pretreatment. Conclusion : Vanillin at a dose of 100 mg/kg demonstrated a significant increase in latency period, displaying a potential analgesic activity

AUT-2

Analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Spermacocehispida in mice

Venugopalaraokonda , Vinayak Meti, Madhavieerike, Sagarsarikonda, Ruckmani A.

Department of Pharmacology, Chettinad Hospitals and Research Institute, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Kelambakkamkanchipuramdist, TN-603103

Aim: To evaluate the analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Spermacocehispida on pain induced by physical and thermal methodsin mice. Materials and Method: Adult albino mice (Swiss strain) weighing 25-30 grams were selected. 24 animals were allocated to each experimental model and in each model there were 4 groups. The control group received the vehicle (10ml/kg, p.o), standard group, aspirin (300mg/kg, p.o) and test group, dried ethanolic extract of Spermacocehispida (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg p.o. respectively) 1hour prior to the study. Results: Ethanolic extract of Spermacocehispida significantly delayed the reaction time in both hot-plate method and tail clip method. The results were comparable to that produced by standard drug aspirin. Conclusion: Spermacocehispida has analgesic activity comparable to aspirin

AUT-3

A comparative study: Efficacy and safety of rupatidine and levocetirizine in seasonal allergic rhinitis


Anuradha Palani, B. Anandam, Rituparna Maiti, Jyothirmai Jaida, Jalelur Rahman, Sridharrao B.

Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagunur, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh

Objective : Though treating and ensuring a decent quality of life to patients is challenging, an increasing understanding of pathomechanisms has revealed the potentiality of new generation antihistaminics in the treatment of Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis. The present comparative study is an effort to choose the better agent among Rupatadine and Levocetirizine in Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis. Methods : This study is a 2-week, single-centred, randomized, open, parallel group comparative clinical study between Rupatadine and Levocetirizine in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 60 patients were allotted to two groups to receive the drugs for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, all post drug symptoms were enlisted, baseline laboratory investigations (Total and differential count of Leucocytes, IgE level) were repeated and clinical improvement was assessed in terms of change in Total Nasal Symptom Score, Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire scoring and laboratory parameters. Results : Differential count (P=0.01) and absolute Eosinophil count (P=0.0089) was significantly lowered by both drugs but Rupatadine was found to be superior. In Rupatadine group there was significantly higher reduction (P=0.0036) in IgE and Total Nasal Symptom Score (<0.001) than that of Levocetirizine. There was a decrease of 18.08% (P=0.018) in RQLQ score in Rupatadine group which was significantly greater than Levocetirizine. Incidence of adverse effects was found to be less in Rupatadine group in comparison to Levocetirizine group. Conclusion : Rupatadine is a better choice in Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis in comparison to Levocetirizine due to its better efficacy and safety profile.

AUT-4

To compare efficacy and safety of cetirizine and rupatadine in patients of chronic idiopathic urticaria


Ganesh Dakhale, Abhijit T. Shinde , Dharmendra Mishra, Sachin Hiware, Mohini Mahatme, Anoop Salve

Department of Pharmacology, Above Dean's Office, Indira Gandhi Govt. Medical College, Mayo Hospital, C A Road, Nagpur, Maharashtra-440018, India.

Objective : This study was done to compare efficacy and safety of cetirizine and rupatadine in patients of chronic idiopathic urticaria. Materials and Methods : This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel group study conducted in seventy patients of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Seventy patients were divided into two groups of 35 each. They received either cetirizine 10 mg or rupatadine 10 mg once daily for six weeks. Parameters like mean total symptom score (MTSS), scale for interference of wheals with sleep (SIWS), scale for intensity of erythema (SIE), differential eosinophil count (E%) and ECG were compared between baseline and six weeks within same group and between cetirizine group and rupatadine group. Result: The results of the MTSS showed significant change in both groups compared to baseline and better symptomatic improvement with rupatadine as compared to cetirizine (P=0.0088). Similar results were found with SIE (P=0.0276). The change in SIWS was found significant in both groups, but when two groups were compared, the change was not significant (P=0.2471). The comparative study showed that the changes in differential eosinophil count in the rupatadine group was statistically significant compared to cetirizine group (P=0.0352). No changes in ECG were noted in cetirizine group and rupatadine group at the end of study. The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was also found to be less in the rupatadine group (24.24%) compared to cetirizine group (45.16%). Conclusion: With respect to safety and efficacy, double-blind study proved that rupatadine is better than cetirizine in the treatment of CIU.


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BHP-1

Effect of aqueous extract of Vitex tifolia leaves on learning and memory in wistar rats


Meena Kumari K, Nandit PB , Chandrashekar BR, Pradeepa HD, Christoper R, Shetty K, Amberkar M

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal-576104

E-mail: nand_ban@yahoo.co.in

Objective: The study was undertaken to find the effect of aqueous extract of Vitex Trifolia leaves on learning and memory in Wistar rats. Materials and methods : Passive avoidance model and Spatial learning test were used to assess learning and memory. The drugs used were Rivastigmine 1.5mg/kg as standard, Scopolamine 0.5mg/kg to induce cognitive impairment, and two doses, 150mg/kg, 300mg/kg of Vitex trifolia prepared in water were used as test drugs. Latency to enter dark compartment and latency to enter dark compartment after 24 hours were seen in passive avoidance test. The arm chosen by rat and the number of alterations made were noted in spatial learning test. Results : The rats which received two doses 150mg/kg, 300mg/kg of Vitex trifolia orally showed significant mean time escape latency by 74.50 ± 11.70 and 160 ± 13.12 Vs control (p<0.01) respectively. However it was not significant compared to rivastigmine. Conclusion : Present study of Vitex trifolia showed significant learning and memory enhancing activities; furthermore, it needs to find out the exact mechanism of action related to its phytochemical constituents.

BHP-2

A Comparitive Study of the Anxiolytic Activity of Sodium Valproate, Gabapentin, Pregabalin and Alprazolam in Wistar Rats

Amruthkiran, Lalit Mohan, Meena Kumari K, Nandit PB, Shwetha

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal-576104

E-mail: bodh.akb1989@gmail.com

Objective : To compare the anxiolytic activity of Sodium valproate, Gabapentin, Pregabalin, and Alprazolam. Materials and Methods : An open field test was performed to compare the effect of drugs in rats. Five groups of rats were taken and each group was treated with 2% gum acacia, Alprazolam 0.08mg/kg, Sodium valproate 150mg/kg, Gabapentin 50mg/kg, Pregabalin 1.8mg/kg of body weight of each rat. The number of entries and time spent in peripheral and central squares of the open field test was noted. Analysis : Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA using SPSS software. Post-hoc comparisons were performed by applying Dunnett's test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: We compared the effect of Alprazolam, sodium valproate, gabapentin, and pregabalin with control group. All drugs showed significant parameters with P <0.05. Conclusion : Alprazolam, sodium valproate, gabapentin, and pregabalin showed anxiolytic activity which was very well comparable with control. And alprazolam was found to be more anxiolytic when compared to other drugs.

BHP-3

Behavioral and Histopathological Analysis of the Effects of Ramipril and Losartan in Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia Model

Debashree Deb , Veena Nayak 1 , K.L. Bairy 1 , Mohandas Rao KG. 2

Department of Pharmacology, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus) Manipal, 1 Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, 2 Department of Anatomy, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Manipal 576104, Karnataka

Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease related to cognitive and behavioral impairments and is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Recent studies have shown that an augmented brain renin angiotensin system (RAS) activity is involved in the disease process and it tends to correlate with the functional and behavioral symptoms of dementia. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the potential role of RAS inhibitors viz. ramipril and losartan in scopolamine-induced amnesia model of dementia. Objective : To evaluate the memory enhancing effect of ramipril and losartan in passiveavoidance model of learning and memory . To study the effects of ramipril and losartan on rat hippocampal function. Materials and Methods : Male rats were divided into four groups: Control group (0.2% gum acacia orally for 4 weeks), Scopolamine group (1 mg/kg i.p.), Ramipril group (0.45 mg/kg p.o. for 4 weeks followed by scopolamine 1mg/kg i.p.) and Losartan group (2.25 mg/kg p.o. for 4 weeks followed by scopolamine 1mg/kg i.p.). At the end of drug treatment, rats were subjected to passive avoidance test followed by histopathological evaluation of the rat hippocampus. Results: In the passive avoidance paradigm, scopolamine produced amnesia which was demonstrated as decrease in the latency to enter dark compartment (during the memory retention testing) and it was statistically significant when compared to control group (**P<0.001). The above finding was confirmed in the histopathological examination which showed abnormal, shrunken nerve cells in the hippocampus following scopolamine administration. In the ramipril + scopolamine and losartan + scopolamine treated groups, there was an increase in the step-through latency and it was statistically significant (†P < 0.001) in comparison to scopolamine group. Degeneration of hippocampal nerve cells was also lower in the ramipril- and losartan-treated groups when compared to scopolamine-alone group indicating reversal of amnesia Conclusion: The improvement in memory performance in the behavioral model following administration of ramipril and losartan suggests a positive impact of these drugs on cognition. The change in the behaviour of animals could be due to the altered functioning of hippocampal neurons as shown in the histopathological findings, although other putative mechanisms may be involved. Further studies are warranted to conclusively prove the beneficial effects of these drugs on memory enhancement.

BHP-4

Comparing the antinociceptive effect of amitryptyline and duloxetine in rats

Abdul Hafeez S, Chogtu B, Eesha BR, Chaitanya M. Karanth, Nisha Michael

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka-576104. India.

Introduction: Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience arising from actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage. The association between depression and pain is, at best blurred. The tendency to report somatic symptoms, including pain is a feature frequently encountered among depressed patients. It is conceivable that dysregulation of neurotransmitter systems common to depression and pain mediation underlies both entities. Amitriptyline is being used in neuralgias and other chronic pain from long. Newer antidepressants like duloxetine have shown increase in pain threshold in different studies so there is a need for comparing the antinociceptive effect of these two drugs. Objective : In this study we compared the antinociceptive effect of amitryptyline and duloxetine using standard in vivo methods of central analgesic activity. Material and Methods : The rats were divided into three groups with eight animals in each. Group one was the control group, group two and three were given amitryptylin and duloxetine 20 mg/kg i.p respectively. Acute nociceptive pain models of tail flick and hot plate were used to assess analgesic affect. One way analysis of variance followed by scheff's post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Result : Amitryptyline (P<0.01) and duloxetine (P<0.01) groups showed a significantly superior response i.e increase in antinociceptive effect as compared to control. On intergroup comparison, no statistical significant difference was found. Conclusion : Amitryptyline and duloxetine are significantly superior to control in pain and there is no intergroup difference between the two.

BHP-5

Comparing the efficacy of gabapentin, lamotrigine and carbamazapine in chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in rats.


Chogtu B, Bairy KL, Himabindu P , Dhar S, Smitha D.

Department of Pharmacology, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal.

Introduction : Neuropathic pain results from lesions or diseases affecting the somatosensory system. Chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced painful neuropathy is a widely employed model for induction of neuropathic pain in experimental animals. Objective : The present study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of gabapentin and lamotrigine in reducing neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury. Materials and Methods : Adult male wistar rats weighing between 150-200g were used.Animals were randomly grouped in to one control and three test groups and group I was treated with gabapentin (60mg/kg), groupII was treated with lamotrigine (40mg/kg) andgroup III was treated with carbamazapin (100mg/kg). The drugs were administered orally from fifth to fourteenth day.The effectiveness of the drugs was assessed by thermal hyperalgesia test. Results: Gabapentin (P=0.46) and lamotrigine (P=0.52) have not shown significant difference as compared to control i.e. increase in hot plate latency. Compared to control carbamazepine (P=0.027) showed significant withdrawallatency. Conclusion : Gabapentin and lamotrigine are ineffective in increasing hot plate latency.

BHP-6

Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of vanillin in wistar albino rats

Vani Bhagwat , Mukta Chowta, Ahsan Shoeb, Rakshita M, Venkatesh V, Amritha Rai

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore - 575001

Objectives: To evaluate the anxiolytic activity of vanillin in wistar albino rats. Methods : The rats were divided into five groups (n=6). Vanillin administered at the dose of 10, 100, 200mg/kg/day, orally was compared with the standard drug Diazepam (1.0mg/kg/day, oral) fed for the latter 10 days. The two pharmacologically validated models for anxiety, elevated plus maze and bright and dark arena were used. The data presented was analyzed using Kruskal Wallis followed by Mann-Whitney test. P <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Thetest drug significantly reduced the time spent in closed arm and increase the number of entries into open arm, time spent in open arm, percentage ratio of open arm entries and number of rears in open arm at dose of 10mg/kg and 100mg/kg both in acute and chronic model of elevated plus maze (P<0.05). In bright and dark arena test there was a decrease in immobility and increase in number of entries, time spent and rears in bright chamber both in acute and chronic study at all doses (P<0.05). Conclusion : The present study demonstrates the anxiolytic activity of vanillin in wistar albino rats.

BHP-7

Evaluation of aphrodisiac effect of vanillin in male wistar rats

Rakshita Maskeri , Sheetal Ullal, Yogesh Belagali, Ahsan Shoeb, Vani Bhagwat, Ramya

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore - 575001

Objective : To study the aphrodisiac effect of vanillin in adult male wistar rats. Methods : Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups which received vehicle, vanillin 100mg/kg/day and 200mg/kg/day orally, respectively. Female rats were brought to oestrous cycle by the sequential administration of estrogen (10μg/100 g) and progesterone (0.5mg/100 g) through intraperitoneal injections, 48 hours and 4 hours (respectively) prior to pairing with the male on day 1 to study the acute effects and on day10 to study the chronic effects. Sexual behaviors were observed for 3 hours.Serum testosterone levels were estimated.The data was analyzed using student's t test. Results : There was a statistically significant increase in the mount frequency (P=0.000, P=0.000), intromission frequency (P=0.004, P=0.010) in group 3 compared to group2 in both acute and chronic treatment with vanillin respectively. No mounting and intromission was seen in groups 1 and 2. There was no significant difference in the serum testosterone levels among the groups. Conclusion: Vanillin in the dose of 200 mg/kg but not 100 mg/kg demonstrated aphrodisiac properties in male wistar rats.

BHP-8

Interactions of morphine with nitrergic agents during acute and repeated restraint stress induced modulation of anxiety in rats


Rashmi Anand, Jagdish Ch. Joshi , Arunabha Ray, Kavita Gulati

Department of Pharmacology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi-110 007

Objectives: Endogenous opioids play a crucial role during stress responses and the present study evaluated the effects of the opioid agonist, morphine, on stress induced anxiogenesis and its interactions with nitrergic agents in rats. Methods: Restraint stress (RS) was used as the stressor. Anxiety was measured by elevated plus maze test. Morphine and nitrergic agents were administerdi.p. Data was analysed by Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Acute RS induced an anxiogenic response in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and this was associated with elevations in plasma corticosterone. Pretreatment with morphine (1 or 5 mg/kg), attenuated the RS-induced anxiogenic and corticosterone response in a dose related manner. RS induced neurobehavioral suppression was associated with reductions in brain NO metabolite (NOx) levels, which were also reversed with morphine. Interaction studies showed that sub-effective doses of morphine and L-arginine (a NO precursor) had synergistic anxiolytic effects and elevations in brain NOx, whereas, L-NAME (a NO synthase inhibitor) neutralized higher dose morphine effects on both parameters. Repeated RS (x5) induced adaptive changes as evidenced by normalization of anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and elevations in brain NOx, as compared to acute RS. Pretreatment with morphine in combination with repeated RS (x5) showed potentiating effects in the induction of behavioral adaptation in the EPM and elevations in brain NOx, as compared to repeated RS alone. Further, L-NAME, when administered prior to morphine, blocked the effect of morphine on stress adaptation. Conclusion: These results suggest differential morphine-NO interactions during acute and repeated restraint stress.

BHP-9

Preclinical evaluation of some novel heterocycles against Post operative pain

Gangadhar M, Monika S, Sriram D, Yogeeswari P.

Neuropathic Pain Drug Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, BITS - Pilani Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad -700058

Objective: Postoperative pain is defined as an acute or chronic pain that is experienced after an operation or surgical procedure. While significant strides have been made in medicine in this regard, postoperative pain management can be quite difficult. The present work was designed to evaluate the potential of some novel heterocyclic compounds in alleviating post-operative pain. Materials and Methods : Test compounds were synthesized in Drug Discovery Research Laboratory, BITS- Pilani Hyderabad Campus and screened on Wistar rats (250-300g) which were randomly divided (n=6) into vehicle, standard drug (Gabapentin, 30mg/kg, i.p.) and test group. The test compounds were suspended in 30% PEG and administered intraperitoneally. Plantar incision in rat paw was made by a 1-cm cut in plantar aspect through the skin and fascia, the underlying flexor muscle was elevated and longitudinally incised. The wound was closed with two mattress sutures. In response to injury, consequent inflammatory reaction developed pain related behavior characterized by tactile allodynia (assessed using von frey filaments), cold allodynia (using acetone spray) and mechanical hyperalgesia (using Randall Saliteo analgesymeter). Result : Among the ten test compounds, five compounds significantly increased (P<0.05) the paw withdrawal duration in cold allodynia, paw withdrawal latency in tactile allodynia and paw withdrawal force in case of mechanical hyperalgesia as compared to vehicle. Conclusion: The present study validates the antinociceptive effect of the test compounds against post-operative pain and further provides a platform for future mechanistic studies and underlying molecular mechanisms.

BHP-10

Evaluation of analgesic activity of new chemical entities in two rodent models of pain

Deekshith V , Monika Sharma, Sriram D, Yogeeswari P.

Neuropathic Pain Drug Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, BITS - Pilani Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad -700058

Email: deeks.nandu@gmail.com

Objective: Pain is defined as neuralgia, an unpleasant sensory experience associated with tissue damage, such as injury or inflammation but severe pain can arise independently of any obvious predisposing cause, or persist long after the precipitating injury has healed. The present study was designed to assess the analgesic activity of 20 novel triazolo-thiadiazole derivatives (synthesized in Drug Discovery Research Laboratory, BITS-Hyderabad) in formalin induced flinching and acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Materials and Methods : Swiss albino mice (either sex) with weights ranging from 20-25 g were randomly divided into groups of six each. Indomethacin (10mg/kg, i.p.) served as positive control. Test compounds (100mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the experiment. Writhing was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 mL of 3% v/v acetic acid. The number of writhings occurring for a period of 30 min time was recorded and percentage reversal was calculated. Formalin test involved intra plantar injection of 25μL of 1% formalin into the hind paw of mice producing flinches in the paw in the early phase (0-5 min) and the late phase (10-30 min). Time spent in paw licking and biting was monitored in each 5 minutes and calculated for both phase-I (0-5 min) and phase-II (10-30 min). Result: Asignificant reversal in the writhing and flinching responses (P<0.05) was observed with the test compounds against vehicle treated group. Conclusion: The results demonstrate the analgesic activity of the test compounds in acute nociceptive assays and support the future candidature of the triazolo-thiadiazole template as analgesics.

BHP-11

Pharmacological profiling of triazolone derivatives as new leads for neuropathic pain treatment

Monika S , Gangadhar M, Binita K, Arvind S, Sriram D, Yogeeswari P.

Neuropathic Pain Drug Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, BITS - Pilani Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad -700058

Objective : Neuropathic pain syndromes are chronic pain disorders associated with damage or permanent alteration of the peripheral or central nervous system. It has been estimated that 1-1.5% of the general population is affected with neuropathic pain with no single 'gold standard' medication till date, being managed with few effective therapeutic options like anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and opioids. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 24 substituted diphenyl-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-ones with optimum clogP values were designed and synthesized. After assessment of neurotoxicity (using rotarod), the non-neurotoxic compounds were evaluated for antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic activity in two animal models of neuropathic pain - Chronic constriction injury (CCI) and Partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) injury model. Compounds were administered intraperitoneally at 100mg/kg dose level on 9 th day post-surgery. Behavioral signs of different components of neuropathic pain namely; spontaneous pain, dynamic allodynia (von frey filaments), cold allodynia (acetone spray) and mechanical hyperalgesia (Randall selitto analgesiometer) were measured. Result: 10 compounds exhibited more than 70% reversal in CCI model with 3 compounds showing more than 90% reversal in sensory testings. Similarly, 8 compounds exhibited more than 70% reversal in PSNL model with 1 compound exhibiting more than 90% reversal. The most active compounds were further taken for ED-50 studies. Conclusion : The promising results of the compounds in neuropathic pain models support their candidature in neuropathic pain and opens future possibilities of further lead optimization.

BHP-12

A Comparative study between SSRIS AND TCA'sand their effect on bleeding


Ranjani Ramanujam, Rohini Thimmaiah, Padma L, Swaminath G, Asha P Dass, Manasa CR.

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka

Background and Objectives : Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are common agents in general psychiatry used to treat major depression, obsessive-compulsive, panic, post-traumatic, social anxiety, and other mood disorders. Despite unquestionable efficacy and a favorable safety profile, there are certain side effects or adverse reactions associated with the chronic use of SSRIs. With regard to the mechanism by which SSRIs may cause bleeding, there is a strong consensus that blockade of serotonin reuptake affects primary hemostasis, namely platelet activity. Considering that SSRIs are very commonly prescribed, it is important to assess patients for increased risk of bleeding. Therefore, we embarked on this study to assess the risk of bleeding in patients on SSRIS. Methods : This is a prospective, longitudinal, randomized study comparing 30 patients on SSRIs with 30 patients on TCAs. Recruitment was accomplished using a screening proforma containing the inclusion/ exclusion criteria. All participants provide their written informed consent after the purpose of the study is explained to them. The patients who satisfy DSM-IV criteria for a primary diagnosis as diagnosed by SCID at the time of screening will be enrolled in the study. Bleeding time, clotting time and prothrombin time would be assessed at baseline and at the end of 6 weeks. The statistical significance associated between sociodemographic variable and clinical parameter would be analyzed using Chi-square and Student't' test. Results and Conclusions : Ongoing study. Results and conclusions will be discussed in the conference.

BHP-13

Evaluation of anti-anxiety activity of nardostachys jatamansi rhizomes

N. Deepak Venkataraman , P. Muralidharan

Dept. of Pharmacology, C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai-97.

Nardostachys jatamansi is a fabulous plant that can be used in conditions such as parkinsonism, convulsions, arrthymiasis, anxiety, depression, insomnia etc. The present study is carried out to investigate the anti-anxiety activity of methanolic extract of Nardostachys jatamansi (MENJ). Materials and Methods: Completely dried roots of N.jatamansi dried roots were extracted using maceration with the help of methanol. Phytoconstituents of the extracts were detected by phytochemical screening. Inbred adult rats (150-200gms) and male albino mice (20-25 gms) were divided into 4 groups (each group containing 5 animals). GROUP - I:- control, GROUP - II :- animals treated with 2 mg/kg of diazepam, GROUP - III:- animals treated with 200 mg/kg of MENJ , GROUP-VI :- animals treated with 400 mg/kg of MENJ.The anxiolytic activity of diazepam and MENJ were evaluated on group II and groups III , VI respectively using models like rota-rod, hole board, elevated plus maze, actophotometer and zero maze. Results: Parameters:- Fall off time (rota-rod) - increase in average fall off time is observed, Line crossing and nose poking (hole board) - decreased locomotion, Open arm exploration (elevated plus maze and zero maze) - increased open arm exploration, Locomotor activity (actophotometer) - decreased locomotor activity. 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of MENJ showed significant anxiolytic activity when compared to 2 mg/kg diazepam. Conclusion: This study concludes that MENJ possesses significant anxiolytic activity at lower doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg.

BHP-14

Evaluation of the antidepressant activity of the combination of propranolol and alprazolam in albino mice


Reena Verma, Harsha M. Shetty 1 , Kingshuk Lahon 1 , Johan Pandian J. 1 , K. Manimekalai 1

Department of Pharmacology, LN Medical College, Bhopal, 2 Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Pondicherry

Objectives : To evaluate the antidepressant activity of the combination of Propranolol and Alprazolam in Albino mice. Methods : Healthy male albino mice (20-30g) are stratified into two arms for testing antidepressant activity. Each of these arms contains three groups of six mice each. (n=18) Group A receives suspension of Propranolol and Alprazolam in distilled water (Test), Group B receives suspension of Imipramine in distilled water (Standard) and Group C receives distilled water alone (Control). Acute testing for antidepressant effect will be done by Tail Suspension Test and chronic testing will be done by Forced Swim Test after subjecting the mice to chronic treatment (21 days). Statistical analysis will be done using Paired 't' test and inter-group analysis by ANOVA. P value < 0.05 will be regarded as significant. Results: Will be presented as project is ongoing. Conclusions: Will be discussed later.

BHP-15

NMDA receptor regulates anxiety behavior in mice on exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic field

Paresh Kolhe , Balwant Salunke, Mukesh Shewale, Sudhir Umathe, Jagatpalsingh Chavan

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Mahatma Jyotiba Fuley Shaikshanik Parisar, Amravati Road, Nagpur-440 03, (MS), India

Objective: Earlier studies have demonstrated few relations between extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELFMF) and the mental state of humans and rodents. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the anxiety- like behaviour could be affected by ELFMF exposure. Material and Methods: Adult Swiss albino mice were submitted to no exposure, ELFMF (50Hz, 10G) exposure 8h/day for 7, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days and subsequent drug treatments. Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed in elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT) and social interaction (SI) test, on 7th, 30th, 60th , 90th, and 120th exposure day, respectively. Moreover, the role of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate in ELF MF induced anxiety was assessed by muscimol (1.0 mg/kg i.p.), bicucculine(2.0mg/kg i.p.), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) (45mg/kg i.p.), MK-801 (0.1mg/kg i.p.), as a GABA and glutamate receptor agonist and antagonist respectively.In addition, levels of GABA and glutamate were determined by HPLC-ECD in the regions of the brain. Results and Discussion : ELF MF exhibited anxiety-like behaviour on 30th, 60th , 90th, and120th exposure day, respectively except on day 7. Glutamate receptor agonist exacerbated while inhibitor attenuated the ELF MF induced behavioral effect. However, GABA modulators failed to show any effect at tested dose. None of the treatments had any significant influence on locomotors activity. Further experiment demonstrated that ELF MF significantly elevated glutamate level in the regions of the brain. Interestingly GABA level was also increased in compensation. However, GABA and glutamate receptor modulators failed to show any effect on ELF MF induced elevated levels of GABA and glutamate. Conclusion : Results indicated that ELFMF significantly amplified time dependant anxiety-like behavior, and confirmed the potential involvement of NMDA-glutamatergic receptor system.

BHP-16

Effect of cox-2 inhibitor on lipopolysaccharides induced behavioral and memory alterations and antioxidants level in brain.

Jayashree V. , Pranaav Swaroop G., Prakash R., P. Muralidharan

Department of Pharmacology, C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai-97.

Objectives : Lipopolysaccharides, a non-infectious component of gram negative bacterial cell wall provides a potent stimulus for experimental immune activation and have shown to induce behavioural and memory alterations characterized by fever, decreased food and water intake, reduced mobility, depression and anxiety. Therefore the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Cox-2 inhibitor in lipopolysaccharides induced behaviour. Methods: Optimization of lps: Either sex of wistar rats were divided into 3 groups and each group were treated with selected three doses of LPS(1, 3, 10μg/kg). After one week of LPS administration, various parameters such as body weight, rectal temperature, reduced mobility, depression and anxiety were measured. The optimized dose was found to be 10μg/kg that greatly showed the above behaviouralalterations.Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=6). First group received vehicle for one week and was challenged with saline on 7th day. Second group received vehicle, third and fourth group received low and high dose of selective COX-2 inhibitor and fifth group received diazepam respectively for one week and challenged with Lipopolysaccharides (LPS 10μg/kg i.p) on 7thday. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced behaviour and memory alterations in rats were quantified. Antioxidant profile and histopathology studies in rat brain were also performed. Result : Lipopolysaccharide (LPS 10μg/kg i.p) administration showed behavioral and memory alterations in animals. Pretreatment with COX-2 inhibitor attenuated the behavioral changes induced by LPS andinhibited LPS induced oxidative stress. Conclusion : COX 2 inhibitor played a dual role as an anti-inflammatory activity as well as neuroprotective activity.

BHP-17

Effect of morinda tinctoria roxb on obsessive compulsive disorder in animal models

Arun M., Sujana V., A. Dinesh, P. Muralidharan

C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Chennai-97, India.

Introduction : Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disorder characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors that consume much of the afflicted individuals attention and goal-directed processes. OCD is classified as anxiety disorder because of distress and tension produced by resisting the obsessions and compulsions. Method s : The present study was designed to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Morindatinctoriaroxb (EMT) on mice. Acute toxicity assessment of EMT uses defined doses (5, 50, 500, 2000 mg/kg bodyweight). The standard drugs used are fluoxetine at 15, 30mg/kg and diazepam 2.5, 5mg/kg. Behavioral changes in the mice were evaluated using marble burying test, hole board test and rota rod test. Results: EMT at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg showed significance (P<0.05) when compare with control and show significant tendency to inhibit the marble burying behavior. The group treated with 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg EMT showed significance of (P<0.05 and P<0.001) when compared with standard group (P<0.01) showed significant decrease in fall of time in negative control group in rota rod test. There is no significant decrease in the locomotor activity, which is an important criteria for the treatment of OCD. Conclusion: These findings suggest and can be concluded that EMT ameliorative effect on obsessive compulsive disorder might be due to decrease in serotonin or dopaminergiclevels.

BHP-18

Evaluation of the anxiolytic effect of methanol leaf extract of ficushispida linn in young adult mice

V. Sindhan , D. Sivaraman, P. Muralidharan

C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Chennai, India

Objective: The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of a methanol extract of Ficushispida Linn. Leaves in young adult mice. Materials and Methods: Actophototmeter,elevated plus maze, zero maze, hole board and rotarod paradigm were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the methanolic leaf extract Ficushispida Linn (MEFH) at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg. p.o and diazepam 1mg/kg,i.p were administered 30 mins before the tests. Results: The results showed that the MEFH significantly increased the number of head poking and line crossing in the hole board test. In the elevated plus maze the MEFH at the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly increased the duration of exploration in open arm in similar way to that of diazepam. Further, in the Zero maze the extract produced significant increase in time spent in open arm as compared to control. In the rotarod MEFH at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the fall off time which shows the muscle relaxing property of the plant. The spontaneous locomotor activity count, measured using actophotometer, was significantly decreased in animal pretreated with MEFH.Indicating the remarkable sedative effect of the plant. Conclusion : The result of the present study suggests that leaves of Ficushispida Linn may possess an anxiolytic effect.

BHP-19

Involvement of monoaminergic system in the antidepressant-like activity of ellagic acid

Girish C , Vishnu Raj, Balakrishnan S

Department of Pharmacology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry- 605 014.

Objective: To investigate the possible role of monoaminergic and opioid systems in the antidepressant-like activity of ellagic acid in mouse forced swimming test (FST), which is a predictive model of antidepressant activity. Methods : For evaluating the antidepressant-like effect, female Swiss Albino mice (25-30 g) orally received normal saline alone, fluoxetine (as positive control, 20mg/kg) or ellagic acid at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg dose. For studying the mechanism, mice were pretreated with different receptor antagonists (i.p) or its vehicle followed by normal saline or ellagic acid (50mg/kg). All the antagonists, namely, P-chlorophenylalanine (serotonin synthesis inhibitor or PCPA,100 mg/kg,), ketanserin (5HT 2A/2B antagonist, 5mg/kg), ondansetron (5HT 3 antagonist, 1mg/kg), prazosin (α1 -adrenoceptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg), yohimbine (α2- adrenoceptor antagonist, 1mg/kg) and naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg) were given 30 min before the administration of ellagic acid and the duration of immobility was recorded in forced swimming test after 60 min. Locomotor activity was assessed by actophotometer. One way ANOVA followed by New Man Keuls test was used to find any statistical difference between the treatment groups. Results : Ellagic acid produced significant reduction in immobility period with all the three doses studied. Moreover, The reduction in duration of immobility produced by ellagic acid was reversed by PCPA, ketanserin, ondansetron, prazosin and yohimbine, but was unaffected by naloxone. Conclusions : Our findings confirmed the antidepressant-like effect of ellagic acid in FST which was unrelated to its locomotor activity. This may be mediated through serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, with no role for opioid system.

BHP-20

Influence of berberine on marble-burying behavior of mice: Role of serotonergic system


Pankaj Dixit, Dinesh Kumar Jain, Gaurav Parihar, Pooja Jaiswal

College of Pharmacy, IPS Academy, Rajendra Nagar, A-B Road, Indore-452012 (M.P.), India.

Objectives: Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid is reported to increase the brain serotonin concentration, and hence, the present study investigated effect of berberine on marble-burying behavior (an index of obsessive-compulsive behavior) in mice. Methods: Male Swiss mice were divided into various groups (n=5) and administered either with saline (10 ml/kg, i.p), berberine (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) (1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) or Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and 30 min thereafter were subjected to marble-burying behavior/MBB test for 30 min. At the end, the number of marbles buried were determined and considered an index of obsessive-compulsive behavior. Locomotor activity was recorded simultaneously. In another study, mice were treated with berberine (2, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 7 days and on 7 th day 30 min after last treatment were subjected to MBB test. To study the involvement of serotonergic system, separate groups of mice were treated with either PCPA (80 mg/kg, i.p. for 3 days) and thereafter the effect of berberine was studied on MBB. Results: The results revealed that berberine significantly and dose dependently decreased the MBB, without altering the locomotor activity. Berberine was also effective after chronic administration indicating that the effect is not due to its anxiolytic activity. Diazepam, a standard anxiolytic agent failed to show any effect on MBB after 7 days of administration. Further, treatment with PCPA, a serotonin depleting agent abolished the effect of berberine (5 mg/kg). Conclusions : The present investigation reports the anti-compulsive activity of berberine, which may be mediated via serotonergic system.

BHP-21

Evaluation of antideprressant-like activity of ellagic acid in swiss albino mice


Vishnu Raj, Girish C., S. Balakrishnan

Department of Pharmacology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Pondicherry-605014

Objectives: To evaluate the antidepressant-like action of ellagic acid using mouse tail suspension test (TST). Methods: Mice of either sex (25-30g) were included in the study having six animals in each group. For the acute study, animals in the control group received normal saline alone. Fluoxetine was used as the positive control at a dose of 20mg/kg. Ellagic acid was given at three different doses (25, 50 and100mg/kg). After one hour of drug administration, the animals were evaluated for antidepressant activity using TST. For the chronic study, all the drugs and vehicle were administered for 14 days. On the 14 th day, 60 mins after the last dose, the animals were evaluated for antidepressant effect as like acute study. Locomotoractivity of the animals were assessed by actophotometer. All the drugs were administered orally. Results : In the acute study, single dose administration of ellagic acid produced significant reduction in immobility duration at 25 and 50 mg/kg doses as compared to the saline treated group. The reduction in immobility duration was 18.39% (ellagic acid, 25 mg/kg) and 19.92% (ellagic acid 50 mg/kg), which was comparable to that of the standard drug fluoxetine (14.56%). In the chronic study, ellagic acid produced a significant antidepressant-like effect at 50 and 100 mg/kg dose, resulted in 29.61% and 28.35% immobility reduction compared with control group respectively. This was comparable to Fluoxetine which produced 28.65% reduction in the immobility period. Conclusion : Our findings suggest that ellagic acid possess antidepressant-like effect which was unrelated to the locomotor activity.

BHP-22

Antidepressant activity of Alstoniascholaris extract in mice models of depression

Rajendra Kumar , Naveen Dubey, Chanchal Raj, Navin Raj, A. Balasubramaniam, Sayyed Nadeem

Technocrats Institute of Technology Pharmacy, Anand Nagar, Bhopal (M.P.), India

Objectives : Alstoniascholaris is an evergreen, tropical tree native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Alstoniascholaris is used as as antimicrobial, antiamoebic, antidiarrheal, antimalarial, febrifuge, stimulant, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, antiasthmatic, antioxidant, analgesic, antiinflammatory, anti-fertility, anti-diabetic, cardiotonic. Above reports frames the possibility that is Alstoniascholaris extract (ASE) may be effective in depression. Methods : Antidepressant activity was studied in male mice using forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). ASE was administered by oral route at a dosage of 100 and 200 mg/kg BW. Fluoxetine was used as positive control. Results : ASE treatment significantly (P<0.05) significantly reduced the immobility time (P < 0.001) in FST and TST in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion : ASE produced significant reduction of immobility time in both FST and TST. Fluoxetine produced a significant reduction of immobility time in both FST and TST similar to previous findings. The results of the present study revealed that antidepressant effect of Alstoniascholaris extract in the FST and TST is specific.

BHP-23

Effect of Alstonia scholaris extract on marble-burying behavior in mice: Implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder

Peeyush Kumar Srivastava , Ankur Sahu, Chanchal Raj, Navin Raj, A. Balasubramaniam, Sayyed Nadeem

Technocrats Institute of Technology Pharmacy, Anand Nagar, Bhopal (M.P.), India

Objectives : Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric condition. Although a variety of pharmaceutical agents is available for the treatment of OCD, psychiatrists often find that many patients cannot tolerate the side effects of these medications; do not respond properly to the treatment; or the medications lose their effectiveness after a period of treatment. Herbal medicine can be a solution to some of these problems. The purpose of this study was to characterize the anti-OCD (anti-compulsive) activity of Alstonia scholaris extract (ASE) using the marble-burying behavior in mice. Methods : The experiment was conducted in specific animal models of Swiss albino mice to evaluate marble-burying behavior. Results : Oral administration of 100 and 200 mg/kg of ASE significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the total number of buried marbles. The effect was comparable to that of the fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Fluoxetine and ASE do not produce any overt motor dysfunction. Conclusion : The present study for the first time show that the plant possesses anti-compulsive (anti-OCD) activity, confirming the traditional claims.

BHP-24

Protective effect of glycyrrhizin against sciatic nerve ligation induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in rats

Maninder Kaur Mehra, Narendra Singh, Swapnil Goyal, Rahul Trivedi, Rupesh Soni, Pradeep Deshmukh

Department of Pharmacology, B. R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mandsaur - 458001 (M.P.)

E-mail: maninder3maninder@gmail.com

Objective : To investigate the effect of glycyrrhizin on behavioral and biochemical alteration induced by sciatic nerve ligation in rats. Methodolog y: Wistar albino rats of either sex were used. Then rats were divided into 5 groups with 6 animals in each group as follows: Normal control, Sham group, Sciatic nerve ligated group, Glycyrrhizin treatment group. Glycyrrhizin was given orally at a dose of 200mg/kg. Rats of standard group were treated with lamotrigine at dose of 100mg/kg orally. The various behavioral parameters (thermal hyperalgesia, cold allodynia) followed by assessment of biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, super oxide dismutage, catalase, and nitrite) were measured in brain. Result: Chronic administration of Glycyrrhizin (200 mg/kg, po) significantly reversed behavioral alteration and attenuated oxidative damage in brain as compared to control. Conclusion : Glycyrrhizin significantly reversed behavioral alteration and attenuated oxidative damage in sciatic nerve ligated rats.

BHP-25

Role of TRPV1 in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on thermoregulation

Rupali A. Sondawale , Shyamshree S. S. Manna, Jagatpalsingh G. Chavan, Sudhir N. Umathe

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, RTM Nagpur University, Amravati Road, Nagpur- 440 033 (MS), India

Objectives: Recent studies demonstrated the agonistic role of alcohol on transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), which are known to play an important function in thermoregulation, and may contribute to the effects of alcohol on temperature. However, until the date, there is no data that suggest the role of TRPV1 in the effects of alcohol on temperature. Thus, we examined the interaction between alcohol and TRPV1 on thermoregulation. Methods : Telethermometer was used for recording the rectal temperature in separate groups of male Swiss mice (20-25g) administered with acute alcohol (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 g/kg, i.p.) or given as liquid diet 1.8-6.4% for chronic studies in combination with capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist: 2.5, or 5 ηg/mouse) or capsazepine (a TRPV1 antagonist: 1, or 10 ηg /mouse). Results: Subcutaneous administration of capsaicin (2.5 ηg /mouse) potentiated while capsazepine (1 ηg /mouse) blocked the hypothermic effect of alcohol on acute administration. Interestingly, neither capsaicin nor capsazepine had any effect on tolerance to hypothermic effect of alcohol. However, both the drugs potentiated the ethanol withdrawal hyperthermia. Conclusion: Thus, our study suggests that TRPV1 might participate in the effects of alcohol in thermoregulation. The tolerance to hypothermia or its hyperthermia on withdrawal might be a result of desensitization of these non-selective ion channels.

BHP-26

Evalution of Locomotor Activity of Capparis divaricata lam. & Saraca indica In Albino Mice

Godse AM , Purake RR, Jarag RJ.

Department of Pharmacology, Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Pharmacy, Near Chitranagari, Kolhapur - 416 013, Maharashtra, India. E-mail: godse43999@gmail.com

Objective : Evalution of Locomotor activity of Capparis divaricata with Saraca indica in Albino mice. Materials and Methods : Plants material and Extraction: The plants were collected and authenticated. The methanolic extracts of Capparis divaricata and Saraca indica were prepared by the maceration process and investigated for locomotor activity in mice. Saraca indica has active constituents ketosterol and hematoxylin both are for androgenic in nature. Capparis divaricata contains β-sitosterol which is uterine sedative and attributed to various mechanisms decreased serotonergic and dopaminergic transmission and increased cholinergic transmission. (B) Selection of Animals: Wistar Albino mice were randomly allocated to 4 groups (n=3) Group A (Capparis divaricata) Group B (Saraca indica) served as control, Group C (Combination of both methanolic extracts Capparis divaricata and Saraca indica), Group D treated with standard drug chlorpromazine hydrochloride (1mg/kg, i.p.). Locomotor activity was recorded with a using a digital activity cage (Actophotometer lab-hosp, India). Protocol approved by IAEC BVCOP Kolhapur (Registered under CPCSEA, New Delhi). Result and Conclusion : Combination of methanolic extract Capparis divaricata and Saraca indica shows synergistic CNS depressant effect. Locomotory activity of Capparis divaricata was significantly decrease with Saraca indica in mice and shows more percentage decreases in locomotor activity where standard drug chlorpromazine hydrochloride produced 71.37% decreased in activity.


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CEL-1

Genetic variations and haplotypes of cyp19a1 gene in south Indian breast cancer patients


Umamaheswaran Gurusamy, Arunkumar AS, Naveen Kumar AN 1 , Damodaran SE, Kadambari D 1 , Steven A Dkhar, Adithan C.

Department of Pharmacology, ICMR Centre for Advance Research in Pharmacogenomics, 1 Department of Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, (JIPMER), Puducherry-605 006

Objective: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP19A1 have been implicated in relation to breast cancer risk and therapeutic outcome. Hence, the objective of the studywas to determine the allele and genotype frequencies, linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and haplotype structures of CYP19A1 gene located on chromosome 15q21 in South Indian breast cancer patients and to compare with the data from HapMap populations. Methods: Postmenopausal patients (n = 46) with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer treated with Aromatase Inhibitor (AI) letrozole were included in this study. DNA was obtained from peripheral blood. Genotyping were performed by TaqMan assay on the qRT-PCR platform based on allelic discrimination for rs4646 (1673G>T), rs10046 (1531C>T), rs700519 (790C>T), rs700518 (240A>G), rs727479 (IVS2 G>T), rs749292 (IVS1 A>G), rs6493497 (-144C>T), rs7176005 (-588G>A). Results: All the studied polymorphisms follow Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P >0.05). The observed minor allele frequencies for these eight polymorphisms were T: 23%, T: 23%, T: 28.3%, G: 21.7%, G: 24%, A: 30.4%, T: 37.8%, G: 40%. Relatively strong LD pattern (D'>0.8) was observed between rs4646 and rs10046, rs727479; rs10046 and rs700519, rs727479, rs749292, rs7176005; rs700519 and rs700518, rs727479; rs700518 and rs727479. Twenty different haplotype structures with a frequency >1% were derived from all the 8 SNPs tested. The most common was GCTATGTG (18%), followed by GCCAGGCA (15.8%), TTCGTACA (9.5%) and GCCATGCA (8.1%). The observed frequencies and LD patterns show significant ethnic differencebetween South Indians and other HapMap populations. Conclusion: Genetic information with respect to the degree of LD in South Indians might be useful for future genotype-phenotype association studies, especially for predicting the efficacy and adverse events of AI.

CEL-2

Study of allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of vkorc1 gene in south Indian population

Krishna Kumar D , Shewade DG, Ushakiran P, Manjunath S, Reneega G, Adithan C

ICMR - INSERM Research Project, Pharmacogenomics Lab, Department of Pharmacology, JIPMER, Pondicherry - 605 006.

Objective: To estimate the allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of VKORC1 gene in South Indians. Methods : Four hundred and fifty unrelated, healthy volunteers of South Indian origin of either sex (age: 18-60 years) were included and compared with the HapMap Project's population for LD pattern, allele and genotype frequencies, and haplotype structures. Five ml of blood was collected using EDTA as anticoagulant. DNA was extracted using phenol-chloroform method. Real-time quantitative PCR was used for genotyping. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs9923231, rs9934438, rs8050894, rs7294 and rs2359612 were included for constructing haplotypes of VKORC1 gene in South Indians. Results : The frequencies of Haplotype H1 (A-C-G-C-G) and Haplotype H2 (G-T-C-T-A) were found to be 77.4% and 9.3%, respectively. The distribution of other haplotypes H3 (G-C-G-C-G), H4 (G-T-G-T-A) and H5 (A-C-C-C-G) were found to be 7.9%, 0.1% and 0.1%, respectively. A significant ethnic difference was found in the LD patterns among the variant alleles between the South Indian population and other major ethnic groups (African Americans, Caucasians, Chinese, and Japanese). Conclusion : VKORC1 allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies were established in the South Indian population. This may be used for studying the phenotype variation for warfarin and acenocoumarol therapy. It may form the basis for clinical application of pharmacogenomics information in India.

CEL-3

Evaluation of a double-blind oral contraceptive (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol) on the functional effectiveness of low density lipoprotein receptor (ldlr) in vitro


0Albina Arjuman, Hemlata Pandey, N.C. Chandra

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi - 110029

Email:albino_arjuman@rediffmail.com


Objective: The third generation oral contraceptive (OC) controversy revolves around the probable under evaluation of the status of these OCs in elevating the risk of venous thromboembolism. In this direction, we wanted to evaluate the effect of a double-blend oral contraceptive (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol) on the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and its transcription factor (SREBP2) in assessing the functional effectiveness of the LDLRs. Methods: Differentiated primary placental trophoblast cells isolated from term human placentae and cells from Jar cell line were used for the study. LDLR and SREBP2 expressions were assessed by immunocytochemistry and immunoblot assays with and without contraceptive challenge. Functional activity of LDLR was studied based on the profile of cellular uptake of Dil-LDL (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3, 3, 3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanin perchlorate-LDL), quantified spectro-fluorometrically. Results: Variation of the concentration(s) of either of the components of the double-blend preparation (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol) exhibited similar changes in the expression patterns of LDLR and SREBP2. Maximum expression and functional effectiveness was found at a unique combination of desogestrel (20ng/ml) and ethinyl estradiol (10ng/ml). Conclusion: The stimulatory effect of the double-blend contraceptive on LDLR expression is an associated phenomenon of the contraceptive mediated stimulation of SREBP2 expression.

CEL-4

Evaluation of anti tumor activity of saponins of Momordica cymbalaria on mammary cancer


K. Rupa Lavanya, Raju Koneri, Suman Sammadar, Bhavani B.K.

thK. Rupa Lavanya , IInd M.pharm (pharmacology), Karnataka College of pharmacy, 33/2, Thirumena Halli, Hegde Nagar Main Road, Jakkur Post, Yelahanka Hoblli, Bangalore North, Bangalore-64.

Objective: To evaluate antitumor activity of saponins of MC on 7, 12 Dimethyl benz (a) anthracene induced mammary cancer in rats and MCF-7 cell lines. Materials and Methods : Cancer was induced in female wistar rats at the age of 50-57 days by i.v injection 2mg of DMBA on 1 st , 4 th , and 7 th day. Tumors developed at the age of 3months, with size of 9-11mm in diameter and were treated with saponins of MC and Tamoxifen (positive control). After 30 days of treatment rats were sacrificed and Breast tissue was collected for histopathology and antioxidant studies. MTT assay was carried out at different conc. of saponins of MC with MCF-7 cells. Results : The Saponins of MC and Tamoxifen significantly decreased tumor diameter in DMBA rats when compared to DMBA control rats; it also decreased SOD, CAT, and GSH and increased in LPO in breast tissue in DMBA induced carcinogenesis. The IC50 value of Saponins of MC in MCF-7 cells was found at 150μg. Administration of Saponins of MC in ascending order of conc. from 50μg to 4000μg to MCF-7 cells in cytotoxicity (MTT) assay decreased cell viability and increased the percentage inhibition Value. Conclusions : Saponins of MC exhibited anti tumor activity against mammary cancer, which may be due to its anti ovulatory, antioxidant and cytotoxicity activity.

CEL-5

Evaluation of anticlastogenic effect of saponins of m0 omordica cymbalaria in mice bone marrow cells.


Sridhar Bommineni, Nagarathna P.K.M, M. Gangadhar

Sridhar Bommineni, II nd M. pharm (Pharmacology), Karnataka college of pharmacy, 33/2, Thirumena Halli, Hegde Nagar Main Road, Jakkur Post, Yelahanka Hoblli, Bangalore North, Bangalore-64.

Objectives : Evaluate the anticlastogenic effect of Saponins of Momordica Cymbalaria in experimental clastogenic mice induced by Cyclophosphamide. Evaluate the effect of saponins of Momordica cymbalaria on chromosomal aberration and mitotic index induced by cyclophosphomide in mice bone marrow cells. Evaluate the effect of saponins of Momordica cymbalaria on micronucleus formation induced by cyclophosphomide in mice bone marrow cells. Method: Saponins were isolated from the roots of Momordica Cymbalaria. Swiss albino mice of either sex 8-10 weeks old, weighing 25-30g were taken. Cyclophosphomide (100mg/kg, ip/single dose) was given to the mice. Anticlastogenic activity of saponins of M.cymbalaria is studied by preparingsmears of bone marrow cells. The slides were stained by Giemsa stain. The statistical significance of the results was tested using nonpaired t-test and one way Anova. P<0.001 was found to be much effective. Results: Saponins of M.cymbalaria decreased the cyclophosphamide induced formation of chromosomal aberrations and formation of micronuclei and increased mitotic index in bone marrow cells. Conclusion: Saponins of M.cymbalaria prevented the nuclear damage induced by cyclophosphomide in bone marrow micronuclei tests and chromosomal aberrations tests invivo. It inhibits the disturbances in the cell division by increasing mitotic index in invivo. Hence I concluded that saponins of M. cymbalaria has significant anticlastogenic activity.

CEL-6

Protective role of momordica cymbalaria in diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma


M. Sudheer, Nagarathna P.K.M, M.P. Satheesh

M Sudheer, II nd M.pharm(pharmacology), Karnataka college of pharmacy, 33/2, Thirumena Halli, Hegde Nagar Main Road, Jakkur Post, Yelahanka Hoblli, Bangalore North, Bangalore-64.

Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate Protective Role Of Momordica Cymbalariaagainst N-nitroso diethylamine (DEN) induced Hepatocellular carcinoma. Method: The protective effect of the plant extracts were evaluated by inducing Hepatocellular carcinoma in rat by giving single dose (200 mg/kg) of N-nitroso diethylamine (DEN) the carcinogenic effect of DEN is potentiated by administering phenobarbital in water. Various serum biochemical and histo-pathological studies were done to determine the effect `of plant extracts on Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The levels of GSH, SOD, LPO and CAT and activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed in the haemolysate and liver of experimental animals to evaluate the antioxidant status. Results: The results of the serum biochemical estimations demonstrated that the Hepatocellular carcinoma was successfully induced by the DEN whereas the effect of DEN was reversed by the administration of the bark extracts. The antioxidant effect of the plant extracts were proved by estimating various parameters of the liver tissue homogenate. All these results indicate that the Methanolic Extract of Momordica Cymbalaria have chemopreventive effect against DEN induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Conclusion: The present results suggest that Saponins of Momordica Cymbalaria exerts its protective effects by modulating the antioxidant status during DEN induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

CEL-7

Evaluation of anticlastogenic effect of saponins of Momordica cymbalaria in mice peripheral blood cells.


K. Meghana, Nagarathna P.K.M, M. Gangadhar

K. Meghana, II nd M.pharm (pharmacology), Karnataka college of pharmacy, 33/2, Thirumena Halli, Hegde Nagar Main Road, Jakkur Post, Yelahanka Hoblli, Bangalore North, Bangalore-64.

Objectives : Evaluate the anticlastogenic effect of Saponins of Momordica Cymbalaria in experimental clastogenic mice induced by Cyclophosphamide.Evaluate the effect of Saponins of Momordica Cymbalaria on Chromosomal aberrations and Mitotic index induced by Cyclophosphamide in mice peripheral blood cells.Evaluate the effect of Saponins of Momordica Cymbalaria on micro nucleus induced by Cyclophosphamide in mice peripheral blood cells. Method: Saponins were isolated from the roots of Momordica Cymbalaria. Swiss albino mice of either sex 8-10 weeks old, weighing 25-30g were taken. Cyclophosphomide (100mg/kg,ip/single dose) was given to the mice. Anticlastogenic activity of saponins of M.cymbalaria is studied by preparing peripheral blood smears from tail vein. The slides were stained by Giemsa stain. The results were expressed as mean± SEM.The significance was evaluated by nonpaired t- test and one-way Anova. P <0.001 implied significance. Results: Saponins of M.cymbalaria decreased the cyclophosphamide induced formation of chromosomal aberrations and formation of micronuclei and increased mitotic index in peripheral blood cells. Conclusion: Saponins of M.cymbalaria prevented the nuclear damage induced by cyclophosphomide in peripheral blood micronuclei tests and chromosomal aberrations tests invivo. It inhibits the disturbances in the cell division by increasing mitotic index. Hence I concluded that saponins of M.cymbalaria has significant anticlastogenic activity.

CEL-8

Extracellular signal regulated kinase and free radicals regulate il-1 beta production in human monocytic cells

Singh A , Singh V, Tiwari RL, Rana M, Dikshit M, Barthwal MK*

Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, India.

E-mail: *manojbarthwal@cdri.res.in

Objective : Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and free radicals can modulate the inflammatory status of monocytes/macrophages. Since IL-1β is an important pro inflammatory cytokine, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and free radicals in IL-1β production in monocytic cells. Methods : THP-1 cells were stimulated by PMA (200nM), LPS (TLR-4 ligand, 100ng/ml) and Pam3csk4 (TLR-2 Ligand, 100ng/ml)and IL-1β production was measured in the absence and presence of ERK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 (10μM) and PD98059 (10μM) by conventional ELISA. Results : PMA induced a time dependent increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation (~10 to 20 folds) and IL-1β production (~91fold). Pre treatment with ERK1/2 inhibitors significantly (~89%) attenuated secretory IL-1β production. Since IL-1β production can be regulated at multiple levels, effect of ERK inhibitors on IL-1β transcription and processing was also ascertained. Real time PCR analysis revealed a significant decrease (97% with U0126 and 69% with PD98059) in IL-1β at mRNA levels with ERK1/2. Similarly PMA induced expression of inactive precursor Pro IL-1β (6fold) was inhibited in the presence of ERK1/2 inhibitors. PMA induced significant increase in the caspase 1 activity (~2fold) was blocked by ERK1/2 inhibitors indicating important role of ERK pathway in IL-1β processing. IL-1β production was also attenuated in the presence of free radical scavenger (NAC, 10 mM ~76%) and NADPH oxidase inhibitor (DPI, 10μM ~96%) suggesting the role of reactive oxygen species in IL-1β secretion. Conclusion : Present study demonstrates important role of ERK and free radicals in IL-1β secretion and Caspase-1 mediated processing in THP-1 monocytic cells.

CEL-9

Effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extracts on Collagen cross-linking and tensile strength in wound healing in diabetic rats


Rupesh Soni, Amit Vairagi 1 , D.N. Srivastava 1

Faculty of Pharmaeutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur-342003, Rajasthan, 1 Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, B. R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mandsaur-458001 (Madhya Pradesh)

Objective : Diabetes can result in development of several complications, including delayed wound healing. Diabetic wounds are slow, non-healing wound that can persist for weeks despite adequate and appropriate care. Cinnamomum tamala leaves are used to treat various diseases like wound healing and diabetes. In Present study different fractions of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract used to investigate, their effect on collagen cross-linking and tensile strength in wound healing in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Methods : Wistar albino rats (150-200gm) were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45mg/kg). Incision and dead space wound were implemented back side of animals. Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract was given orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 14 days in incision and dead space wound healing models. After 10 days tensile strength, wet and dry weight of granulation tissue and hydroxylproline level was measured. Results : In incision wound model extract treated rats showed significant increase in wound breaking or tensile strength. The increase in tensile strength shows deposition of collagen and collagen cross- linking as well as tensile strength of skin. In Dead space wound healing models extract treated rats showed significant increase in wet and dry granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline level. This shows more synthesis of collagen at damaged area or wound because hydroxyproline is the main constituent for collagen synthesis. Conclusion : From above study it is concluded that extract of Cinnamomum tamala leaves significantly increases collagen cross-linking and tensile strength in wound healing in diabetic rats.

CEL-10

Promotion of phases of wound healing by extracts of terminalia chebula fruit in diabetic rats.


Rupesh Soni, Sangeeta Dhakad 1 , D.N. Srivastava 1

Faculty of Pharmaeutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur-342003, Rajasthan, 1 Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, B. R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mandsaur-458001, Madhya Pradesh

Objective : Delay in wound healing phases is a serious complication in diabetic patients. Terminalia chebula fruits are used to treat various diseases like wound healing and diabetes. In Present study we used different fractions of Terminalia chebula fruits (Petrolium ether, Acetone, chloroform and ethanolic) to investigate, their effect on phases of wound healing in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Methods : Wistar albino rats (150-200gm) were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45mg/kg). Incision and dead space wound were implemented back side of animals. Terminalia chebula fruit extract was given orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 14 days in incision and dead space wound healing models. After 10 days tensile strength, wet and dry weight of granulation tissue and hydroxylproline level was measured. Results : In Dead space wound healing models extract treated rats showed significant increase in wet and dry granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline level. Wet granulation demonstrates inflammatory phase, dry granulation demonstrates granulation (regeneration or repair) phase and hydroxylproline shows synthesis of collagen. In incision wound model extract treated rats showed significant increase in wound breaking or tensile strength. The tensile strength demonstrates deposition of collagen and collagen cross- linking as well as tensile strength of skin. Conclusion : From above study it is concluded that extract of Terminalia chebula fruits significantly promotes delayed wound healing in diabetic rats.

CEL-11

Ameliorative action of novel 3,4-methylene dioxybenzene derivatives in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts against chemical/radiation toxicity

Pawan G. Nayak , Piya Paul, K.S.R. Pai, N. Gopalan Kutty

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal-576104, Karnataka, India

Objective: To assess the in vitro anti-clastogenic activity of a series of methylene dioxybenzene derivatives against various inducing agents. Methods: In this study, 3,4-methylene dioxybenzene derivatives were synthesized and screened in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) to assess intrinsic cytotoxicity of the compounds. They were then subjected to reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging studies in V79 cells. ROS was induced by different toxic stimulants (hydrogen peroxide, doxorubicin, 2,2'-azobis-2-methyl-propanimidamide dihydrochloride and γ-radiation). The cellular antioxidant levels (glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid peroxidation) were also assessed in 3,4-methylene dioxybenzene derivatives pre-treated γ-irradiated/doxorubicin-treated V79 cells. γ-radiation-induced apoptosis assayed by nuclear staining gave a comparative assessment of anti-clastogenic activity of the derivatives. Results: Ten compounds were identified suitable for in vitro screening after assessing their stability and solubility profiles. Compounds were tested between 25-200 μM dose range in V79 cells (incubation time - 24 h and 48 h). All compounds were non-toxic at maximum concentration and subjected to further studies. Pre-treatment of V79 cells with the derivatives significantly (P<0.05) lowered the intracellular levels of ROS. Among 10 derivatives screened, compounds coded 1, 4, B, C, D, E and F were effective in preventing the chemical/radiation-induced depletion of cellular antioxidant enzymes. They also significantly attenuated the percentage apoptotic cells. Conclusion: There are several evidences suggesting ROS-induced clastogenesis. Since, MDB derivatives were capable of scavenging ROS, improving the cellular antioxidant levels and curbing the percentage of apoptosis induced by γ-radiation; these could be further screened to elucidate the mechanism of protection conferred.

CEL-12

Preliminary studies to assess the possible antitumor activity of leaves of "Parkinsonia aculeata"

K.N. Pramod Chakravarthy , Rajnishkumar Malik, S.N. Manjula, K. Mruthunjaya, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore - 570 015, Karnataka, India.

Objective : To investigate the in-vivo and in-vitro anti-tumor activity of leaf extract of Parkinsonia aculeata (PA) owing to its potent antioxidant property. Methods : Ethanolic and Aqueous extracts of PA were assessed for in-vitro cytotoxicity by Trypan Blue exclusion assay and SRB (Sulphoradamine-B) assay using murine Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells (EAC) and human epithelial carcinoma cells (HEp2) respectively. In-vivo antitumor activity of alcoholic extract of PA against EAC (1x10 6 cells/mouse) induced ascites tumor in mice was assessed by administering 100, 200 and 300mg/kg of PA for 10 days orally. The Changes in body weight, Mean survival time (MST) and Percentage increase in lifespan (%ILS) and Hematological parameters of treated and untreated animals were determined. Results : In in-vitro methods, alcoholic extract of PA was found most effective with an IC 50 of 53.59 and 82 μg/ml on EAC cells HEp2 cells respectively. In in-vivo study PA alc. extract at 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevated body weight as compared to control. PA (at 200and 300mg/kg) significantly enhanced the MST of EAC bearing animals (25.33±0.55 and 28.16±0.6 days respectively) when compared to control (22.33±0.61 days). Treatment with PA significantly reversed the tumor induced decline in total RBC count and hemoglobin content, and elevated WBC count when compared with control. Conclusion : In the present study the alcoholic extract of PA leaves showed the promising activity in in-vitro and in-vivo model. The antitumor activity of PA may be attributed to its potent antioxidant activity however further studies are require to substantiate the reported activity.

CEL - 13

Combined effect of genetic Polymorphisms in CYP1A1, CYP1B1 with GSTM1 as Risk Factors for the Development of Head and Neck cancer

Shailendra Shanker Maurya , Mohan C. Pant 1 , Swantantra K. Jain 2 , Devendra Parmar

Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR), Lucknow, 1 Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University, Lucknow-226001, 2 Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Hamdarad, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Objective : To investigate the association of polymorphism in carcinogen metabolizing cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1B1 and glutathione s transferase (GSTM1) and interaction of these genetic and environmental risk factor with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methodology : In a case-control study, 500 cases with HNSCC and an equal number of healthy controls visiting the OPD facility of Department of Radiotherapy, Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University, Lucknow were included in the study. The genomic DNA samples were isolated from blood and genotyped for CYP1A1, CYP1B1and GSTM1 polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP. Results : The variant genotype of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and null genotype of GSTM1 were found to be present at relatively higher frequency in cases than in controls resulted about 2 fold increase of cancer risk. However combination of these allelic variants of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 with GSTM1 Null genotypes resulted in about 4 fold elevated risk to HNSCC. Likewise allelic variant of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 interacted with environmental risk factors such as smoking or tobacco-chewing or alcohol drinking had increased the risk several fold in the cases compared to those who were non-smokers, non-tobacco chewers or non-alcohol drinkers . Conclusions : The results suggest that CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms are associated with HNSCC. Significant increase in the risk in cases who were smokers or tobacco-chewers or alcohol drinkers or who carried combination of variant genotypes of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1have demonstrated the role of gene-environment as well as gene-gene interaction in increasing the risk to HNSCC.

CEL-14

Gene expression profiling of drug metabolizing enzymes in peripheral blood lymphocytes for predicting environmental exposuresand drug responses

Amit Sharma , Kumar Saurabh, Sanjay Yadav, Swatantra K Jain 1 , Devendra Parmar

Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR), M.G. Marg, Lucknow-226001, 1 Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: Peripheral blood lymphocytes have been shown to express some durg metabolizing cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and catalyze CYP mediated reactions. Attempts are now made to validate expression profiles of genes involved in toxication-detoxication mechanisms in PBL. Methods: Taqman low density array (TLDA) using RT-PCR was carried out in PBL and liver samples isolated from adult rats pretreated with phenobarbital (PB, 80 mg/kg i.p.X5 days) or methylcholanthrene (30mg/kg, i.p.X5 days) or ethanol (0.8 ml/kg, i.p. X1 day).TLDA consisted of 48 genes involved in drug metabolism, inflammation and apoptosis. Results: TLDA data revealed that PBL were found to express phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) along with their transcription factors, though the expression of these genes in PBL were several fold lower than in liver. As observed in liver, pretreatment of MC increased the expression of CYP 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A2 and 3A1 and associated transcription factors in PBL. Likewise, similar pattern of increase in the expression of CYP2B1, 2B2, 2C11 and 3A1 and their transcription factors was observed in liver and PBL after PB pretreatment. Similarly, pretreatment of ethanol increased the expression of CYP2E1 and 3A1 along with transcription factors in liver and PBL. These inducers were also found to induce the expression of various phase II DMEs, genes involved in inflammation and apoptosis in both PBL and liver. Conclusions: The data suggests that the low density array of selected genes in PBL could be developed as a tool for rapid monitoring of individuals exposed to environmental chemicals as well as in clinical applications.

CEL-15

Investigating the role of legume plant in oxidative stress

Nikhil Nambissan, Payal Dande, Jimi Desai, Sateesh Belemkar, Saurabh Singh, Namita Rajan

School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Dist- Dhule, State- Maharashtra, India.

Objective: To evaluate antioxidant activity of Saponins from Sesbania sesban in Oxidative stress. Methods: The in-vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of methanolic extract from leaves of Sesbaniasesban was performed using DPPH, ferric reducing assay and nitric oxide radical scavenging method. All the chemicals and solvents used were of analytical grade. The test drug (methanolic extract) was extracted from leaves of Sesbania sesban using soxhlet apparatus. Test drug, and standard (Ascorbic acid and BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) were used at concentration range from 20-100 μg/ml. The extract was evaluated for total phenolic and total flavanoid content. The percent inhibition and IC50 was calculated. The data was represented as mean standard replicates of three. Result: Though the extract did not exhibit a concentration dependent scavenging of DPPH radicals. The inhibition of free radicals increased with an increase in the concentration. The data was compared to the standard ascorbic acid and BHA. The IC50 value was found to 59%. The percent inhibition for FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) was found to be 60.42%. The inhibition of free radicals in nitric oxide method was found to be most significant and was comparable to the standard drug. Total phenolic content and flavanoid content of the test drug was found to be 35 and 24% respectively. Conclusion: The significant reduction of free radicals in all the three methods confirms the antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Sesbania sesban. Suppression of NO· released may be partially attributed to direct NO scavenging, as all fractions of Sesbania sesban decreased the amount of nitrite generated from the decomposition of sodium nitroprusside in vitro. The antioxidant activity of drug could be attributed to the phenolic compounds and flavonoids present in the drug.


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CHM-1

Evaluation of efficacy and toxicity of thalidomide- dexamethasone and lenalidomide-dexamethasone in the treatment of multiple myeloma

Sashidharan N, Shenoy S

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Karnataka-576104.

Objective : Evaluation of efficacy and toxicity of two chemotherapeutic regimens in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Methods : The case record files of 36 patients with diagnosis of multiple Myeloma treated with either Thalidomide/dexamethasone(thal/dex) or lenalidomide/dexamethasone(len/dex) as initial therapy from 1 st Jan 2006 to 31 st Jul 2011 were retrieved from medical records section. Symptom improvement, Hb levels, and serum immunoglobulin levels during follow up visit (after 4 cycles completion). Outcome of various treatment regimens with regard to improvement in patient's symptoms, Hb levels, immunoglobulin levels, adverse effects associated with drug treatment, during follow up visits. The data thus obtained was analyzed to assess efficacy and toxicity profile of Thal/dex or len/dex. Results: There was no significant difference in hematology parameters after receiving 4 cycles of treatment with thal/dex or len/dex groups. It was observed that there was no significant difference between therapy with thalidomide/dexamethasone and lenalidomide/dexamethasone in decreasing serum immunoglobulins after adjusting the serum immunoglobulin values to baseline..Thal/dex group had more number of adverse events when compared to len/dex group. On comparing individual adverse events, no significant difference was noted in between the treatment groups. Conclusion : Our study shows that there is no significant difference in between thal/dex and len/dex treatment groups with respect to efficacy. However higher number of adverse events were reported with thal/dex treatment when compared to len/dex group. There was no significant difference in between the treatment groups when the adverse events were individually compared.

CHM-2

Evaluation of the toxicity profile of currently used antiretroviral drug regimen

Zahoor Ahmad Rather, Mukta N. Chowta

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Light House, Hill Road, Hampankatta, Mangalore, India.

E-mail: zahoorkmc@gmail.com

Background and Objective: Antiretroviral toxicity is an increasingly important issue in the management of HIV-infected patients.Objective of our study was to evaluate the toxicity profile of currently used antiretroviral regimens and to identify the risk factors for adverse drug reactions. Methodology: Prospective longitudinal study with 6 months follow up was conducted at tertiary care hospital which caters large number of HIV patients. Demographic details, medical history, details of HIV infection including most recent CD4 count, details of antiretroviral therapy as well as other concomitant medication were recorded.Adverse drug reactions were elicited by interviewing the patient/attendants directly and by reviewing patient records. Chi square test was used to analyse categorical data and continuous data was analysed by using student 't' test. Result: Totally 48 patients were included in study out of which 37(77.1%) patients were males and 11(22.9%) patients were females. Among 48 patients 7(14.6%) patients died. Mean age of patients was 40.96 ± 9.74 yrs, mean weight was 52.52 ± 11.99 kg and mean CD4 cell count was 301.52 ± 192.59 cells/cumm.Adverse effects observed were as follows: anaemia(56.3%), thrombocytopenia(14.6%), thrombosis(2.7%), itching(29.2%), papular urticaria or skin lesions(20.8%), elevated triglycerides(20.8%), elevated total cholesterol(6.3%), elevated sr. creatinine(4.2%), hepatic toxicity(56.3%), elevated bilirubin(8.3%),lactic acidosis(6.3%), vomiting(10.4%), pancreatitis(10.4%), diarrohoea(4.2%), peripheral neuropathy (18.8%), arthralgia (2.1%), gastritis(14.6%), myalgia(8.3%), neutropenia(10.4%), nephrotoxicity(2.1%) . Conclusion: The most common adverse effects associated with currently used anti retroviral therapy regimens are anaemia, hepatic toxicity, itching, papular urticaria or skin lesions, elevated triglycerides, peripheral neuropathy, thrombocytopenia, pancreatitis. Key words: Adverse effects, HIV, retroviral drugs

CHM-3

Drug utilization pattern in malaria: A retrospective study

Faheem M , Jahir Mujawar, GJK Prakash Raju, Zahoor Ahmed, Bhat BV.

Department of Pharmacology, KMC Mangalore, Manipal University, India.

Objectives : To assess the drug utilization pattern in management of Malaria. Methods : We gathered data pertaining to patients admitted to KMCH Attavar, Mangalore, with a diagnosis of malaria during the period from January 2010 - June 2010. The demographics, causative organism and drug prescription pattern were recorded. Results : Of the 500 cases recorded, 68% were male and 32% were female; 14% of cases were below the age of 18 years. 62.6 percent cases suffered from P. vivax and chloroquine was used in 60.6 percent of these cases, 15.2 percent cases had P. falciparum infection and Artesunate combined with other drugs was the most common prescription. Conclusions : The prescription pattern follows current National anti-malaria drug policy guidelines for a Malaria endemic region.

CHM-4

Pattern and predictors of outcome of initial antiretroviral drug regimens in HIV patients at a tertiary care hospital

G.J.K. Prakash Raju, Muktha N. Chowta

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore

Objectives : To study the prescribing pattern of antiretroviral drugs in treatment-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to evaluate the demographic and clinical factors associated with initiation of ART. Methods : A retrospective review of antiretroviral drugs prescribed to HIV-infected patients was conducted at KMC Hospital, Mangalore, India. Only adults more than 18 years with a positive serology who had started or are already receiving antiretrovirals was included. Their main demographics, risk group, details of AIDS diagnoses, laboratory data (CD4 cell counts and viral loads) and ART history were considered. Results : Total number of patients were108. Among them 76(70.4%) were males and 32(29.6%) were females. Mean age of patients is 38.67 ±10.02years, mean weight 52.47± 11.2kg, CD4 cell was 256.57 ± 204.6 cells/mcL. Among these patients 34(31.5%) were on regimen 1 (lamivudine+ zidovudine + nevirapine) and 70(64.8%) were on regimen 2 (lamivudine + nevirapine+ stavudine) and 4(3.7%) were on regimen 3(tenofavir+ emtricitabine+efavirenz). In regimen 1 the mean age was 39.09 ±9.1years, mean weight 51.87±10.7kg, mean CD4 count 253.21±177.8cells/mcL. In regimen 2 mean age 38.73 ±10.59 years, mean weight 52.37±12.24kg, mean CD4 count 262.02±221.4 cells /mcL, There is significant difference between mean age and weight among males and females (p=0.44and 0.08 respectively).Also there was significant difference in the mean CD4 count among males and females. Comparison of mean age, mean CD4 count among patients in different regimens did not show any statistical significance. Conclusions : The most common regimen is used is regime 2 (lamnivudine+ nevirapine+ stavudine).

CHM-5

A study of the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of uropathogens isolated from urine cultures in a tertiary care hospital in Tamil Nadu

Sugirda P , Nandini R

Institute of Pharmacology, Madras Medical College, Rajiv Gandhi Govt. General Hospital, Chennai - 600003, Tamilnadu, India.

Objectives: To study the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of uropathogens isolated from urine culture samples in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Institute of Microbiology, Madras Medical College, RajivGandhi Govt. General Hospital. In this study, laboratory records of patients showing positive urine culture over a onemonth period were collected. The demographic details of the patients, nature of the isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern were noted and analyzed. Results : Of the 540 samples collected for the study (Outpatients-40%, Inpatients-60%; Males-42.2%, Females-57.8%),the isolates found were: E.coli-45.9%, Klebsiella-23.7%, others (Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococci,Acinetobacter, Enterococci)-30.4%. 17 drugs were used for testing with a minimum of 6 drugs/sample. Amikacin, Cefotaxime, Norfloxacin, Gentamicin, Nitrofurantoin, Cotrimoxazole and Cefaperazone-sulfbactum were the mostcommonly tested drugs. Most of the isolates showed sensitivity to Amikacin (68.5%) and Nitrofurantoin (47.4%). But Amikacin was ineffective for Pseudomonas (79%). E.coli showed sensitivity to Cefaperazone-sulfbactum (78.4%) Amikacin (78%) and Nitrofurantoin (60.9%) and for Klebsiella it was 93.3%, 62% and 50.8% respectively. The percentage of organisms showing resistance to Norfloxacin was 75.6%, Cefotaxime-62.2%, Cotrimoxazole-61.5%and Gentamicin-54.4%. Citrobacter species were sensitive to Norfloxacin (90%) and Cefaperazone-sulfbactum (80%).Staphylococci and Proteus showed resistance to all antibiotics except for Amikacin. Conclusion: High level of resistance even by the common uropathogens is a matter of concern as evidenced by thisstudy. This mandates periodic evaluation of the culture pattern and their antibiograms to guide the antibiotic policyand prevent drug resistance.

CHM-6

Evaluation of anti tumor activity of saponins of Momordica cymbalaria in vitro and in vivo models

Arvind Kumar Yadav , Bhavani B.K., K. Anusha, Suman Sammadar, Raku Koneri

Department of Pharmacology, Karnataka College of Pharmacy, Bangalore.

Objective: To evaluate antitumor activity of saponins of MC in vitro and in vivo. Materials and methods: Ehrlich Ascites Induced Peritoneum Ascitis Tumour:18 swise albino mices divided in 3 groups. 6 animal per group. And EAC cells were induced by i.p. to all animals. In this model 5 Flurouracil was using as standard drug. In Vitro Assay For Cytotoxicity (MTT assay). MCF-7 cells (3 × 104 cells/mL) was chosen to evaluate the cytotoxicity by mean of MTT assay. This experiment was carried out in triplicate. Growth inhibition (GI) was calculated according to the formula: GI = 1 - (A570 of treated cells / A570 of control cells). IC50 values were calculated using a linear regression of dose-dependent curves plotted from at least six points. Results: The Saponins of MC and 5 Flurouracil significantly decreased tumor volume when compared to EAC control mice. The IC50 value of Saponins of MC in MCF-7 cells was found at 150μg. Administration of Saponins of MC in ascending order of conc. from 50μg to 4000μg to MCF-7 cells in cytotoxicity (MTT) assay decreased cell viability and increased the percentage inhibition value. Conclusions: Saponins of MC exhibited anti-tumor activity against mammary cancer, which may be due to its anti-ovulatory, antioxidant and cytotoxicity activity.

CHM-7

Evaluation of efficacy and safety of second line antiretroviral drugs in HIV positive patients

Patel DJ , Desai MK, Shah SP, Shah AN 1 , Dikshit RK

Department of Pharmacology and 1Medicine, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad - 380016

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of second line antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in HIV positive patients. Methods: A prospective study of HIV positive patients receiving second line ARVs since January 2010 was carried out. Patients of either gender, >14 years of age and attending Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Center, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, were included in the study. Demographic details, clinical history, drug treatment, CD4 count and plasma viral load (PVL) were recorded in a case record form. Patients were followed up monthly and observed for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) for six months. CD4 count and PVL were measured at the end of six months. The data was analyzed using paired t-test, z test and chi-square test. Results: Out of 126 patients, 82 received regimen V [zidovudine + lamivudine (3TC) + tenofovir (TDF) + boosted lopinavir (LPV/r)] and 44 received regimen Va [3TC + TDF + LPV/r]. At the end of six months, there was significant (P <0.0001) increase in mean body weight. Number of patients categorized as WHO stage 3 and 4 significantly (P<0.05) reduced as compared to baseline. Out of 23 patients with opportunistic infections, 12 were cured. There was a significant increase (P<0.0001) in mean CD4 count and decrease (P=0.0041) in mean PVL. No significant differences in immunological and virological improvement were observed between regimen V and Va. The common ADRs observed were abnormal lipid profile (55), anemia (9), abnormal renal function (1) and miscellaneous (13). Conclusion: Second line ARVs produce significant clinical, virological and immunological improvement in HIV positive patients and abnormal lipid profile remains to be a common ADR of these drugs.

CHM-8

Study of adverse drug reactions after chemotherapy with different drug regimen among breast cancer patients in a tertiary care hospital of Karnataka

Daisy P.A , Anantha Naik Nagappa, N. Udupa, B.M. Vadhiraja, R. Balkrishnan

Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, India.

Objective: A prospective observational study was conducted to measure the ADRs experienced by breast cancer patients under chemotherapy in a tertiary hospital in Karnataka, during 1 year 2009-10. Methods : Data was collected from 86 patients by direct interview using structured questionnaire and records review in the hospital wards after institutional ethical clearance (IEC:114/09) and informed consent from the participant. The systemic therapy side effects and other unwanted effects as measured by using EORTC QLQ C 30 and BR 23. Results : The mean age of the participants was 46.94 (SD=9.23). Most of them were of low educational background and unemployed and of low income group. Majority (88.5%) had infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 51.16% were in early stages of breast cancer and the rest in advanced stages. Data analysis revealed that there are slight differences in side effects experienced among different groups based on drugs regimen. All patients, irrespective of the number of cycles taken, had systemic therapy side effects to varying measures. Hair loss was 100% in all the patients, where as slight differences are noticed in other side effects. However, one way ANOVA revealed there are no significant differences between the groups except in nausea and vomiting and appetite loss (P=0.024 and 0.034 respectively). Conclusion: The side effects of chemotherapy are a matter of concern in pharmacological management of breast cancer and it affects the quality of life of patients. There should be medication management review to follow the severity of ADRs to minimize the same.

CHM-9

Anticancer activity of Terminalia bellirica extract in mice


Hiral Bhalodiya, Sravan Kumar T , Mudagal Manjunatha, Hari Babu T, Divakar Goli , Acharya, B. M. Reddy

College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-90, India.

E-maill: sravan6887@gmail.com

Objective : To evaluate anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of T. bellirica against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of Terminalia bellirica fruits was prepared and analysed chemically. Anticancer efficacy of extract (doses: 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) was determined in cancer induced swiss albino female mice by using EAC cells. The effect of extracts of T.bellirica on survival times, peritoneal cells count, hematological parameters, solid tumour mass are analysed by Anova followed by Dennet's comparison test. Results : Pre-treatment with ethanolic extract of T. bellirica at a dose of 150 and 350 mg/kg significantly enhanced the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level and peritoneal cells count significantly (P<0.01) as compared to that of control group. The considerable reduction in WBC levels and solid tumour mass was also indicated with ethanolic extract of T. bellirica significantly (p<0.01) as compared to that of control group. Conclusion: Results of the study conclude that the ethanolic extract of T. bellirica showed effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic and solid tumor models. Preliminary phytochemical study indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, steroids, saponin and flavonoids in ethanolic extract of T. bellirica. Several such compounds are reported to posses' strong antitumor potential. Hence, the anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of T. bellirica is probably due to presence of such phytochemicals.

CHM-10

Evaluation of the efficacy of levamisole in recurrent aphthous stomatitis


B. Padmaja, C. Indira Devi

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Narayana Medical College & Hospital, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore - 524 002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

E-mail: leela_pharma6@rediffmail.com


Aphthous ulcers are one of the most commonly encountered oral lesions aflicting a large number of populations. It is a chronic, painful condition involving non - keratinized part of oral mucosa with a wide variety of etiological spectrum. Levamisole, the antihelmentic drug has been found to be beneficial in reducing the incidence and severity of the ulcers restoring the deficient immunological status. For this study, forty patients with recurrent lesions, the age groups of 20 - 50 years were selected and in 20 patients levamisole 150 mg / day was administered, for a period of 3 days by over medication of the onset of each recurrence of their oral lesions. The criteria for patient's selection were based on the fact that patients should have minimum two earlier attacks with a minimum of 30 days disease free interval. Patients with dermatological lesions, anemia, having pregnancy were excluded. Each patient's response to treatment was determined by following criteria: No. of lesions / episode, duration of RAS (days), patients self evaluation of pain, clinical evaluation of patient's subjective treatment response as marked, moderate, improvement, no. of RAS episodes month wise, side effect profile. Significant improvement was noted in about 60% of patients in the prolongation of days between the attacks and duration of the lesions, and subjective amelioration of pain.

CHM-11

A study on community acquired urinary tract infection in a pediatric population

Benson Reddy S.B , Padmasani L.N 1 , Mohan Reddy, Vasnatha J, Kannan G, Vanitha Rani N.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, 1 Department of Pediatrics, Sri Ramachandra University, India.

Objective : To evaluate the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of uropathogens in community acquired UTI in pediatric population. Methodology: A total no of 100 cases were collected during the study period. A detailed data collection was done in a specially designed proforma and the data included patient demographics [age, sex, height/weight], clinical symptoms, risk factors such as constipation, toilet washing method, infrequent bathroom visits, poor bathroom hygiene, decreased fluid intake, phimosis, labial adhesions etc. The children were examined and diagnosed by the pediatrician. Urine R/E and culture were also done. Bacterial identification and determination of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance patterns were done in the department of Microbiology. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were done for antibiotics which include amikacin, ampicillin, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, cefataxime, ceftazidime, cefalexin, cotrimoxazole, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and linezolide, The reports of urinalysis, antimicrobial sensitivity, patterns of resistance and the drugs prescribed were evaluated. Patients were reexamined during their follow up visit and patient education leaflets on UTI and its prevention and management were prepared in English and vernacular language and were distributed to the patients/ patients care takers. Results: Gram negative bacilli are responsible to 97% of culture proven community acquired UTI. Most of this are sensitive to (88-90%) 3 rd generation cephalosporins and amikacin and resistant to cotrimoxazole 76% and ampicillin(83%). Conclusion : Hence, empirical antibiotic selection should be based on the knowledge of the local prevalence of bacterial organisms and antibiotic sensitivities. This study is useful for clinician in order to improve the treatment.

CHM-12

Changing trends of antimicrobials in tertiary care hospital (2005-2010)


K.S.N. Murthy, G. Bhavani, C. Siva Rama Krishna

Department of Pharmacology, GSL Medical college, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh.

Objectives: Infection still remain the top 5 mortalities in India. This study was done to observe for any decrease in morbidity and mortality With the use of high end antibiotics. Disease pattern and antimicrobial resistance pattern has shifted in the past 2 decades. There is proven efficacy of high end antibiotics in combating nosocomial infections and to combat future threats of new infections with broad spectrum of activity. Hence the need for time to time evaluation changing trends in drug usage. Methods: Study undertaken is qualitative and descriptive in type. After obtaining due permission from medical superintendent inpatient data from medical record section of 600 patients age ranging from 25-60 years were randomly obtained with in period ranging from 2005 to 2010.Data from four major departments like medicine, surgery, orthopedics and ophthalmology .Antimicrobials used noted only once for patient irrespective of dosage and route of administration were included in the study, analysis was done according to antimicrobial groups and individual antimicrobial drugs was converted to percentage usage. Comparison within the antimicrobial groups was done using ANOVA followed by Dunnet's test. Results :-Results showed a shift in trend towards greater usage of Amoxcillin+clavulanicacid (penicillins), ciprofloxacin, levoflaxacin and moxiflaxacin (fluoroquinolones), ceftriaxone, cefotaxim (cephalosporins),amikacin(aminoglycosides)and metronidazole. Decrease in the recovery period and improved patient compliance. A significant result of p value <0.05 was obtained for penicillin, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides when compared within the groups. A highly significant result p value <0.01 was obtained for cephalosporins and metronidazole when compared within the groups. Conclusions: The study shows that there is relationship between infection patterns and corresponding increase in the usage of high end antibiotics.

CHM-13

Chemopreventive potential of Citrus limonum against dmba induced skin papillomagenesis in mice

Sharma OS , Sakaria, JN, Patel HJ, Taksande, BG, Kotagle, NR

Department of Pharmacology, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur-441 002, India.

Objective: To evaluated the chemopreventive potential of Citrus limonum juice and peel extract in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene(DMBA)/croton oil induced skin papilloma in mice. Methods: Citrus limonum fruit was collected and extract was prepared using petroleum ether, methanol and acetone as solvent. Acute oral toxicity and acute dermal toxicity was performed as per OECD guidelines. Mice were administered with Citrus limonum juice and peel extracts (5, 50, 300, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg, p.o.) and observed 14 days for toxic symptoms such as behavioral changes, locomotion, convulsions and mortality. Citrus limonum juice and peel extracts (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg) were applied topically and observed 14 days for toxic symptoms such as changes in fur, skin texture, eyes, mucous membranes, salivation, diarrhoea, sleep and lethargy. Mice were administered with Citrus limonum juice (topically and orally) and Citrus limonum peel extract (topically and orally) and croton oil and evaluated for skin papillomas. Skin tissue homogenates were prepared and estimated for Catalase, glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), TNF-alpha and interleukin-6. Results: Single topical application of DMBA and croton oil (thrice weekly) for 16 weeks on dorsal skin of each mouse induces tumours. Citrus limonum juice (200 mg/kg, topically; 150 mg/kg, p.o.), Citrus limonum juice (200 mg/kg, topically) and peel extract (200 mg/kg, topically; 150, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced skin papillomas and reduced LPO, TNF-alpha and IL 6 levels and increased GSH and catalase levels. Conclusion: Citrus limonum has chemoprotective effect against DMBA induced skin papilloma and may provide therapeutic target for preventing papilloma.

CHM-14

Comparative study of non-selective cox inhibitor and selective cox-2 inhibitor in attenuating n-methyl-n-nitrosourea (mnu) induced mammary carcinogenesis

Ankit Sen , Satish Kumar M.N., Avinash K., B. Suresh

Department of Pharmacology, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy (J.S.S. University, Mysore), Rocklands, Ootacamund, Tamil Nadu - 643001, India.

Objective : The present study is a comparison of a Non-Selective COX inhibitor and Selective COX-2 (CELECOXIB and ASPIRIN) inhibitor in attenuating MNU induced Mammary Carcinogenesis in SD Rats. Materials and Methods : SD rats (43 days old) were injected with MNU (50mg/kg) for 18 weeks to induce tumour. On the appearance of tumors, Celecoxib and Aspirin (600 and 1200 ppm) were administered along with water for six weeks. The animals were sacrificed at the end of six weeks and evaluated for tumor burden, tumor latency, body weight, Superoxide Dismutase, Lipid Peroxidase and Catalase. Results : Compared to the vehicle control, the groups administered with Celecoxib and Aspirin showed significant decrease in the tumor burden, tumor latency and body weight. Increased levels of SOD and Catalase (p<0.001) and decreased levels of lipid peroxidase (p<0.001) clearly suggested the anti-oxidant role of the drugs in Mammary Carcinogenesis. Conclusions : In conclusion, our investigations on comparative study for efficacy of both nonselective and selective COX inhibitors suggests that celecoxib, COX-2 inhibitor is more efficacious than aspirin a nonselective COX inhibitor. Further antioxidant mechanisms of both these drugs revealed same. With these findings the present study concludes that specific COX-2 enzymes may play important role in regulation of tumour formation/growth. COX-2 is commonly expressed in breast cancer and may be an important factor of carcinogenesis, tumour angiogenesis and metastasis.

CHM-15

Chemoprotective activity of alcoholic extract of roots of l0 awsonia inermis against doxorubicin induced cytotoxicity in mice

Mina Basirian, Divya B, S.N. Manjula, K. Mruthunjaya

JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore - 570 015, Karnataka, India.

Objective: To assess the chemoprotective activity of alcoholic extract of roots of lawsonia inermis(LILAC) against doxorubicin (DOX) induced cytotoxicity in mice. To investigate anti-tumor activity of combined treatment (LIALC + doxorubicin) in tumor bearing model. Method: In this study the chemoprotective effects of LILAC wereinvestigated against doxorubicin induced G.I toxicity and genotoxicity. For G.I toxicity mice were treated with LIALC (200 and 300 mg/kg) for 3 days and challenged with doxorubicin (16 mg/kg i.p) after 24h animals were sacrificed to observe the villus height, inflammatory and goblet cells. In genotocixity studies, mice were treated with LIALC for 14 days and challenged with doxorubicin 15 mg /kg i.p and bone-marrow micronucleus test was performed. Anti-tumor efficacy of combined treatment LIALC (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) and DOX (5 mg/kg) in EAC tumor model was done for determination of mean survival time (MST). Result: LIALC at dose of 200 and 300 mg/kg reversed the doxorubicin induced G.I. toxicity by maintaining the normal villus height and significantly reduced the incidence of micronucleus as compare to doxorubicin control groups. The antitumor efficacy of combination therapy (DOX 5 mg/kg +LIALC 300 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the MST of EAC inoculated mice (27.50±0.22 days) when compared to EAC control (17.0±0.26days) and doxorubicin treated mice(25.0±0.37days). Conclusion: LIALC treatment alleviates the DOX associated tissue toxicity like G.I toxicity and genotoxicity without compromising the antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin. The possible mechanism for chemoprotection may be due to detoxification of doxorubicin induced free radicals owing to its potent antioxidant activity.

CHM-16

Antitumour activity of fruit extracts of Momordica dioica roxb: against EAC tumour model

Revathy sivan , Krishna KL

JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagar, Mysore - 570 015, Karnataka, India.

Objective: To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of fruit extracts of Momordica dioca Roxb. (MDR) using EAC induced tumour model. Materials and Methods: The crude chloroform and methanolic extract was prepared by soxhlet extraction. The marc which remained was macerated with chloroform water to yield the aqueous extract. All the three extracts were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and antitumor activity to select the promising ones. The promising extract was then subjected to evaluate the in-vivo anti tumour activity against EAC induced tumour model using albino mice. The evaluation was done by considering mean survival time, increase in life span as well as heamatological parameters. Cyclophosphamide was used as the standard anticancer agent to compare the activity of the extract. Results: Methanolic extract showed best antioxidant activity owing to its high phenolic and flavonoid content. Pretreatment with the extracts of MDR has reduced the cytotoxicity in in-vitro method. In the in-vivo studies, the altered parameters like mean survival time, percentage life span and hematological values in the control animals were restored towards normalization significantly by the extracts treatment. Conclusion: These results suggest that the extracts of MDRpossess anti-tumour activity against EAC induced tumour model. The said activity may be due to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of MDR.

CHM-17

Antimetastatic activity of chalcone derivative of benzothiazole-a novel class of antitumor agent

Manjula SN , Piya Paul 1 , Gopalan Kutty N 1 , Mallikarjuna Rao C 1

JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore - 570 015, Karnataka, 1 Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal - 576104, India

Objectives : To assess the In-vitro and in-vivo antimetastatic activity of a novel chalcone substituted benzothiazole analog (C4) and to study the expression of metastasis related proteins. Method: In-vitro antimetastatic activity of C4 was performed by scratch-wound assay in which a wound was created in the monolayer culture of B16F10 cells and treated with different concentrations of C4 for 24 and 48h.The wound width, migration and percent migration was calculated. In-vivo antimetastatic activity of C4 was investigated in B16F10 challenged C57BL/6 mice. The Animals injected with B16F10 (2.5×10 6 ) cells intravenously were treated with 5and 10mg/kg of C4 on every alternate day. On 14 th day animals were scarified for pulmonary metastatic lung colonies count and histopathological study. The expression of TIMP (Tissue inhibitors of Metalloproteinases) and PAI (plasminogen activator inhibitor) proteins in C4 treated B16F10 cells was determined by western blot using mouse monoclonal anti-AR antibodies TIMP-2, PAI-I and β-actin. Result: In migration assay, C4 treatment at 4 and 8 μM significantly inhibited the migration of B16F10 cells when compared to control. In the in-vivo antimetastatic assay, C4 treatment at 10 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of pulmonary metastatic colonies besides the normalization of lung morphology as compared to control animals. In Western-blot analysis, the levels of TIMP and PAI-1 were reduced with C4 treatment. Conclusion: In the present study C4 demonstrated the inhibitory effect on lung cancer invasiveness via decreased expression of tumor metastasis-related proteins. Therefore, C4 could be a potential antitumor agent for the prevention of lung cancer metastasis.

CHM-18

Cytoprotective and cytotoxic potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Polycarpaea corymbosa leaves

Mruthunjaya K, Manjula S.N, Suresh J, Paramakrishnan N.

JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore - 570 015, Karnataka, India.

Objectives: To carry out cytoprotective and cytotoxic potential of hydro alcoholic extract of Polycarpaea corymbosa leaves. Methods: 70% v/v hydro alcoholic extract of leaves of Polycarpaea corymbosa (PC) was prepared by cold maceration method. In vitro cytoprotective activity was carried out in CCl 4 induced toxicity in rat hepatocytes. Protection offered by PC was evaluated by incubating the hepatocytes with CCl 4 and PC at three doses (0.01-0.5mg/ml) followed by measurement of cell viability by Trypan Blue Exclusion assay and cell damage by GPT and GOT assay. In vitro cytotoxicity of PC was assessed in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma [EAC] by Trypan blue exclusion method and MTT bioassay in human cancer cells [MCF-7 and V79] at 10-200μg/ml concentrations. Results: CCl 4 caused significant damage to hepatocytes which was shown by significant cell death (61±2.5%) and elevated GPT/GOT levels in medium to 64 and 100% respectively. At all the three doses PC increased the cell viability to 60, 72 and 86% respectively and significantly reversed the elevated GPT/GOT levels to normal. PC showed concentration dependent cytotoxicity on EAC cells and IC 50 value was found to be of 69.78μg/ml. IC 50 of PC on MCF-7 and normal cells (V79) was found to be 93.25 and 913μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: PC showed potent cytoprotective activity on CCl 4 challenged hepatocytes and selective cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. Cytoprotective activity of PC may due to the presence of high amount phenolics which were reported to be potent antioxidants. Also there are many reports in which selective cytotoxicity of phenolics were indicated.

CHM-19

Protective effect of labetalol on doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats

J. Nagaraju , P. Rajeev, A. Rama Narsimha Reddy

Department of Pharmacology, Vaageswari College of Pharmacy, Karimanagar-505481, Andhra Pradesh, India

Objective : The present study was aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective activity of Labetalol against Doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Methods : Doxorubicin (15mg/kg.,i.p) was used to induced cardiotoxicity in rats by elevating plasma Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Creatinine kinase (CK MB), Lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH), Triglyceride (TG) levels. Labetalol was used at doses of 5mg/kg and 10mg/kg,i.p to evaluate the cardio protective action against Doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Results : Labetalol was able to reduce the elevated levels of cardiotoxic markers (LDH, AST, CKMB, TG) in plasma indicating the cardio protective effect of labetalol, which was supported by the histopathological examinations. Administration of labetelol also increases reduced glutathione level and increase levels of catalase in heart tissue. Conclusion : In conclusion, Labetalol protects against Doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats. This can be attributed to labetalol antioxidant effect by elevating glutathione and catalase levels.

CHM-20

Protective effect of cow urine on chromosomal damage induced by cyclophosphamide in swiss albino mice


Jugal V. Vyas,Vivek V. Paithankar, Sachin P. Padole,Vijay M. Waghulkar, Sagar N. Ande, Pranjal G. Pachghare

Department of Pharmacology, Vidyabharati College of Pharmacy, Camp road, Amravati, Maharashtra, India - 444602

Email: Pranjalpach@gmail.com


The holy texts, like Atharva Veda, Charaka Samhita, Rajni Ghuntu, Vridhabhagabhatt, Amritasagar, Bhavaprakash, Sushruta Samhita, etc., described various uses of cow urine in the treatment of diseases. Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the Protective role of distilled cow urine (DCU) on chromosomal damage induced in Swiss albino mice. Method: Chromosomal aberration such as breaks, bridges, stickiness and polar deviations were observed in positive control and treatment groups by chromosomal aberration test. Result: The induction of chromosomal aberration by cyclophosphamide was significantly inhibited by DCU in 46.65%., when the animals were given a single application of DCU at the different dosed 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8ml/ mice (25±2gm) in different group (Group II, III, and IV) of mice, 24 hours before cyclophosphamide treatment. In DCU experimental group II, III, and IV was observed 46.65, 41.63and 41.42 % protection in chromosomal aberration in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice induced by cyclophosphamide. Groups II, III, and IV were also observed. significantly reduction of different type of chromosomal aberration like chromatid break/gap, chromatid fragmentation (ch.fr.), cetromeric association(C.A) and chromosome ring formation(R.F), as compaired to cyclophosphamide control group. A single application of DCU at the dose of 0.6ml/mice (25±2gm) has no effect on the induction of chromosomal aberration on bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice as compared with the solvent control (normal mice). Conclusion: The observations suggest that the cow urine protects the bone marrow cells from chromosomal aberration by cyclophosphamide.


 » Clp Top


CLP-1

Effect of olanzapine on body weight and body mass index in schizophrenic patients.

Prajapati HK , Trivedi HR, Parmar MC, Joshi ND

Department of Pharmacology, M.P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat-361008.

E-mail: hiprajapati@yahoo.com

Objectives : To measure the changes in weight and body mass index (BMI) in patients with newly diagnosed case of schizophrenia who initiated on olanzapine treatment. Methods : This is an interim analysis of ongoing study of 60 patients of schizophrenia diagnosed using the DSM-IV criteria attended psychiatry OPD from November 2010 to August 2011. Body weight and BMI were measured at baseline and at the end of study. Obese patients having BMI > 30 were excluded from the study. The data was analysed using the appropriate statistical test. Results : In our study, patients showed increase in body weight (mean 6.23,SD 0.51) and body mass index (mean 2.48,SD 0.21) with statistically significant difference in body weight and BMI with the significance level P<0.05. No significant difference of change in above parameters was reported between male and female groups as well as between <40 years and > 40 years of age groups. Conclusion : The potential for weight gain associated with the use of atypical antipsychotics to cause long term complications will need further study. Clinicians are encouraged to monitor weight, plasma sugar level and lipid parameters in patients receiving olanzapine.

CLP-2

Effect of olanzapine on blood sugar and lipid profile in patients of schizophrenia

Nisarg Joshi* , Trivedi H.R., Parmar M.C, Prajapati H.K.

Department of Pharmacology, M.P.Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat.

*E-mail: nisargjoshi16@gmail.com

Objective: To measure the changes in FBS and Lipid Profile in patient with newly diagnosed case of schizophrenia who initiated Olanzapine as a treatment. Methods: Sixteen week prospective study was conducted in the OPD of Department of Psychiatry from Nov 2010 to Aug 2011. The Study included 60 patients of Schizophrenia diagnosed using the DSM-4 criteria. Fasting Blood Sugar and Serum Lipid Profile were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia before the initiation of antipsychotic treatment were excluded from the study. Results: In our study, patients showed increase in Fasting Blood sugar (mean increase 1.26 mg/dl, SD 3.77), total cholesterol (mean increase 32.07mg/dl, SD 7.95), triglycerides (mean increase 32.78 mg/dl, SD 10.05), LDL(mean increase 27mg/dl, SD 6.88), HDL(mean decrease 2mg/dl, SD 3.76), and with statistically significant difference in TC, TG , LDL , with the significance level P<0.05. Conclusion: Olanzapine causes significant increase in TG, TC and LDL which increases the chances of developing metabolic syndrome and its consequences.

CLP-3

Five cases of Stevens-Johnson's syndrome due to fluoroquinolones

Anoosha P. Bhandarkar , Priyadarshini B. Kop,

Department of Pharmacology, SDM College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad- 580009, Karnataka.

Objective: Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (SJS) is a rare but potentially fatal adverse drug reaction (ADR) and very few cases of fluoroquinolone(FQ) induced SJS have been reported so far. So we aimed at evaluating the incidence of SJS due to fluoroquinolones. Materials and Methods: ADR reports collected at ADR monitoring cell in the Department of Pharmacology,SDM College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad during past three years were analysed. CDSCO forms were used by the doctors at SDM hospital for reporting the ADRs. Causality assessment was done by using WHO-UMC scale. Severity assessment was done by using Modified Hartwig and Siegel scale. Results: A total of 19 ADRs were reported due to FQs (viz. Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Levofloxacin) out of which 5 cases were of SJS (26.31%; four cases due to Ofloxacin and one case due to Levofloxacin). One SJS case due to Ofloxacin died inspite of intensive specific treatment. In our study the incidence of SJS was highest with Ofloxacin (80%) as compared to other FQs. Causality assessment showed that all 5 cases were probable and severity assessment showed all these were severe ADRs. Conclusion: FQs are widely prescribed antimicrobial agents for treating respiratory tract, urinary tract and gastrointestinal infections. Careful monitoring of the patients on FQs is necessary for the early diagnosis and aggressive management of SJS which could reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this life-threatening ADR.

CLP-4

A retrospective study of drug prescribing pattern in Parkinson's disease in a tertiary care hospital

Shruthi Bhimalli , Tara V. Shanbhag, Smita Shenoy, Aparna Pai

Shruthi Bhimalli, Third year MBBS, KMC Manipal, India.

Objective: To determine drug prescribing pattern in patients withParkinson's disease in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: The case records of all Parkinson's disease patients who came to Kasturba Hospital from April 2010 - April 2011 were studied. The data was analysed on the basis of age, gender, occupation, duration of illness, symptoms and pharmacotherapy. The data was expressed as frequency and percentage. Results: The study revealed that combination of levodopa with a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor (usually carbidopa) was the most frequently prescribed (84.3%). Other category of drugs prescribed were MAO-B inhibitor (19.6%), antihistaminics (7.8%), central anticholinergics (5.7%), (presynaptic agonist) amantadine (6.9%), dopamine receptor agonists (10.8%), and COMT inhibitors (3.9%). Among seven drug induced cases four were prescribed only central anticholinergics and three with both antihistaminics and anticholinergics. The highest prevalence of disease was found to be in the age group 60-79 years (60.8%). Male (57.8%) patients predominated over women. There was no association of age and gender was found in drug induced cases. Conclusion: A majority of patients with Parkinson's disease were aged between 60-79 years. Most of the patients were prescribed with a combination of levodopa and carbidopa. Drug induced cases received either combination of central anticholinergic and antihistaminic or just an antihistaminic.

CLP-5

A retrospective analysis of adverse drug reaction reporting In an adr monitoring centre


R. Nandini, A.C. Yegneshwaran, Preetha N.

Preetha N, II yr MD Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Madras Medical College, Chennai-600 003.

Objectives: To evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) data reported to an ADR Monitoring Centre. Materials and Methods: A Retrospective, analytical study of ADR reporting was conducted at the ADR Monitoring Centre (AMC), Madras Medical College by analysing ADRs collected over a time span of 10 months (Nov 2010 to Aug 2011). Following parameters were analysed: Monthly distribution, Departments contributing to pharmacovigilance, Most common drug causing ADRs, Commonest manifestation of ADRs and Causality assessment. Results: Total ADRs encountered in 10 month time span was 1076.Average monthly reporting of ADRs was 107.Highest reporting of ADRs are in the month of June 21%(n=222) followed by August16%(n=172). Department of medicine contributed 33%(n=351), followed by psychiatry 31% and oncology 20%. Among commonly prescribed drugs antimicrobials cause 51%(n=191)of ADRs followed by NSAIDs 16%(n=57). Cephalosporins contribute 49%(n=93) ADRs followed by penicillin group 12%(n=24)and fluroquinolones 12%(n=23). 20% (n=210) of ADRshave dermatological manifestations and 80%(n=866) had other manifestations.On analysing the causality assessment 84% (n=907) of ADRs fall under possible, 15% (n=159) in probable, 0.5%(n=4)in unclassified and0.5 in certain group. Conclusion: The tendency to report ADR is increasing.Department of Medicine reported more ADRs to pharmacovigilance centre.

Antimicrobials were the commonest drugs to cause ADRs apart from cancer chemotherapy and antipsychiatric drugs. Among antimicrobials Cephalosporins contribute more to ADRs.

Most of the ADRs do not have dermatological manifestations. Most of the ADRs fall in Possible scale of causality assessment.

CLP-6

Awareness about Pharmacovigilance activities among Medical students


R. Nandini, B. Kalaiselvi, A.C. Yegneshwaran, Geetha Rani A.

Geetha Rani A., III yr MD Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Madras Medical College, Chennai-03

Objectives: To assess the knowledge and attitude towards adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting among MBBS students. Methods: A total of 144 MBBS students studying II year in Madras Medical College (MMC), Chennai were evaluated with questionnaire on knowledge about ADR and ADR reporting. The questionnaire sought information regarding the Pharmacovigilance centre functioning in MMC and methods of ADR reporting. Results: The response rate was 91.66%(132). Among 132 students 72.72% were aware about existence of ADR reporting system in India and 51.51% of students knew that there is an ADR reporting centre in MMC.24.24% of students were aware about the death that occurred due to serious adverse reaction in the hospital. Only 4.54% students knew the methods of ADR reporting. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding the importance and reporting of ADRs was inadequate among MBBS students. So awareness should be created among MBBS students on how to do ADR reporting. This can be done by conducting training programmes and organising CME on Pharmacovigilance so as to improve awareness and reporting.

CLP-7

Efficacy and tolerability of lornoxicam: A comparison with diclofenac in patients having acute renal colic

Srivastava RK, Godara S, Vashist MG 1 , Godara R 1 , Verma S.

Department of Pharmacology, and 1 Department of Surgery, Pt. B.D.Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India.

Objective: lornoxicam is a currently prescribed nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory injectable preparation for the management of surgical pain. The purpose of the present study was to compare efficacy and tolerability of intramuscular lornoxicam with diclofenac in management of acute renal pain. Methods: A total of eighty patients with acute renal colic presenting in Casualty and Emergency ward of Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS hospital, Rohtak were included, and were randomly assigned to receive either single injection of lornoxicam 8mg i.m. or diclofenac sodium 75mg i.m. in two groups (each having 40 patients). The study was prospective and double blind. Pain assessment was done using visual analog scale, numeric pain scale and behavioural pain scale methods before start and at 0, 15, 30, 60, 180min and 5h from the start of lornoxicam/diclofenac. Results: No significant differences in efficacy, onset of action and side effect profiles were found between the intramuscular lornoxicam and diclofenac in the patients of acute renal colic. However, lornoxicam was observed to be slightly more effective in early period of injection compared to diclofenac. The tolerability of both drugs was comparable. Conclusion: In renal colic patients, we found intramuscular lornoxicam exerted no major benefit over diclofenac except slightly better analgesia in early period of administration.

CLP-8

A study of prescribing pattern of antipsychotic drugs in a tertiary care teaching hospital.

Braich JS, Singh J, Khurana H,

Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak (HR), India

Objective: To study prescribing pattern of antipsychotic agents in schizophrenic patients. Methods: The study was conducted in OPD and indoor schizophrenic patients at Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak (HR). The prescribing pattern was evaluated by collecting data of the schizophrenic patients of either sex over a period of one month. The relevant information was entered in a preformed proforma and analyzed for various parameters. Results: Total 207 prescriptions were analyzed. Total drugs prescribed were 780 that included oral 681 (87.30%), parenteral 90 (11.53%) and topical 9 (01.15%). Average number of drugs per prescription was 3.76. Antipsychotic agents prescribed were 309 (39.61%); antidepressants 87(11.15%), sedative hypnotics 174(22.30%) and others 210 (26.92%). Among the oral antipsychotic agents prescribed 258, olanzapine 138 (53.48%) was more commonly prescribed followed by risperidone 90 (34.88%); and chlorpromazine> quetiapine> clozapine> amisulpride. 51 were prescribed injectable antipsychotics, 39(76.47%) haloperidol), 6 each fluphenazine decanoate and olanzapine. In 78 (10%) of prescriptions the antipsychotic agents have been used in combination, and in 39 (5%) prescriptions antipsychotic agents have been used along with antidepressant agents. The other agents 210 (26.92%), prescribed included valproic acid, promethazine, oxcarbazepine, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, lithium and according to individual indoor patient complaints. Conclusion: Various antisychotic agents have been used in psychiatry ward of PGIMS, Rohtak and use of oral olanzapine is more common followed by oral risperidone.

CLP-9

Safety and tolerability evaluation of different dosage acyclovir immediate release formulations

P Susantakumar , Ajay Gaur 1 , Piush Sharma 2

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Singhania University, Rajasthan, India, 1 L.M. College of Sc. and Tech. (Pharmacy), Jodhpur, India, 2 Maharisi Arvind College of Pharmacy, Amabari, Jaipur, India

Objectives: The first purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of different dosage strength of in healthy volunteers. The drug studied was conducted on acyclovir immediate release solid dosage form (ranges 200mg to 800mg tablet/capsule) and liquid dosage form (250 to 500mg/mL injection). The second purpose was to establish a comparative pharmacokinetic and stimulate the impact of food intake on drug release and absorption in healthy volunteers under fasting and non-fasting conditions. Methods: The drug studies was conducted based on the literature data assessed from PubMed, up to May 2011, Micromedex databases and through more then hundred National and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Results: There were few adverse events were reported during the fasting and non-fasting study. The most frequently reported adverse events after acyclovir treatment were itching, nausea, headache, dizziness and sleepiness; incidence of these adverse events appeared to be dose-related. All were mild in intensity and resolved without sequel. Post study safety analysis reports showed ALT and AST clinically significant abnormal Laboratory values which follow on repeat analysis were found to be normal. All the clinically significant abnormal lab values were remotely related to the study medication. In few incidences in which increase and decrease the blood pressure but there were not clinical significant changes in vital signs, clinical laboratory variables, ECG parameters or physical examination findings in both fasting and non-fasting study. All adverse events reported for acyclovir were consistent with similar events in subjects treated with fasting and non-fasting condition. Conclusion: As far as this study drug concerned, different strength of acyclovir formulations was safe and well tolerated. No unexpected incidents that could have influenced the outcome of the different study occurred. No serious adverse events were recorded, and there were no clinical significant changes in vital signs, clinical laboratory variables, ECG parameters or physical examination findings in both fasting and non-fasting study. Food did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetic parameters (C max or AUC 0-t or AUC 0-∞ ) of different acyclovir formulations.

CLP-10

Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the usage of eye drops in patients suffering with glaucoma in a tertiary care teaching hospital

Sastha Ram V. Kishore , Elfride F Sanjana 1 , Serin Anna Jacob, Vasantha J, Kannan G, Vanitha Rani N.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Sri Ramachandra College of Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra University, 1 Department of Ophthalmology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College & Research Institute, Porur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of usage of eye drops by glaucoma patients attending ophthalmology outpatient department in a tertiary care teaching hospital and to document, substantiate the benefit of pharmacist intervention in ensuring safe and effective use of medication by promoting awareness on NLO method. Method: This prospective observational and interventional study was carried out in three phases. In phase I, KAP Questionnaire was specifically designed (for the first time) and was used to evaluate the patient knowledge on proper usage technique of eye drops in glaucomatous condition during their first (after ophthalmologist consultation) visit. Phase II comprises of counseling regarding disease, drugs, dosing frequency, storage condition, NLO and proper usage of topical medications were explained in detail to the patient during their first visit by clinical pharmacist after evaluation with a patient information leaflet on Glaucoma and NLO. Phase III was re evaluation carried out similar to Phase I, and the impact/influence of patient counseling by the clinical pharmacist was established. Result: The results obtained were tabulated and expressed as percentage. KAP Questionnaire was validated by Cronbach's Alpha correlation constant using SPSS 16.0 version and expressed as percentages. Conclusion: Clinical Pharmacist can play a major role in improving the quality of patient care by providing effective patient counseling. Physician, Pharmacist, Nursing and other health care professionals can join hands for optimizing the Pharmaceutical care to achieve a mission of "VISION 2020".

CLP-11

A comparative study of adverse drug reactions and benefits of hormonal and non hormonal oral contraceptives - A clinical study

Agrawal Pooja , Lata S, Saxena K.K.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, G.S.V.M. Medical College, Kanpur, U.P b208002

Objective : The use of hormonal as well as non hormonal oral contraceptives pills (OCPs) is one of the most effective, widely accepted convenient and reversible method of fertility control. However hormonal OCPs besides contraception are also used for treatment of various gynaecological problems viz.dysmenorrhoea, DUB, benign breast cancer. The present study was carried out to study the adverse reactions and benefits of OCPs. Methods : It is a hospital based study. The cases were selected from patients attending Post partum programme centre and outdoor department of Obstetrics, who were taking hormonal / non hormonal OCPs. Total 109 cases were selected, out of 109 cases 84 used hormonal and 25 used nonhormonal oral contraceptive pills (Centchroman). A thorough general and systemic examination was done at the initiation of administration and at monthly interval including recording of weight, pulse rate, B.P, icterus, anaemia oedema, cyanosis, skin condition. Biochemical tests include Hb%, BT, CT and blood sugar were also done regularly. Results : Maximum percentage ADRs with hormonal OCPs during 1st month was nausea and vomiting followed by menstrual irregularities. Least common adverse effect was skin changes. After 3 months of therapy percentage of most adverse effects decreased except weight gain. The only adverse effect with non hormonal OCPs was menstrual irregularities. Conclusion : This is concluded that both hormonal and non hormonal OCPs are effective in prevention of pregnancy and most of ADRS of hormonal OCPs were seen during 1st few months of therapy and subsided after continuous use except weight gain which becomes significant after prolonged use. Among the hormonal OCPs preparation containing DG.0.15 mg.EE 0.02mg have least ADRS. However non hormonal OCPs are safe and delayed cycle and amenorrhoea are major limiting factor. No failure rate was seen during study.

CLP-12

Bioavailability and bioequivalence study of two formulations of balofloxacin 100 mg in healthy human participants

Srinivas C. , J.C. Shobha, Ramesh Kumar

Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Punjagutta, Hyderabad.

E-mail: drsrinims@gmail.com

Objective: To study the oral bioavailability and bioequivalence of two formulations of Balafloxacin 100mg. Material and Methods : A single oral dose of Balafloxacin 100mg of reference (R) or test product (T) was administered with 240 ± 2 ml of water after overnight fasting in 24, healthy male human participants as per pre- randomization schedule. The pre dose blood sample (1 x 5ml) was collected before administering drug. The post-dose blood samples(1 x 5 ml) were collected at 0.5, 1.00, 1.5, 2.00, 2.5, 2.75, 3.00, 3.25, 3.5, 3.75, 4.00, 4.25, 4.50, 5.00, 6.00, 8.00, 10.00, 12.00, 16.00, 24.00, 36.00, and 48.00 hours. The plasma was separated and stored at -70 o C, pending assay. Volunteers were crossed over after 7 day washout period. Results: The mean Balafloxacin peak concentration C max was 850.23 ± 312.42 ng/ml and 852.43 ± 361.27 ng/ml, the mean time to reach peak concentration T max was 1.013 ± 0.428 and 1.174 ± 0.535 hours, the mean area under the time concentration curve calculated upto 0-t, AUC 0→t was 4447.6 ± 1240.1 and 4682.7 ± 1616.5 ng.hr/ml, the mean area under the time concentration curve calculated upto 0- ∝ AUC 0→α was 5125.7 ±1304.6 and 5375.88 ±1727.28 ng. hr / ml for the reference and the test formulations respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in any of these parameters. All the participants tolerated both the formulations without any significant adverse effects. Conclusions: Bioavailability of test formulation as compared to reference formulation, in terms of rate and extent of absorption after administration of single dose, both for untransformed and log transformed data were found to be within 80 - 125% of 90% CI, which meets the bioequivalence criteria.

CLP-13

Knowledge, attitude and practice of commercially marketed nutritional supplements in the healthy young individuals

Mishra V.R. , Patel P.P., Dikshit R.K.

Department of Pharmacology, B.J. Medical College, Ahmedabad-380016

Objectives:To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of the commercially marketed nutritional supplements in healthy young individuals. Materials and Methods: Two hundred individuals (aged group 18 to 25 years) were selected for the study. Out of these, 100 individuals attended a gymnasium (group 1) and the remaining 100 did not (group 2). Medical students/professionals were excluded from the study. An informed consent was taken and a pre-validated questionnaire was administered to the participants. Results: Only a minority of respondents in both the groups were correctly able to define nutritional supplements. There was a statistically significant difference in the use of nutritional supplements between both the groups (76% in group 1 and 21% in group 2). Majority of the respondents said that nutritional supplements are beneficial to health. Friends and relatives were the most common source of information. Coach/trainers were mentioned as the best source of information by a significantly higher number of respondents in group 1 (41%) as compared to group 2 (8%). About one-third of the respondents in both the groups said that nutritional supplements had no adverse effects. Actual benefits of the nutritional supplements were identified by a significantly larger number of respondents in group 2 (20%) as compared to group 1 (6%). Nearly half of the users said that they experienced beneficial effects after using the supplements. Majority of the respondents said that they will recommend the use of nutritional supplements to others. Conclusion: There is lack of appropriate knowledge about the use of nutritional supplements in young population. Significantly higher usage of nutritional supplements takes place in those attending gymnasium. Coach/trainers have a significant influence on those attending gymnasium regarding the use of nutritional supplements.

CLP-14

Drug utilization pattern among rheumatoid arthritis patients in a tertiary care hospital


Khera Kanav, Nagappa A.N , Vaishnavi Naik, Thunga Girish, Shipra Sharma, N.R. Rao 1

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka - 576104, 1Department of Medicine, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal University, Manipal, India.

Objectives: To study the drug utilization pattern of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, anti-inflammatory agents and analgesic therapy with special emphasis on their incidence and time course of adverse effects in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A prospective study was undertaken in the in departments of Medicineof a tertiary care teaching hospital on 166 patients on disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug, anti-inflammatory agents and analgesicstherapy. Patients were interviewed and necessary information regarding disease and therapy was collected as per case record form. Results: Treatment pattern during hospital stay were analyzed for all 166 RA patients. A total of 151 patients received DMARDs. Among DMARDS methotrexate was most widely used, in 130 (78.3%) patients, followed by hydroxychloroquine, 117 (70.5%), sulfasalazine 10 (6%), leflunomide 7 (4.2%). Certain biological DMARDs like abatacept, adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab and rituximab were not prescribed. In anti-inflammatory category NSAIDS was the major drug prescribed, for all 166 patients. In anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive category glucocorticosteroids were widely used. Prednisolone was prescribed to 85 (51.2%) patients. Adjuvant therapy like proton pump inhibitors were widely used antiulcer agent, in 133 (80.1%) patients to prevent side effect of NSAIDs and prednisolone. Folic acid was also used along with methotrexate in 131 (78.9%) to prevent the side effects of methotrexate and calcium was prescribed only in 46 (27.7%) of patients. Total 63 patients reported ADR during their drug therapy review Conclusion: Drug utilization evaluation plays a very important role in monitoring drug therapy and compliance.

CLP-15

Cost-effective analysis of drugs commonly used in primary open angle glaucoma

Asha P. Dass , Padma L., Ranjani Ramanujam, Manasa D.R.

Department of Pharmacology, BR Ambedkar Medical College, Bangalore

Objective: This study is being conducted to evaluate the cost and effect of the drugs commonly used for POAG. Methods: This is an open-labelled study being carried out at the Department of Ophthalmology, Dr.B.R. Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital, with the informed consent of the patient. Fifty patients of POAG will be treated with the commonly prescribed drugs for 6 months. Ocular improvement and effect of the drug will be assessed by following up patients every fortnight for 6 months, where the intraocular pressure is measured using Perkins handheld tonometer or Schitoz tonometer. The visual field defects and visual acuity are assessed by Octopus and Snellen's chart respectively. Cost-effectiveness was defined as monthly cost of medication per patient-weighted average 1% reduction in IOP. Results and conclusion: Ongoing study. Results and conclusion to be discussed at the conference.

CLP-16

Enhanced level of circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein positively associates with il-1β production and severity of sepsis and septic shock

Singh V , Bogra J, Kohli M, Dikshit M, Barthwal MK*

Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, India.

*E-mail: manojbarthwal@cdri.res.in

Objectives : Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (OxLDL) have been observed to be considerably high in the inflammatory ailments; present study was therefore aimed to ascertain the link between circulating OxLDL and plasma IL-1β in critically ill patients. We also appraised the pro-inflammatory role of OxLDL in healthy subjects. Methods : Blood samples were collected from 42 healthy subjects and 48 critically ill patients (i.e. SIRS, Sepsis and Septic shock) admitted to the intensive care unit. Disease severity was assessed by SOFA and APACHE II score. OxLDL and IL-1β were measured by competitive ELISA. Results: IL-1β (p<0.001) and OxLDL were higher in SIRS (p<0.05), sepsis (p<0.001) and shock (p<0.001) patients as compared to healthy subjects. Pearson correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between OxLDL, SOFA and APACHE II in SIRS (r 2 = 0.595, 0.55), sepsis (r 2 =0.56, 0.51) and shock (r 2 =0.615, 0.56) patients. Similarly increase in IL-1β also exhibited positive correlation with SOFA and APACHE II in sepsis (r 2 = 0.495, 0.6), and shock (r 2 =0.7082, 0.443) patients. Sepsis and shock patients showed positive correlation with IL-1β and OxLDL (r 2 = 0.557, 0.7154) suggesting OxLDL role in IL-1β production in critically ill patients. In addition, healthy subjects with augmented OxLDL reflect more plasma IL-1β (r 2 = 0.602) further suggesting towards the involvement of OxLDL in sterile inflammation. Healthy subjects also showed positive correlation between plasma LDL and OxLDL (r 2 = 0.609), however no correlation was observed among the critically ill patients. Conclusion : Present finding suggest that OxLDL seems to augment the inflammatory milieu in critically ill patients and might complicate the severity of disease. Study also demonstrates that OxLDL and IL-1β could be predictive marker of the severity of disease in critically ill patients

CLP-17

A review on effect of CNS active drugs on lipid profile

Sagar S. Ghanwat , Atul S. Bhujbal, Hardikkumar R. Shah, Vaishali R. Undale, Chandrashekhar D. Upasani, Ashok V. Bhosale

PDEA's Seth Govind Raghunath Sable College of Pharmacy, Saswad, Pune-412301.

Objectives : Dyslipidemia encompasses hypercholesterolaemia and hypolipoproteinaemia i.e. high TC andlow HDL-C (High TC: HDL-C ratio), which generally lead to Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). There are evidences that CNS active drugs affect normal lipid profile of an individual. The objectiveof present review was to find out CNS active drugs causing dyslipidemia and their mechanism of actionthereof. Methods : Literature survey was carried out for the topic by referring various journals, books and websites. Result : Antidepressants like Citalopram and Trimipramine by inhibiting alpha-2 receptors and stimulatingalpha-1 receptors; CNS stimulant drug like d-Amphetamine by stimulating lipase sensitive hormones an dantiepileptic like Carbamazepine by liver microsomal enzyme (LME) stimulation, lead to dyslipidemia. Low potency conventional antipsychotics like chlorpromazine and thioridazine as well as some atypicalantipsychotics like Quetiapine, Olanzapine and Clozapine have greater risk of causing hyperlipidemia. Various mechanisms responsible for weight gain are the contributing factors for dyslipidemia in antipsychotictherapy. Conclusion : There are number of drugs from various CNS active classes that affect normal lipid profileof an individual. Most of drugs from antipsychotic class cause dyslipidemia when used in therapy. This effecton lipid profile must be taken into consideration while prescribing CNS active drugs not only for dyslipidemicbut for non-dyslipidemic patients too. It is necessary to report Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) of wellestablished CNS active drugs, as this will be helpful for physicians in prescribing safer drug and ultimatelyimprove patient compliance.

CLP-18

Status of clinical trials in India in comparison to developed countries

Melvin G, Sandhiya S, Suresh Kumar S, Dkhar SA, Adithan C.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, (JIPMER), Puducherry-605 006

Objectives: India has been touted as a preferred destination for clinical trials globally. The Clinical trial registry of India (CTRI) was started on July 20, 2007 and the present regulations require mandatory registration of all clinical trials conducted in India. So the study has been done to compare the status of clinical trials in India with other developed countries since the advent of CTRI. Methods: We searched the CTRI database, National Institute of Health clinical trial database of the United States and the European Union (EU) clinical trial database for the trials registered between July 20, 2007 to August 29, 2011. Results: The total number of clinical trials registered in India during this period were 1,971 as compared to 31,606 in USA and 9,843 in EU. The maximum number of clinical trials in India in the order of decreasing frequency includes cancer(232,11.8%), diabetes(194, 9.8%), coronary artery disease(59,2.9%), asthma(42, 2.13%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(39, 1.9%). As seen in India, cancer and diabetes retain the top position among the clinical trials registered in US and EU. However the number of clinical trials for common diseases such as tuberculosis(12,0.6%), malaria(14, 0.71%) and HIV(14, 0.71%) remain abysmally poor in India. The number of clinical trials registered in India have been progressively increasing since 2007. Conclusion: As compared to developed countries, clinical trials registered in India appear to be less, inspite of a higher disease burden. There is a strong need for more clinical research, focussing on diseases affecting our population.

CLP-19

Adverse reaction pattern among rheumatoid arthritis patients in a tertiary care hospital


Khera Kanav, Shakta Mani Satyam 1* , Nagappa A.N, Thunga Girish, NR Rao 2 , Rajadurai Pirasanthan 1

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal - Karnataka - 576104, 1 Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka - 576104, 2 Department of Medicine, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal University, Manipal, India

Objectives: To study the Adverse drug reaction pattern among rheumatoid arthritis patients in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A prospective study was undertaken in the department of Medicineof a tertiary care teaching hospital on one hundred sixty patients on disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug, anti-inflammatory agents and analgesicstherapy. Patients were interviewed and necessary information regarding disease and therapy was collected as per case record form. All these patients were followed up till their hospital stay. During visits, patients were asked about adverse drug reactions as well as other problems with drug use. All the ADRs were further analyzed in relation to age and sex, type of drug and its pattern. Probability scale was used for the causality assessment of the ADRs. Results: A total of 68 ADRs were noted, associated with different drug administration. The highest number of ADRs were reported with prednisolone 53, the most common adverse effect with prednisolone group was hyperglycemia (21), followed by diabetes mellitus (10), hypertension (8), facial puffiness (4), cataract (3), cushingoid syndrome (2), ulcer (2) and fungal infection (3), methotrexate accounted for 10 ADRs of which increase in liver enzyme (3) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) (5) were most common, other less common ADR were aplar ulcer (1) and seizure (1), hydroxychloroquine induced ADRs like retinopathy (1 ADR), sulfasalazine induced vomiting (1 ADR), leflunomide induced vomiting and sensory neuropathy (2 ADRs) and NSAIDs induced gastritis (1 ADR) Conclusion: Steroids account for maximum number of adverse drug reaction and further monitoring is required.

CLP-20

Comparitive analysis of cost, tolerance and the efficacy of two different oral iron preparations used in the management of iron deficiency anemia in paediatrics

Arjun Rao ASM , Kannan G, Venkatraman P 1 , Padmasini LN 1 ,Vanitha Rani N, Sastha Ram VK.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, 1 Department of Pediatrics, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai - 600116

Objectives: To compare and evaluate the cost, tolerability and efficacy of two different oral iron preparations used in the management of IDA in pediatric population in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: A prospective study was carried out in the Department of Paediatrics in a tertiary care teaching hospital. All the patients who were diagnosed with IDA (Hb <11gm/dl) proven by hematological parameters and serum iron in the age groups of 2-18 years were included in the study. A specially designed proforma was used to collect patient demographics, anthropometric measurements, past medical, medication histories and medications prescribed after taking informed consent from parents guardian. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, in which Group I received Ferrous sulphate (n=15) and Group II received Ferrous hydroxy poly maltose (n=15). All the patients were evaluated for the variation in the cost of therapy, tolerance and efficacy of the two selected oral iron preparations by estimating the serum hemoglobin, serum iron periodically at base line and after one month of therapy. Results and Conclusion: IDA in children needs effective treatment methods for proper management. Though several new preparations have flooded the market and are being promoted as superior to the existing preparations, conventional Ferrous sulphate was found to be cost effective, tolerable and efficient oral iron preparation in treating IDA in pediatric patients better than Ferrous hydroxyl poly maltose.

CLP-21

Carbamazepine polymorph control by various methods of crystallization


Deepak Kamath, Mahalaxmi Rathnanand ,

Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Madhav Nagar, Manipal - 576 104, Manipal, Karnataka.

Objectives : The objective of the present work was to restrain the unpredictability of carbamazepine pharmacological activity by retaining the thermodynamically stable polymorphic form. Methods : The method of repetitive recrystallization and sonocrystallization was followed for polymorph control. The presence of CBZ Form III in the recrystallized samples was authenticated by various analytical methods like DSC, FTIR and XRD studies. The effect of recrystallization on the crystal habit, solubility and physicochemical properties were also studied to characterize the recrystallized samples. In vitro dissolution study was carried out in distilled water to study the dissolution profile of the carbamazepine crystals using USP type I apparatus.Results: All recrystallized samples were found to possess better flow properties and compressibility properties than the commercial carbamazepine. Solubility and rate of dissolution of the recrystallized samples were enhanced as compared to the pure drug. Conclusions : The method of sonocrystallization was found to be superior over the method of repetitive recystallization for polymorph control.

CLP-22

Single dose pharmacokinetics of primaquine in children with P. Vivax malaria

Kadam PK , Momin SR 1 , Karande S 1 , Gogtay NJ, Thatte UM

Departments of Clinical Pharmacology, and 1 Pediatrics, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012, India

E-mail: pkprashpk@gmail.com

Objectives : To study the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single oral dose of Primaquine in normally nourished and malnourished children with P.vivax malaria. Methods : After obtaining IRB approval and written informed consent from parents and assent where applicable children who were normally nourished (Group I) and those with Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM, Group II) as defined by Indian Academy of Pediatrics classification were recruited. A dose of 0.3mg/kg Primaquine Phosphate was given in fed state and 5 ml of blood collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hrs post-dose. Plasma primaquine concentration was analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined with PKSolutions 2.0 TM Non Compartmental Pharmacokinetic Data analysis software. Results: 15 Children (9 in Group I and 6 in Group II) were enrolled. They were aged between 5 and11yrs with bodyweight between 15 and 36kg. The median dose of primaquine was 9.20mg in Group I and 4.95mg in Group II. None of the participants experienced any adverse events. Wide iner-individual variability was seen with drug kinetics. However no significant difference was seen between the C max (ng/ml){group I [82.3 (28.5-216.6)], group II [63.4 (9.9-199)]},t max (hrs){group I [2.0 (1.0-8.0)], group II [4.0 (1.0-8.0)]}, t 1/2 (hrs){group I [3.14 (2.31-39.87)], group II [5.24 (3.67-8.59)]}and AUC 0-α (ng-hr/ml) {group I [908.1 (219.3-5868.3)], group II[588.7 (98.6-2692.1)]} of normally nourished versus malnourished children. The C max and AUC 0-α were both significantly different when normal healthy adults were compared withnormally nourished children with P.vivax malaria (P<0.05). Conclusion : There appears to be wide inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics of primaquine. However, in the small sample studies, drug kinetics do not appear to be different.

CLP-23

In vitro- in vivo correlation of immediate release oral acyclovir 800 mg tablet formulations: A BCS CLASS III drug

Ajay Gaur, P. Susantakumar 1 , Piush Sharma 2

L.M. College of Sc. & Tech. (Pharmacy), Jodhpur, India, 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Singhania University, Rajasthan, India, 2 Maharisi Arvind College of Pharmacy, Amabari, Jaipur, India

Objective:The first purpose of this study was to stimulate the impact of food intake on drug release and absorption in vivo using a novel in vitro system which mimics the gastro-intestinal tract in man. The drug studied was acyclovir in the immediate release (IR) tablets form. The second purpose was to establish a level A in vitro/in vivo correlation that could predict the bioavailability of a drug instead of using difficult, time-consuming and expensive in vivo bioequivalence studies. Methods:The artificial digestive system was used to estimate the availability of different acyclovir IR tablets formulations for absorption in fasted and fed states. The same study was performed in vivo under similar conditions. The in vitro-in vivo characterization of three different immediate release acyclovir IR 800mg tablets (T 1 , T 2 and T 3 ) and reference (Zovirax® ) immediate release tablet products and allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for approval have been reviewed. A validated LC-MS/MS detection method was adopted to conduct bioavailability studies in young healthy human volunteers. A comparison study was carried out between the classical and the novel methods to estimate the efficacy of the new in vitro system to simulate the influence of food on drug release and absorption in vivo. Results: A good linear correlation (R 2 = 0.9760, 0.9525, 0.9568 and 0.9973 for T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and Zovirax® formulations, respectively) was obtained between the percent cumulative drug released (in vitro) and the percent cumulative drug absorbed (in vivo) data of these formulations at specific time points to develop level A in vitro-in vivo correlation. A level A in vitro/in vivo correlation with specific time point estimation of three formulations were established with a correlation coefficient of 0.9760, and 0.9973 in the fasted and fed states, respectively. The in vitro-invivo correlation analysis demonstrated that the T 1 formulation exhibited dissolution rate- limited absorption compare to other formulations and found closer to the Zovirax® reference formulation and T 1 solution form. Conclusion: Compared to USP II method, the novel in vitro model demonstrated a high level of efficacy in mimicking the behavior of acyclovir IR tablets in vivo in fasted and fed states. Hence, the extensionofthebiowaiverconcepttoBCSClassIII drugs of acyclovir IR tablets seemsto be feasible and appropriate.

CLP-24

Effect of Ciprofloxacin induced oxidative stress on its tendenopathy in treated Patients

Venu Talla , Prabhakar Reddy Veerareddy 1

National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hyderabad, 1 St.Peter's Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Warangal, India.

E-mail: tallavenu@gmail.com

Objective: Ciprofloxacin is considered to be the standard treatment for patients with complicated urinary tract infections and several other infectious diseases. The major adverse effect of ciprofloxacin is tendinopathy. In vitro studies have proved that ciprofloxacin induces oxidative stress. The present study is to evaluate the effect of Ciprofloxacin induced oxidative stress on its tendinopathy potential in treated patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from the patients treated with 250 mg b.i.d with ciprofloxacin. In these treated patients the oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters SOD, glutathione, plasma antioxidant status, and lipid peroxides were evaluated on different dosage regimens up to 5 days and correlated with the incidence tendinopathy in the same patients Results: There is a significant and gradual elevation of lipid peroxide levels (3.6 ± 0.34 nmol/ml to 6.2 ± 0.94 nmol/ml) and decrease in SOD (73.3%) and glutathione (25.5%) levels were observed in 24 patients on ciprofloxacin therapy. On 5 th day of the treatment, plasma antioxidant status decreased by 77.6% in the same patients. Precipitation of tendinopathy was observed in all the patients in whom the stress was induced. Conclusion: Ciprofloxacin induced oxidative stress is responsible for its tendinopahy in treated patient population. Key words : Ciprofloxacin, oxidative stress, tendinopathy, urinary tract infections


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CVS-1

Effect of cleistanthin A and B on mean blood pressure in male Wistar rats

Parasuraman S. , Raveendran R.

Department of Pharmacology, JIPMER, Pondicherry- 605006. India

Objective : To determine the effect of cleistanthin A and B on mean blood pressure in anaesthetized male Wistar rats. Methodology : Cleistanthin A and B, aryl-napthalide lignan lactones type of glycosides isolated from the leaves of Cleistanthus collinus (Euphorbiaceae) were investigated for their effect on blood pressure.The rats were anaesthetized with urethane. The femoral vein was cannulated for drug administration. The carotid artery was cannulated and connected to a pressure transducer. The mean blood pressure of the animals was recorded using a data acquisition system (AD instruments, Australia). The effect of the compounds on mean blood pressure of epinephrine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, histamine was recorded before and after the administration of cleistanthin A or B. Results : Cleistanthin A and B when administered alone showed a dose dependent fall in mean blood pressure. The mean blood pressure was reduced and the %change from basal mean blood pressure was recorded to be -49.60±4.9 and -40.20±7.8% respectively. Cleistanthin A and B significantly reduced α receptor action of norepinephrine (p<0.05 for both) and dopamine (p<0 . 05 and p<0.01respectively) on blood pressure. Conclusion : Cleistanthin A and B per se have hypotensive effect in rat and inhibit the hypertensive effect of adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine by blocking alpha adrenergic receptor.

CVS-2

Cardiovascular changes following doca/nac1 or conditioning in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats.


Nimesh Panara, Nihar Tanna, Karshan Bhetariya, Chiarg Patel, Vipul Patel, Navin Sheth

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360005, Gujarat, India

Objective: To study effects of 6-hydroxydopamine administered in combination with Pargyline on cardiovascular changes produced by classical aversive conditioning or on the hypertension produced by Desoxycorticosterone (DOCA) plus NaC1 were examined. Method: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180-200gm were given two doses of 6-hydroxydopamine (200ug) intracisternally, one dose 30 min after Pargyline (50 mg/kg) and the second dose one week later without Pargyline pretreatment. Control animals were injected with Pargyline 30 min before intracisternal administration of Ascorbic acid vehicle (0.5%). In order to produce an experimental hypertension unilateral nephrectomized animals were given 25 mg/kg Desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) at weekly intervals. Result and Conclusion: A significant reduction of heart rate and blood pressure was also apparent in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated animals. Since peripheral Catecholamines did not appear to be affected by this treatment, this result is probably related to the destruction of central catecholamine containing neuronesof 6-hydroxydopamine on resting blood pressure could relate to an asymmetrical amine depletion. The inhibition of monoamine oxidase prior to injection of 6-hydroxydopamine has been shown to potentiate the actions of 6-hydroxydopamine on dopaminergic fibers.

CVS-3

Drug utilization study in patients with cardiovascular emergency coming to emergency ward of tertiary care hospital attached with medical college.

Agrawal J.M. , Goyal Y.N., Singh Anil, Trivedi H.R.

Department of Pharmacology, M.P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat-361008.

E-mail: Jitendra_Jindal@Rediffmail.Com

Introduction : Despite the advances in detection, treatment and management cardiovascular emergencies continue to be a significant contributor to mortality and morbidity even in developing countries. Keeping this in mind the present study of drug utilization trends in cardiovascular emergencies was taken up. Aims and Objective : To identify the pattern of drug use in patients with cardiovascular emergency . Materials and Methods : We recruited 600 patients diagnosed with cardiovascular emergency over a period of one year (1 st Jan 2010 to 31 st December 2010). Data was analyzed according to following parameter:Common cardiovascular emergencies treated. Sex distribution of patient population. Demographic characteristics of patients. Associated co morbidities with cardiovascular emergencies. Average number of drugs per encounter. Prescribing frequency of drugs. Observation and Result : Most common cardiovascular emergency treated was Myocardial Infarction(62%) followed by Angina Pectoris and other IHDs(36%). 65% were Male and 35% were Female. Incidence of cardiovascular emergency was highest in the age group of 61-70 yrs.(45.5%). Most common associated comorbidity was hypertension (65.1%) followed by Diabetes mellitus (15.33%). Top three prescribed cardiovascular drugs were glyceryl trinitrate (97.43%), β blocker (Metoprolol)(97.43%) and aspirin(97.43%). Average no. of drugs per encounter was 8.31, with the range of 3 - 14. Conclusion : Protocol of management strategy of cardiovascular emergencies in our tertiary care hospital is near to standard recommended guidelines and the clinical outcome of the patients is favourable since 91% of patients were discharged following treatment.

CVS-4

Study of the antihyperlipidemic, antiatherogenic and antioxidative activity of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus in rabbit receiving high fat diet


Mittal A., Das S.

Department of Pharmacology, Assam Medical College And Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, Pin-786002.

Objective : To study the effect of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus on Serum lipid profile, Atherogenesis and oxidative stress in rabbit receiving high fat diet. Method: Twenty numbers of rabbit of either sex were taken and divided into four groups, 5 rabbit in each and treated as follows- Normal Control- received normal diet, Experimental Control- received high fat diet, Test drug - received high fat diet plus ethanolic extract of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus (EEPT) at a dose of 500 mg/Kg BW/ day orally and Standard Drug- received high fat diet plus Atorvastatin at a dose of 2.1 mg/Kg BW/day orally. The experiment carried out for 12 weeks and then blood sample collected from marginal ear vein and lipid profile (Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL, LDL) was estimated. Catalase and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured for antioxidant status. The antiatherogenic effect was measured by atherogenic Index and histopathology of aorta. Results : All results were statistically analysed by one way ANOVA followed by multiple Dunnet's test. P value < 0.05 considered as significant. EEPT significantly decreased serum lipids towards normal levels (P<0.05) .It also increases catalase activity and decreases MDA activity as anti-oxidant action (P<0.05) and on histopathological examination reduced atherogenic plaques in size and number in aorta (P<0.05). Conclusion : Results shown that EEPT has hypolipidemic, anti-oxidant and anti- atherogenic effects in rabbits receiving high fat diet.

CVS-5

Cyp2c9 and cyp2c8 gene polymorphisms and myocardial infarction risk in a south indian population

Arun Kumar A.S , Padmapriya R, Balachandar J 1 , Adithan C.

Department of Pharmacology, and 1 Department of Cardiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry - 605006

Objective: To analyze the association between CYP2C9 and CYP2C8 gene polymorphisms and MI risk in the South Indian population. Materials and Method: This is a case-control study which consists of three groups: cases, risk controls and healthy controls. CYP2C8*2,CYP2C8*3,CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 were the SNPs studied and the number of subjects genotyped for each SNP varied from 400 to 500 in each group. All subjects were unrelated Tamilians aged 25-75 years. Institute Ethics Committee approved the study and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method and genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP and qRT-PCR method. Haplotype analysis was done using Haploview software version 4.1. Result: The allele frequencies among the cases, risk controls and healthy controls for CYP2C8*2 were A(97.9%, 98.0% and 98.9%) and T(2.1%, 2.0% and 1.1%), CYP2C8*3 were A(96.4%, 96.7% and 97.5%) and G(3.6%, 3.3% and 2.5%), CYP2C9*2 were C(97.2%, 95.9% and 97.9%) and T(2.8%, 4.1% and 2.1%) CYP2C9*2 were A(90.7%, 91.2% and 93.3%) and C(9.2%, 8.8% and 6.7%) respectively. The 'C' allele of CYP2C9*3 polymorphism showed association with myocardial infarction while comparing cases with healthy controls OR(95% C.I) 1.4(0.9 - 2.0) p=0.05. CCAA was the common haplotype structure observed in all three groups and none of the structures conferred a statistically significant risk towards MI. Conclusion : CYP2C9*3 polymorphism showed a significant association with MI. Therefore the 'C' allele carriers of CYP2C9*3 polymorphism are more susceptible to MI in South Indian population.

CVS-6

Interethnic distribution of the genetic polymorphisms of enos and aldosterone synthase in human umbilical cord blood samples of tamilian population

Anichavezhi D , Shewade DG, Suvro Chatterjee, Balachander J, Adithan C.

Department of Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, (JIPMER), Puducherry-605 006

Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the genetic polymorphisms of eNOS(Glu298Asp and -786T>C) and the aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2 C-344T) in the umbilical cord blood samples of Tamilian population. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from umbilical cord blood samples of healthy women (n = 120), aged between 18-31 years of Tamilian origin, who had undergone uncomplicated term pregnancies. Genotyping ofeNOS(Glu298Asp and -786T>C) and the aldosterone synthase encoding gene, CYP11B2 (C-344T) was carried by the PCR-RFLP method. Frequencies of the polymorphic alleles and genotypes among various populations were compared with the current data using Fisher's exact test. Results: The genotype frequencies (homozygous wild, heterozygous and homozygous mutant genotype) found were eNOSGlu298Asp (72.5%, 26.6%, 0.8%), eNOS-786T>C (57.5%, 39.1%, 3.3%) and CYP11B2-C344T (19.1%, 45%, 35.8%). The variant allele frequencies of eNOSGlu298Asp (14.1%) were significantly lesser than that of the Caucasians (29%) and Afro-American (28%) populations, and were higher than the Japanese (8%) populations. On the other hand, the variant allele frequency of eNOS-786T>C (22.9) was significantly higher among the Japanese (3.4%), but extremely significantly lesser when compared with the Caucasian (44%) and American (30.3%) populations. Besides, the variant allele frequencies of CYP11B2-C344T (58.3%) were significantly lesser than the Japanese (73.5%) population. Conclusion: There is a marked interethnic difference in the frequencies of the genetic polymorphisms of eNOS and aldosterone synthase gene. Further, the effects of the influence of cardiovascular drugs in the polymorphic alleles and their subsequent expression studies may explain the molecular mechanisms by which the genes can be induced in clinical setting and the consequences of genetic variability.

CVS-7

Response of long term clopidogrel administration in patients of ischemic heart diseases

Singh J , Kaura R, Laller KS 1 , Sen R. 2

Departments of Pharmacology, 1 Cardiology and 2 Pathology, PGIMS, Rohtak - 124001, Haryana, India.

Objective: To study the effect of long term clopidogrel administration on platelet aggregation and adhesiveness in patients with ischemic heart diseases. Material and Methods : Thirty male patients aged (40-75 years) who attended cardiology OPD with evidence of stable angina and 30 age matched healthy volunteers were enrolled for the study. Group I- control; Group II- clopidogrel treated. Platelets aggregation and adhesive index in control, clopidogrel (75mg, po daily for 18 months) treated patients were estimated by O'Brien and Salzman's method, at 6,12 and 18 months. Blood samples for platelet aggregation and adhesiveness were collected in separate vials containing sodium citrate and EDTA respectively. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was obtained by centrifuging blood at 150-200 G for 15 minutes. Platelet aggregation was induced by adding 20μg of ADP. Platelet aggregation induced alterations in optical density were measured with photoelectric colorimeter. Results: Platelets aggregation time was significantly (P< 0.01) increased in patients with angina treated with clopidogrel (75mg, po daily for 18 months). Platelets adhesive index was found to be significantly reduced in these patients after clopidogrel treatment. Responsiveness of clopidogrel was found to be reduced only after 18 months of treatment. Conclusion: In patients with stable angina clopidogrel resistance was observed after 18 months of treatment.

CVS- 8

Effect of oral iron therapy on clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure

Singh J , Manjunath SM, Kuldip S. Laller 1

Department of Pharmacology, and 1 Cardiology, PGIMS, Rohtak-124001, Haryana

Objective: To study the effect of oral iron therapy on clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (H F). Methods : This prospective, controlled and open label study was conducted in department of Pharmacology and Cardiology at PGIMS Rohtak. Total 40 patients of either sex, diagnosed with anemia in HF were enrolled. Inclusion criteria- age > 18 years, HF- NYHA class II and III, LVEF < 40 %, Hb- 8-11 g/ dl, exercise tolerance ( walk distance within 6 min. < 375 meters and informed consent. Group I- Iron sulfate 100mg bid x 3 months was given along with standard treatment for HF. Group - II-Anemic patients ,received standard treatment for HF. Primary end point- exercise tolerance (6 min walk distance) andSecondary end point -Borg scale for dyspnoea and fatigue were assessed before and after 15, 45, and 90 days of iron treatment. Hematological parameters (HB, PBF, Reticulocyte count, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PCV, RBC count) were also observed. Results : In patients with HF, iron therapy significantly improved exercise tolerance. Dyspnoea and fatigue were less in treated patients as compared to group II (control). Most of hematological parameters were improved in HF patients after iron treatment. Conclusion: Oral iron therapy improves clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure.

CVS-9

Antihyperlipideamic effect of aqueous extract of Borassus flabellifer in high fat diet fed rats

Mallikarjun M, Sreekanth K, Charisma V.V.L, Reshma Ravali, Divya K.

Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy, Mohan Gardens, Vaishnavi Nagar, Tiruchanoor-517503


Hyperlipidemia is a common metabolic disorder contributing to morbidities due to cardio vascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Objectives: Many classes of lipid lowering agents are available with different mechanism of actions and variable efficacy but suffering with many side effects. When consumed in large amounts, purified soluble fibre sources lower cholesterol levels. One such rich plant routinely consumed as diet in India is Borassus flabellifera (Family: Arecaceae). Hence objective of the present study is to evaluate antihyperlipidemic activity of decoction of B. flabellifera against high fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia. Method: Healthy adult male Albino rats (150-200gms) were divided into 5groups (n=6). Except normal, Group(I) which received only drinking water, all other groups were fed with HFD prepared by mixing cholesterol(1% w/w), cholic acid (0.1% w/w) and coconut oil(10% v/w)with the powdered standard rat feed for 56 days. Group (II) served as disease control, Group (III) was treated with simvastatin (1mg/kg, p.o) along with HFD where as Group (IV and V) were treated with decoction of B. flabellifera (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o) respectively along with HFD.Parameters assessd in the study were body weight, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, atherogenic index, SGOT, SGPT, Alkaline phosphotase, total bilirubin and histo pathology of liver. Results: Treatment with decoction of B. flabellifera (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o) respectively along with HFD showed a significant decrease in the body weight, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL and atherogenic index when compared to the HFD diet fed rats (Group II). Markers of liver damage like SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin were also less in groups treated with decoction of B. flabellifera (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o) respectively, when compared to the control animals. The antihyperlipidaemic activity of B. flabellifera was further supported by the histopathology of liver indicating reduction in deposition of fat globules in animals treated with decoction of B. flabellifera (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o) respectively, when compared to control animals. Conclusion: In conclusion our results showed that the orally administered B. flabelliferawas effective in suppressing high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in a dose independent manner and suggest its beneficial use against hyperlipidemia.

CVS-10

Effect of saponins of Momordica cymbalaria on global ischemia induced myocardial damage


Raju Koneri, Renukeshvar Reddy,Gopala K.P.

Gopala K.P. II nd M Pharmacy, Pharmacology, Karnataka College of Pharmacy, 33/2, Thirumenahalli, Hegdenagar Main Road, Jakkur Post, Yelahanka (H), Bangalore North, Bangalore-560064

Objective : To evaluate the cardioprotective activity of Saponins of Momordica cymbalariaon global ischemia induced myocardial damage. Method: The treatment groups were divided as follows: where N=6 in each group. Group I normal control, Group II ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) control, Group III pretreated withMC (50 mg/kg), Group IV pretreated withMC (100 mg/kg), and Group V rats pretreated withMC (175 mg/kg). The heart was allowed to stabilize for initial 15 min and after stabilization the heart was subjected to a period of 15 min of global no-flow ischemia by blocking the complete energy and oxygen supply, by switching off the flow of PSS followed by reperfusion for 15 min in the pre ischemic conditions R esults: Pretreatment of animals with SMC-50mg/kg provided significant protection to myocardium from IRI damage as indicated by significant decrease in LDH and CK-MB activities in perfusate and an increase in activities of these enzymes in heart tissue homogenate and prevented the alterations in the oxidative stress markers like lipid peroxidase (LPO), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) Similarly, the recovery (%) in developed tension and heart rate were significantly more in treated groups during post-ischemia when compared to control. The protective effect was confirmed by histological findings and was more prominent at 50 mg/kg. Conclusion: The study strongly suggests that SMC administration prevents oxidative stress and associated histopathological changes, induced by myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury.

CVS-11

Effect of Momordica Cymbalaria on Fructose induced Hypertension and Alpha adrenergic antagonistic activity

S. Guru Praveena , Raju Koneri

S. Guru Praveena, II nd M.pharm (Pharmacology), Karnataka College of Pharmacy, 33/2, Thirumena Halli, Hegde Nagar, Main Road, Jakkur Post, Yelahanka Hoblli, Bangalore North, Bangalore-64.

Objective: : To investigate Antihypertensive activity of Momordica Cymbalaria in Fructose Rich Diet (FRD) induced hypertensive rats by non invasive (tail cuff) method, and adrenergic alpha antagonistc activity in rat aortic strip and rat annacoccygeus muscle. Method: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each, Group 1: standard rat chow, Group 2: FRD for 5 weeks, Group 3: Standard rat chow + MC (500mg/kg, p.o/day/5weeks),Group 4: FRD + MC (500mg/kg, p.o/day/5weeks).The FRD contained 66% fructose, 12% fat and 22%, protein. Cardiovascular parameters such as systolic, and heart rate were measured weekly for five weeks by indirect noninvasive tail cuff method. Rat anococcygeusmuscle and aortic strip were mounted in a jacketed tissue bath containing Krebs's solution gassed with carbogen. The isotonic contractions were measured using polyrite. Concentration Response Curves to noradrenaline was taken after a 30 min of repeated washings with the Krebs solution to assess for reversibility of MC. Results: FRD induced a significant (p<0.001) rise in systolic blood pressure when compared to normal rats. FRD induced hypertensive rats treated with MC (500mg/kg p.o/5 weeks) showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the systolic blood pressure MC (10μg /ml, 30μg/ml and 100μg/ml) displayed a significant rightward shift of NA concentration curve in isolated rat's aortic strip. The effect was not reversed after 30 minute of washing period. MC (100μg/ml, 200μg/ml and 400μg/ml) displayed significant rightward shift of NA concentration curve in rat's isolated anconccygeousmuscle. The effect was not reversed after 30 minute of washing period. Conclusion: MC has demonstrated significant antihypertensive effect. It may be due to alpha adrenergic antagonistic action of MC.

CVS-12

Assessment of health related quality of life and cardiovascular risk factors among coastal rural population

*Muragundi P.M, Anil T.M., Ranjan Shetty K., Udupa N., Anantha N.N.

Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal- 576104

*E-mail: pradeep.mm@manipal.edu

Background and Objectives : Cardiovascular risk factors have contributed to chronic heart diseases among urban population which shows the association with increase in metabolic syndromes. Health related quality of life (HRQoL) can be defined as health status and viewed as a continuum of increasingly complex patient outcomes: biological/physiological factors, symptoms, functioning, general health perceptions and overall wellbeing or quality of life. Aim of our study was to assess the HRQoL and cardiovascular factor prevalence among costal rural population. We hypothesize that health related quality of life varies negatively with increase in BMI. Methodology : 126 patients attending a cardiology health check-up camp at a rural costal village were recruited for the study, after obtaining their consent. EQ 5D questionnaire which contains both descriptive and visual analogue score was used. Demographics, socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed. Results : 75% of the respondents reported the problem in mobility domain, 69% in activity domain, 88% in pain domain and 62% in anxiety domain of EQ 5D. 2.1% of obese population had the good quality of life (VAS score >75) compared to 71% of normal weight population. 85% have reported as non-smokers and non-alcoholic, 53% were having sedentary lifestyle, 24% of them were tobacco users, 41% of them were having stressful life, 30% of them had family history of either hypertension or diabetes or both. Conclusion : Increase in body mass index significantly contributes to the reduction in quality of life (P<0.05). There is a further need to study the association between different cardiovascular risk factors and health related quality of life among rural coastal population.

CVS-13

Cardioprotective effect of apelin against rofecoxib induced cardiotoxicity

Adhaoo P. S., Khot P. R., Hirulkar A. S., Tundulwar M. R., Yeole P. G, Patole A. M.

Pournima Adhaoo, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Borgaon (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra - 442 001

Objective : Evaluation of the cardio-protective effect of Apelin on rofecoxib induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Background : The repercussion of the heated dispute on rofecoxib -cyclooxygenase-2 (COX - 2) inhibitor led to the national and international withdrawal of several of the recently introduced coxibs due its cardiovascular complication. Coxibs is often involved in the treatment of arthritis and musculoskeletal disorder and exhibit less gastrointestinal toxicity. Apelin is nitric oxide releasing peptide and nitric oxide plays a major role in vasodilation, blood pressure regulation and inflammation. It produces positive inotropic action and reduces salt and water retention also has antioxidant and cardio-protective effect. Methods : Albino rats (Wistar strain) of either sex received a single i.p. injection of normal saline (normal control group) and rofecoxib 50 mg/kg (toxic control group) through gastric gavages daily for six weeks for induction of cardiotoxicity. Apelin was administered (100 nmol/kg/day, i.p.) for six weeks. Blood pressure was measured by non invasive method using BIOPAC on 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th week. Blood was withdrawn under anesthesia by retro-orbital plexus puncture method using capillary tube on 42nd day and analyzed for biochemical parameters using autoanalyser. Results : BIOPAC and biochemical studies showed that apelin significantly decreased hypertension; prevent myocardial infarction as evidenced by decrease level of serum total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) level and increase level of serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) in rats with rofecoxib induced cardiotoxicity. Conclusion : Present research work revealed that apelin is cardio-protective in rats with rofecoxib induced cardiotoxicity.

CVS-14

Effect of quercitine on ramipril and spironolactone on fructose induced hypertension in rats

Chunne A. A , Jaiswal P. S, Tenpe C. R, Tundulwar M. R, Patole A. M, Yeole P. G

Amol A. Chunne, Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Borgaon Meghe Wardha, Maharashtra.

Objective: To Study the effect of quercitine on ramipril and spironolactone on fructose induced hypertension In Rats. Method: Hypertension and oxidative stress induced by giving 10 % fructose daily through drinking water for 28 days. Blood pressure and biochemical parameters such as Cholesterol, Triglyceride and C- HDL were used as markers in fructose induced hypertension and oxidative stress. The rats were randomly divided into eight experimental groups as follows: normal, fructose control, ramipril treated (1mg/kg), spironolactone treated (20 mg/kg), quercetin treated (10 mg/kg), ramipril (1mg/kg) + quercetin (10 mg/kg) treated, spironolactone (20 mg/kg) +quercetin (10 mg/kg) treated, Ramipril (1mg/kg) + spironolactone (20 mg/kg) +quercetin (10 mg/kg).Animal received plain water served as normal. All the drugs were also co administered orally by gastric gavages for 28 days. Blood pressure was recorded on zero, 7 th , 14 th , 21 st and 28 th days using Biopac system. Biochemical estimation such as cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL were carried out on 28 th day from blood plasma using autoanalyser. Result: Treatment with combinations reversed the fructose induced hypertension and oxidative stress. It also decreases the level of cholesterol, triglyceride and increases the level of C- HDL. When compared with two drug combination and single drugs, three drugs combination (R+S+Q) was found to show most significant results. Conclusion: Thus it can be concluded that chronic quercetin treatment with ramipril and spironolactone restore biochemical parameters and blood pressure significantly.

CVS-15

Evaluation of antihyperlipidaemic potency of a polyherbomineral fomulation (af-lip) in experimental animal model.


Purnima Ashok, Devander Pal Singh, Prasanna GS, Nishi Gupta , Renuka Shukla, Vidyasagar R.

Kle University's College Of Pharmacy, Rajajinagar Ii Block, Bangalore, Karnataka. Pin Code: 560 010

Objective: The present deals with the screening of a polyherbomineral formulation (AF-LIP) for its anti hyperlipidaemic activity in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet induced hyperlipidaemia. Methods: Antihyperlipidaemic activity was evaluated in acute model by using Triton WR-1339 (100mg/kg) s.c. and in chronic model by high fat diet. TC, TG, HDL, LDL, VLDL were estimated in addition to HMG Co-A reductase enzyme activity and faecal Result: In Triton WR-1339 (acute model) at the dose of 400 mg/kg, AF-LIP significantly lowered total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), VLDL-C and LDL-C levels with simultaneous increase in HDL-C levels (P<0.01) at 6 h and 24 h. Also there was significant reduction in TC and LDL-C levels at 48h at the dose of 400mg/kg. In chronic model at the dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, AF-LIP significantly reduced (P<0.001) TC and LDL-C levels with increase in HDL-C levels. HMG-CoA reductase enzyme activity was not much significantly increase in HDL/TC ratio (P<0.01). Faecal cholesterol excretion was significantly enhanced (P<0.01) in all the test doses of AF-LIP. Conclusion: From the above investigation, it may be concluded that AF-LIP may be beneficial in treatment of atherosclerosis, since atherosclerosis is one of the secondary complications of hyperlipidaemia

CVS-16

Cardioprotective activity of Mucuna pruriens seeds in isoproterenol-induced myocardial ischemia.


th*Dignesh Patel, Sandesh Shinde, Rajendra Bhambar, Rupali Patil

Department of Pharmacology, MGV's Pharmacy College, Nashik, Maharashtra- 422 003.

*E-mail: digpharma@gmail.com

Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the protective role of Mucuna pruriens in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) and associated biochemical parameters in Wistar rats. Methods: The effect of Mucuna pruriens seeds on various parameters such as electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns; vascular reactivity to catecholamines, cardiac marker enzymes- lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) in serum, together with histopathological changes in isoproterenol (ISO) (85 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 h) -induced MI in male Wistar rats was evaluated. Results and Conclusions: Pretreatment with Mucuna pruriens and L-DOPA complex for a period of 21 days, significantly inhibited the effects of ISO on ECG patterns, vascular reactivity changes and levels of LDH and CK. Treatment with Mucuna pruriens and L-DOPA complex alone did not alter any of the parameters compared with vehicle treated rats. Mucuna pruriens treated animals showed a lesser degree of cellular infiltration in histopathological studies. Thus, Mucuna pruriens and L-DOPA complex ameliorates the cardiotoxic effects of ISO and may be of value in the treatment of MI.

CVS-17

Time dependent characterization and validation of angioplasty injury induced rabbit iliac artery atherosclerosis model

Vivek Khanna , Manish Jain, Abhishek K. Singh, Vishal Singh, Prem Prakash, Maria Farooqui, Manoj K. Barthwal, Madhu Dikshits

Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, India.

E-mail: vivekkhanna54@yahoo.com

Objectives : To assess time dependent changes in the rabbit iliac artery model of atherosclerosis. Methods : Male New Zealand white rabbits (2-3 kg) were used in the present study. All animals consumed an atherogenic diet (1% cholesterol and 6% peanut oil) for 8 weeks. One week after diet initiation, balloon injury was carried out using 2F Fogarty angioplasty catheter. Glucose and lipid profiling was done using standard kits. Histological assessment of artery sections was carried out by HandE, Movat Pentachrome and oil red O staining. Morphometric analysis was done using image analysis software by blinded investigators. Immunohistochemistry for CD68, α-actin, MMP-9 and mRNA quantification of pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (TGF-β, IL-10) cytokines were carried out. Validation study was performed by using standard hypolipidemic drug, ezetimibe (3 mg/kg p.o for 35 days). Results : Time dependent increase in TC, TG, LDL and HDL was observed whereas glucose levels remained normal throughout. Most sections displayed rich fibro-proliferative response. There was no incidence of necrotic core or thrombus formation. Movat pentachrome stained sections showed chronological increase in proteoglycan content. Progressive increase in intimal/medial thickness, plaque area and % cross sectional narrowing was seen. Lumen area was significantly reduced in progressive manner. Macrophage formation and % lipid area also increased progressively. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expressions were increased progressively in atherosclerotic samples. Ezetimibe treatment for 35 days showed significant reduction in the atherosclerotic burden. Conclusions : This model reflects time dependent increase in atherosclerotic burden and stenosis and represents Type II/ III human lesions. Ezetimibe, as a standard drug, seems to be appropriate for validating the iliac atherosclerosis model in rabbits.

CVS-18

Protective effect of atorvastatin on neointimal hyperplasia in rats: G0/G1 arrest of cell proliferation, down regulation of cyclin d, cdk 2 and cdk 4 as possible mechanisms.

*Manish Jain, Ankita Singh, Prem Prakash, Vishal Singh, Vivek Khanna, Madhu Dikshit, Manoj Kumar Barthwal

Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, India.

*E-mail: manishjain.cdri@gmail.com


Primary and secondary prevention trials suggest that Statins possess favorable effects independent of cholesterol reduction. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Atorvastatin (3 mg/kg) on neointimal hyperplasia in balloon induced carotid injury of male Sprague-Dawley Rats and its possible molecular mechanism. Methods and Results: Balloon injury resulted into ~ 3 fold increase in intima/media ratio, which was significantly reduced by atorvastatin. Atorvastatin also attenuated the significant induction in circulating IFN-γ, TNF and carotid TLR-2, ERK, p-ERK and p-JNK expression that was observed after balloon injury. Effect of atorvastatin was also evaluated on primary Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC). VSMC proliferation was induced by 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) in the presence or absence of atorvastatin (50μM) or ERK inhibitor U0126 (10μM). VSMC proliferation as measured by cell count and MTT assay revealed significant lowering in FBS induced proliferative response both by Atorvastatin and U0126. Similarly atorvastatin and U0126 also suppressed the FBS induced cell cycle progression through G0/G1 to S phase. Secreted TNF, IFN-γ and IL-6 levels that were elevated in FBS stimulated VSMC, were suppressed by Atorvastatin and U0126. Moreover, atorvastatin inhibited expression of Cyclin D, CDK 2 and CDK 4 proteins. Conclusion : Atorvastatin significantly inhibited neointimal formation. It also caused G0/G1 arrest of FBS induced cell proliferation and down regulation of Cyclin D, CDK 2 and CDK 4 protein expression which may explain its protective effect in the animal model.

CVS-19

Ameliorative effect of quercetin on 5-hydroxytryptamine mediated vasculopathy in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat

Patel S.D., Chourasia A.J, Ingole S.R, Chaple D.R.

J.L.Chaturvedi College of Pharmacy, Electronic Zone, MIDC, Hingna Road, Nagpur (MH)

Endothelial dysfunction induced by diabetes is one of the major causes of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases and are responsible for the high morbidity and mortility in people worldwide. Our present study investigates the effect of quercetin on blood glucose, oxidative stress, NO, Lipid profile, endothelial function in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat. Rats were categorized into Control, Diabetic (STZ, I.P) and Quercetin treated diabetic groups dose dependent. Treatment with effective dose of quercetin significantly restores elevated blood glucose level, increase NO level and reduce Lipid peroxidation in STZ-Diabetic rat. Experimental study on aortic ring (in vitro) from control, diabetic and quercetin treated diabetic group strongly shows the enhanced contractile responses to 5-Hydroxytryptamine in STZ treated diabetic group in comparison with control group. Enhanced 5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced contraction and impaired acetylcholine-induced endothelium- dependant relaxation in STZ-diabetic rats were significantly restored to normal level by quercetin treatment. Pretreatment with L-NAME, enhanced Ach -induced endothelial dependant relaxation in quercetin- treated STZ-diabetic group was blocked, indicating the role of NO. From present study it can be concluded that quercetin treatment to STZ-diabetic rat restore endothelial function.

CVS-20

The dose dependent effect of caffeic acid on augmented vasocontractile effect of phenylephrine on thoracic aorta of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

Rahmatullah M.D., Chourasia A. J., Ingole S.R., Chaple D.R.

J.L.Chaturvedi College of Pharmacy, Electronic Zone, MIDC, Hingna Road, Nagpur, (MH16).

Objective: Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress and endothelium dysfunction play dominant role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vasculopathy. Present study investigates the effect of Caffeic acid (C.A.) on blood glucose, NO, oxidative stress and endothelial function in diabetic rats. The beneficial effect of C.A. on thoracic aorta of diabetic rats was determined. Methods: Rats were divided into control, streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic and C.A. treated STZ-diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by administrating STZ .The C.A. treated STZ-diabetic groups were given C.A. treatment daily. 4 weeks after induction of diabetes, thoracic aorta was removed and ring of approximately 3 mm in width was mounted for isometric responses of phenylephrine (PE) on rat aorta. Endothelium recording was observed followed by acetylcholine (Ach) induced relaxation. Results: C.A. treatment significantly restores elevated blood glucose level and reduces lipid peroxidation in STZ-diabetic rats. From in vitro studies in control, diabetic and C.A. treated diabetic groups, there were enhanced contractile responses to PE in STZ-diabetic group in comparision with control group. C.A. treatment restores PE-induced contraction and impaired acetylcholine (Ach)-induced relaxation to normal in STZ-diabetic rats. Role of NO was confirmed when pre-treatment with L-NAME was observed on Ach-induced relaxation in treatment group. Conclusion: Thereafter, from present study it can be concluded that dose dependent effect of caffeic acid treatment improves hyperglycemia and endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rat.

CVS-21

Further investigation on antihyperlipidemic activity of Aegle marmelos corr.

Manikumar G. , Shashanka Rao M., Prasanna GS.

KLE University's College of Pharmacy, Rajajinagar Ii Block, Bangalore, Karnataka. Pin code: 560 010

Objective: The current study was carried to further investigate the reported anti hyperlipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos in hyperlipidemic albino Wistar rats. Materials and methods : Test animals were rendered hyperlipidemic by oral administration of 500mg/kg cholesterol and confirmed hyperlipidemia. Serum triglyceride levels, total cholesterol levels, fecal cholesterol excretion levels, HMG CoA reductase levels, MDA levels and weight of visceral organs were assessed in extract treated animals. Results: In hyperlipidemic animals, ethanolic extract of leaf of Aegle marmelos produced significant antihyperlipidemic activity- reducing the triglyceride and total cholesterol levels (P<0.01, P<0.001) and increasing the fecal cholesterol excretion. The decrease in levels of HMG CoA reductase (P<0.001) and lipid peroxidation were also noticed. The extract treated animals showed lighter livers and reduced weights of other visceral organs like heart, lungs and kidneys, compared to untreated animals. Conclusion : Changes are suggestive of antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos, with significant influence on lipid peroxidation (MDA levels), HMG-CoA reductase levels and fecal cholesterol excretion and organ weight.

CVS-22

Assessment of cardiovascular drugs induced adverse events based on kalemic conditions -A pharmacovigilance approach

B.S. Stalan , S. Ponnusankar

Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ooty.

Objectives: 1) To assess the utilization of cardiovascular drugs that induce kalemic condition. 2) To estimate potassium levels in serum. 3) To estimate the causality of the drug and adverse drug event using Naranjo's algorithm. 4) To suggest the management of the adverse drug reaction and observe the outcome. Methods: 1) Identification of patients receiving cardiac drugs that cause risk of kalemic ADR. 2) Estimation of potassium levels by obtaining blood samples. 3) Assessment of causality by using Naranjo's scale. 4) Follow -up of patients. 5) Optimization of the therapeutic outcome through intervention. 6) Interventions performed are either dose adjustment, drug withdrawal, addition of a drug or supplementation or change the class of drug. Result: As this study is an ongoing study until now 14 patients were being enrolled and 7 out of that were taking either of 3 drugs ( digoxin, enalapril, furosemide ) were found to be hypokalemic and two patients taking spironolactone were found to be hyperkalemic and both categories were found with their consequent ADRS. Comparing dietary practice, non vegetarians and people above 40 yrs of age were found to be more prone to potassium imbalance. Causality assessment using NARANJO'S SCALE was also done. Conclusion: The upto date evaluation of the study showed that a proper pharmaceutical care should be intimated to avoid potassium imbalances which are caused due to drugs. So proper intervention is being made to avoid further complications.

CVS-23

Comparison of olmesartan and telmisartan in the hypertensive patients with cardiovascular risks based on Framingham risk score

Dinsy Paul , Priya K., Piyush Srivastava, P.R. Anand Vijaya Kumar

Department of Pharmacy Practice, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy, Ooty, Tamil Nadu - 643 001, India.

Objective: To assess the Framingham 30 years risk score based on the lipid profile for hypertensive patients receiving Olmesartan and Telmisartan. Methodology: This prospective open label randomized parallel study was conducted in the outpatient department of Government Headquarters Hospital, Ooty, from November 2010 to April 2011. The Framingham risk score assessment involves the determination of hard cardiovascular risk and full cardiovascular risk for 30 years. Blood pressure (BP) assessment was done on the 7 th , 21 st , 35 th , 49 th and 60 th days of the treatment. Lipid profiles were measured at baseline and final visit. Results: Total of 24 patients completed the study with 12 patients in each study group. Telmisartan was found to be more efficacious as it significantly reduced the blood pressure. Telmisartan showed a significant increase in the high density lipoprotein. Olmesartan showeda slight increase in the mean systolic BP at second visit but the subsequent follow ups showed significant reduction in systolic BP. Framingham risk score was reduced by both the study drugs. Olmesartan showed statistically significant reduction in the hard cardiovascular disease (coronary death, myocardial infarction, fatal or non-fatal stroke risks). So for patients who are at a greater risk of developing hard cardiovascular disease Olmesartan can be the drug of choice. Conclusion: Olmesartan can be considered as an ideal agent to prevent future onset of CVD in patients with stage 1 hypertension.

CVS-24

Comparison of pleiotropic effects of two different angiotensin receptor blockers in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome based on adult treatment panel III criteria

Priya K. , Dinsy Paul, Piyush Srivastava, P.R. Anand Vijaya Kumar

Department of Pharmacy Practice, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy, Ooty, Tamil Nadu - 643 001, India.

Objectives: To estimate the blood pressure variability, the change in serum uric acid level and effect on the lipid profiles on administration of telmisartan and olmesartan. Methodology: This prospective open label randomized parallel study was conducted in the outpatient department of Government Headquarters Hospital, Ooty, from November 2010 to April 2010. Blood pressure (BP) was measured at baseline, 7 th , 21 st , 35 th , 49 th and 60 th days of the treatment. Lipid profile and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were measured at baseline and final visit. Results and Conclusion: Total of 24 patients completed the study with 12 patients in each study group. For patients with metabolic syndrome with hypertension telmisartan was found to be more efficacious as it significantly reduced the blood pressure and improved lipid profile

CVS-25

Evaluation of pharmaceutical care services in myocardial infarction patients

*Anil T.M , Pradeep M. M., Ranjan Shetty K., Vijaya Kumar S., Anantha N. N.

Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal-576104.

*E-mail: pharmacistanil@gmail.com

Background and Objectives : Recently the focus of medical care has shifted towards management of chronic diseases, with the aim of optimizing quantity and quality of life. The consequences of poor adherence to the treatment are inadequate health outcomes and increased health costs. Hence this study was taken up as an effort to assess the adherence and quality of life by providing pharmaceutical care for the patients of myocardial infarction. Methodology : This randomized clinical trial study consisting of 105 patients with myocardial infarction admitted to cardiology wards of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal. 51 patients randomized into Pharmaceutical care were counseled about disease, diet, life style modifications, and pharmacotherapy. Control group patients (54) were counseled only about pharmacotherapy during discharge. Result : Medication adherence was measured by pill count score in 105 patients who participated in the study. A score of 80% and above was considered as the patient's adherence to medication. At the end of 12 weeks, in the experimental group 46 (90%) patients were adherent compared to 6 (11%) in control group which is significant (P<0.001). Quality of life of the patients is assessed by Visual Analogue scale of 100. In the experimental group, 47 (92%) patients reported to have higher quality of life (in the range of 80-90) compared to 21 (39%) in control group, which is significant (P<0.01). Conclusion : Hence pharmaceutical care services provided by pharmacist at the time of discharge will significantly improves the medication adherence and quality of life of patients. However, a study in larger population required to substantiate the findings.

CVS-26

The potency of garlic in presence of repaglinide and amlodipine during ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial injury in diabetic rats

Sumit Kumar , Borsania Sushant Babubhai, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq, Suresh Kumar Nagpal, Rajesh Kumar Rawri 1

Department of Pharmacology, and 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Varthur Hobli, Chikkabellandur Village, Carmalaram Post, Bangalore-560 035, India.

Objectives: The present study was carried out to evaluate the potency of garlic in presence of repaglinide and amlodipine during ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial injury in aaloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Three days subsequent to Alloxan (150 mg/kg- i,p) treatment, blood glucose levels were checked. Those animals with established serum glucose levels >/300 mg/dl were selected for our experiments. Garlic homogenate was administered for 30 days and amlodipine and repaglinide was administered for 10 days either alone or together. At the end of treatment, rats were subjected to global no-flow ischemia and reperfusion injury for 15 min each by using modified Langendorff's apparatus, perfused with KH buffer. The cardioprotection and antidiabetic efficacy were measured in terms of antioxidant parameter like SOD, catalase and TBARS, haemodynamic parameter (% recovery in heart rate and developed tension), cardiac marker (CK-MB and LDH), histopathological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test. Results: The finding of the study showed both repaglinide and amlodipine improved antioxidant parameter in garlic incorporated groups. Haemodynamic parameter and histopathological evaluation as well as cardiac marker were improved by amlodipine. Repaglinide was found to be less significant in terms of cardioprotection however it was significant when compared with ischemic control and blood sugar level maintenance was moderate in diabetic rats. Conclusions: It was found that the pretreatment with combination of repaglinide and amlodipine in diabetes induced cardiac damage improves the physiological condition however addition of garlic shows significant improvement from cardiovascular damage.

CVS-27

Antinociceptive effect of terminalia bellirica fruit extract in diabetic neuropathic pain in rats

Shakti Singh , Premkumar N., Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq, Suresh Kumar Nagpal, Rajesh Kumar Rawri 1

Department of Pharmacology, 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Varthur Hobli, Chikkabellandur Village, Carmalaram Post, Bangalore-560 035, INDIA.

Objectives: Antidepressants are currently used in diabetic neuropathy. The present study was aimed to investigate the antidepressant property of Terminalia bellirica fruit (aqueous extract) in diabetic neuropathic pain. Methods: Forced swimming test (FST) was used to evaluate antidepressant activity of Terminalia bellirica fruit extract. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg i.p.). The aqueous extract of Terminalia bellirica fruit (AETB) (70mg/kg, p.o.), fluoxetine (14.5 mg/kg, p.o.) and quercetin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered for 21 days, after 4 weeks of diabetes. The neuropathic pain models used were hot plate and tail immersion. Thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), catalase, and superoxide dismutase were estimated in the sciatic nerve to evaluate oxidative stress. Diabetes induced axonal degeneration was assessed histopathologically. Results: AETB treated for 21 days significantly (P<0.001) decreased immobility time in FST compared to control. Diabetic rats exhibited hypersensitivity towards thermal and chemical stimuli. Administration of AETB showed significant antinociception and were comparable with fluoxetine and imipramine. Diabetic rats showed an increase in TBARS and a simultaneous decrease in SOD and catalase activity. Treatment with AETB and quercetin decreased TBARS and restored the activity of SOD and catalase towards normal. Histopathological examination of sciatic nerve also confirms the protective nature of AETB and quercetin.

Conclusion: Antidepressant and anti-oxidant property of Terminalia bellirica may be responsible for the antinociceptive action in diabetic neuropathy. The possible mode of action may be through opioid system.

CVS-28

Interaction of aged garlic extract and its constituents, s-allyl cysteine, with atenolol in isoproterenol induced myocardial injury in rats

Vijayshree , Pullareddy Avula, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq, Suresh Kumar Nagpal, Rajesh Kumar Rawri 1

Department of Pharmacology, 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Varthur Hobli, Chikkabellandur Village, Carmalaram Post, Bangalore-560 035, India.

Objectives: The research envisaged was performed to explore the role of aged garlic extract (AGE) and its constituent, s-allyl cysteine (SAC) alone or in combination with atenolol (ATN) during isoprenaline (ISO) induced cardiac toxicity in rats. Methods: Sprague dawley (150-250 g) rats were administered AGE (2/5 ml/kg) and SAC (13.1/32.76 mg/kg) alone or in combination with ATN (6 mg/kg), every alternate day for three weeks. At the end of treatment, two doses of ISO (150 mg/kg, sc) were administered to rats. Blood samples were collected to evaluate LDH and CK-MB activities. Hearts were excised from anaesthetized animals and heart tissue homogenate (HTH) was prepared to estimate LDH, CK-MB as well as SOD and Catalase. Results: Electrocardiographic (ECG) changes were restored to normal in all treated groups compared to ISO group. AGE and SAC administration resulted in fall in LDH and CK-MB activities in serum and elevation in HTH. Further, atenolol alone or in combination with AGE and SAC demonstrated similar changes in biomarker activities. Furthermore, SOD and Catalase activities were significantly enhanced in groups treated with low dose of AGE (2 ml/kg) and SAC high dose 32.76mg/kg) with or without ATN. Conclusions: In conclusion, AGE showed dose dependent cardio protection, however, concurrent administration of SAC with ATN combat more effectively myocardial dysfunction and metabolic derangement in rats.

CVS-29

Pharmacodynamic interaction of trigonella foenum graecum seed extract with statins in diabetes induced myocardial infarction

Avinash Kumar CH , Prem Kumar N., Suresh Kumar Nagpal, Rajesh Kumar Rawri 1

Department of Pharmacology, 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Varthur Hobli, Chikkabellandur Village, Carmalaram Post, Bangalore-560 035, India.

Objective: Type II diabetes often co-exists with other metabolic cardiovascular risk factors such as alterations in lipid profile and biochemical markers as well as changes in ECG. The potential role of methanolic extract of Trigonella foenum graecum seeds (MSEt) in combination with pravastatin was evaluated in diabetic rats superimposed with MI. Method: Sprague Dawley rats were divided into various groups. Group I and II were considered as control and isoproterenol (ISO) treated group respectively. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were divided into Group III - diabetic control, Group IV - isoproterenol treated, Group V - MSEt (200 mg/kg) treated, Group VI - glipizide (5 mg/kg) treated, Group VII - pravastatin (10 mg/kg) treated, Group VIII - MSEt plus pravastatin treated and IX - glipizide plus pravastatin treated. The treatment period was 8 weeks. Lipid profile, biochemical markers, antioxidant status and ECG changes in myocardial injury were evaluated in all the groups. Result: The cardiovascular risk factors were significantly abnormally altered in diabetic rats when compared to normal control. However all the treated groups except pravastatin treated group restored these changes significantly to normal conditions in diabetic rats when compared to diabetic control. The combined therapy of MSEt and pravastatin was found to be significantly effective when compared to the group treated with glipizide plus pravastatin. Conclusion: We conclude that a combination of Trigonella foenum graecum seeds with pravastatin can prevent long term complications in diabetic patients if consumed in the earlier stages of diabetic condition.

CVS-30

Thrombin inhibitory and anti-cancer activity of vincarosea extracts

William R. Surin , Gini C. Kuriakose, S. G. Ramachandra, C. Jayabaskaran, Ashoka G. Samuelson

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012

Objective: Thrombin is the key product of coagulation cascade and is associated with angiogenic effect, tumor-platelet interaction and venous thrombosis. Therefore, there is need for a suitable pharmacological intervention against intravascular thrombosis in cancer malignancies. Therefore, we evaluated the thrombin inhibitory and anti-cancer effect of Vinca rosea extracts in vitro. Methods : We evaluated the aqueous and methanolic extract of V. rosea for thrombin inhibitory effects by thrombin inhibition assay and anti-proliferative effects by MTT assay against HeLa cell lines. Results: The flower extracts exhibited thrombin inhibition in a concentration dependent manner. The methanolic extract of V. rosea leaves inhibited the thrombin activity by 41%, 49%, 57%, 77% and 81% at 5μg/ml, 10μg/ml, 25μg/ml, 50μg/ml and 100μg/ml respectively whereas methanolic flower extract inhibited thrombin activity by 82%, 88%, 90%, 94% and 95% at similar concentrations. The aqueous extract of V. rosea leaves inhibited thrombin activity by 44%, 41%, 47%, 62% and 81% at 5μg/ml, 10μg/ml, 25μg/ml, 50μg/ml and 100μg/ml respectively whereas aqueous flower extract inhibited the thrombin activity by 50%, 70%, 78%, 89% and 89% at similar concentrations. However, the methanolic flower extract exhibited only 41% reduction against cell proliferation in HeLa cell lines at 24hrs at 25μg/ml, 50μg/ml, 100μg/ml and 200μg/ml concentrations whereas methanolic leaf extract showed 58% decrease in cell proliferation at same concentrations. Conclusion: V. rosea extracts possesses promising thrombin inhibitory effect in addition to its anti-cancer effect, which is well reported. The details of the thrombin inhibitory mechanisms of the extracts need to be investigated in future.

CVS_31

Drug discovery in diabetes and dyslipidaemia: a bridged molecular approach


Anoop Kishore , N. Gopalan Kutty, C. Mallikarjuna Rao, Nidhin Jacob, Jijo Joy, Roby Z. Tom, Vivek Khanna, Rajiv Kalia, Suma Mathew, Vijay Mor

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka.

Introduction: Diabetes and dyslipidaemia are associated with three of world's 10 leading causes of death. They eventually precipitate multiple metabolic and cardiovascular complications. Currently multiple approaches are needed for the management of these conditions. Disadvantages of polypharmacy include patient non-compliance, increased incidence of adverse events and drug interactions. We propose the design and development of bridged-molecules to target diabetes and dyslipidaemia simultaneously. Methods: The proposed molecules are bridged product of three moieties - nicotinic acid, thiazolidinone nucleus and an antioxidant. Nicotinic acid has antihyperlipidaemic actions and thiazolidinone moiety is a powerful pharmacophore with diverse biological functions. By varying the anti-oxidant moiety, many derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidaemic activities. Results: Four such molecules were evaluated for hypoglycaemic and antihyperlipidaemic activities using streptozotocin diabetes and high fat diet models respectively. Three of them exhibited significant reduction in elevated plasma levels of glucose and lipids (cholesterol and triglyceride). And the fourth molecule decreased only the triglyceride levels. Three among the four molecules also had significant anti-inflammatory activity in two in-vivo models. Interestingly, the adverse effects of nicotinic acid were not observed in any of the treatment groups. Discussion: Drug design on similar lines is reported for cancer and HIV therapy. But the approach has not been reported for diabetes-dyslipidaemia so far. The combined dual activity of these molecules and absence of serious adverse effects suggest a promising approach in diabetes-dyslipidaemia drug discovery by bridging molecules together. Currently, synthesis, pharmacological evaluation and mechanistic studies of more such derivatives are underway.

CVS-32

Cardioprotective screening of trizoloquinazolinonethiol derivatives against ischemia reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts.


Kesur Ravi Kumar, Inamdar MN, Sachin Bavage

Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Hosur road, Bangalore -560099

E-mail: sachin.bavage11@gmail.com

Objectives: To evaluate the cardioprotective effects of triazoloquinazolinonethiol derivatives on isolated rat heart subjected to ischemia reperfusion (I/R) induced myocardial injury. Methods: Triazoloquinazolinonethiol derivatives (GKL series) i.e; GKL13 and GKL19 with good antioxidant activity were included for cardioprotective study against I/R induced myocardial injury and cardiac effects on normal heart. Isolated rat hearts perfused with Krebs Henseleit buffer (KH) according to the modified Langendorff method were subjected to 15 min of global, no-flow ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion. GKL 13 and GKL19 were infused at different concentration during pre-ischemic and post-ischemic periods. Myocardial infarct size was used to assess the extent of cardiac damage/injury. Results: GKL13 and GKL19 at lower concentration (1 nM and 10 nM) exhibited good cardioprotective effect in terms of significant recovery in developed tension and infarct size in isolated rat hearts subjected to I/R induced myocardial injury. GKL13 and GKL19 did not show any changes in normal hearts. Conclusions: Triazoloquinazolinonethiol derivatives GKL13 and GKL19 with good antioxidant property in the in-vitro studies and good cardioprotective effects in I/R injury model in rat and without any significant effect on normal isolated hearts can be a promisery molecule for myocardial injury.

CVS-33

High throughput screening of herbal extracts in arginase inhibition assay for erectile dysfunction


Goswami Sumanta Kumar, Jamwal Rohitash 1 , Inamdar M. Naseeruddin, Dethe Shekhar 1 , Mudraboyna Kamala Devi 1

Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Hosur Road, Bangalore -560027, 1 R and D, Natural Remedies Private Limited, Plot No. 5B, Veersandra Industrial area, Bangalore-560100.

E-mail: sumanta26@rediffmail.com

Objectives: Arginase inhibitors are found to relax corpus cavernosum and increase intracavernous pressure. Therefore, herbal extracts inhibiting arginase might be useful in management of erectile dysfunction (ED). Objective of the study was to screen herbal extracts in arginase inhibition assay using a High Throughput Screening (HTS) method. Methods: Enzyme was isolated from rat liver as described by Schimke. Methanolic and subsequent aqueous extract of Cinnamomum cassia (bark), Tribulus terrestris (whole plant) Curculigo orchioides (root), Mucuna pruriens (seed), Asteracantha longifolia (leaf) Syzygium aromaticum (flower bud) were prepared and tested in arginase inhibition assay at 50μg/mL. The assay was performed as described by Kaysen and Strecker with little modification. Briefly, 100 μL of reaction mixture containing 10 μL of enzyme, 10 μL of 500 μg/mL herbal extract / 7 mM of inhibitor and 50 mM of arginine was incubated for 10 minutes at 37° C. In control wells the inhibitor was replaced by distilled water.The reaction was stopped by adding 200 μL of Ehlrich's reagent. Absorbance of the plate was measured at 450 nm after 20 minutes using VERSAmax microplate reader. Results: Methanolic extract of Cinnamomum cassia (bark) was found to be the most potent with an IC 50 value of 62.52 ± 2.62 μg/mL while the IC 50 of NOHA (N G -Hydroxy-L-arginine), an arginase inhibitor was found to be 0.774 ± 0.15 mM. Others extracts did not show significant arginase inhibition. Conclusions: methanolic extracts of Cinnamomum cassia (bark) exhibited potent arginase inhibitory activity thus is a promising lead for the management of ED.

CVS-34

Cardioprotective activity of Momordica dioica roxb. Fruit against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity: In vitro and in vivo studies

Shamala S. * , Krishna K.L.

JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagar, Mysore, Karnataka - 570 015, India.

Objectives: To investigate the in-vitro antioxidant and in-vivo cardioprotective activity of extracts of whole fruit of Momordica dioica Roxb (MDR) on rats. Methods: The crude methanolic extract was prepared by soxhlet extraction and fractionated into flavonoid and non-flavonoid. The marc was macerated with chloroform water to yield the aqueous extract. All the extracts were evaluated for their, preliminary phytochemical tests, in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential and cardioprotective activity to select the promising ones for in vivo cardioprotective activity on albino rats. Doxorubicin was used as cardiotoxic and the evaluation was done by serum and non serum parameters. Results: Methanolic extract and flavonoid fraction showed best antioxidant activity owing to their high phenolic and flavonoid content. Doxorubicin at the dose of 30 mg/kg significantly reduced the myocardium functions and also altered the biochemical parameters, which were restored significantly by the extracts. Elevated serum enzymatic levels were restored towards normalization significantly by the extracts, which were substantiated by histopathalogical studies. The methanolic fraction has shown best in-vivo cardioprotective activity than the flavonoid fraction in all the parameters evaluated. Conclusion: These results suggest that the extract of whole fruit of MDR possess cardioprotective activity against doxorubicin induced myocardial injury on rats. The activity may be due to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability.

CVS-35

New vistas to treating hypertension: An herbal approaches


Jimi Desai, Diptesh Gohil, Sateesh Belemkar, Amit Page, Ronak Parmar, Nikhil Nambissan

School of Pharmacy and Technology Management,Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Babulde, Bank of Tapi River, Mumbai Agra Road, Shirpur-42540- Maharashtra, India.

Objective: To study Anti-hypertensive effect of Zinziber officinale on Rat Anococcygeus Muscle. Methods: Male Rat (Albino, Wistar strain 250-350 gm) was killed by a blow on head and Decapitation. One of Anococcygeus muscles were dissected from the animal and Set up in 30 ml glass organ baths that contained Krebs Solution ( in gm NaCl- 20.4; KCI-1.05; MgSO 4 -0.84; NaH 2 PO 4 - 0.48; CaCl 2 -0.84; NaHCO 3 - 6.3; Glucose-6.0, Na 2 EDTA- 29.1). Organ bath temperature was maintained at 37 0 C and the Krebs solution was gassed continuously with 95% O 2 , 5% CO 2 . A resting tension of 5 gm was placed on the tissue. We used Acetylcholine (1×10 -13 gm/ml), methanolic extract of Zinziber officinale (1mg/ml Dose- 0.05ml) on the rat anococcygeus muscle. The contact time for the tissue is 90 second. After one dosing we give 2 minutes washing interval for two to three timesfor the tissue relaxation and drug withdrawal. The changes in tension were recorded by MLT 500/A Isometric Force Transducer on the Power lab data acquisition system (AD Instruments). Result: Acetylcholine and Zinziber officinale at doses of [0.01, 0.02, 0.05 picogram/ml] showed dose dependant contractile and relaxation responses on rat anococcygeus muscle. C onclusion: The herbal drug Zinziber officinale showed relaxation responses on the anococcygeus muscle which antagonise the contractile response of the cholinergic drug acetylcholine, Its possible action may be on M 3 receptor of the smooth muscle. Thus it may be a useful candidate in the treatment of hypertension.

CVS-36

Effect of rosiglitazone and metformin on cardiomyopathy induced by nitric oxide inhibition in diabetic wistar rats

Ahmed Danish *, Kumar Narottam, Kumari Nisha, Bhaskar Sushma, Prakash Bhanu, Sibimol

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Medical Sciences, Indigenous & Alternative Systems of Medicine, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences-Deemed University, Allahabad, India

Objective : We have measured the effect of Rosiglitazone and metformin therapy on the myocardial lesions caused by the long term inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis on streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. Methods: Male rats were divided into the following groups: (1) Control group (normal tap water) (2) STZ group (treatment with Streptozotocin 60 mg/kg according to body weight (single injection via intraperitoneal route), (3) The L-NAME group plus STZ (treatment with NO synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) 75 μmol per rat/daily for 3 weeks, p.o (4) ROSI group (treatment with Rosiglitazone (5mg/kg/p.o daily for 14 days) (5) MET group (treatment with Metformin ( 300mg/kg p.o daily for 14 days) (6) STZ plus L-NAME plus ROSI administration of rosiglitazone {5mg/kg, p.o for 14 days } at the end of 3 week treatment with L-NAME) (7) STZ plus L-NAME plus MET (administration of Metformin {300mg/kg, p.o for 14 days} at the end of 3 week treatment with L-NAME). Results: In the STZ plus L-NAME plus ROSI group the myocardial lesions were in the sternest condition as compared to the other groups. STZ plus L-NAME plus ROSI has also shown more pronounced increase in TXB 2 concentration. Conclusion: The results designate that the rosiglitazone is associated with the increased incidence of cardiomyopathy as compared to the metformin and put forward the possible role of NO in the Rosiglitazone induced diabetic cardiomyopathy.

CVS-37

Investigations on role of quercetin for amelioration of cardiotoxicity


Digvijay Singh
, *Saangeeta Dwivedi, Rahul Trivedi, Rupesh Soni, Pradeep Deshmukh

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, B. R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mandsaur - 458001 (M.P.)

*E-mail: sd14nov@gmail.com

Objective : The aim of study is to investigate the role of quercetin to prevent cardiotoxicity in hyperglycemic rats. Methods : Albino male wistar rats were selected for study, after induction of hyperglycemia (streptozotocin 50 mg/kg i.p.)the oral dose of quercetin(10mg/kg p.o.) was administered to rats for 7 days then isoprenaline (65mg/kg sc) was given. Lipid peroxidation, GSH, SOD, total protein, CK-MB, LDH& ECG analysis was estimated. Result : The results showed significant decrease in MDA &GSH; increase in SOD and total protein. Conclusion : The above research concluded that quercetin can be used to prevent progression of cardiotoxicity in hyperglycemia.

CVS-38

Evaluation and Comparison of Cardioprotective Activity of a Nutraceutical Formulation with its individual constituents- Omega 3 Fatty Acids, Resveratrol and CoQ 10 using Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction Model.


Desai S. K., Godhia S., Patel E., Prin K.M.

Kundnani College of Pharmacy, 23-Jote Joy Bldg, Rambhau Salgaonkar Marg, Cuffe Parade, Mumbai-05.(MS)

Aim: Evaluation of cardioprotective activity of NF-1011, Omega 3 Fatty acids, Resveratrol and CoQ10 using Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction model. Objective: To evaluate and compare the cardioprotective activity of NF-1011, a nutraceutical formulation with its individual consitituents- Omega 3 Fatty acids (O), Resveratrol (R) and Coenzyme Q10(C). Methodology: In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, Reducing Power assay and in vitro inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation models. Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD-423 guideline. Cardioprotective activity study was carried out on albino Wistar rats. Animals were pretreated with the test drugs for 21 days. Toxicity was induced by Isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, i.p.). Animals were humanely sacrificed and hearts were dissected out aseptically, weighed and used for estimation of various Glutathione enzyme levels (GSH, GR, GPx and GST). Heart weights were used for estimation of heart to body weight ratio of the animals. Results: Our findings showed that NF- 1011 (800 mg/kg), Omega 3 fatty acids and Resveratrol significantly restored most of the alterations in the antioxidant i.e. glutathione enzyme levels in the rat's myocardium and these results showed a good correlation with in vitro antioxidant studies and heart to body weight ratio of the animals. Conclusion: The present experimental findings suggest that NF-1011 (800 mg/kg), O, R and C possess a promising cardioprotective activity which might be as a result of its potential antioxidant properties.

CVS-39

Comparative cardiotonic activity of terminalia aerjuna with urginea indica

Puri UA , Rode VB, Jarag RJ.

Department of Pharmacology, Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Pharmacy, Near chitranagari, Kolhapur 416 013, (M. S.), India.

E-mail: updeaddeaddevilip@gmail.com

Objective : Evalution of Cardiotonic activity of Terminalia arjuna with Urginea indica. Methods : (A) PERPARATION OF PLANT EXTRACTS: The plant species Terminalia arjuna and Urginea indica were collected from botanical department and authenticated. The fresh extracts were prepared by using Stass-otto method. Urginea indica consist of glucoscillaren A and Proscillaridina glycosides which produces positive ionotropic and chronotropic effect on isolated frog heart perfusion. Tannins from Terminalia arjuna shows similar effect (B) ANIMAL SELECTION: The frog of species Rana tigrina was pithed and isolated its heart to Sterling's heart lever with supply of hypodynamic frog ringer solution. Different doses of extracts were prepared as 0.1ml, 0.2ml, 0.3ml respectively. The difference in the activity was recorded. As per the Protocol approved by IAEC BVCOP Kolhapur (Registered under CPCSEA, New Delhi). Results and Conclusion : Hypodynamic ringer solution decpites abnormal activity on frog heart but it increased by combination extract of Terminalia arjuna and Urginea indica. Extract restore cardiac activity of Hypodynamic frog heart i.e. it increases heart rate and force of contraction. Cardiotonic activity of Terminalia arjuna and Urginea indica shows synergestic effect on frog heart . These preliminary studies confirm the better cardiotonic activity of Terminalia arjuna with Urginea indica.


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Evaluation of the effect of Leucas aspera extract on blood glucose level in normal rats

Shalini Adiga , Sagar V., Ravindrasingh R., Vasantha

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal University

Objective: The Leucas plant is used as a folk remedy to treat diabetes in India. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of the leaves of leucas aspera on blood glucose level in normoglycemic rats. Methods: Animals were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group I treated with gum acacia served as control, group II was treated with metformin (500mg/kg), group III and IV received leucas alcoholic extract at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively. All the animals were treated with drugs orally as suspensions in gum acacia, daily for 15 days. Blood glucose levels were measured on day 0, just prior to initiation of any treatment i.e. fasting and at time intervals of 30,60 and 120 mins after drug administration Fasting blood samples were collected 24 hrs after drug administration on day 7 and day 15. Results: Administration of the plant extract did not show any reduction in blood glucose level in normal rats with single dose aministration study on day 0.There was a significant increase in levels at intervals of 30 and 60min. Upon chronic administration the extract showed significantly reduced FBS levels, and was comparable to the reference drug metformin. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of leucas aspera has shown hypoglycemic activity in chronically treated normoglycemic rats which could merit its role in treatment of diabetes mellitus.

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Efficacy and safety of vildagliptin v/s metformin monotherapy in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: A 28-week, double-blind, randomized trial

Shukla P. , Trivedi M., Shukla K.N. 1 , Salman M.T., Verma V.K., Ahmed A.

Department of Pharmacolgy, Era's Lucknow Medical College sarfarzganj, Hardoi Road Lucknow, 1 Department of Medicine, Balrampur Hospital, Lucknow, India.

Objective: The study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, and an established oral hypoglycemic agent metformin in group of poorly controlled elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary objective was to demonstrate efficacy ofvildagliptin vs. metformin measured via glycatedhaemoglobin (HbA 1c ) reduction. Methods: This study was double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study of 28-weeks treated with vildagliptin (100 mg daily, n = 84) or metformin (titrated to 1500 mg daily, n = 83) in poorly controlled type 2 diabetics aged ≥65 years (baseline HbA 1c 7-9%). Results: Participants had a mean age of 68 years, known duration of diabetes of 2 years and mean baseline HbA 1c of 7.4%. At termination point of the study, vildagliptin was as effective as metformin, improving HbA 1c by −0.60 ± 0.07% and −0.70 ± 0.07%, respectively,. Body weight changes were −0.40 ± 0.20 kg in vildagliptin-treated patients (P = 0.02) and −1.20 ± 0.19 kg in metformin-treated patients (P < 0.001; p = 0.004 vs. vildagliptin). The proportion of patients experiencing an adverse event (AE) was 42.3 vs. 51.3% in patients receiving vildagliptin and metformin respectively. Gastrointestinal AEs were significantly frequent with metformin (28.8%) than with vildagliptin (18.0%, P = 0.028), mainly driven by a 4.4-fold higher incidence of diarrhoea. A low incidence of hypoglycaemia was observed in metformin group.(0% with vildagliptin and 1.8% with metformin). Conclusions: Vildagliptin is as efficacious as metformin but better tolerated treatment.

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A comparative study of telmisartan with enalapril on the serum Adiponectin levels in type-2 diabetic patients with stage-i essential Hypertension

Brinda E. , Nandini R. 1

Institute of Diabetology, Madras Medical College & Rajiv Gandhi Govt. General Hospital. 1 Institute of Pharmacology, Madras Medical College, Chennai - 600003, Tamilnadu, India.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of telmisartan and enalapril in improving serum adiponectin levels and their effect on fastingblood glucose and lipid profile in type-2 diabetic patients with stage-I essential hypertension. Methods: In this randomised, open label study, previously known type-2 diabetic patients on oral hypoglycemic drugs alone withnewly diagnosed stage-I hypertension were assigned to receive either T.telmisartanupto 80mg once daily (n=31) or T.enalapril upto 10mg bd (n-30) to attain a blood pressure of 130/80 mmHg, for a period of 16 weeks. The serumadiponectin, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were compared between the groups before and after treatment. Results: 26 patients in the telmisartan group and 24 patients in the enalapril group completed the study. There was a significantincrease in the serum adiponectin (12.05 mg/ml vs 9.25 mg/ml, mean difference 2.81, P<0.004) and HDL Cholesterol (43.10 mg/dl vs 40.67 mg/dl,mean difference 3.14, P<0.043) in the telmisartan group compared to enalapril. There was a significant decrease in the Total cholesterol (171.62 mg/dl vs 187.63 mg/dl, mean difference -16.01, P<0.024) and LDL Cholesterol (102.04 mg/dl vs 121.33 mg/dl, mean difference -19.28, P<0.004) in the telmisartan groupcompared to enalapril. There was no significant difference in the triglycerides, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure control between the groups. Dry cough was more in the enalapril group (26% vs 3%, P<0.04). Conclusion: Telmisartan was found to have a favourable effect on lipid profile and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing serumadiponectin levels.

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Effect of bloodsugar alteration by drugs affecting cyclic nucleotides in albino rabbits

Sharma Varun , Singh S.P., Singh S., Kushwaha V., Agarwal P., Singh A.

Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, India.

Objectives: cAMP is thesecondmessenger for Insulin, glucagon, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine whichdetermine blood sugar level, so it was thought worthwhile to study the effectof drugs (Salbutamol & Theophylline) affecting cyclic nucleotides (cAMP) onblood sugar level in albino rabbits. Materials and Methods: For this study rabbits were divided into 2 groups (n=6 in each group): one group for Salbutamol and second one for Theophylline. Eachgroup served as its own control. On Day-1 oral glucose tolerance test was donein each rabbit as control and on Day-2 oral glucose tolerance test was doneafter giving Salbutamol and Theophylline and blood sugar measured on 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours. Results: Observation showed decrease in blood glucose level by Salbutamol in testgroup at 1 hour when compared with control (mean C= 171.5; T=164.16)) andsubsequent increase in blood glucose level at 2 hour (mean C= 131; T=133.16), 4hour (mean C=99.66; T=100.33) and 6 hour (mean C=86; T=86.33) but thesechanges were found insignificant (P>0.05). On comparison of test and controlfor Theophylline group observed that it also alter blood sugar level in samemanner as Salbutamol, initial decrease at 1 hour (mean C= 163.833; T= 160) andincrease in blood sugar level afterwards at 2 hour (mean C= 119.167; T= 122), 4hour (mean C= 95.66; T= 99.5) and 6 hour (mean C= 79.166; T= 83.833) but thesealterations were statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion: These findingsconclude that Salbutamol and Theophylline both causes decrease inblood glucose level in initial first hour due to probable increase release ofinsulin in initial stage. Subsequent increase in blood sugar in later stage is dueto probable increase in glycogenolysis and glycogenesis but these changes were not significant.

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Effect of amlodipine on blood glucose level and it's interactions with oral hypoglycemic drugs in albino rabbits

Khanchandani R ., Prajapat R., Jain I.P., Singh S.P., Singh S., Agarwal P.

Renu Khanchandani, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, GSVM Medical college, Kanpur, UP, PIN-208002

Objective : Amlodipine is used in hypertension. A fair number of hypertensive individuals also suffer from diabetes which adversely affects cardiovascular system. So Amlodipine-effect on blood glucose level andit's interaction with commonly used oral hypoglycemic agents in albino rabbits were studied. Material and Method : Present study was performed in Deptt. of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, GSVM Medical college Kanpur, (U.P) by using albino rabbits. Rabbits were divided into eight groups of 6 rabbits in each group.1 st group was given normal saline and served as blank control. Group 2 nd was given Amlodipine. Group 3 rd to 8 th were made diabetic by using Alloxan. Diabetes was confirmed after 48 hours. Group 3 rd , 4 th and 5 th were given Glimepiride, Metformin and Pioglitazone respectively and served as positive control. Group 6 th , 7 th and 8 th were given Amlodipine for 7 days and on last day added with Glimepiride, Metformin and Pioglitazone respectively. Blood glucose level is measured after GTT at 0, 1, 2 and 6 hours on last day in all groups using spectrophotometer.Blood glucose level were compared in all groups with it's control group. Results : Statistical analysis carried out by using unpaired student 't' test. Amlodipine show 16.24%, 21.50% and 20.07% increased in blood glucose level at 1, 2 and 6 hours respectively in comparison to control group which was statically significant (P<.01). When Amlodipine combined with Metformin in diabetic rabbits,blood sugar level decreased by 1.18%, 1.7% and 1.59% blood glucose level at 1, 2 and 6 hours respectively compared to control group which was statistically not significant (P>0.05). With Pioglitazone, Amlodipine showed 5.09% (P<0.05), 8.44% (P<0.05) and 14.96% (P<.01) increased in blood glucose level at 1, 2, and 6 hours respectively in comparison to control group which is statically significant. With Glimepiride, Amlodipine showed 9.98%, 14.01% and 14.65% increased in blood glucose level at 1, 2 and 6 hours respectively compared to control group which was statically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion : From present study it was concluded that Amlodipine increased blood glucose level as compared to control group. Pioglitazone and Glimepiride with Amlodipine become more effective hypoglycemic combination. In Metformin with Amlodipine group there was no significant changes in blood glucose level as compared to control group.

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The effect of silymarin in streptozotocin- nicotinamide induced type- 2 diabetes in albino wistar rats

M. Alvin Jose , Balakrishna Naidu, B. Nandhakumar, D. Sathyamurthy, U. Subasini

Department of Pharmacology, Swamy Vivekanandha College of Pharmacy, Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode, Namakkal (DT), Tamilnadu, India-637205.

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of silymarin in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-2 diabetes in adult albino Wistar rats. Methods: Thirty adult male albino Wistar rats were divided into five groups containing six animals each as normal control; normal control treated with silymarin(60mg/kg); diabetic control (DC)group; DC group treated with silymarin (60mg/kg), DC group treated with silymarin (120mg/kg).Type-II diabetes was induced in overnight fastedrats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45mg/kg b.w), 15 min after the intraperitoneal administration of nicotinamide (110 mg/kg b.w) except for the group one and two. After 30days of treatment blood were collected and blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and glycosylated haemoglobin levels were estimated. Then the animals were sacrificed and lipid peroxide level was estimated in the liver. Results: It results revealed that silymarin significantly (P<0.001) reducesthe blood glucose levels when compared to the initial blood glucose levels. In addition, silymarin (60, 120 mg/kg b.w) significantly decreased cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin levels when compared to diabetic control group.Silymarin (60,120 mg/kg b.w) also decreases the lipid peroxide levels significantly (P<0.001) when compared to diabetic control group. Furthermore, it also restores the body weight loss caused by the diabetes. Conclusions: Silymarin has potential anti-diabetic activity in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced Type-2 diabetic in albino wistar rats.

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Antidiabetic mechanism of saponins of Momordica cymbalaria


Rajukoneri, Channakeshava T.R., Suman S., Satheesha H.

Karnataka College of pharmacy ,Thirumenahalli, Bangalore-64

Objectives: To evaluate the antidiabetic mechanism of saponins of Momordica cymbalaria in streptozotocin induced diabetes in mice. Methods: The roots of Momordica cymbalaria was extracted with methanol and enriched saponins were isolated using water saturated butanol and diethyl ether. After overnight fasting diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at a dose of 65 mg/kg, Group A, normal control, group B, diabetic control. Group C, insulin 4U/kg and Group D diabetic animals treated with SMC 175 mg/kg, and group E diabetic animals treated with metformin 50mg/kg. During the study, body weight and fasting blood glucose level were taken at 0 and 30th day. At the end of study, animals were sacrificed blood sample, pancreas and diaphragm were collected and analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TG, LDL cholesterol. Peripheral utilization of glucose in isolated mice diaphragm both in treated and non treated animal was determined. histopathological studies of pancreas were performed. Viability assay was carried out by using MTT assay. Streptozotocin induced beta cell damage or RIN5f cells was used to determine the insulin secreting activity of saponins of MC. Insulin secreting activity was also studies in presence Adrenalin, EGTA and Nefidipine to find out the mode of action of saponins of MC. Results: Oral administration of SMC 175mg/kg showed antidiabetic activity in diabetic animals. This was evidenced by recovery of body weight, reduction in fasting serum glucose, hypolipidaemic effect and protective effect on pancreas and increase in the glucose uptake in isolated diaphragm. SMC also showed significant increase in insulin secretion activity even in presence of Adrenaline and calcium antagonist. Conclusion: SMC has insulin secretagogue activity even in presence of adrenaline and calcium antagonist.

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Extraction and evaluation of roots of Decalepis hamiltonii for antidiabetic activity

Ravali B , Brijesh Patel, Sridivya RB, Shubapriya K, L. Sutharson, B.A.Vishawanath

Adithya Bangalore Institute for pharmacy education and research,#12 kogilu main road, Behind annaporneswari temple,yalahanka, Bangaluru-64, PIN code 560064

Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM), a leading metabolic disorder worldwide, characterized by hyperglycemia associated with impairment in insulin secretion and/or insulin action as well as alteration in intermediary metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and lipids. Herbal medicine has been used for many years by different cultures around the world, both for the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Decalepis hamiltonii a climbing shrub grows in the forest of peninsular India. The roots are used in folk medicine and as a substitute for Hemidesmus indicus in ayurvedic preparations. Ancient literature claims roots of D.hamiltonii may contain steroids and saponins which could have antidiabetic activity. More importantly the mechanism guided activity has not been investigated. Method: Oral glucose tolerance test Anti-diabetic activity using alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Study of glucose uptake mechanism using rat hemi-diaphragm technique (in-vitro model). Results: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ant diabetic activity of various extracts of Decalepis hamiltonii in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Among the three extracts aqueous (200mg/kg) and methanol (200mg/kg) showed significant antihyperglycemic effect. Theaqueousextract of the plant shows significant effect than the methanol and pet ether extracts, when compared with the control group. Conclusion: The Decalepis hamiltonii shows anti hyperglycaemic activity. The antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous, methanolic and pet ether extract may be due to regeneration of pancreatic beta cells and enhanced peripheral glucose uptake by skeletal muscle.

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Evaluation of anti diabetic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats using extract of Ficus Gibosa plant

Elaprolu Thejaswi , Meghana Koneru, Greeshma Vundavalli, P. Muralidharan

D. No: 3\31, New street, Sri Nagar, near RRE, Thoraipakkam, Chennai-600097

Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is described as a metabolic disorder of multiple etiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with the disturbance of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulinaction, or both which leads to complications such as diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and microangiopathy. The present study was designed to determine the effect of Ficusgibosa extract on serum biomarkers in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in rats by Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) and animals with blood sugar levels above 200mg/dl were considered as diabetic and used for study. Animals are divided into 4 groupsand they were given 0.2-0.4mg/kg of dose of Ficusgibosa that was prepared earlier. The solution of drug in CMC was given to each of those animals in different groups except for the control group animals. The animals were given the drug at intervals of 24 hours for 21 days continuously and were checked every alternate day for the decrease of blood glucose level. The values were noted down and compared. Result: Treating of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats with Ficusgibosa extract showed marked increase in the weight of animals whose weight was reduced earlier due to induced diabetes. At the same time significant decrease in SGOT, SGPT, total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides and creatinine levels was observed in the serum of diabetic animals without any significant adverse effect. Conclusion: From the estimated parameters, we can say that our plant extract has antdiabetic activity without any adverse effects.

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Effect of tinospora cordifolia extract in animal model of diabetic complications

Manjula Shetty , Pratibha D. Nadig, Shubhatara Swamy

Department of Pharmacology, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Bangalore -560066.

Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different doses of Tinosporacordifolia(TC) on animal model of diabetic complications. Methodology : Aqueous extract of Tinosporacordifolia was evaluated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats at 100(TC1), 200(TC2) and 400(TC3)mg/kg body weight.The reaction time to thermal heat by tail flick test and Fasting blood sugar (FBS) were measured before and after the treatment. Serum creatinine was estimated at the end of 4 weeks. Results: At 2 weeks, TC2 and TC3 reduced FBS as compared to diabetic control(DC) (P< 0.05). Reaction time was similar in normal control(NC) and DC but an increase was seen in the TC2 group as compared to DC (P<0.05). At 4 weeks, there was no improvement in the FBS in TC groups but the reaction time increased in TC2 as compared to DC(P<0.05). Serum creatinine increased in DC as compared to NC. The treated group did not show any reduction. Conclusion : Tinosporacordifolia does not show consistent effect on blood sugar but increases the reaction time at 200 mg/kg body weight in animal model of diabetic neuropathy.Its role in nephropathy needs further studies.

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Effect of local application of risedronate on alveolar bone density in experimental periodontitis in rats

K.Vinod , Rema Razdan, Deepak Kumar Khajuria, Om Prakash N.P.

Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-560 027

Objective : To formulate an in situ forming risedronate gel and evaluate the effect of combination of locally applied gel and systemically administered co-enzyme Q 10 and minocycline on alveolar bone density in periodontitis induced rats. Methods : A formulation of an in situ forming thermoreverisible biodegradable gel using chitosan, for controlled release of risedronate was prepared. The physical properties of a chitosan: glycerophosphate (GP) thermo sensitive solution which gels at 37°C was investigated, the in vitro release profile was evaluated. Periodontitis was successfully induced in rats by repeated injections of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (L.P.S) around maxillary molars for nine days.

Rats were divided into four groups (n=6),

Group 1: Negative control

Group 2: Positive control L.P.S administerd

Group 3: L.P.S + minocycline + co-enzyme Q 10

Group 4: L.P.S + minocycline + co-enzyme Q 10 + risedronate gel in periodontal pocket

On day ten after induction of periodontitis, drugs were administered for 24 days. 30 days post treatment rats were sacrificed and bone mineral density of mandible was evaluated by x-ray imaging, mandibular bone mechanical strength was measured and physical examination of peridontium was done. Result: In L.P.S induced periodontitis model in rats it was found that the locally administerd risedronate was found to reduce mandibular bone loss compared to control group. Conclusions: Therefore for the first time a local thermorevesible chitosan gel of risedronate was formulated which was found to effectively reduce the mandibular bone loss.

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Morphological changes in the testis and spermatozoa of rats treated with lamotrigine


K.L.Bairy*, Preethi Concessao **

Department of Pharmacology, KMC Manipal*, Department of Physiology, MMMC Manipal**

Objectives: To assess the effect of drug Lamotrigine on rat sperm morphology, sperm count and sperm motility. Materials and Methods: Twelve week old male Wistar rats (150-200g) were divided into 3 groups of 6 animals each. Group one received Gum acacia (vehicle control), group two and three received drug lamotrigine in a dose of 20mg/kg body weight and 30mg/kg body weight respectively for 60 days. After 24 hrs of the last dose, the rats were sacrificed by terminal anesthesia. Epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology were analyzed. Results: The data was analyzed by using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), followed by Bonferroni's post-test . There was s significant reduction in the sperm count and sperm motility in the drug treated group when compared to the control group. The percentage of abnormal sperms increased in a dose-dependent manner. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Conclusion: Parameters concerned with fertility were significantly disturbed in the male rats treated with lamotrigine.

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Evaluation of buspirone on streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes and its associated complications

Tank PB , Bhadada SV, Patel BM.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University, Ahmedabad 382 481, Gujarat

Objective: The objective of present study was to evaluate the potential effects of buspirone on streptozotocin induced type-1 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications. Methods: Diabetes was induced by single tail vein injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg,) in Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups. Normal control and diabetic control group received saline whereas control treated and diabetic treated group received buspirone (1.5 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 8 weeks after which, various biochemical, cardiac, hypertrophic, lenticular and renal parameters were estimated. Results: STZ produced hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, bradycardia, reduced rate of pressure development and decay, increased serum creatinine, urea and cardiac enzymes and produced cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress. Chronic treatment with buspirone significantly prevented STZ induced elevated fasting glucose level with simultaneous increase in serum insulin levels. It significantly prevented dyslipidemia, hypertension and bradycardia, increased rate of pressure development and decay and decreased cardiac enzyme levels. Buspirone treatment prevented cardiac hypertrophy as evident from histopathological findings reduction in collagen levels, cardiac and LV hypertrophic index and LV wall thickness. Moreover, the treatment prevented oxidative stress as evident from reduction in lipid peroxidation and increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels in LV and lens. Buspirone also produced a significant reduction in the elevated serum creatinine and urea levels. Conclusion: Our data suggests that buspirone may be beneficial as an antidiabetic agent in type-1 diabetes mellitus and may also prevent its cardiac, renal and lenticular complications.

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Antidiabetic activity of flavonoid rich extract of Zingiber zerumbet in high fructose diet fed diabetic wistar rats


Bhavesh V, * Neethu Susan Mathew , Yogendra Nayak

Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal - 576104 ,

*E-mail: neethususanmathew2010@gmail.com

Objectives: Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith (family: Zingiberaceae) rhizomes are commonly used as remedy for many inflammatory conditions in folk medicine. These rhizomes contain flavonoids kaempferol and its glycosides along with curcumin. It was also reported to contain many other volatile principles. Present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic and in vivo antioxidant activity of flavonoid rich ethyl acetate extract of Zingiber zerumbet (ZZE) in high fructose diet (HFD) fed diabetic Wistar rats. Methods: HFD was fed for 7 weeks to induce diabetes and along with HFD, ZZE (100 and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally for further 3 weeks. Parameters studied includes oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma lipids, liver-triglyceride, liver-cholesterol, liver-glycogen, and liver enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Results: HFD feeding for 7 weeks produced diabetic conditions in rats when they were tested for FBG, OGTT and plasma lipids. A dose-dependent fall in FBG was observed with ZZE treated HFD-rats. Plasma lipids were significantly brought back to near-normal as compared to HFD-diabetic control. Also, ZZE produced a significant normalization of liver-triglyceride, liver-cholesterol and liver-glycogen. Furthermore, ZZE inhibited lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidants in the liver of HFD-rats. Conclusion: Flavonoid rich ethyl acetate extract of Zingiber zerumbet possesses antidiabetic and in vivo antioxidant activity in HFD-diabetic rats. We propose that the high phenolic and flavonoid content in ZZE, probably attributing for the antidiabetic activity.

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Protective effects of Alstonia scholaris extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in wistar rats


Naveen Dubey, Rajendra Kuma R, Chanchal Raj, Navin Raj, A. Balasubramaniam, Sayyed Nadeem

Technocrats Institute of Technology Pharmacy, Anand Nagar, Bhopal (M.P.), India

Objectives: Streptozotocin (STZ) selectively destroys the pancreatic insulin secreting cells, leaving less active cells and resulting in a diabetic state. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the Alstonia scholaris extract (ASE) in normal and STZ-diabetic rats. Methods: Antihyperglycemic activity of ASE was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced diabetic wistar rats. Rats with glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and were divided into 5 groups. Two groups of diabetic animals were orally administered, daily with ASE at a dosage of 100 and 200 mg/kg BW. One group of STZ rats was treated as diabetic control and the other group was orally administered 600 μg/kg BW glibenclamide daily. Fasting blood glucose and lipid parameters, viz. triglycerides, total cholesterol were measured. Results : In STZ-induced diabetic rats, the ASE treatment significantly (P<0.05) decreased the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner during the 30 days of treatment period. ASE modulated lipid profile changes in STZ-diabetic rats in a dose-dependant manner. Conclusion: The present investigation shows that Alstonia scholaris has potential antidiabetic effects.

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Effect of daidzin rich extracts of soya seed in type 2 diabetic mice


Madhusmita Sahu, S.K. Bhattamisra, T.V.V.S Vamsi Mohana Reddy

Department of Pharmacology, Roland Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences Berhampur, Odisha.

Aim and objective: Soya seed extract is reported to have antidiabetic properties in animals. The present investigation is to evaluate the effect of daidzin rich extract of soya seed (DRE) on glucose utilization and endurance capacity in diabetic mice. Materials and methods: Male Swiss albino mice were induced type-II diabetes by high fat diet and multiple low dose streptozotocin (40 mg/kg.i.p) administration. Mice were divided into six groups: group 1 as normal control, group 2 as diabetic control, group 3 treated with DRE (140mg/kg, p.o.), group 4 treated with DRE (140mg/kg, p.o.) and metformin (10mg/kg), group 5 was exercise control, group 6 was treated with metformin (10mg/kg). The drugs were administered orally from 14 to 28days. At the end, animals were evaluated for endurance capacity and biochemical parameters were measured. OGTT, ITT, muscle antioxidant enzyme levels were estimated. Results: Significant (P<0.05) improvement in glucose utilization was observed in DRE treated mice as compared to diabetic control mice. Plasma glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were significantly (P<0.05) lowered in DRE treated mice. Endurance capacity measured in DRE treated groups showed significant improvement as compared to control mice. Significant (P<0.05) increase in SOD level and significant (P<0.05) reduction in MDA in skeletal muscle was observed in DRE treated mice. Conclusion: Daidzin rich extract showed significant antidiabetic activity in diabetic mice. The overall results indicate its improvement in endurance capacity with improved free radical scavenging activity. This could be an add-on therapy for treatment of obese type-II diabetic patients however; more experimental evidence is required to apply in clinical scenario.

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Drug cost analysis of different brands of oral anti-diabetic drugs.

SD Shende , MS Baig, SM Doifode

NRH Hostel, Room No.33, GMC Campus, Panchakki road, GHATI, Aurangabad- 431001, Maharashtra.

Objectives: To evaluate the cost of oral anti-diabetics of different generic classes and different brand names of one drug. To evaluate the difference in cost of different brands for same active drug by calculating cost range (Maximum Cost - Minimum Cost) and cost Ratio (Max. cost/Min. cost). Methods: The cost in rupees among the different brands of the same generic name was evaluated using IDR-July/August 2011, CIMS-January-April 2011, and MIMS- August 2011. The cost of each brand was calculated in INR for ten drugs according to their strength and dosage form. Results: Among Oral antidiabetic drugs; 4 sulfonylureas, 1 biguanide, 2 meglitinide analogues, 1 thiazolidinedione and 3 α- glucosidase inhibitors were studied. No of brands available for same compound varies from 3 to 48 for Nateglinide and Glimepiride respectively. There are wide variations in cost range and cost ratio of same compound. Substantial variation was observed in cost of Tab. Glimepiride 2mg (Rs.4.50-103.40), 1mg (Rs.2.50-55.76); Tab. Pioglitazone 15mg (Rs.12.50-80.00), 30mg (Rs.13.00-84.00). Monthly treatment cost of thiazolidinedione and newer sulfonylureas is much higher than older sulfonylureas which are time tested and efficacious. Conclusion: The superiority of any particular brand over the others has never been proved scientifically hence whenever possible drug with better efficacy and preferably cheapest brand should be prescribed. Otherwise, ideally drug should be prescribed in generic to save patient's money and to enhance the compliance.

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Finding an ideal animal model of human diabetic nephropathy for drug discovery and therapeutic intervention

*Keerthi Ravikanti 1,2 , Pankaj Bagul 1 , Abhinav Kanwal 1 , Gagandeep Kaur 1 , Yogendra Nayak 2 Sanjay K. Banerjee 1

1 Division of Pharmacology, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad-500607, 2 Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (MCOPS), Manipal- 576104

*Email: keerthi.piyu@gmail.com

Background: There are several animal (rodent) models available for diabetes but no study has been done to find an appropriate model for diabetic nephropathy. So there is an urgent need to develop an animal model of diabetic nephropathy which can mimic the pathophysiologic conditions of human diabetic nephropathy. An ideal animal model can help to find better drug which can reduce diabetes as well as diabetic nephropathy. Objective: The present study was designed to establish an animal model which mimics human diabetic nephropathy by comparison between fructose fed and other models used for diabetic nephropathy. Methods: We searched all research papers related to diabetic model induced by fructose and other models for diabetic nephropathy. We have chosen only rat diabetic models with high fructose (57-66%) and other models for comparison. Result: We found different pathological changes in kidney in different models of diabetic nephropathy. Among all models searched, most of the changes mimicked with human diabetic nephropathy were observed with streptozotocin induced type I diabetes and in fructose induced type II diabetes model. Pathological changes like kidney enlargement, diffuse mesangial expansion, glomerular basement membrane thickening were significantly found in both of these models. As most of the diabetic patients are hypertensive, we looked animal model with hypertension, which is an additional factor of worsening the kidney damage. Diabetes induced by fructose feeding in rats showed diabetic nephropathy along with hypertension. Discussion and conclusion: Drug discovery for diabetes associated renal complications focus on novel pathways and targets. According to the data searched, both of the above models are good to understand many of the pathological changes observed in diabetic nephropathy. However, the fructose-induced diabetic rat model could provide a relationship of metabolic syndrome with early renal disease. Thus, we conclude that high fructose rich diet is considered to be an appropriate model for diabetic nephropathy based on the data provided by all literatures.

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Development and optimization of murine insulin resistance model and its application in herb drug interaction studies

Rekha R. Shenoy , Aruna Theerthahalli 1 , N. G. Kutty, C. Mallikarjuna Rao, Pawan G. Nayak, Jayesh Mudgal, Nitesh Kumar

Department of Pharmacology, 1 Department of Pharmacy Practice, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Madhava Nagar, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka

Objectives: To assess the pharmacological interactions of herbal products along with prescribed medications and justify their use. Methods: Animals- Male albino rats of Wistar strain. Drugs - Streptozotocin (STZ) (20 and 35 mg/kg, i.p.), Glibenclamide (1.04 mg/kg), Metformin (90 mg/kg), dry extract of Withaniasomnifera (22.5 mg/kg) or extract powder of Boswelliaserrata (11.25 mg/kg). Model- High Carbohydrate Diet (HCD) composed of sucrose (55%), cholesterol (0.5%), choline (0.25%), lard (1.5%), casein (8.15%), methionine (0.5%), cellulose (5%), vitamin and mineral mix(1%) and normal pellet diet(28.1%). 30% sucrose solution, 25% fructose solution as replacement of normal drinking water to cause maximum stress to glucose homeostasis. Method : A set of 6 animals divided into 4 groups. NPD, STZ, 30% sucrose solution fed, 25% fructose solution fed.Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and plasma insulin levels were determined on day 07 post treatment for STZ treated rats and 20 days later for others.Plasma glucose levels and kinetic profile were obtained. Results: The food and water intake steadily increased and stabilized by sixth week. After the 6th week, the weight gain in NPD-fed rats increased marginally whereas HCD-fed rats continued to increase up to 340±4.011g by 22nd week and demonstrated abnormal OGTT. The group fed HCD and 30% sucrose in drinking water showed most appropriate scenario expected for insulin resistance as compared to additional fructose, STZ administered groups with mean plasma glucose excursion, AUC 0-120min , plasma clearance, disposition constant of 195.7± 5.129 mg/dl, 17615±668 mg/dl*min, 0.016±0.005 dl/min, 0.0014±0.00053 in HCD+30% sucrose group and 144.8 ± 1.905 mg/dl, 3754±161mg/dl*min, 0.045±0.001 dl/min, disposition constant 0.0031±0.0001 in control group respectively. Increased plasma insulin levels and abnormality in lipid profile were evident in optimized group. The herb drug interaction study revealed the difference in the maintenance of plasma glucose level and pharmacokinetic profile of the standard drugs. Withaniasomnifera caused notable increase in the plasma glucose levels despite metformin treatment. Hypoglycemic action of glibenclamide was delayed by both the herbs. Conclusion: The optimized diet model in rats appropriately mimicked the condition of insulin resistance. The results showed profound interaction of the selected herbs on the PK/PD of the standard drugs.

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Role of
α-glucosidase in male fertility

Kajri Pandit , Mehul Chorawala, Gaurang Shah, Vandit Trivedi, Mitesh Patel

A-103, Ground Floor, RudrakshaAppartment, 30, pritamnagar Society, In the lane opposite Kothawala flats, Ellisbridge, Ahmedabad-380006, Gujarat

Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the role of α-Glucosidase in male fertility using acarbose. Method: Rats were divided in four groups. First served as control group (saline for 52 days) and second, third, fourth group treated with acarbose (50, 75, 100 mg/kg, intravenously once in a day respectively, for 52 days). Food intake, water intake and body weight were measured on day 0 and then weekly. Rats were sacrificed on day 28 and 52, and parameter like α-Glucosidase activity, sperm motility, sperm count, epididymal and testes weight were measured. Histopathological examination of testes and epididymis was performed. Results: α-Glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose (100mg/kg, i.v.) showed significant inhibition of α-glucosidase activity as compared to control group, sperm motility, sperm count, weight of both testes and epididymis were decreased significantly. Histopathological examination of testes showed significantly lesser density of primary, secondary, spermatocytes and spermatozoa count in rats treated with100mg/kg acarbose. In epididymis lining of columnar cell and basal cells were also found to be ruptured in same the sperm cells were found to be clump and disrupt. Conclusion: The results clearly show that acarbose (100mg/kg, i.v.) for 52 days produced significant effect on sperm maturation and motility. This activity further explored for male anti-fertility activity.

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Beneficial effect of supplementation of vitamin c on lipids and lipoprotein levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A double-blind study

Ganesh Dakhale , Harshal Chaudhari, S. Chaudhari, Swati Narkhede, Sachin Hiware, Mohini Mahatme, Anoop Salve

Department of Pharmacology, Above Dean's Office, Indira Gandhi Govt. Medical College, Mayo Hospital ,C A road, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.-440018

Background : Diabetic dyslipidemia is the product of oxidative stress induced damage along with the simultaneous decline of antioxidant defense mechanisms leading to cellular damage, increased lipid peroxidation and subsequent development of severe complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Antioxidant vitamin C has been reported to reduce oxidative stress by arresting free radical damage and thereby improving lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective : The present study aimed to investigate the role of oral supplementation of vitamin C with metformin on lipids and plasma ascorbic acid level in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods : A prospective, randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, 12 weeks- study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital with the approval of institutional ethics committee. Seventy patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were divided randomly into placebo and vitamin C group of 35 each. At the end of study, baseline investigations were repeated in all the patients. Results : Serum Triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), low and very low density lipoprotein levels were reduced in vitamin C supplemented group significantly in comparison with placebo treated group. No beneficial effect of vitamin C supplementation was observed on high density lipoproteins in patients of type 2 DM. Conclusion : Oral supplementation of vitamin C with metformin improves diabetic dyslipidemia and revert ascorbic acid levels to normal range. Hence, vitamin C supplementation with metformin stands as attractive therapeutic adjuvant in treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia to prevent the complicationsand reduce morbidity.

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Anti diabetic effect of hydro alcoholic extract of dried bark of Ficus gibosa on STZ induced diabetic rats

P. Muralidharan *, D.Sivaraman.

C.L.Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Chennai, India

*E-mail: pmuralidaran@hotmail.com

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is described as a metabolic disorder of multiple etiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with the disturbance of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolis resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The pevalience of diabetes is repidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. It is estimated that some 246 million people, or 5.9%,in the age group 20-79 had diabetes in 2007.More than 70% of these live in developing countries.It is estimated to increase by some 380 millions or 7.1% of the adult population, by 2025. Methods: The present study was designed to determine the effect hydro alcoholic extract of dried bark of Ficus gibosa (HAEFG) on STZ induced diabetic rats. Experimental diabetes was induced in rats by Streptozocin (50mg/kg) and animals with blood sugar levels above 200mg/dl were considered as diabetic and used for the study. Hypoglycemic effect of HAEG was evaluated by evaluating monitoring blood glucose level and by estimating the serum biochemical parmaters like SGOT, SGPT, SALP, total cholesterol, LDL-cholestrol, VLDL-cholestrol, triglycerides and creatinine levels. Results: HAEFG at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in glucose levels of the STZ induce diabetes induced rats to a normal glucose range (<150mg/dl).At the same time significant decrease in SGOT, SGPT, SALP, total cholesterol, LDL-cholestrol, VLDL-cholestrol, triglycerides and creatinine levels was observed in the serum of diabetic animals. Conclusion: From this study it was concluded that anti diabetic activity of Ficusgibosa extract may be due to the presence of phyto constutient like Flavonoids and also because of its antioxidant activity.

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Effect of chebulic acid on diabetic nephropathy in rats


Narendra Silawat, * Dinesh Soni 1 , V. B. Gupta 1

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur-342003, Rajasthan, 1 B. R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mandsaur-458001, Madhya Pradesh.

*E-mail: dinesh_soni_2011@yahoo.in

Objective: Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive kidney disease caused by angiopathy of capillaries in the kidney glomeruli. Our study was focused to evaluate the effect of chebulic acid (20 mg/kg) isolated from Terminalia chebula on diabetic nephropathy in rats. Methods : Diabetes was induced by single i.p. injection of STZ (45 mg/kg) and renal ischemia reperfusion technique served as end stage renal disease. The animals were divided into 5 groups and treated for 28 days. Renal dysfunction was assessed by measurement of blood urea nitrogen, plasma and urine creatinine, urine protein and oxidative stress was measured by renal GSH and MDA level. Result: Chronic treatment with chebulic acid significantly attenuates both renal dysfunction and oxidative stress along with lowering of blood glucose level and reverting body weight and urine volume. Conclusion : From study we concluded that chebulic acid can ameliorate diabetic nephropathy.

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Effect of lepidine on nephropathy in diabetic rats

*Ajay Singh , V. B. Gupta, Narendra Silawat 1

B. R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mandsaur-458001, Madhya Pradesh. 1 Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur-342003, (Rajasthan.

*E-mail: ajaysingh4913@yahoo.com

Objective: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the important micro vascular complications of diabetes mellitus and the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in many countries. Our study was focused to evaluate the effect of lepidine (2 mg/kg) on diabetic nephropathy in rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by single i.p. injection of STZ (45 mg/kg) and renal ischemia reperfusion technique served as end stage renal disease. The animals were divided into 5 groups and treated for 28 days. Renal dysfunction was assessed by measurement of blood urea nitrogen, plasma and urine creatinine, urine protein and oxidative stress was measured by renal GSH and MDA level. Result: Lepidine can be beneficial in both renal dysfunction and oxidative stress along with lowering of blood glucose level and reverting body weight and urine volume. Conclusion: From this study we concluded that lepidine can ameliorate diabetic nephropathy.

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A study of the role of statins (HMG CO-A reductase inhibitor) in the developement and progression of impaired glucose tolerance

*Parida Sansita , Swain T R, Mohanty S, Mohapatra S, Pattnaik K P.

Department of Pharmacology, SCB Medical College & Hospital, Cuttack, Odisha

*E-mail: sansitaparida@gmail.com

Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the role of statins at different doses in the development and alteration of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in albino rabbits. Materials and Methods: 70 healthy albino rabbits weighing between 2 to 3 kg were divided into 7 groups of 10 rabbits each. Basal blood glucose levels of each rabbit were recorded. Then they were subjected to drug and diet as follows. Dose of statins was selected on the basis of available literature.Group 1 receiving standard diet served as the control. Group 2 and 3 received standard diet and rosuvastatin at doses 1 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg once daily per orally respectively. Group 4 and 5 received standard diet and atorvastatin at doses 2 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg once daily per orally respectively. Diabetes was induced in group 6 and 7 by using alloxan monohydrate 5% (w/v) in normal saline at the dose 100 mg/kg body weight iv single dose. Then they were subjected to atorvastatin 8 mg/kg OD PO and rosuvastatin 4 mg/kg OD PO respectively.Blood sugar level and glycosylated Hb estimated at one month interval till end of study period (six months). Result: Data generated was pooled for suitable statistical analysis. Both rosuvastatin and atorvastatin at high dose favoured development of altered IGT in rabbits. Conclusion: Highly potent statins at higher doses cause development and alteration of impaired glucose tolerance.

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Osteoprotective effect of propranolol in ovariectomized rats: A comparison with zoledronic acid and alfacalcidol

Deepak Kumar Khajuria , Rema Razdan, D. Roy Mahapatra 1 , M. R. Bhat 1

Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560027, 1 Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India

Objectives: Findings from animal studies have suggested that bone remodeling is under beta-adrenergic control. The results of these studies suggest that low doses of propranolol may have a therapeutic utility for the treatment of osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. It is estimated that up to 45% of adult and ageing people suffer from cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Therefore, the interest of a dual benefit effect of only one treatment on both heart and skeletal systems seems important. To clarify this, we investigated the effects of propranolol compared with well accepted treatments like zoledronic acid and alfacalcidol in an animal model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods: Five days after ovariectomy, 36 OVX rats were divided into 6 equal groups, randomized to treatments propranolol (0.1mg/kg, s.c., 5 days per week); zoledronic acid (100 μg/kg and 50 μg/kg i.v., single dose); alfacalcidol (0.5 μg/kg, p.o., daily) for 12 weeks. Untreated OVX and sham OVX were used as controls. At the end of treatment serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase were assayed. Femurs were removed and tested for bone density, bone porosity, breaking strength and histology. Results: Propranolol showed a significant increase in bone density, breaking strength and bone quality in comparison to OVX control. Moreover, propranolol caused a significant decrease in bone porosity and alkaline phosphatase when compared with the OVX control. Conclusions: The osteoprotective effect of propranolol was comparable with zoledronic acid and alfacalcidol. The results strongly suggest that the propranolol offers advantage as a promising new therapy in patients with comorbid postmenopausal osteoporosis and cardiovascular disorders.

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Exploring the role of saponins as contraceptive

Aswini Paleri , Payal Dande, T. Banker,

School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies,Babulde, Bank of Tapi River, Mumbai Agra Road, Shirpur-425405Dist- Dhule, State- Maharashtra, India.

Objective: To evaluate estrogenic activity of saponins from Sesbania sesban leaves. Methods: Steroidal saponins are known to be used as precursor for synthesis of important estrogens used for their action on female fertility. Methanolic extract of the leaves from the plant was further fractionated get saponin extract. The extract was subject preliminary phytochemical screening. The foaming index was performed according WHO guidelines. Animals were anesthetized and overiectomy was performed. Both the ovaries were weighed. After 14 days, standard (ethinyl estradiol) and test extract were administered in the dose of 0.02mg/kg and 100mg/kg respectively for 7 days. On 8 th day of experiment all animals were sacrificed and weight & diameter of uterus were measured, fixed in bouni's fluid for further histological examination. The estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of saponin extract was determined by uterotrophic assay by calculating weight and measuring diameter of uterus. Result: Phytochemical screening of extract has revealed the presence of saponins glycoside and little polyphenols. The foaming index was found to be over 1000 confirming the presence of saponin in the extract. It has been observed that extract exhibited estrogenic activity by increase in uterine weight and diameter of uterus as compared to control. In case of standard alone there was significant increase in a weight of uterus. When standard and test were given simultaneously weight of uterus was more as compared to test alone, but not more than standard alone due to competitive antagonism between ethinyl estradiol and saponin extract. Conclusion: The significant increase in the uterine weight suggested the estrogenic effect of saponins. It produces anti-fertility effect by negative feedback mechanism.

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Beneficial effect of siddha formulation on diabetes and associated cardiac complications in streptozotocin induced diabetes rats

Avinash Kumar*, Saurabh Dubey­, K.R. S. Raju, Akanksha Jha, R. Vadivelan, B. Suresh

Department of Pharmacology, J.S.S College of Pharmacy, Rockland, Ooty-643001

*E-mail: Avinash09july@Gmail.Com

Objective: The present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of Madhumega churanam on diabetes and associated cardiac complications induced diabetes in rats. Methods: A single dose of 55mg/kg streptozotocin (pH 4.4, 0.1 M) was injected intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. The formulation was administered for 21 days at two different dose levels 100,200mg/kg orally. Estimations performed were total phenolic assay, glucose uptake by isolation rat hemi-diaphragm, determination of cardiac markers, lipid profile in serum, serum glucose, and glycogen content, bodyweight were estimated. Haematological parameter, in vitro anti oxidant activity and Glutathione reductase in vivo oxidative stress, biochemical parameter like GSH, SOD and CAT from mitochondrial supernatant were estimated. Results: In the present study it was observed that the siddha formulations have effect on lipid profile, anti oxidant system or not in addition to its antihyperglycemic action in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. It exhibited significant reduction of fasting plasma glucose levels as compared to the diabetic control group and chronic administration of formulation at the dose of 200mg/kg has shown a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure and thus, providing protection in diabetes. Conclusion: In vitro glucose uptake by rat hemi diaphragm showed the presence of hyperglycaemic activity and the serum glucose, body weight, lipid profile, liver glycogen, glycosylated haemoglobin and antioxidant parameters from pancreas homogenate and it decrease in systolic blood pressure in diabetic animals and reduced cardiac marker in the serum. In in vivo oxidative stress studies it was found that siddha drug had no effect on oxidative stress parameters.

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Development and validation of quality of life assessment instruments for diabetic patients


Shaista Kareem, Leelavathi D. Acharya , Surulivel Rajan

Department of pharmacy practice, Manipal College of pharmaceutical sciences, Manipal University, Manipal

Objectives: To design and test the reliability and validity of Modified diabetes quality of life (MDQoL-17) questionnaire in comparison to RAND-36 and to assess the Quality of Life (QoL) of patients with type 2 Diabetic Patients( DM). Methods: 100 patients were enrolled for the study. Demographic details, laboratory parameters, complaints, treatment details were documented and patients were asked to fill in RAND-36 questionnaire. After two days patients were asked to fill MDQoL-17 questionnaire. Both English and Kannada versions were used based on the language of the patient. Results: MDQoL-17 questionnaire was found to be internally consistent and reliable when assessed using Cronbach's alpha values. Moderate QoL was found for both the questionnaires with a score of 5.40±1.80 for MDQoL-17 and 5.39±1.81 for RAND-36. There was no significant difference found between the scores of RAND-36 and MDQoL-17 which showed that MDQoL-17 was good enough to assess the QoL as RAND-36. Analysis was carried out using scores of both the questionnaire to correlate QoL with demographics but no significant correlation was found. Analysis based on different domains showed that patients had relatively lower QoL in physical, role physical, role emotional and energy/fatigue domains. Further analysis showed that complaints on admission like fatigue and delayed wound healing and co-morbidities like hypertension and foot ulcers resulted in significantly poor quality QoL. Conclusion: This study showed that the developed MDQoL-17 questionnaire performed similar to the established RAND-36 and could be used as a tool to assess the quality of life in Diabetic patients.

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Phytochemical and pharmacological screening of Triumfetta pilosa roth for anti-diabetic activity

*Ashok Kumar U., Vijay Kumar S,, Prasanthi D., Manjunatha, Gnanasekaran D., Tamizh Mani T.

Ashok Kumar U, Bharathi College of Pharmacy, Bharathi Nagar, Mandya Dt., Karnataka, 571422.

*E-mail: Ashok.Ummadisetty@Gmail.Com

Objectives : The objective of the study was to evaluate the phytochemical and pharmacological screening of Triumfetta pilosa Roth. (TP) ethanolic extract for anti-diabetic activity in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, albino wistar rats either sex (150-200 g) were used. The ethanol extract of TP was administered orally at doses of 100, 200mg/kg b.w and glibenclamide 2.5 mg/kg b.w (standard drug) to healthy rats divided into five groups consisting of six animals each. The assessment of anti-diabetic was carried out by testing the glucose tolerance test and blood glucose levels was determined by tail tipping methodusing Accu-chek sensor glucometer. Results: The ethanol extract of TP gave positive tests for steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides. In Glucose Tolerance Test the ethanolic extract of TP exhibited remarkable blood glucose lowering effect in the test. This results indicates that the extract plant have capacity to block the blood glucose absorption. Blood Glucose levels ofthe ethanolic extract of plant TP was evaluated after 21 days, the blood glucose levels of the treated rats were significantly (*P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001 ) lowered than the diabetic control rats. Conclusion: In this study, the data obtained reveals that, the ethanolic extract of TPwas found to effectively reduce the blood glucose levels and evaluated as a potential anti-diabetic agent. Presence of wide range of chemical compounds indicated TP plant could serve for the development of novel agents having good efficacy in various pathological disorders in the coming years.

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Effect of valsartan on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gliclazide in rats

B. Vijay Kumar , V. Balakrishna, A.Rama Narsimha Reddy*

Department of Pharmacology, Vaageswari College of Pharmacy, Karimnagar-505481, Andhra Pradesh, India

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of Valsartan on Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Gliclazide in Normal and Diabetic rats, and to estimate the Gliclazide plasma concentration using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), also to assess the dosage adjustment of Gliclazide after evaluating the drug-drug interaction between Gliclazide and Valsartan in normal and diabetic rats. Methods: Alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) was used to induce the Diabetes in rats, then the rats were treated with test drugs i.e., Gliclazide (7.2mg/kg) and Valsartan (37mg/kg) at single and multiple doses, by grouping rats as, diabetic control, normal control, Gliclazide(standard), Gliclazide + Valsaratn in combination, and half therapeutic dose of Gliclazide + full dose of Valsartan. Blood samples were collected at an intervals of 0, 30min, 1hr, 3hr, 6hr, 8hr,10hr and 24hrs, after test drugs treatment. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were estimated using blood plasma samples. Results: The pharmacodynamic results from combination of Gliclazide+Valsartan showed significant blood glucose reduction when compared to Gliclazide alone. However, at the same time half therapeutic dose of gliclazide+ full valsartan dose showed blood glucose reduction as equal to gliclazide alone. The pharmacokinetic results showed increased Gliclazide plasma concentrations when used in combination with Valsartan, when compared to half therapeutic dose of Gliclazide + Valsaratn and Gliclazide alone. Conclusion: From the results, it was concluded that, the half dosed Gliclazide with Valsartan full dose can be having significant application for diabetic patients having Hypertension, when compared to Gliclazide+Valsartan

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Role of hesperetin, citrus flavanone in the prevention of experimentally induced diabetic retinopathy in rats

Binit Kumar , S.K. Gupta, B.P. Srinivasan, T.C. Nag 1 , Sushma Srivastava, Rohit Saxena 1

Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, University of Delhi, New Delhi, 1 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Objective : Objective of this study was to evaluate effect of Hesperetin, a plant based flavanone, on diabetes-induced retinal oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis in rats for the prevention of diabetic retinopathy. Methods : Hesperetin treatment @200mg/kg BW was given for a period of 6 months in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hypoglycemic, antioxidant, inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β) and angiogenesis parameters (VEGF, PKC-β) were evaluated. Retinal changes were observed every month by fundoscopy. Histopathology and electron microscopy of retina was done at the termination of experiment. Results: Retinal glutathione levels were 3.76±0.62 and 9.20±0.98 nmole/mg protein in diabetic and hesperetin-treated rats respectively. Retinal superoxide dismutase and catalase levels of diabetic rats were 2.17±0.17 and3.01±0.41 IU/mg protein respectively which were restored to 5.76±0.62and 9.25±0.54 IU/mg protein in hesperetin-treated rats.TNF- α and IL-1β expressions in diabetic group significantly increased to 42.24±4.48 and93.49±8.10 pg/mg protein in comparison to 26.25±2.13 and 62.79±6.16pg/mg protein of hesperetin-treated group. Levels of angiogenesis mediators VEGF and PKC-β were 19.80±1.31 and 144.22±12.89 pg/mg protein respectively in diabetic group, which were significantly reduced to 12.58±1.22 and 74.00±10.98 pg/mg protein in hesperetin-treated group. Thickened retinal vascular basement membrane was seen in diabetic rats in comparison to normal and hesperetin-treated group. Diabetic retinae showed increase in expression of apoptotic markers (Bax and Bcl-2) on the other hand hesperetin treatment prevented retinal apoptosis. Conclusion: The beneficial effects of hesperetin in rescuing the retinal oxidative stress and inhibition of over-expression of pro-inflammatory and angiogenesis mediators in the development of experimental diabetic retinopathy suggests its potential role in the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy in humans

END-33

Quercetin ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced rats by suppression of oxidative stress

Chourasia A. J., Ingole S. R., Chaple D.R.

J.L. Chaturvedi College of Pharmacy (Degree), MIDC, Hingna Road, Nagpur-440016

Objective: Diabetic nephropathy is a microvascular complication and is associated with increased oxidative stress. Present study investigate the effect of quercetin on blood glucose, lipid profile, oxidative stress, renal function and its possible mechanisms in rats with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Method: Rats were randomized to control, STZ-diabetic (65mg/kg i.p.) and quercetin treated STZ-diabetic groups. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr) and urine protein for 24 hours (UP24h) were measured using commercially available kits. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum was estimated. Result: Quercetin treatments significantly restore elevated blood glucose level and increases antioxidant enzymes and reduce lipid peroxidation in STZ-diabetic rat. These results suggested that quercetin could ameliorate renal dysfunction in DN rats through controlling blood glucose, reduction of oxidative stress. Conclusion: Quercetin is beneficial in restoring hyperglycemia induced renal damage and diabetic nephropathy.

END-34

Effect of Silymarin on hepatotoxicity produced by ROSIGLITAZONE; An in-vitro and in-vivo study

Shivakumarswamy Y.N, KL. Krishna

JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore - 570 015, Karnataka, India.

Objectives : To evaluate the hepatotoxic potential of rosiglitazone by in vitro using isolated rat hepatocytes and in vivo in liver of wistar rats intoxicated and assess the protective effects of Silymarin. Methods : The protective effect of Silymarin on toxic potentials of rosiglitazone was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion assay as well as by determining the enzyme markers in supernatant of cell culture medium. The toxic potential of rosiglitazone also evaluated in-vivo on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Estimations of serum enzymes, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, LDH, total protein, total bilirubin; estimation of liver enzymes like SOD, CAT, LDH, lipid peroxidation and liver histopathological studies were the parameters used to evaluate the extent of hepatotoxicity. The hypoglycaemic activity of rosiglitazone in presence and absence of Silymarin was also evaluated to judge any herb drug interactions Results : This results shows that, the hepatotoxicity produced by rosiglitazone can be minimized by co-administration of Silymarin. Conclusion : The rosiglitazone administration has produced hepatotoxicity by in-vitro as well in-vivo method. Co-administration of Silymarin reversed the hepatotoxicity of rosiglitazone by both methods with out compromising its hypoglycaemic potential. The study revealed the beneficial role of Silymarin on rosiglitazone induced hepatotoxicity.

END-35

Dpp4 inhibition -novel target for diabetes mellitus


V. Sandhya Rani
, A. Rama Narsimha Reddy*

Department of Pharmacology, Vaageswari College of Pharmacy, Karimnagar-505481, Andhra Pradesh, India

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood. It can also be defined as a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced (Insulin resistance). Recent research has highlighted the role of incretins in the physiologic regulation of the endocrine pancreas. The incretins are peptide hormones that are released from the gut in response to the ingestion of food and they enhance glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the pancreas. Incretin action is very brief and is terminated by the breakdown of incretin hormones by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). In order to enhance or mimic the action of incretin hormones, it is necessary to develop drugs that will inhibit the DPP-IV enzyme or, alternatively develop analogs of the natural hormones that are not susceptible to breakdown by DPP-IV. It is important to highlight the role of the incretin system and discuss the role of DPP-IV inhibitors as a potential treatment for diabetes, drawing attention to some of the available clinical trial data that support the use of such agents.

END-36

Resveratrol improves insulin resistance and attenuates metabolic syndrome in fructose fed type-2 diabetic rats

Pankaj Bagul , Abhinav Kanwal, Sanjay K. Banerjee

Division of Pharmacology, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad-500607

Objective: Objective of our study was to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of resveratrol in fructose induced insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Methods: Male SD (170-190gm) rats were divided into four groups with 8 animals each group. Diabetic group rats were fed with 65% fructose-rich diet, whereas control group rats were fed with 65% corn-starchdiet (Research Diet, USA) for a period of 8 weeks. In third (Dia+Res) and forth (Dia+Met) group, Resveratrol (10mg/kg/day) and Metformin (300mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 8 weeks in fructose fed rats, respectively. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and uric acid levels, as well as insulin resistance, as measured by glucose tolerance test, were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in fructose fed rats (Diabetic group) when compared to the corn-starch fed (Control) rats. Administration of Resveratrol and Metformin (standard antidiabetic agent) to fructose fed rats significantly (P < 0.01) reduced serum glucose, triglyceride cholesterol and uric acid levels, as well as insulin resistance when compared with fructose fed rats. Serum level of two gaseous signalling molecules, NO and H 2 S which altered in diabetic rats were normalised after Resveratrol and Metformin treatment. Conclusion: From our study we conclude that resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates metabolic syndrome in fructose fed type-2 diabetic rats.

END- 37

Effect of co administration of Tramadol HCl and oral hypoglycemic agent on streptozotocin induced diabetic rat.

Mayuresh S. Garud , Atul S. Bhujbal, Hardik R. Shah, Vaishali R. Undale, Chandrashekhar D. Upasani, Ashok V. Bhosale

Department of Pharmacology, PDEA's Seth Govind Raghunath Sable College of Pharmacy, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Objective: The objective of study is to evaluate effect of co administration of tramadol HCl and the oral hypoglycemic agent in STZ induced diabetic rat. Methods: For the study, oral hypoglycemic agents selected are metformin (200 mg/Kg) and glibenclamide (3 mg/Kg). Dose of tramadol HCl is (3.6 mg/Kg). The animals are divided in normal and diabetic groups. One group of normal animals will get vehicle while second group will get tramadol HCl. In case of STZ induced diabetic animals, group I will be treated with vehicle, group II with tramadol HCl, group III with metformin, group IV with glibenclamide, group V with tramadol HCl and metformin, group VI with tramadol HCl and glibenclamide. Parameters to be evaluated are blood glucose level and plasma drug concentration. Result: As the study has to be completed, results are not mentioned. Synergistic hypoglycemic effect is expected in diabetic groups of animals which are co administered with tramadol HCl and hypoglycemic agents. Conclusion: Tramadol HCl is an opioid analgesic used in treatment of pain related with migraine, diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic pain etc. Co administration of tramadol HCl with oral hypoglycemic agents may produce hypoglycemic situation and may lead to hypoglycemic shock. It is important to determine the need of dose adjustment in case of co administration.

END-38

Effect of verapamil on blood glucose level & it's interactions with oral hypoglycemic drugs in albino rabbits

Prajapat R. , Jain I.P., Singh S.P., Singh S., Agarwal P.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh - 208 002, India.

E-mail: rajeevprajapat123@gmail.com

Objective : Verapamil is used in cardiac arrhythmia. Diabetes adversely affects cardiovascular system. So the effect of Verapamil on blood glucose level & it's interaction with commonly used oral hypoglycemic agents in albino rabbits were studied. Materials and Methods : Present study was performed in Deptt. of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, GSVM Medical college Kanpur, (U.P) by using albino rabbits. Rabbits were divided into eight groups of 6 rabbits in each group.1 st group was given normal saline & served as blank control. Group 2 nd was given Verapamil. Group 3 rd to 8 th were made diabetic by using Alloxon. Diabetes was confirmed after 48 hours. Group 3 rd , 4 th & 5 th were given Glimepiride, Metformin & Pioglitazone respectively and served as positive control. Group 6 th , 7 th & 8 th were given Verapamil for 7 days & on last day added with Glimepiride, Metformin & Pioglitazone respectively. Blood glucose level is measured after GTT at 0, 1, 2 & 6 hours on last day in all groups using spectrophotometer. Blood glucose level in all group were compared with its control group. Results : Statistical analysis carried out by using unpaired student 't' test. Verapamil show 74% & 72% increased in blood glucose level at 1 & 2 hours respectively in comparison to control group which is statically significant (P<.001). When Verapamil combined with Metformin in diabetic rabbits, it decreased blood glucose level by 10.2%, 11% & 10.9% at 1, 2 & 6 hours respectively compared to control group which is statically significant (P<0.01). With Pioglitazone, Verapamil there is no significant change in blood glucose in comparison to control group. With Glimepiride, Verapamil showed 8.5% & 9.2% increased in blood glucose level at 1 & 2 hours respectively compared to control group (P<0.01) and at 6 hours no significant changes in blood glucose level (P>0.05).

END-39

GLP-1- a new target for diabetes mellitus

A.Yuvadheer , Ch. Pradeep Kumar, A. Rama Narsimha Reddy

Department of Pharmacology, Vaageswari College of Pharmacy, Karimnagar - 505 481, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Diabetes is a chronic disease, which occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. This leads to an increased concentration of glucose in the blood. Two gut hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, also known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide) are important in postprandial glucose metabolism. Both peptides are incretins; they are secreted during carbohydrate absorption and increases the insulin secretion. Since they are potent insulin secretagogues, GIP and GLP-1 have received considerable attention as potential diabetes therapeutics. However, only GLP-1 exerts insulinotropic properties when administered to patients with Type 2 diabetes. Both GLP-1 and GIP are rapidly inactivated in the circulation by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). The application of GLP-1 into clinical practice has been delayed due to the need to develop compounds that overcome this rapid inactivation. Two approaches have been taken to utilise the insulinotropic and glucose-lowering actions of GLP-1 as an antidiabetic agent: the development of DPPIV-resistant analogues (exendin-4) and the inhibition of DPP-IV. Focus in this area would help in effective treatment of diabetes mellitus.

END-40

Diabetic atherosclerosis: Potential biomarkers and preventive approach

Rahul P. Kshirsagar , Rahul M. Kakalij, B. Hemanthkumar, JC Hanish Singh, Prakash V. Diwan

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Anurag Group of Institute, Hyderabad - 501 301, India.

Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) The risk of developing atherosclerosis estimated in diabetic patients is two to six fold greater than nondiabetic individuals. It is also estimated that 80% of type 2 diabetic patients die due to atherosclerosis. The American Heart Association has identified five major factors, viz. i) metabolic factors, ii) oxidation/ glucoxidation, iii) endothelial dysfunction, iv) inflammation, and v) pro-thrombotic state, in inducing diabetic - atherosclerosis complications. One of the proposed mechanisms in type II diabetes is the high circulating levels of lipids and glucose accompanied with reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability. This mechanism leads to endothelial dysfunction which contributes to hypertension and several concomitant alterations, increased expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM) and other proinflammatory markers such as TNF-α, oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), leptin, interleukins like IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP) etc. In addition increased flux of glucose and free fatty acid into vascular smooth muscle cells and surrounding inflammatory cells may lead to an excess formation of ROS and RNS (superoxide, peroxide, peroxynitrites, etc.), oxidative stress and metabolic deterioration leads to diabetic accelerated atherosclerosis. The discussion is aimed at identifying the role of different potential biomarkers and their features, in order to heighten awareness of the appropriate animal models that may provide useful tools for studying the mechanism of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis and evaluating therapeutic options.

END-41

Effect of female sex hormone estradiol and dietary phytoestrogen on experimentally induced Parkinsonism in ovariectimized rats: Possibly involves estrogenic and antioxidant mechanism


Bhandare S.S., Umap C.S., Jaiswal S.M., Tembhurne S.V.

Sudhakarrao Naik Institute of Pharmacy, Pusad, Yavatmal - 445 204, Maharashtra, India.

E-mail: mrnd.santosh79@gmail.com

Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of Estradiol valerate and phytoestrogens in the form of ethanolic extract of garlic and black sesame on experimentally induced Parkinsonism in overectomized rats. The study was also undertaken to evaluate the protective mechanism by evaluating the estrogenic and antioxidant status in the experimentally induced animals. Materials and Methods: One month after the bilaterally overectomized rats treated with the Estradiol valerate (0.20 mg/kg p.o.) and garlic extract (500 and 250 mg/kg p.o.) and black sesame for three months. After three month of dosing all respective group of animals were injected with haloperidol (0.5mg/kg i.p.) for induction of Parkinsonism (muscle rigidity) and were evaluated for the onset and duration of overall catalepsy as well as onset and duration of maximum catalepsy. Results: Treatments of Estradiol valerate for three months (p.o.) significantly reduced the onset and duration of overall catalepsy as well as onset and duration of maximum catalepsy. The treatments of ethanolic extract of Garlic (250 and 500mg/kg) and Petroleum extract of Black sesame (500 mg/kg) also showed the significantly same action as Estradiol valerate. The treatment also indicates to increase the level of estrogens and decrease the level of lipid peroxidation. Conclusion: Present study concluded that Female sex hormone Estradiol and Phytoestrogens in Garlic and Black sesame inhibits the haloperidol induced catalepsy in OVX rats model. The protective effect of dietary supplements and Estradiol on Parkinsonism in OVX rats may be due to increased in level of estrogens and antioxidant status. Key word: Estrogens and antioxidant, overectomized, Parkinsonism


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GIT-1

Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of combination of Phyllanthus niruri and Curcuma longa extracts in wistar rats.


Shalini Adiga, Vinay Babu S., Rajput R.S., Avinash Holla, Bairy K.L., Shobha Kamath 1

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, S. India, 1 Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, S. India

Objectives: To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of combination of Phyllanthus niruri (PN) and Curcuma longa (CL) extracts against CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods : Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were divided into 3 groups (n= 6). Group I- Control, Group II-CCl 4 (0.5 mg/kg i.p), Group III- CCl 4 (0.5 mg/kg i.p) with PN+CL (400 mg/kg) were administered for 7 days. The PN and CL extracts were obtained from Arjuna Natural Extracts Limited, Aluva, Kerala. On 8 th day, Serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Total bilirubin (TB) were estimated. Histopathological assessment done using liver tissue. The data was statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA. Results: There was a significant increase in serum enzymes-AST (58.86±2.33), ALT (28.01 ± 1.14), ALP (77.99± 1.85) and TB (2.08± 0.08) levels in CCl 4 treated rats compared to control animals. Co-administration of PN+CL extracts in combination with CCl 4 significantly prevented the rise in AST (29.37±1.81), ALT (12.57±0.93), ALP (60.62±1.37) and TB (1.18±0.07) levels. Histological section of liver in animals treated with CCl 4 showed centrilobular area of necrosis with derangement in hepatic architecture. PN+CL administration prevented these deleterious changes, histological section of liver in rats treated with PN+CL showed normal hepatic parenchyma. Conclusion: Combination of PN+CL extracts showed significant hepatoprotection against CCl 4 induced liver damage.

GIT-2

Effects of methanolic extract of Curcuma longarhizomeon inflammatory bowel disease

K. Bhanu Prasad *, A. Butchi Raju

Department of Pharmacology, St. Peter's Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Warangal, A.P. 506001, INDIA.

*E-mail: bhanukudaravalli6@gmail.com

Objective : The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Ethanolic extract of Pergularia daemia L. aerial parts (EEOPD) on acute inflammation mediated by Carrageenan. Methods: Carrageenan is well known and most commonly used Phlogistics producing a maximum edema at 3 hrs. It induces inflammation probably by activation of Cyclooxygenase pathway. Acute inflammation was produced by sub plantar injection of 0.02 ml freshly prepared 1% Carrageenan in normal saline in right hind paw of rats to 4 groups of rats (200,400,600 and ibuprofen treated groups). The paw edema was measured by using Digital Plethysmorgraph. Pergularia daemia leaf extract was dissolved in 2% TWEEN 80 and administered to rats orally for a period of 3 days. Result : There was no effect of vehicle control in inflammation process. The inflammation was reduced after the administration of Ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Pergularia daemia (EEOPD) plant extract. There was significant decrease in paw edema caused by Carrageenan by Pergularia daemia (600 mg/kg) at the end of 4 th hour when compared to standard drug Ibuprofen. Conclusion : Ethanolic extract of PD at dose of 600 mg/kg found to have potent anti inflammatory activity when compared to 200 and 400 mg/kg doses. The anti-inflammatory activity of Pergulariadaemia may be due to Flavonoids which may contribute to the anti inflammatory activity.

GIT-3

Screening of vitex leucoxylon linn. Bark ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts for lysosomal enzyme activities during development of thioacetamide induced cirrhosis in rats

Matule SM, Rasal VP 1 , Savadi VC 1 , Torgal SS, Hiremath SV

Department of Pharmacology, J. N. Medical College, and 1KLE's College of pharmacy, KLE University, Belgaum, Karnataka.

Objectives: The present study was carried out to evaluate Vitex Leucoxylon Linn bark extracts on lysosomal enzyme acivities in thioacetamide induced cirrhosis in rats. Method: In animals, cirrhosis is induced by intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide. The ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Vitex leucoxylon Linn bark were subjected to estimate lysosomal enzymes i.e., β-glucuronidase, N-acetyl glucosominidase, Acid phosphatase in liver tissue and serum. The biochemical parameters namely ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin, total proteins and albumin in serum are also performed in different stages of liver injury in rats i.e. necrosis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Result: Both ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Vitex leucoxylon Linn. showed significant reduction (P<0.001) in elevated free levels of lysosomal enzymes in liver tissue.In serum, extracts showed significant (P<0.001) reduction in elevated levels of biochemical parameter such as ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin and significant (P<0.001) increase in total proteins and albumin. The ethyl acetate extract showed higher activity than aqueous extract. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that both ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Vitex Leucoxylon Linn bark showed significant hepatoprotective activity.

GIT-4

A comparative study of effect of probiotic supplementation on side effect profile in H.pylori eradication therapyin a tertiary care hospital

Bharath Kumar V.D., Sushma M, Jayanthi C. R.,

Bharath Kumar V .D, Department of pharmacology, Bangalore medical college and Research Institute, Bangalore

Objective: To evaluate the effect of probiotic supplementation on side effects profile in H. pylori eradication therapy. Methods: A prospective comparative study conducted on 60 patients diagnosed with H. pylori infection by upper Gastrointestinal endoscopy, histopathological examination and rapid urease test ( RUT) in Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Victoria Hospital, BMCRI, were randomly assigned into two eradication regimen groups, Group A and Group B of 30 patients each. Group A: received a probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus 0.48 billion cells, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 0.48 billion cells, Bifidobacterium longum 0.48 billion cells, Bifidobacterium bifidum 0.48 billion cells, Saccharomyces boulardii 0.1 billion cells, Streptococcus thermophilus 0.48 billion cells, fructooligosaccharides 300 mg) thrice daily, lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin1gm and clarithromycin 500mg twice daily for 2 weeks. GroupB: received Amoxicillin 1 gm, lansoprazole 30 mg and clarithromycin 500mg twice a day for 2 weeksIncidence of side effects were assessed using a standardized questionnaire given to the patient at the time of enrollment and to be filled in during treatment period, indicating the type and degree of interference with daily activity of the patient and also by clinically significant abnormal laboratory investigations after 2 weeks. Results: The incidence of side effects was less in group A compared to group B (30% vs. 53.33%). Incidence of diarrhea ( 10% vs. 30%), nausea (10% vs. 36.66%),taste disturbances(16.66% vs. 40%) were significant but other side effects like abdominal pain, rash, headache, loss of appetite and laboratory investigations were insignificant. Conclusion: Probiotics administration improves antibiotic tolerability by reducing side effects like diarrhea, nausea and taste disturbances. By decreasing the incidence of side effects probiotics improve patient compliance, treatment adherence and decrease antibiotic resistance.

GIT-5

Comparative evaluation of aqueous extract of some selected medicinal plants for anthelmintic activity

P I Sibi , T M Jumimol, T S Krishnapriya, K R Krishnaja, Ann Shine Paul

Department of Pharmacology, University College of Pharmacy, Cheruvandoor campus, Ettumanoor, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam.

Objective: To evaluate the aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica, Allium sativum, Calotropis gigantea, Carica papaya, Myristica fragrance, Piper nigrum, and Prunica granatum for anthelmintic activity and comparing its activity to that of Piparazine citrate and Albendazole. Methods: Crude aqueous extracts of above mentioned plants were obtained by cold extraction, followed by filtration. They were concentrated to a viscous mass and tested in Phertima posthuma (earthworm) at various dose levels. The standard drug used for comparison of anthelmintic activity was Albendazole (20 and 80 mg/ml in) and Piperazine citrate. Results: Paralysis occurs when the worm lost their motility. Time of death was the time when the earthworm did not respond to external stimuli and did not revive when placed in normal saline at 40°C. The time taken for paralysis and death of earthworms were recorded and the mean time was calculated. The aq. extract of Allium sativum showed an immediate death (in 1min), whereas most of other aq. extracts showed a dose dependent paralysis and death and the effects were quite close to higher doses of Albendazole (80mg/ml), except for leaf extract of pepper. It has shown that pepper has taken 45 min where all other extracts has taken less than 20 min. Albendazole in lower concentration(20mg/ml) had prolonged time taken for death of earthworm. Inference: It was concluded that the aq. extracts of Allium sativum, Myristica fragrance and Prunica granatum was founded to be more effective than the higher doses of Albendazole and the extracts of Azadirachta indica and Calotropis gigantea was found to be comparable to that of Albendazole at dose of 80mg/ml. Carica papaya has taken more time for anthelmintic activity.

GIT-6

Effect of vitex negundo on hepatotoxicity induced by anti-tubercular drugs in albino rats


Rushikeshdeshpande, Vijay Motghare, Sudhirpadwal, Rakesh Pore, Chetanrajbhamare, Rakeshjadhav.

Department of Pharmacology, Swami Ramanand Teerth Rural Medical College, Ambajogai, Dist. Beed, Maharashtra 431517.

Objectives: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of Vitexnegundo (VN) on hepatotoxicity induced by anti-tubercular drugs in albino rats. Methods: 24 Adult albino rats, weighing about 150-200 g were divided into 4 groups each containing 6 rats. Group I- control (normal saline), Group II- Isoniazid (INH) (50 mg/kg, p.o.) + Rifampicin (RMP) (50 mg/kg,p.o.), Group III- INH (50 mg/kg,p.o). + RMP (50 mg/kg,p.o.) + aqueous extract of VN (250 mg/kg,p.o.) Group IV- INH (50 mg/kg,p.o.) + RMP (50 mg/kg, p.o.) + aqueous extract of VN (500 mg/kg,p.o.). Anti-tubercular drugs were given for 14 days to induce hepatotoxicity and the effect of aqueous extracts of Vitexnegundo (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg p.o.) was studied. The serum levels of ALT/SGPT , AST/SGOT, ALP, Bilirubin (total and direct), MDA and SOD were measured and histopathological examination of liver was done. Results : Co-administration of Vitexnegundo significantly prevented the rise of serum ALT / SGPT, AST/SGOT, Bilirubin (total and direct), ALP, MDA and raised SOD levelsand also prevented histopathological changes. Conclusion: The present study revealed that Vitexnegundohas hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential. This hepatoprotective activity may be attributed to the its various antioxidant constituents like carotene, flavonoids, vitaminC.

GIT-7

Anti ulcer activity of ethanolic extract of trianthemaportulacastrum.l in rats using aspirin induced pyloric ligation model

Y.N.L. Swetha* , D. Savithri, V. Jayashree, R. Prakash, P. Muralidharan

Department of Pharmacology, C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai.-97.

Objectives: The plant Trianthemaportulacastrum. L is a fascinating herb possessing analgesic,antipyretic,anti-inflammatory, diuretic,anti-ulcer and hepatoprotectiveproperties.The present study has been undertaken to investigate the anti ulcer activity of ethanol extract on aerial parts in rats using aspirin induced pyloric-ligation model. Materials and methods: The aerial parts of Trianthemaportulacastrum was collected from Chennai and authenticated.The completely dried material was extracted using soxhlet apparatus by using ethanol. The different extracts was subjected to phytochemical screening for detection of various phytocontituents. Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups(n=6). Group I received vehicle (10ml/kg p.o) and group II received aspirin dissolved in vehicle (200mg/kg p.o). Group III receivedethanolic extract of Trianthemaportulacastrum (EETP) at a dose of 200mg/kg p.o and group IV received standard drug Ranitidine(50mg/kg p.o) respectively 30 minutes before each aspirin treatment. After 36 hours pylorus ligation was performed under ether anaesthesia and four hours later, the animals were sacrificed. The stomach was removed, centrifuged for estimation of acid secretory parameters and ulcer score. Results: The animals were observed for the estimation of acid secretory parameters, gastric pH, gastric acidity, gastric ulcer score, gastric volume. Administration of EETP and Ranitidine showed increase in pH level and decrease in ulcer score, gastric volume, gastric acidity, total acid output when compared to Group II animals. Conclusion: It has been concluded that the plant Trianthemaportulacastrum. L has significant gastro protective activity against aspirin induced ulcer in rats.

GIT-8

Effect of chloroform extract of trianthema fruticosa in aspirin induced ulcer in albino rats

R.Kannan * , I. Sheik Nasar, R. Prakash, K. Karthikeyan

Department of Pharmacology, C.L.Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai.-97.

Objectives: The present study has been undertaken to investigate the antiulcer activity of trianthema fruticosa. Materials and Methods : chloroform extract on aerial parts in rats using aspirin induced pyloric-ligation model. The plant material used for investigation were aerial parts collected from Chennai and authenticated. The completely dried material was extracted using soxhlet apparatus by using chloroform, the extract was subjected to phytochemical screening for detection of various phytocontituents. Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups (n=6). Group I received vehicle (10ml/kg p.o) and group II received aspirin dissolved in vehicle (200mg/kg p.o). Group III received chloroform extract of Trianthema fruticosa (CETF) at a dose of 200mg/kg p.o and group V received standard drug Ranitidine (50mg/kg p.o) respectively 30 minutes before each aspirin treatment. After 36 hours pylorus ligation was performed under ether anaesthesia and four hours later, the animals were sacrificed. The stomach was removed, centrifuged for estimation of acid secretory parameters and ulcer score. Results: The animals were observed for the estimation of acid secretory parameters, gastric pH, gastric acidity, gastric ulcer score, gastric volume. Administration of CETF and Ranitidine showed increase in pH level and decrease in ulcer score, gastric volume, gastric acidity, total acid output when compared to Group II animals. Conclusion: It has been concluded that the plant Trianthema fruticosa has significant gastro protective activity against aspirin induced ulcer in rats.

GIT-9

Effect of Oroxylum indicum on intestinal motility in rodents: Inhibition of diarrhoea without constipation

H S Majithiya , S V Joshi, B A Vyas, P D Shah, H G Vyas, T R Gandhi 1

Maliba Pharmacy College, GopalVidyanagar, Bardoli-Mahuva road, Tarsadi-394 350, Dist. Surat, Gujarat, 1 Anand College of Pharmacy, Opp. Town Hall, Anand - 388 001, Gujarat, India.

Objective: To evaluate effects of Oroxylumindicum on intestinal motility, both in vitro and in vivo, in rodents. Materials and methods: Female Wistar rats were used to investigate acute oral toxicity of extract. The effect of extract on contraction of acetylcholine, barium chloride and electrical field stimulation was studied on isolated rabbit ileum. Anti-diarrhoeal activities were investigated using castor oil and magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoeal models in mice. Effect on intestinal motility was studied using gastrointestinal motility and antienteropooling assay methods. Antimicrobial activity of extract was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method. Results: Extract inhibited contractions induced by acetylcholine, barium chloride or by electrical field stimulation. Verapamil potentiates inhibitory effect of extract. At doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, aqueous extract (OIaq) showed significant and dose-dependent anti-diarrhoeal effect devoid of altering gastrointestinal motility in normal animals. OIaq also inhibits microbial growth in disc diffusion assay method. Conclusion: OIaq normalized intestinal motility altered by inflammatory stimulus and possesses antidiarrhoeal activity. Alteration of intestinal motility may involve modification in L-type Ca2+ channels. OIaq prevented experimental diarrhoea without causing constipation.

GIT-10

Hepatoprotective activity of Malus domestica fruit juice against carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats

Mathew N, Patel BV, Chakraborty M

Department of Pharmacology, Shree Devi College of Pharmacy, Mangalore-574142

Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Malusdomestica fruit juice (MDFJ) on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and paracetamol (PCM) in rats. Methods: Liver injury was analyzed by quantifying the biochemical marker enzymes in serum, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and by histopathological observations. Animals were treated with MDFJ (100 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) for ten days. CCl4 and PCM were administered for inducing hepatic damage. Results: In CCL4 model, the low dose and high dose of the drug MDFJ (100 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreases biochemical markers (ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin) in serum. Similarly in the PCM model both low and high dose of MDFJ (100 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) declined the ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin in serum. Most interesting finding of this study which documented that the low dose of MDFJ(100mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant reduction in biochemical markers (ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin) in serum compare with the high dose of MDFJ(500mg/kg, p.o.). Further, the biochemical parameters were confirmed by histopathological studies. Conclusion: The present study evidenced that both the high and the low dose of MDFJ was effective in ameliorating the damages though the low dose of MDFJ demonstrated better protection caused during chemically induced hepatic damages.

GIT-11

A comparative study: Efficacy and safety ofrabeprazole and esomeprazole in mild to moderate erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease


Anuradha Palani, B. Anandam, Rituparna Maiti, Jyothirmai Jaida, PL John Israel, S.A. Farook Ahmed

Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagunur, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh, PIN code: 505417

Objective: Proton pump inhibitors are the most effective drugs to control symptoms and improve quality of life of patients suffering from erosive Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study was conducted to determine the better agent among Rabeprazole and Esomeprazole in mild to moderate erosive GERD. Methods: A randomized, single-blinded, outdoor-based clinical study was conducted on 60 patients of mild to moderate erosive GERD. After baseline clinical assessment and investigations, Rabeprazole was prescribed to 30 patients and Esomeprazole to another 30 patients for 4weeks. The efficacy variables were change in GERD symptom scoring, endoscopic findings and Quality Of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) scoring over 4weeks. Results: Heart burn, acid regurgitation and overall GERD symptom scoring (p=0.01) were significantly decreased with Rabeprazole in comparison to Esomeprazole. Comparative study of all five domains of QOLARD questionnaire including overall scoring revealed statistically significant improvement in Rabeprazole group. Endoscopic findings in Rabeprazole group showed an absolute improvement of 30% and relative improvement of 55% over Esomeprazole. Both the drugs were well tolerated having no significant difference in incidence of adverse effects. Conclusion: Rabeprazole is a better choice for mild to moderate GERD compared with Esomeprazole because of its better efficacy and safety profile

GIT-12

Exploration of in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective action of dehydrozingerone in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

Nitesh Kumar , P.Vasanth Raj, Anil Chaudhary, Prateek Jain, C. Mallikarjuna Rao, N. Udupa

Department of Pharmacology, MCOPS, Manipal-576104, Karnataka

Objectives: The present study was designed to explore hepatoprotective action of Dehydrozingerone against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Methods: In vitro hepatoprotection of DZ was evaluated on HepG2 cell line by MTT assay. Toxicity of paracetamol was compared with pre-exposure of Dz and standard drug (silymarin). For in vivo hepatoprotection, Wistar rats were divided in four groups (n=6): sham, toxicant control (paracetamol), standard (silymarin, 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and Dz (100 mg/kg, p.o.) group. Treatment was continued for 7 days. Paracetamol (2.5 g/kg) was administered orally on 6 th day and on 8 th day blood was withdrawn, serum was separated and analysis of enzyme parameters like AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin were performed. Rats were sacrificed and livers were isolated for histopathology. Results: In HepG2 cells, cytotoxicity value (CTC 50 ) for paracetamol was found to be 50μg/ml. Silymarin and Dz pretreatment showed protection against paracetamol induced-cytotoxicity and enhanced percentage viability. In vivo experiment showed significant (P<0.05) reduction in the levels of AST, ALT and ALP and total bilirubin compared to toxicant control group. Also, histopathological investigation revealed the protection by Dz and Silymarin against paracetamol-induced damage to the hepatocyte. Conclusions: These results identify the ability of Dz to be a potent hepatoprotective agent and comparable to silymarin.

GIT-13

Evaluation of antacid activity of Garcinia indica fruit rind (Kokum) by a modified artificial stomach model


Vandana S. Panda, Tejas R. Tha kur, Prashant D. Khambat

Prin K.M. Kundnani College of Pharmacy, 23-Jote Joy Bldg, Rambhau Salgaonkar Marg, Cuffe Parade, Mumbai-05. (MS)

Aim: This study investigates the antacid effect of the aqueous extract of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica by using a modified artificial stomach model. Objectives: 1. To obtain the aqueous extract of G. indica fruit rind (GIE) corresponding to its use in cooking. 2. To investigate the antacid effect of GIE. 3. To establish G. indica fruit rind (kokum) as a medicinal food. Methodology: G. indica fruit rind was successively extracted with water using Soxhlet apparatus. The pH of the GIE (400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg) and their neutralizing effects on artificial gastric acid were determined and compared with water and the active control sodium bicarbonate. A modified model of Vatier's artificial stomach was used to determine the duration of consistent neutralization of artificial gastric acid. The neutralization capacity in vitro was determined with the classical titration method of Fordtran's model. Results: The extract of GIE (400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg) exhibited a potent antacid effect in vitro. All treatments including GIE 400 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg and sodium bicarbonate exhibited significant acid neutralizing effects when compared with water. The duration for consistent neutralization and antacid capacities of GIE 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg were significantly higher than that of water. Conclusion: From the results of this study, we can conclude that the GIE possesses promising antacid activity.

GIT-14

Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Garcinia indica fruit rind (kokum)


Vandana S. Panda, Pravin S. Kharat , Prashant D. Khambat

Prin K.M.Kundnani College of Pharmacy, 23-Jote Joy Bldg, Rambhau Salgaonkar Marg, Cuffe Parade, Mumbai-05. (MS)

Aim: To evaluate the anti-ulcer effect of an aqueous extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind by using the histamine-induced ulcer model. Objectives: 1. To obtain the aqueous extract of G. indica fruit rind (GIE) corresponding to its use in cooking. 2. To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of GIE. 3. To establish G. indica fruit rind (kokum) as a medicinal food. Methodology: The fruit rinds of G. indica were successively extracted with water using the Soxhlet apparatus. Albino Wistar rats of either sex were divided into six groups of 6 rats each, viz., normal group, toxicant group (Histamine 300 mg/kg, i.p.), standard group (Ranitidine 50 mg/kg, p.o.) and test groups (GIE 400 mg/ kg and 800 mg/ kg, p.o.). All rats were fasted for 24 hours but allowed free access to water. The standard drug and the test drug were administered orally to the respective groups. One hour after their pretreatment, all animals were treated with histamine. After 4 hours, they were humanely sacrificed by using diethyl ether. Ulcers formed in the glandular portion of the stomachs were scored and the ulcer index was calculated. The stomach was further tested for some antioxidant parameters. Results: The GIE at both doses exhibited significant protection against ulcers produced by histamine; this effect was comparable to that of ranitidine. The GIE extract significantly lowered the histamine-elevated lipid peroxide levels and restored the histamine-depleted glutathione level, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidise and glutathione reductase activities significantly. Conclusion: From the results of this study, we can conclude that the GIE exhibited significant anti-ulcer activity by enhancing the antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa.

GIT-15

Hepatoprotective activity of Justicia gendarussa burm. Against simvastatin induced hepatotoxicityin rats


thRoshan HP, Krishna KL, Mruthunjaya K,

JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagar, Mysore, Karnataka-570 015

Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of roots extracts of Justicia gendarussa Burm; by in vitro and in vivo on rats. Materials and Methods: The crude methanolic extract was prepared by soxhlet extraction and fractionated into flavonoid, non-flavonoid. The marc was macerated with chloroform water to yield the aqueous extract. The extracts were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity using isolated rat hepatocytes to select the promising ones for in-vivo studies. Simvastatin was used as a hepatotoxin and the evaluation was done by determining the serum enzymes, antioxidant enzymes as well as liver histopathological studies. Results: Methanolic extract and flavonoid fraction showed best antioxidant activity owing to their high phenolic and flavonoid content. Simvastatin significantly reduced the hepatocytes viability and also altered the biochemical parameters in the in-vitro studies, which were restored by the extracts treatment. In in-vivo studies, the substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels in the simvastatin treated animals were restored towards normalization by the extracts. The histopathological and morphological studies revealed the hepatoprotective potentials of extracts of Justiciagendarussa on simvastatin induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: These results suggest that the root extract of Justicia gendarussa Burm. possess good hepatoprotective activity against simvastatin induced liver injury both in-vitro as well as in-vivo. The reported activity may be due to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential.

GIT-16

Exploring The Role of Zingiber officinale in Functional Dyspepsia

Saurabh Singh, Satish Belamnkar, Ronak Parmar, Jimi Desai, Diptesh Gohil, Ankit Modi

School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Babulde, Bank of Tapi River, Mumbai Agra Road, Shirpur Maharashtra, India.

Objective: To study the effect of Zingiber officinale extract on Isolated Rat fundus preparation. Methods: Male Rat (Wistar Albino strain 250-350 gm) was killed by a blow to the head or Exsanguinations and Decapitation. Fundus muscles were dissected from the animal and Set up in 30 ml glass organ baths that contained Krebs Solution (in gm NaCl- 20.4; KCI-1.05; MgSO 4 -0.84; NaH 2 PO 4 - 0.48; CaCl 2 -0.84; NaHCO 3 - 6.3; Glucose-6.0, Na 2 EDTA- 29.1). Organ bath temperature was maintained at 37 0 C and the Krebs solution was gassed continuously with 95% 0 2 , 5% CO 2 . Then after doing the calibration on the Power Lab instrument, initial put the 0 gm running after that 1gm running. A resting tension of 1gm was placed on the tissue. We used Histamine (1×10 -9 gm/ml) and Zingiber officinale (1mg/ml, Dose- 0.05ml) on the rat Fundus muscle. The contact time for the tissue is 90 second. After one dosing we give 2 minutes washing interval for two to three times for the tissue relaxation and drug withdrawal. The changes in tension were recorded by MLT 500/A Isometric Force Transducer on the Power lab data acquisition system (AD Instruments). Results: Histamine produced dose dependent contractions which was antagonize by the Zingiber officinale extract on the rat fundus strip. Conclusion: It is concluded that methanol extract of Zingiber officinale possess antagonistic activity. Its possible action may be on H 1 receptor of the fundus strip. Thus this may be responsible for various pharmacological effects.

GIT-17

Exploring the role of Peper longum on functional dyspepsia

Ankit Modi, Sateesh Belemkar, Jimi Desai, Diptesh Gohil, Nikhil Nambissan, Saurabh Singh

School of Pharmacy & Technology Management, Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Babulde, Bank of Tapi River, Mumbai Agra Road, Shirpur-425405 - Maharashtra,

Objective: To study the effects of Pippaliextract (Peper Longum) on isolated mice fundus preparation. Methods: Peper Longum was ground into coarse powder, boiled in distilled water, filtered and made 100% extract solution. The 100% Peper Longum extract solution was dispensed in the concentration of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively. Fundus muscles were dissected from the animal and Set up in 30 ml glass organ baths that contained Krebs Solution ( in gm NaCl- 20.4; KCI-1.05; MgSO 4 -0.84; NaH 2 PO 4 - 0.48; CaCl 2 -0.84; NaHCO 3 - 6.3; Glucose-6.0, Na 2 EDTA- 29.1). Organ bath temperature was maintained at 37 0 C and the Krebs solution was gassed continuously with 95% 0 2 , 5% CO 2 . We used Histamine (1 mg/ml) and methanolic extract of Peper longum (1 mg/ml) on the mice fundus strip. The contact time for the tissue is 90 second. After one dosing we give 2 minutes washing interval for two to three times for the tissue relaxation and drug withdrawal. The changes in tension were recorded by MLT 500/A Isometric Force Transducer on the Power lab data acquisition system (AD Instruments). Results: Histamine produced dose dependent contractions which was antagonize by the pippali extract on the mice fundus strip. Conclusion: The histamine showed contractile responses on the fundus strip which was antagonize by the relaxation response of Peper longum, its possible action may be on H 1 and H 2 receptor of the fundus strip. Thus this may be responsible for pippali various pharmacological effects.

GIT-18

Anti ulcer activity of heliotopiumindicum

Shenoy Ashoka M , Shabaraya A.R.

Department of Pharmacology, Srinivas College of Pharmacy, Valachil, Parangipete Post, Mangalore 574 143

Objective: The objective of present study is to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of ethanol extract of leaves of Heliotopium indicum. Methods: The ethanol extract of H.indicum was investigated for its anti-ulcer activity against aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats, HCl -Ethanol induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress induced ulcer in rats. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer inhibition in aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer model. The number of lesions in HCI Ethanol induced peptic ulcer model and mean score value of ulcer inhibition in water immersion stress induced ulcer model. Results: A significant antiulcer activity was observed in all the models. Pylorus ligation model showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. Also extract showed 69.71% ulcer inhibition in HCl- Ethanol induced ulcer and 65.3% ulcer protection index in stress induced ulcer. Conclusion: This present study indicates that Heliotopium indicum leaves extract have potential anti-ulcer activity in the three models tested which may be attributed to the phytoconstituents like alkaloids present in it.

GIT-19

Anti-ulcer activity of polyherbal formulation by pyloric ligated model in Albino Rat

Chinni Ranganath , G. Bharat Kumar, A. Partha Saradhi, Usha Rani, Y.Chandra Vadana, B. Jhothi

Krishna Teja Pharmacy College, Renigunta Road, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh

Traditionally the ethnolic extract of polyherbal formulation (Boswellia ovalifoliolata, syzygium alternifolium and pimpinella tirupatiensis) is used for ant- ulcer activity. Aim of the study:The aim was to evaluate the anti- ulcer activity of poly herbal formulation in an in vivo models. Material and Methods:The ethnolic extract of poly herbal preparation was prepared and administered orally to rats. The anti-ulcer activity of the poly-herbal formulation was determined by pyloric ligation model. Result:The oral administration of polyherbal preparation reduces the ulcer significantly (P < 0.05) in pyloric ligation model at dose of 500 mg/kg BW. Conclusion:The results of the study supported the traditional use of polyherbal formulation in the treatment for anti-ulcer activity. Key words: Anti-ulcer activity, poly herbal formulaiton, pyloric ligation.


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IND-1

Effect of lupeol isolated from alstonia scholaris on nephropathy in diabetic rats

*Narendra Singh Kusmakar , Narendra Silawat, Swapnil Goyal, Deepak Jayant, Rahul Trivedi, Rupesh Soni

Department of Pharmacology, B. R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mandsaur (M.P.)

*E-mail: nsk86pharma@gmail.com

Objective : The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Lupeol isolated from Alstonia scholaris on nephropathy in diabetic rats. Methods: Wistar albino rats were made diabetic by single i.p. injection of STZ (50 mg/kg) then after 4 th day, renal ischemia reperfusion technique was used to induce Nephropathy, after this surgery various biological parameter were assessed on 28 day. Blood urea nitrogen, plasma and urine creatinine, urine albumin were estimated for assessment of renal dysfunction and GSH and MDA served as oxidative stress parameter. Result: The observation of the present study may be concluded the Lupeol from Alstonia scholaris was a significant decrease in Blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine and urine creatinine and MDA where as GSH levels decreased in disease control group. In our observation Lupeol showed anti-oxidant potential by decreasing glutathione (GSH) level and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in experimental rats. Conclusion: The overall results of this study have clearly indicated that Lupeol from Alstonia scholaris in the doses of 35 mg/kg significantly ameliorates in nephropathy in diabetic rats.

IND-2

Protective effect of thymoquinone against att induced hepatotoxicity

Chansoria A, Salman M T, Singh H K , Sindhu S, Verma V K, Ahmed A.

Department of Pharmacolgy, Era's Lucknow Medical College Sarfarzganj, Hardoi Road Lucknow. B-8 Sector -A Mahanagar, Lucknow.

Objective: Hepatoprotective activity of Nigella sativa (Kalaunji) has been well established so author hypothesized its active constituent Thymoquinone could protect ATT induced Hepatic insult if given simultaneously. Method : To achieve this hypothesis 24 male wistar rats were divided into four different groups (n=6), group 1 served as a control, Group 2 received ATT(Hepatotoxicity Model) ,in Group 3 and 4 thymoquinone was co administered with ATT at dose of 5 and 10 mg/kg orally respectively. All the treatment protocols were followed for 28 days. Blood was withdrawn at 14 th day and 28 th day. At the end of 28 th day rats weresacrificed by cervical dislocation and blood was withdrawn from cardiac puncture and sent for estimation of circulating liver markers by semi auto analyser. For histopathology left lobe of liver was taken and sent for slide preparation. Results : ATT caused a significant increase in ALP, SGOT, SGPT and total bilirubin levels at day 14 and day 28. Liver histopathology showed cholestasis, sinusoidal dilatation mid zonal necrosis, portal triaditis and occasional apoptosis. All these effect were significantly ameliorated in Thymoquinone treated groups. Conclusion : Results revealed that treatment with Thymoquinone prevented both biochemical as well as histopathological evidence of hepatic damage induced by antitubercular drugs. Thus Thymoquinone seems to be effective hepatoprotective agent which needs further study to advocate its use with ATT drugs.

IND-3

Screening of various antihyerlipidemic herbal drugs and glimepiride for their inhibitory activity on acyl co enzyme a: Cholesterol acyltransferase

Vishal Airao , Parthiv Patel, Mehul Chorawala, Divyesh Bhalodiya, Samir Rabadiya, Navin Sheth

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360005, Gujarat, India

Objective: The objective of the present study was to screen out various antihyperlipidemic herbal drugs and Glimepiride for their inhibitory activity on Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) enzyme. Method and Result: Effect of various antihyperlipidemic herbal drugs and Glimepride on ACAT enzyme in liver microsome prepared from high fat diet fed rat by measuring cholesteryl ester as product using Acyl co A as substract, The studied show that the Berberine (IC 50 < 1μg/ml), Capsaicin(IC 50 < 1μg/ml), Citrus limonis (IC 50 1.79 μg/ml), Citrulluscolosynthis (IC 50 14.20 μg/ml), Glimepiride (IC 50 20.06 μg/ml), Achyranthusaspera (IC 50 47.69 μg/ml) and Methanolic Sub fraction of Achyranthusaspera (IC 50 4.61 μg/ml) inhibited the ACAT activity. Effect of Azadirachtaindica, Momordicacharantia, Trigonellafoenuma and Tinosporacardifolia was much lesser than other studied drugs on ACAT enzyme. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that Berberine, Capsaicin, Glimepiride Citrus limonis, Citrulluscolosynthis, Achyranthusaspera and Methanolic Sub fraction of Achyranthusaspera was found to have ACAT inhibitory activity. Further study should be carried out to isolate the active constituents which are responsible for ACAT inhibitory activity from these extracts.

IND-4

Wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of flowers of Michelia champaca in diabetic rats


Shanbhag T, Amoolya G , Raghu MN, Shenoy S.

Amoolya Gowda, Post Graduate, Dept. of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka - 576104.

Objective: To evaluate the wound healing property of ethanolic extract of flowers of Michelia champaca in incision wound model, in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Methods : The ethanolic extract of dried flowers of Michelia champaca was obtained using Soxhlet extractor. 30 adult albino rats of Wistar strain of both the sex were used for the study. The animals were divided into five groups of 6 each. Group-1 served as non-diabetic control. In rest of the animals, diabetes was induced by injecting streptozotocin. Group-2 served as diabetic control. Both these groups received ointment base, topically. Group-3, 4 and 5 were treated with varying concentrations of topical preparation of the extract, viz., 2.5%, 5% and 10%, respectively. 7 days after induction of diabetes, two 6 cm long paravertebral straight incision wounds were created and sutured. On day 7, sutures were removed and on day 10, tensile strength of the wounds was measured. Analysis was done using One-Way ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc test using SPSS (ver.16.0). Results: The diabetic control group exhibited the least tensile strength among all the groups. The tensile strength of wounds in animals of Michelia champaca treated groups (5% and 10%) was significantly increased (P< 0.05) when compared with the non-diabetic and diabetic control groups. Conclusion : This study revealed that the topical application of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca on incision wound enhances the healing, as demonstrated by increased tensile strength of the wound.

IND-5

Wound healing activity of topical sodium fusidate, mupirocin and framycetin in diabetic Wistar rats: A comparative study

Raghu MN , Smita Shenoy, Amoolya G., Shanbhag T.

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka - 576104, India

Objectives: Compare wound healing activity of topical Sodium fusidate, Mupirocin and Framycetin in diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and methods: Study was done using five groups of Wistar rats of both the sex with six rats in each group. Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted rats using streptozotocin (30mg/kg). Excision wounds (400mm2 and 2mm depth) were made followed by which Framycetin , Mupirocin and Sodium fusidate were applied topically in first three groups (Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3), respectively. The other two groups served as diabetic control (paraffin wax ointment base) and non-diabetic control respectively. Drugs were applied topically for 21 days and wound healing was assessed using wound contraction rate and period of epithelisation. Results: There was significant delay in wound healing in diabetic rats compared to non diabetic rats. Sodium fusidate significantly (P<0.05) enhances the rate of wound healing when compared to mupirocin and framycetin by decreasing period of epithelisation and increasing wound contraction rate. Conclusion: This study reveals antibiotics, particularly topical application of sodium fusidate enhances rate of wound healing in Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats compared to mupirocin and framycetin.

IND-6

Evaluation of diuretic activity of vanillin

Pradeepti, Preethi G. Pai, Sheetal Ullal, Ahsan shoeb, Sudharshan Reddy, Umma Habeeba

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore - 575001

Background and Objectives: Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia), a monocotyledonous orchid, native of Central America, grown for the attractive aroma produced by its fruit is reported to have been used by the Aztec people in Mexico to promote diuresis and purify blood. However a search of literature revealed no scientific data to prove this claim and hence we decided to evaluate its diuretic potential in normal rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in saline primed Wistar albino rats (n=6) using frusemide (10 mg/kg) as the reference diuretic drug with two oral doses of vanillin, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively. Urine volume and electrolytes (Sodium, Potassium and Chloride) excretion was estimated at the end of 24 hours and data was analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney tests. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Vanillin statistically increased the volume of urine (6.30±1.00ml/200g/24hr and 7.86±0.69ml/400gm/24hr) in a dose dependent manner increasing the diuretic index to 1.89 and 2.36 for 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg dose ranges respectively (P< 0.01). However, there was a statistical significant decrease in the excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations when compared to the control; the saluretic index being 0.25 and 0.33 which was lesser than that for frusemide (1.81). Conclusion: These findings indicate that the probable increase in urine formation might be due an aquaretic action of vanillin rather than a natruretic effect and further studies with larger doses and longer duration are warranted.

IND-7

Evaluation of hypolipidemic effect of l0 ycium barbarum linn (goji berry) in rats


Umma Habeeba P., Preethi G. Pai, Sheetal Ullal, Ahsan Shoeb P., Pradeepti MS, Ramya

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore - 575001, India

Background and Objectives: Fruit from Lyciumbarbarum L. Solanaceae has been claimed to possess various beneficial effects like reduction of blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan induced diabetes models, anti-aging, immuno-modulating, anticancer, anti-fatigue, and male fertility-facilitatory actions. However, literature research revealed no scientific data to verify its lipid lowering activity in hyperlipidemia models. Hence this study was designed to evaluate the effects of powdered L.barbarum on lipid profile in high fat diet induced model of hyperlipidemia. Materials and Methods: Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding a cholesterol rich high fat diet for 45 days in Wistar albino rats of either sex (n=8). Powdered L. barbarum fruit extract administered at the dose of 250mg/kg/day and 500mg/kg/day, per oral, was compared with the standard drug Atorvastatin(10mg/kg/day, oral) fed for the latter 30 days. The blood samples were then sent for complete blood lipid profile, after 30 days of treatment. The data presented as mean ± SEM was analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. P <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results : The test drug significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels at both the doses employed. (P<0.05) However, reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was significant (P<0.05) only at the dose of 500mg/kg when compared to the standard drug group. Significant increase in high density lipoprotein levels was noted only at 250mg/kg dose. Conclusion : The present study demonstrates the antihyperlipidemic activity of L.barbarum in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

IND-8

Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic extract of carica papaya linn. In diabetic rats

Yasmeen Maniyar , Prabhu Bhixavatimath

Department of pharmacology, S N Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka

Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Carica papaya Linn in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.). Rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. First group served as non diabetic control, second group as diabetic control, third group as standard and was treated with 0.1 mg/kg/ day of glibenclamide. Group four, five, six received 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the ethanolic extract. Blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose on day 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and lipid profile on day 21. Results: The ethanolic extract of Carica papaya showed significant reduction (P<0.001) in blood glucose level and serum lipid profile levels with 400 mg/kg body weight in alloxan induced diabetic rats as compared to control. Conclusion: It is concluded that ethanolic extract of Carica papaya is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and in improving lipid profile in diabetic rats.

IND-9

Evaluation of analgesic activity of aqueous extract of solanum melongena linn. In albino rats


Yasmeen A M, Umamageswari M S

Department of Pharmacology, S N Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka

Objectives : To evaluate the analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Solanum melongena linn in albino rats. Methods : Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of S melongena linn at the doses of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg was evaluated against the standard drug Aspirin 300mg/kg following oral administration. Adult wistar rats of either sex, 8 in each group were undertaken for study by tail flick method. Result : Aqueous extract of S.melongena linn was found to produce significant (<0.0001) analgesic activity. In our study the extract at 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg showed highly significant (<0.0001) activity after 1hr, but 100mg/kg showed highly significant activity (<0.0001) only after 2hrs. The results of 400mg/kg and standard group were comparable at 3 rd hr. Conclusion : The aqueous extract of Solanum melongena linn has potential analgesic activity against stimuli in the test animals. So it can be recommended for further studies.

IND-10

Antinociceptive effect of entada phaseoloides seeds after topical application in arthritic wistar rat model

Dawane J.S ., Pandit V.A., Rajopadhye B.D.

Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Medical College, Pune

Objectives : To study the effect of topical application of different formulations Entadaphaseoloides (EP) seeds for analgesic activity in arthritic rats. To compare analgesic activity of EP with Diclofenac sodium ointment. Method : After removing the shell, EP seeds were powdered. Paste was prepared with water and ointment with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) and Carbowax 3350. 32 Wister rats of either sex weighing 150-200 gms were divided into four groups - Gr-I vehicle, Gr-II EP paste, Gr-III EP Ointment and Gr-IV Diclofenac Sodium Ointment for each activity. For induction of arthritis 0.1ml of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) was injected intra-articularly injection in left knee joint. Drug treatment was started on the same day by topical application as per the groups. Pain threshold for referred pain was measured using Randall Selittoanalgesy meter. Results: At 0 hours pain threshold of animals in all the groups was approximately similar. Pain threshold in control group statistically significantly (P<0.001) decreased at 72 hours. Whereas pain threshold was marginally increased in EP and Diclofenac treated group. The difference in pain threshold between control and drug treated group was statistically highly significant. (P<0.001). Conclusion: Both the formulations of EP have analgesic activity comparable to Diclofenac sodium.

IND-11

Estrogenic activity of alcholic extract of lemon seeds (citrus-limonum) on ovarioctamized albino rats

Kulkarni T.R. , Sahasrabudhe R.A., V.A. Pandit

Department of Pharmacology, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Medical College, Pune- 411043

Objectives: To study oestrogenic activity of alcoholic extract of lemon (Citrus Limonum) seeds. Methods: Estrogenic activity of alcoholic extract of (Citrus Limonum) lemon seeds was studied in female Albino rats. Ovarioctamized rats received the drug treatments for 7 days from 8 th to 14 th day after ovariectomy. The Standard Drug (Stilbestrol) was given sub-cutaneously and test drug (Alcholic extract of lemon seeds) was given orally as a suspension, while the two control groups received vehicle (gum acacia) and no treatment respectively. Animals were sacrificed on day 14. Body weight, uterine weight and presence of cornified epithelial cells in the vaginal smear were compared between the groups. Vaginal smear test score ≥ 2 indicates estrogenic activity. Isolated uterus preparations from these animals were mounted and contractile response to Oxytocin was compared. Phyto chemical studies of this extract were also carried out. Results: Increase in vaginal epithelial cell cornification and uterine weight was comparable in the test and stilbestroltreated rats and was significantly higher than controls. On isolated rat uterus preparation, contractions in response to Oxytocin were similar in both test drug and stilbestrol treated groups.

IND-12

In vitro anticancer activity of abutilon indicum leaves on u-87 mg, a brain tumor cell line

Rukaiyya S. Khan , S. Mallika, Mahibalan S., D. Sriram, Sajeli Begum A.

Department of Pharmacy, BITS-Pilani Hyderabad campus, Jawahar Nagar, R.R.Dist, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Objective: Abutilon indicum Linn. Sweet (common name: Indian mallow), belonging to Malvaceae family is abundantly found as a weed throughout the tropical parts of India. A. indicum, known as "Atibala" in Sanskrit, is one among the important medicinal plants commonly used in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani Medicinal systems. In folk medicine, the leaves of A. indicum are used as antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, analgesic, immunomodultaory, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. The present work, explores the cytotoxic activity of crude methanolic extract of A. indicum leaves (MEAI) and its sub-fractions. Method: MEAI and its sub-fractions, derived through partition separation using chloroform (MEAI-C) and ethyl acetate (MEAI-E), were tested on human glioblastoma-astrocytoma, epithelial like cell lines (U-87 MG) along with normal cell line (HEK 293) by MTT [3- (4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay at different concentrations (10-50μg/ml). The absorbance was read at 590 nm on a multi-well plate reader (Victor3TM, Perkin Elmer). Percentage inhibition of proliferation was calculated against control (without sample). Results and conclusion : A decrease in the growth of cancer cells was observed with increasing concentrations of MEAI, MEAI-C and MEAI-E. The crude MEAI showed 44.2% growth inhibition at 50μg/ml. While, the MEAI-C showed a highest inhibition of 61.02% at 50μg/ml, MEAI-E showed 57.48% inhibition at the same concentration. The results were compared with a reference compound, Quercetin, which showed 28.9 % growth inhibition at 30μg/ml. The study disclosed a significant in vitro anticancer effect of leaves of A. indicum, which must be further exploited for the development of a potential therapeutic agent for brain tumor.

IND-13

Evaluation of healing effect of terminalia chebula fruit extract on chemically induced colitis in rats


H. Sharma
, R.R. Ghatule, M.K. Gautam, V. Purohit, S.R.S. Murthy, R.K. Goel

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

Objectives: To assess the healing effect of 50% ethanolic extract of dried fruit pulp of T. chebula (TCWE) in acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis in albino rats. Materials and methods: Colitis was produced in rats by intracolonic administration of AA (10%, 0.2 ml). TCWE (600 mg/kg) and sulfasalazine (SS, 100 mg/kg) were orally administered to rats after induction of colitis with AA while, AA-untreated rats received NS orally. TCWE was studied for its effects on various physical (colonic damage score, weight and adhesions, fecal output with blood or mucous, body weight changes, food and water intake), histology and estimation of free radicals, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in colonic mucosa. Results: AA treatment led to significant increase in colonic damage score, adhesions and weight and histology showed deformed cryptae, lymphocytic infiltration and oedema in the rat colon. TCWE showed decrease in colonic damage score, weight and adhesions and improvement in the structures with decreased lymphocytic infiltration. AA caused increase in fecal output with blood/mucous and decrease in body weight with no change in food and water intake while, TCWE treatment reversed the above effects of AA. AA showed increase in free radicals levels and decrease in antioxidants status in the colonic mucosal homogenate while the treatment with TCWE in AA-induced colitis rats showed decrease in free radicals level and increase in antioxidants. The results were comparable with those of SS treatment. Conclusions: T. chebula fruit pulp possessed significant healing effects in AA-induced colitis which may be due to the enhanced antioxidant and free radical scavenging actions.

IND-14

Wound healing effect of extract of Aegle marmelos (fruit pulp)

S.R.S. Murthy , V. Purohit, R.R. Ghatule, M.K. Gautam, R.K. Goel

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

Objective: To study wound healing effect of 50% ethanolic extract of dried Aeglemarmelos fruit pulp (AMWE) in rats. Material and Methods: AMWE (200 mg/kg), suspended in 1% CMC, was administered orally once daily to C-F rats (150-200 g) for variable days depending on the type of wound ulcer study (10 days both for Incisional and Dead space wound and 24 days or earlier till complete epithelization in case of Excisional wound study). Wounds (Excisional, Incisional and Dead space) were produced in rats as per standard procedures (n=6-8). Wound contraction, epithelization period and scar area (Excisional model); wound breaking strength (Incisional model); weight of granulation tissue and antioxidants (SOD and GSH) status, levels of oxidative stress markers (LPO and NO) and connective tissue determinants (Hydroxyproline, Hexosamine, Hexuronic acid) in wet granulation tissue (Dead space wound) were evaluated. Results: Complete wound contraction and epithelization were observed at 20 th day after treatment with AMWE as compared to 24 th day in control (1% CMC) rats. Mean epithelization period and scar area were decreased while wound breaking strength was increased with AMWE compared with control. Granulation tissue showed increased levels of collagen determinants like Hydroxyproline, Hexosamine, Hexuronic acid and antioxidants (SOD and GSH) whereas markers of oxidative stress (viz. LPO and NO) were decreased in AMWE treated groups when compared with control group. The results with AMWE on the above parameters were comparable with that of Vitamin E (positive control) treated group. Conclusion: A. marmelos seems to promote wound healing by enhancing connective tissue formation and antioxidants status with decrease in free radicals having tissue damaging effects.

IND-15

Wound healing effect of extract of Azadirachta indica in rats

R.K. Goel , H. Sharma, V. Purohit, M. K. Gautam, R.R. Ghatule, A. Singh

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

Objective: To study the wound healing effect of 50% alcoholic extract of leaves of A. indica on various physical and biochemical parameters in rats. Material and Methods: AIWE (500 mg/kg), suspended in 1% CMC, was administered orally once daily to C-F rats (150-200 g) for variable days depending on the type of wound ulcer study (10 days both for Incision and dead space wounds and 24 days or earlier till complete epithelization in case of excision wound study). Wounds (Excision, Incision and Dead space) were produced in rats as per standard procedures (n=6-8). Wound contraction, epithelizationperiod and scar area (Excision model); wound breaking strength (Incision model); weight of granulation tissue and antioxidants (SOD and GSH), levels of oxidative stress markers (LPO and NO) and connective tissue determinants (Hydroxyproline, Hexosamine, Hexuronic acid) in wet granulation tissue (Dead space wound) were evaluated. Results: Complete wound contraction and epithelization were observed at 20 th day after treatment with AIWE as compared to 24 th day in control (1% CMC) rats. Mean epithelization period and scar area were decreased while wound breaking strength was increased with AMWE compared to control. Granulation tissue showed increased levels of collagen determinants like Hydroxyproline, Hexosamine, Hexuronic acid and antioxidants (SOD and GSH) whereas markers of oxidative stress (viz. LPO and NO) were decreased in AIWE treated groups when compared with control group. The results with AIWE on the above parameters were comparable with that of Vitamin E (positive control) treated group. Conclusion: A. indica seems to promote wound healing by enhancing connective tissue formation and antioxidants status with decrease in free radicals having tissue damaging effects.

IND-16

Healing effect of Aegle marmelos fruit extract on acetic acid induced colitis in rats

M.K. Gautam , R.R. Ghatule, H. Sharma, V. Purohit, A. Singh, R.K. Goel

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University,Varanasi-221005, India

Objectives: Study of ulcer healing effects of 50% ethanolic extract of dried fruit pulp of Aeglemarmelos (AMWE) on acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental colitis was produced in rats by intracolonic administration of AA (10%, 0.2 ml). AMWE (200 mg/kg) and sulfasalazine (SS, 100 mg/kg) were orally administered to rats after induction of colitis with AA while, AA-untreated rats received NS orally and intrarectally. AMWE was studied for its effects on various physical (colonic damage score, weight and adhesions, fecal output with blood or mucous, body weight changes, food and water intake), histology and estimation of free radicals, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in colonic mucosal homogenates. Results: AA treatment led to significant increase in colonic damage score, adhesions and weight and histology showed deformed cryptae, loss of goblets cells, lymphocytic infiltration and submucosal oedema in rat colon. AMWE showed decrease in colonic damage score, weight and adhesions and improvement in the structures with near intact epithelia. AA caused increase in fecal output with blood/mucous and decrease in body weight with no change in food and water intake while, AMWE treatment reversed the above effects of AA. AA showed increase in free radicals levels and decrease in antioxidants status in the colonic mucosal homogenate while the treatment with AMWE in AA-induced colitis rats showed decrease in free radicals and increase in antioxidants levels. The results were comparable with those of SS treatment. Conclusions: AMWE possessed significant healing properties in AA-induced colitis which may be due to its potent antioxidant potential and free radical scavenging properties.

IND-17

Anticonvulsant activity of Phyllanthus amarus and Tylophora indica in experimental animal models

Shyamjith M. , Deepa B. 2 , Anu J. 1 , Rao S.N.

Department of Pharmacology, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore, 1 Department of Physiology, Yenepoya Medical College Mangalore, 2 Department of Pharmacology, KSHEMA, Mangalore.

Objectives : The aim of the present study was to investigate anticonvulsant effect of Phyllanthusamarus and Tylophoraindica on maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures. Methods : The ethanolic extract of the leaves and stems of P. amarus (70 mg/kg, p.o) and leaves of T.indica (300 mg/kg, p.o) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect on MES and PTZ induced seizures in rats. The latency of tonic convulsions and the number of animals protected from tonic convulsions were noted. Results : The ethanolic extract of the leaves and stems of P. amarus (70 mg/kg, p.o) and leaves of T.indica (300 mg/kg, p.o) significantly abolished the hind limb extension induced by MES. The same doses also protected the animals from PTZ induced tonic convulsions. Conclusions : The data suggests that the ethanolic extracts of P. amarus and T.indica may produce its anticonvulsant effects via non-specific mechanisms since it abolished the hind limb extension induced by MES as well as delayed the latency of seizures produced by PTZ.

IND-18

Evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of azadirachta indica in alloxan induced diabetic rats

Sangeetha , Hema N.G.

Department of Pharmacology, Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Mysore.

Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a potentially morbid condition with high prevalence worldwide. So this disease constitutes a major health concern affecting about 2.8% of the global population. Currently available synthetic antidiabetic agents produce serious side effects. This leads to a demand for herbal products with antidiabetic activity and fewer side effects. Hence Azadirachta indica a well known traditional plant in India with a wide spectrum of biological activity is being evaluated for its anti diabetic activity. Methods: Alloxan induced (150/kg.i.p) diabetic rats were divided into four groups of six animals each weighing 200-250 gms. Group I - Diabetic control: 2% gum acacia. Group II - Standard: 2% of gum acacia + Glibenclamide (0.5mg/kg). Group III -TEST A: 2% gum acacia + Azadirachta indica leaf extract (500mg/kg). GROUP IV- TEST B: 2% gum acacia + Azadirachta indica leaf extract (500mg/kg) +Glibenclamide (0.5mg/kg). All drugs are given once daily orally for 30 days and fasting blood glucose was estimated from blood taken from rat tail vein using glucometer on 0, 1 st , 7 th , 14 th , 21 st , 28 th days. Results: Azadirachta indica by itself has significant hypoglycemic effect. But hypoglycemic effect produced by it, is not significant when compared to the standard drug glibenclamide. Azadirachta indica when combined with glibenclamide showed significant hypoglycemic effect, the combined effect is more significantwhen compared to the standard alone. Conclusion: The result in this study suggests that Azadirachta indica can be used as a complementary medicine with glibenclamide in diabetes mellitus.

It has hepatoprotective and antioxidant property, which may also be useful in the diabetic patient in a long term, as a secondary effect.

IND-19

A study on antidiabetic activity of withania coagulans and its phytochemical screening

Asema Mahveen , Nazema Farheen 1 , Rasheed 2 , Iftequar Ali Baig 3

Department of Pharmacology, G.N.T.C, Hyderabad (A.P.), 1 Department of Kulliyat, G.N.T.C, Hyderabad (A.P.), 2 S.R.F, Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Hyderabad (A.P.), 3 Experimental Animal division, SIMS, Hyderabad (A.P.)

Objective : The fruits of Withaniacoagulans are used traditionally in treatment of Diabetes. Present study is done to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of crude form of drug Withaniacoagulans in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats. To validate this traditional claim phytochemical screening is also done to evaluate the Phytochemical responsible for antidiabetic activity. Methods : Antidiabetic activity was studied in Alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats (single induction dose: 150 mg/Kg bodyweight) taking Glibenclamide (10mg/kg) as standard reference. Grouping was done as Diabetic control group, Crude drug group, Methanolic extract group and standard group. Serum glucose levels were determined on days 0, 5, 7, and 14 day of treatment. The drug exhibited a significant decrease in blood glucose levels as compared with the standard antidiabetic agent Glibenclamide. Phytochemical screening as well as its Quantification by HPTLC is done for assessment of probable phytochemical responsible for antidiabetic activity. Results: it was found that crude form of Withaniacoagulans significantly decreased blood glucose levels in diabetic animals when compared to Methanolic extract and standard group. Conclusion : The results of the study indicates the antidiabetic potential, thus confirming the veracity of folklore claims of Withaniacoagulans scientifically for its use in the treatment of diabetes.

IND-20

A study of anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of punica granatumon albino rats

Sarma P., Das S.

Department of Pharmacology, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dist-Dibrugarh, Assam-786002.

Objective: To study the anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Punicagranatum on albino rats. Methods: Albino rats about 100-200 gms. were taken and divided into three groups, control(received 3% gum acacia), test group(received 100mg/kg ethanolic extract of Punicagranatum) and standard(received phenytoin 25mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Seizures were induced by maximal electroshock(MES) with an alternating current of 150 mA for 0.2 sec. delivered through ear electrodes or by injecting 50 mg/kg of pentylenetetrazol(PTZ) i.p. Parameters studied include hind limb extension in MES groups ,latency for and duration of convulsions in PTZ groups. Results: In MES model, EEPG completely abolished the hind limb extensor phase and decreased the duration of tonic flexor phase. ButPunicagranatum did not show any significant activity against PTZ induced seizure. Conclusion: It is concluded that EEPG possess significant anticonvulsant property.

IND-21

A study of anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of moringaoleifera on albino rats


Kaushik S., Das S.

Department of Pharmacology, Assam Medical College And Hospital, Dist-Dibrugarh, Assam -786002.

Objectives : To study the anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Moringaoleiferaon albino rats. Methods: Albino rats about 150-200 gms were taken and divided into three groups, control (received 3% gum acacia), test group (received 300mg/kg ethanolic extract of Moringaoleifera) and standard (received phenytoin 25mg/kg) intraperitoneally.Seizures were induced by maximal electroshock (MES) with an alternating current of 150 mA for 0.2 secs. delivered through ear electrodes or by injecting 50 mg /kg of pentylenetetrazol(PTZ) i.p .Parameters studied include hind limb extension in MES groups ,latency for and duration of convulsions in PTZ groups. Results : In MES model, there was significant decrease in the duration of hind limb extensor phase and in PTZ model, there was delay in onset and reduction in duration of convulsions. Conclusion : It is thus concluded that EEMO possess anticonvulsant property.

IND-22

Pharmacological evaluation of honey (h) daruhaldi (dh) and shatdhaut gritha (sdg) on excision wound healing activity in rats

Swati A. Moholkar , P.S. Worlikar, S. V. Bhalerao

Department of Pharmacology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Pimpri, Pune 18 (Maharashtra State), INDIA 411018.

E-mail: swatimoholkar@gmail.com


Honey, Daruhaldi and Shatdhdhautgritha have been used in the traditional system of medicine to treat wounds. The objective of present investigation was to elucidate ameliorative effect of honey, daruhaldiandshatdhdhautgrithain excision wound model in spragueDawley rats. Excision wounds were induced by excision skin on the back of rats. The animals were divided into 7 groups of 6 animals each. Untreated rats were used as control. 1 ml of povidine iodine, honey, daruhaldi, shatdhdhautgrithaand combination of Honey + Daruhalad (H+D), Honey + Shatdhdhautgritha (H+SDG) were used. The treatment was initiated on day 0 and continued for 21 days, for excision wound model. The parameters measured in excision wound model were % wound closure and wound surface area on days 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 21 days. In the present study % wound closure was increased significantly and wound surface area was decreased significantly as compared to untreated control.

The Order of their activity was as follows.

PI>H+DH>DH>H>H+SDG>H>UC

PI-povidone iodine

H= Honey, Dh = Daruhaldi, SDG= Shatdhdhautgritha, UC=Untreated ControlP.S. Worlikar, S. V. Bhalerao

IND-23

Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of ficus religiosa linn. In male albino wistar rats

V. Subbarao Kanneboina , Meera. S. Nair, M. Alvin Jose, D. Sathyamurthy, B. Nandhakumar, U. Subasini

Department of Pharmacology, SwamyVivekanandha College of Pharmacy, Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode, Namakkal (DT), Tamilnadu, India-637205.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of Ficusreligiosa Linn. on lipid profile of cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in male albino Wistar rats. Methods: The experimental hyperlipidemia was induced by administering 400mg/kg of cholesterol in 5ml of coconut oil orally once a day for 15 days to male albino Wistar rats. Animals were divided into five groups as normal control; Cholesterol Diet (CD) control; and CD group treated with Atorvastatin (10mg/kg), FRAE (Ficusreligiosa aqueous extract) 50mg/kg and FRAE 100mg/kg. After the treatment period of 15days serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, HDL-C levels and liver MDA (malondialdehyde) level were estimated. Results: The cholesterol diet significantly increased body weight, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, MDA level and significantly decreased HDL-C as compared to normal control. While CD group treated with Atorvastatin (10mg/kg) and FRAE (50 and 100mg/kg) significantly decreased the body weight, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, MDA level and significantly increased HDL-C when compared to CD control. Conclusions: The Ficusreligiosa aqueous extract (FRAE) possess potential anti-hyperlipidemic activity in cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in male albino Wistar rats.

IND-24

Hepato Protective Activity of Acacia Sinuata Linn against paracetamol induced liver damage on albino rats

Satyanarayana D* , A. Sarala, Varadarajan.

Department of Pharmacology, Kamalakchipandurangan College of Pharmacy, Thiruvannamalai.

Objective: To Prove the Hepatoprotective ActivityofAcacia Sinuata Linn. Methods: The present study was done in albino rats. Total rats was divided in to five groups. Control, Paracetamol induced for hepato toxicity, Silimarin induced group (standard drug). Test drug (acacia sinuata 250mg), Test drug (acacia sinuata 500mg). Experimental procedure: Acacia sinuata (seeka) pods were powdered, extracted and the chemical tests were performed. The drug is dissolved in carboxy methyl cellulose the drug is injected to albino rats and after 6 days the albino rats are dissected by using euthensia technique. The blood samples and the dissected liver are collected and sent for lab analysis. Paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity: Paracetamol, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, produces acute liver damage in high doses. Paracetamol administration causes necrosis of the centrilobular hepatocytes characterized by nuclear pyknosis and eosinophilic cytoplasm followed by large excessive hepatic lesion.. Dose of Paracetamol: 1 gm/kg P.O. Results: SGOT, SGPT, ALP, TOTAL PROTEIN, TOTAL BILURIBIN values significantly provehepato protective activity. By observing the liver biopsy reports and the blood sample reports drug Acacia sinuatalinn is having the hepato protective activity. Conclusion: From the estimated parameters, we can say that our plant ACACIA SINUATA extract has hepato protective activity without any adverse effects.

IND-25

Invivo anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of Canthium Parviflorum Lam

Chaitanya D. , Purushoth Prabhu T., Panneerselvam P., Selvakumari S.

Department of Pharmacology, C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

Background : Wild Jessamine, CanthiumParviflorum Lam, ( fam: Rubiaceae) is traditionally used for snake bite in some villages in Shimoga district of Karnataka. Canthium species are used in the treatment of tumor, cough, astringent and anthlementic. Objective : In this study, invivo anticancer activity of crude ethanolic extracts from the leaves of CanthiumParviflorum Lam was investigated. Method : The invivostudies was determined in mice using Dalton's lymphoma ascetic (DLA) cells. Results : The ethanolicextacts of C.Parviflorum greatly inhibited DLA cell growth. A significant increase in the life span and a decrease in the cancer cell number and tumour weight were noted in the tumor induced mice after treatment with CanthiumParviflorum Lam. Conclusion : Anticancer activity of CanthiumParviflorum was may be due to flavonoid present in the plant. Further studies are also in process to evaluate the most potent fraction of the plant and to isolate the constituents of the fractions.

IND-26

Evaluate skeletal muscle relaxant activity of cinnamomum zeylanicum bark aqueous extract in albino mice in comparison with diazepam


T. Jayasree, R. Kavitha

Department Pharmacology Mamata Medical College, Rotary Nagar, Khammam-507002, Andhra Pradesh

Aim: evaluate skeletal muscle relaxant activity of cinnamomum zeylanicum bark aqueous extract in albino mice in comparison with diazepam. Introduction: Cinnamomumzeylanicum, commonly known as cinnamon is shrub. It has antifungal, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticoagulant properties. Used as an astringent treatment of diarrhea, arthritis, digestive problems, skin infections colds and flu as well as help in blood purification. Its anti-inflammatory properties reduce the stiffness and help ease the pain associated with this musculoskeletal disorder. This study is to see whether the Cinnamomumzeylanicum has any skeletal muscle relaxant action. Material and Methods:Cinnamomumzeylanicum bark, Albino mice, SOXHELTS apparatus for bark extraction, Rota rod, Diazepam. Motor activity is seen with rata rod apparatus by standard procedure. Results: Will be discussed at time of presentation. Discussion and conclusion: Will be discussed at time of presentation.

IND-27

Evaluation of anti - convulsant activity of ethanol extract of vitex negundo (leaf extract) in swiss albino mice


T. Jayasree, T. Arpitha

Department Pharmacology, Mamata Medical College, Rotary Nagar, Khammam-507002, Andhra Pradesh

Introduction: Vitex Segundo (leaf extract) is credited with innumerable medicinal activities like analgesic, anti- inflammatory, anti- convulsant, anti - oxidant, bronchial relaxant, hepatic protective, etc. Materials: Animal; - Swiss albino mice are divided into five groups, ten in each group. Number of animals =50, Group1 - control (normal saline), Group2- standard (phenytoin-25mg/kg), Group3- test (extract-50mg/kg), Group 4- test (extract 100mg/kg), Group5- test (extract 150mg/kg). Method: Extract was evaluated for its protective effect against. Seizures induced by maximal electro shock (MES), method using corneal electrodes. Intensity of stimulus was 150 m.a, 250v, for 0.2 seconds. Duration of various phases of epileptic attacks were recorded and compared with the control and phenytoin group. Result: Result will be discussed at the time of presentation.

IND-28

Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity ofalcoholic extract of sesbania grandiflora leaves in high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin induced diabetic rats


Ghanshyam Panigrahi, Uma Shankar Mishra, Sujata Mahapatra, Chhayakanta Panda, Avik Das, Arjun Patra

Ghanshyam Panigrahi, Lecturer, At- Royal College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Andhapasara road, Berhampur, Dist- Ganjam, Odisha

Objectives: Sesbaniagrandiflora (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), cultivate all over India, has wide range of therapeutic actions. The aim of the current study was to investigate the recuperative potential of alcoholic extract of Sesbaniagrandiflora leaves on high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) induced type-2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: High fat diets and oxidative damage may contribute to the development of non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The in-vitro antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of Sesbaniagrandiflora leaveswas investigated byDPPH radicalscavenging capacity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging capacity, and total phenolic content.Diabetes was induced by administering HFD for 28 days followed by low dose of STZ (45mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. The effects of alcoholic extract of Sesbaniagrandiflora leaves (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) in diabetic rats were evaluated by administrating for 28 days. The results were compared to those of normal rats, diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with metformin. Results: The alcoholic extract of Sesbaniagrandiflora possesses strong antioxidant properties.On administration of different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) of the extracts, significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, LDL and significantly elevated HDL and reduced body weight in type-2 diabetic rats. Also the extracts tend to improve the altered levels of SOD, MDA and plasma ascorbic acid. Conclusion: These results suggested significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemiceffect of the Sesbaniagrandiflora, justifying the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine.

IND-29

In vitro antioxidant activity of various extracts of manilkara hexandra bark

Tushar Patil , Shilpa Deshpande, Nandkishore Duragkar

Sharad Pawar College of Pharmacy, Wanadongri, Hingna Road, Nagpur, Maharashtra

Objective : Present investigation deals with study of various extracts of Manilkarahexandra bark for their antioxidant activity. Methods : The bark was dried, pulverized and extracted with petroleum ether, methanol and macerated with hydroalcohol. The extracts were screened for phytochemical constituents. Their total phenolic content was determined by Folin - Ciocalteu method and antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing power method. Results : Phytochemical screening revealed higher percentage of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins in methanolic extract than hydroalcoholic extract. Petroleum ether extract has not shown any phytochemical constituents except sterols. The methanolic extract was found to have higher total phenolic content (81.19%) and exhibit highest antioxidant activity as compared to hydroalcoholic extracts. In DPPH assay, methanolic extract showed higher activity (91.82%, AAI 1.213) as well as higher reduction potential (3.214) than hydroalcoholic extract compared with ascorbic acid (3.981). Conclusion : M. hexandra can be a natural antioxidant. The methanolic extract of bark exhibit significant antioxidant potential which may be due to presence of higher percentage of tannins and flavonoids present in it.

IND-30

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of pongamia pinnata stem bark

Prathima C. , Jayanthi M.K., Suresha R.N., Huralikuppi J.C.

Dr. Prathima C, Asst.Professor, JSS Medical College, SS Nagar, Mysore-15

Objective: To evaluate analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Pongamiapinnata stem bark (PSBA) in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: PSBA was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The analgesic activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response in albinomice and tail flick method in albino rats. Results: The aqueous extract of Pongamiapinnata stem bark (PSBA) in doses of 300, 600 and 1000mg/kg showed 52.6, 54.3 and 56% inhibition of paw edema respectively at the endof three hours. The percentage of protection from writhing in acetic acid-induced writhing test was 47, 51 and 65.6 respectively. In the tail flick model, the aqueous extract of PSBA in the abovedoses increased the pain threshold significantly after 30 min, 1, 2 and 4h of administration.PSBA showed dose-dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in all the experimental animal models studied. Conclusion: The present study indicates that PSBA has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

IND-31

Immunostimulant activity of Murchaan ghrita in rats


Nilambari Gurav 1 , Shailendra Gurav, Poonam Taru, Dinesh Sakharkar 1 , Shrikant Tillo 2 , Satish Sakharwade 3

PDEA's Seth Govind Raghunath Sable College of Pharmacy, Saswad, University of Pune, Maharashtra- 412301, 1 Sudhakarrao Naik Institute of Pharmacy, Pusad, University of Amaravati, Maharashtra- 445204, 2 Gurunanak College of Pharmacy, Nari, Kamptee Road, Nagpur, Maharashtra- 440026, 3 Department of Cosmetics Technology, LAD and SRP College, Nagpur, Maharashtra- 440006

Objective: To study the immunostimulant effect of an Indian Ayurvedic Polyherbal formulation, 'Murchaanghrita' (MG) in healthy albino rats. Methods: MG was administered orally at doses of 150 mg/kg/day and 300 mg/kg/day to healthy rats. The assessment of immunostimulant activity was carried out by testing the humoral (antibody titre) and cellular (foot pad swelling) immune responses to the antigenic challenges with sheep RBCs and by neutrophil adhesion test. Results: Orally administered MG showed a significant increase of test parameters viz. neutrophil adhesion, haemagglutinating antibody titre (HAT) and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. In rats immunized with sheep RBC, MG enhanced the humoral antibody response to the antigen and significantly potentiated the cellular immunity by facilitating the footpad thickness response to sheep RBC in sensitized rats. With a dose of 300 mg/kg/day the values of HAT and DTH responses were 414.03 ± 0.63 and 30.0 ± 9.35 respectively, in comparison to the control group. These differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the immunostimulant activity of Murchaan ghrita in rats.

IND-32

Investigation of anti-diuretic activity of sesamum indicum


Namrata M. Tekchandani, Sagar S. Ghanwat, Mangesh A. Jagdale, Vaishali R. Undale, Chandrashekhar D. Upasani, Ashok V Bhosale

PDEA's Seth Govind Raghunath Sable College of Pharmacy, Saswad, Pune-412301.

Objective: The seeds of Sesamum indicum (Family: Pedaliaceae) are claimed to have antidiuretic potential as a home remedy in traditional system of medicine. However, the validity of this claim has not been scientifically proven. The present study is intended to investigate anti-diuretic effect of Sesamum indicum. Method: Adult male Albino rats will be used for the study. Diuresis will be induced by giving two doses of water (each dose =5ml/100g body weight) by stomach tube at an interval of one hour. The animals will be divided into five groups I-V, consisting of six animals each. Group I (control) animals will receive saline solution. Group II and III animals will receive lower (0.009mg/kg) and higher (0.018mg/kg) doses of Desmopressin as standard. Group IV and V animals will receive lower dose (250mg/kg p.o) and higher dose (500mg/kg p.o) of ethanolic extract of seeds of Sesamum indicum. Urine output will be measured thereafter at intervals of 30 mins for 120 or 150 minutes. The parameters measured will be percentage water excretion and antidiuretic hormone levels. Result: The results will be discussed after experimental findings.

IND-33

Hepatoprotective activity of Murchaan ghrita in rats


Nilambari Gurav 1 , Shailendra Gurav, Sonali Barke, Dinesh Sakharkar 1 , Shrikant Tillo 2 , Satish Sakharwade 3

PDEA's Seth GovindRaghunath Sable College of Pharmacy, Saswad, University of Pune, Maharashtra- 412301, 1 Sudhakarrao Naik Institute of Pharmacy, Pusad, University of Amaravati, Maharashtra- 445204, 2 Gurunanak College of Pharmacy, Nari, Kamptee Road, Nagpur, Maharashtra- 440026, 3 Department of Cosmetics Technology, LAD and SRP College, Nagpur, Maharashtra- 440006

Objective:To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of an Indian AyurvedicPolyherbal formulation, 'Murchaanghrita' (MG) against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Methods:The hepatoprotective activity of MG was tested against arbontetrachloride induced hepatotoxicityin albino rats. The degree of protection was determined by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes likeserum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP). The histopathological studies were also carried out.Silymarin was used as the standard drug for comparison. Results:Administration of MG (100. 200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) markedly prevented CCl4 induced elevation oflevels of SGOT, SGPT, ACP and ALP. The results are comparable to that of silymarin. A comparativehistological study of liver showed almost normal architecture, as compared to control group. Conclusion:Treatment with MG significantly reduced the CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. A comparativehistological study of liver from different groups further confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of 'MurchaanGhrita'.

IND-34

Investigation of wound healing potential of Mimusopselengi. l. Bark extracts


B. Ujwala, K. Hemalatha , Rekha R. Shenoy, C. Mallikarjuna Rao

Departmant of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of aqueous and methanolic extracts on collagenation phase of healing in incision and dead space wounds in normal and dexamethasone depressed healing. To compare the healing potentials of aqueous and methanolic extracts on wound contraction and epithelisation phases in excision wounds of normal and delayed healing. To compare the activity of extracts on carragenan induced paw edema and radiant heat induced pain model. Methods: Wound Healing Studies:1) Incision wound model 2) Excision wound model 3) Dead space wound model. Analgesic Activity: Tail-flick model. Anti-Inflammatory Activity: Carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Results: Results of this study illustrate: Aqueous and methanolic extracts promoted the collagenation, granulation and at the same time did not affect the collagenation content and quality. Methanolic extract showed significant opposing effect on dexamethasone depressant action on granulation quality and quantity. In wound contraction and epithelisation phases, while dexamethasone depressed both the phases, test extracts improved the rate of contraction in initial stages. The test extracts showed significant anti inflammatory activity in rats. Discussion: Results indicated that in all wound models, alcoholic fraction showed high impact on healing compared with the aqueous extract. So the alcoholic extract might have the principles of plant that affect the healing positively. But the aqueous extract had shown significant anti inflammatory effect, where the alcoholic extract is not significant. Both the extracts failed to show analgesic activity However, present data obtained from these models are inadequate to specify the mechanism of action of the test extracts and more molecular level research should be done.

IND-35

Anticonvulsant activity of Asparagus racemosus using chemically induced seizures

*Amberkar M.V. , Meena Kumari K., Rockson Christopher, Chandrashekar B.R., Pradeepa H.D.

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

*E-mail: drmohan7amberkar@gmail.com

Objectives: To evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of A. racemosus against the chemically induced seizures by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in albino mice. Methods: The ethanolic extract of A.racemosus (EEAR) was administered orally in graded doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) in the PTZ model (30 mg/kg subcutaneously in the scruff of neck) and the effect was compared with vehicle and standard drug treated group (valproic acid). Results: The plant extract in the dose 400 mg/kg, showed 66.67% protection against clonic convulsions and 24h mortality which was statistically significant (P<0.05) against control in PTZ model. It also decreased number of clonic convulsions and duration of clonic phase which was statistically (P<0.01) significant in the above mentioned dose in comparison to control. However, the standard drug valproic acid provided 83.33% protection against PTZ induced convulsions which was statistically significant (P<0.001) against control. It also provided statistically significant (P<0.01) protection against 24h mortality in 83.34% animals as well as decreased number and duration of convulsions in comparison to control significantly (P<0.001). Conclusions: These findings suggest that EEAR possesses anticonvulsant activity against PTZ induced convulsions. Further research is required to isolate the active phytochemical constituents and mechanisms involved in the anticonvulsant activity of this plant.

IND-36

Preliminary studies on analgesic and anti-nociceptive activities of piper nigrum (black pepper) powder in experimental animal models

Jayanthi MK , Prathima C, Huralikuppi JC, Suresha RN.

Dr Jayanthi MK, Professor, JSS Medical college (JSS University), SS nagar, Mysore-15

Objective: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-nociceptive activities of the Piper Nigrum (Black pepper) powder in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods : Wistar rats and Swiss albino mice were used for studying analgesic and anti-nociceptive activity of piper nigrum at doses 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg p.o. Various models viz. acetic acid induced writhing model ,Eddy's hot plate (mice) and tail flick model (rat) for analgesic study and formalin-induced paw licking model (mice) were used for anti-nociceptive study. Results: In acetic acid induced writhing model, effect of piper nigrum showed significant analgesia as compared to control, In the hot plate model, the maximum effect was observed at 60 min at a dose of 20 mg/kg p.o., which was comparable to standard drug morphine sulfate (1.5 mg/kg i.p.), whereas in the tail flick model, effect was less significant than morphine sulfate. In formalin-induced paw licking model, administration of piper nigrum completely abolished the early phase at 10 and 20 mg/kg p.o. and in the late phase, the effect of piper nigrum (20 mg/kg p.o.) was higher than control group. Conclusion: piper nigrum was effective in both non-narcotic and narcotic models of nociception, suggesting its possible action via peripheral and central mechanism. It also abolished the early phase in formalin-induced paw licking model, suggesting inactivation of C-fiber at higher dose. In conclusion, piper nigrum can be developed as a potent analgesic and anti-nociceptive agent in future.

IND-37

Screening of bioactive isolates from Ammorphophallus commutatus (schott) engl. "focusing"to find out a newer anti ulcer drug

Jomon T. Koshy , Feroze B.M, M. Sudha, V. Rajesh, P. Perumal

J.K.K. Nataraja College of Pharmacy, Komarapalayam - 638183, Tamil Nadu, India

Objectives : This research work was oriented towards the finding of newer antiulcer bioactive entities from methanolic extract of cormof Ammorphophallus commutatus (schott) Engl. (MEAC). Ammorphophallus commutattus is a traditional medicinal plant consists of widerange of pharmacologic activity and is well adapted to the south India. Method : The bioactive principles were isolated from corm of Ammorphophallus commutattus by soxheltation using methanol as asolvent. Antiulcer assays were performed using the following protocols; aspirin+pylorus ligation induced ulcer and ethanol-induced ulcer. The anti-ulcer activity of both models were appraised by measuring gastric content volume, pH, free acidity, total acidity, histopathology of stomach, ulcer score and ulcer index. Results : In the aspirin+pylorus ligation model it was observed that the treatment with MEAC extract significantly reduced the lesionindex in 6.72±.08, 3.21±.09, 1.86±.06 for the groups treated with 100 and 200mg/kg of MEAC and positive control(omeprazole 20mg/kg) respectively. similar results were observed in the ethanol-induced ulcer model where the inhibition of ulcer lesions was 7.2±0.4, 4.4±0.9,2.1±0.8 for the groups treated with 100 and 200mg/kg of MEAC and positive control (omeprazole 20mg/kg) respectively. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction in gastric juice volume, free acidity and total acidity was observed as well as an increase ingastric pH.Histology of rat stomach of MEAC treated group showed almost standard and continuous mucosal layer and formation ofepithelial layer in gastric mucosal tissue. Conclusion : This novel study has opened avenues for further research to the development of potent antiulcer drug frommethanolic extracts of Ammorphophallus commutatus.

IND-38

Investigations on stem bark of Bahunia purpurea linn


Vadnere GP 1* , Pathan E 2 , Hundiwale JC 3 , Singhai AK 4

1, 2, 3 Smt.S.S.Patil College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, Chopda-425107 (MS), India. 4 Dr. H.S. Gour Vishwa Vidyalaya, Central University, Sagar-470003 (MP), India.

*E-mail: gautamvadnere31@rediffmail.com

Objective: Highly valued drug in Indigenous System of Medicine for treatment of various ailments. Thus screening the possible potentialof petroleum ether and methanol extracts of stem bark in treatment of acetic acid induced ulcerative colitisin mice. Methods: Petroleum ether and methanol extracts of B. purpurea stem bark (100 mg/kg) were tested for its usefulness in UC by the method of acetic acid induced UC in mice. Results: Methanol extract (100 mg/kg) reduced the level of MPO in blood to 278 ± 1.48 U/mL and 291 ± 1.32 U/mg in tissue. As well, it reduced the level of MDA in blood to 7.40 ± 0.12 nmol/mL and 6.14 ± 0.35 U/mg in tissue. Significance of results obtained was comparable with the standard drug, prednisolone (5 mg/kg). These protective and preventive effects of methanol extract were observed by morphological and histopathological studies. Petroleum ether extract lack that significance of effectiveness. Conclusion: The effect of crude extracts of stem bark of B. purpurea thus studied independent of other systems, thus relating direct mechanism of action to affirm the antiulcer effect and results as obtained thus justify the effectiveness in ulcerative colitis as compared to standard drug prednisolone in mice by methanol extract.

IND-39

Antidiabetic activity guided fractionation of desmortichum fimbriatum blume

Waghulade P 1* , Vadnere GP 2 , Patil AV 3 , Singhai AK 4

1, 2, 3 Smt. S.S. Patil College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, Chopda-425107 (MS), India, 4 Dr. H.S. Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Central University, Sagar-470003 (MP),

*E-mail: gautamvadnere31@rediffmail.com

Objective: The present investigation aims to examine the hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activity of whole plant of D.fimbriatum in normoglycaemic and alloxan- induced diabetic rats. Methods: Methanol fraction of bioactive ethanol extract of whole plant of D.fimbriatum (DFMF) was administered (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) in normal fasted, glucose fed (1.5 g/kg, p.o.) and alloxan (120 mg/kg, s.c.)- induced diabetic rats (n=5). The blood glucose levels were estimated using One Touch glucometer (Johnson and Johnson). Results: Oral pre-treatment with DFMF in normal fasted rats DFMF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) dose dependently lowered (P< 0.05) the blood glucose as compared to control group. DFMF produced hypoglycaemic effect at 4 h after its administration. Glibenclamide produced significant (P< 0.05) decrease in blood glucose level. Its onset of action was at 4 h and peak effect showed at 6 h after drug administration. In glucose induced hyperglycaemic rat DFMF significantly (P< 0.05) prevented the rise in blood glucose after ½ h as compared to control glucose fed rats. Glibenclamide pre-treatment in glucose fed rats; significantly (P< 0.05) prevented the rise in blood glucose level after ½ h. In alloxan- induced diabetic rats DFMF (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P< 0.05) lowered the blood glucose after two weeks treatment. In these preliminary studies DFMF produced significant effect at the dose of 200 mg/kg, therefore, protective effect of methanol fraction of ethanol extract of whole plant of DesmotrichumfimbriatumBlume on alloxan induced diabetic rats could be attributed to regenerative properties of the fraction. Conclusion: The active polar constituents present in DFMF may recover the disorders in carbohydrate metabolism noted in diabetic state by stimulating existing β cells or by increasing the rate of β cell regeneration or by modulating intracellular glucose utilization. The actual mechanism is not clear and instigates for further investigations.

IND-40

Investigations on safety profile of muktashukti bhasma

Mishal HB 1* , Vadnere GP 2 , Gosavi P 3 , Singhai AK 4

1, 2, 3 Smt.S.S.Patil College of Pharmacy,Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Chopda-425107 (MS), India. 4 Dr. H.S. Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Central University, Sagar-470003 (MP), India.

Objective: In vivo animal experimentation for validating and testifying the results in order to determine the safety, efficacy and toxicological attributes of selected Ayurvedic product i.e. lab grade muktashukti bhasma and its marketed preparation was prime objective. Methods: Studies were done to assess the acute oral toxicity studies of lab prepared muktashukti bhasma and its two marketed preparation (Dabur and Unjha). Administration of single dose of lab prepared, Dabur and Unjhamuktashukti bhasma; 5400 mg in 7.5 ml of honey: 2 parts, de-ionized water: 3 parts was equivalent to 360 mg in 0.5 ml/200gms of rat (n=5). Similarly for the sub acute toxicity studies 36 mg lab prepared muktashuktibhasma in 7.5 ml of honey: 2 parts, de-ionized water: 3 parts in 0.5 ml/200gms of rat considered as first dose for first group animal and 18 mg in 7.5 ml of honey: 2 parts, de-ionized water: 3 parts in 0.5 ml/200gms of rat considered as second dose for second group animal given for 15 days (n=10). On 15th day, all the surviving animals were left for fasting overnight and then sacrificed by decapitation. The blood samples were collected directly by puncturing the heart in the heparinized tube for various hematological parameters. The heart, lung, kidney and liver were collected and weighed. Results: Studies done to assess the safety profile (LD 50 ) of different Muktashukti bhasma. Administration of single dose of different muktashukti bhasma at the limit dose of 1800 mg/kg, p.o did not produce any toxic effects. In the sub acute toxicity study, various behavioural parameters were studied. It appeared that the muktashuktibhasma at 180 mg/kg and 90 mg/kg of body weight did not produce any marked change in both male and female rats. No mortality was observed during 15 days of muktashukti bhasma administration. Rats treated with two doses of the muktashukti bhasma 180 mg/kg and 90 mg/kg of body weight had gradual increase in body weight, which was significantly (P<0.05) different from control. The haematological status after 15 days of oral administration of muktashuktibhasma did not depress the haemoglobin and blood cell values. There was no major shift in white blood corpuscles of drugs treated rats compared to control animals. There was no leukocytosis or leucopenia and did not reveal any change in blood clotting time. Conclusion: Systematic evaluation of different muktashuktibhasma emerged safe as one of calcium based Ayurvedic bhasmas.

IND-41

Hypolipidemic effect of Melia azedarach linn in triton wr-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats


C. S. Shreedhara, Vijaya Kumar S. , Dhirendra B. Sanghai, N. Gopalan Kutty 1 , C. Mallikarjuna Rao 1

Department of Pharmacognosy, and 1 Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal

Objective: Hyperlipidemia is a highly predictive risk factor for atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and cerebral vascular diseases. Meliaazedarach Linn (Meliaceae), commonly known as 'Indian lilac', has been used in traditional medicine for centuries for treating leprosy, cardiac diseases, urolithiasis,amenorrhoea, verminosis, cough, bronchitis, inflammation and scabies. The objective of this study is to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of Meliaazedarach in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Method: The hypolipidemic activity of Meliaazedarach was evaluated in hyperlipidemicWistar rats by measuring the serum lipid levels. Results: The hypolipidemic effects of Meliaazedarach extracts were found to be significant at 12 h post administration at dose 100 mg/kg body weight. The levels of TG, TC and LDL-C were reduced to 336, 98, 13 (aqueous extract) and 556, 216, 29 (alcoholic extract) mg 100 ml1 respectively compared with 459, 211 and 104.2 mg 100 ml-1 in group treated only by triton WR-1339. Conclusion: These findings support serum lipid-lowering activity for Meliaazedarach.The experimental data in the current study shows that the changes in serum lipid levels induced by triton WR-1339 can be resisted by Meliaazedarach. The reduction in the level of TG and TC was found to be significant for aqueous extract when compared with the alcoholic extract. These results prove the hypolipidemic activity of Meliaazedarach.

IND-42

Quality control parameters for clitoria ternatea l


C.S. Shreedhara, Dhirendra B. Sanghai , Vijaya Kumar S, K.K. Srinivasan 1

Department of Pharmacognosy, and 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal

Objective: Clitoriaternatea L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'Butterfly pea', has been reported to be used in traditional medicine for centuries as a memory enhancer, anti-stress, anxiolytic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, sedative agent and chronic bronchitis. In Ayurveda this plant is indicated for the treatment of several diseases. The objective of present work is to assess quality standards for Clitoriaternatea L. as per WHO guidelines. Methods: The quality of Clitoriaternatea L. was assessed by following WHO guidelines. Macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical parameters and chromatographic studies were used for the assessment of quality. Results: Leaves are green, bitter and characteristic odour. These are obviate shape, pinnatified, emarginate apex, symmetrical base and 6-11cm in length, 5-7cm in width. T.S of the leaf shows presence of covering trichomes. The upper epidermis consists of polygonal tabular cells, followed by palisade cells; mesophyll consisted of 3-5 layers of cells. Parenchyma cells contain calcium oxalate crystals. The leaf of Clitoriaternatea L. showed ash values such as total ash (7.13%w/w), water soluble ash (4.8% w/w) and acid insoluble ash (0.84%w/w). Loss on drying-9.1% w/w, swelling index- 7.3 ml/g. The water soluble and methanol soluble extractive values are 15.35%w/w, 6.36% w/w respectively. Total tannin content was 0.74%w/w. The chromatographic studies showed the presence of secondary plant metabolites like sterols: β-sitosterol and lupeol. Conclusion: The study confirms the identity and quality of Clitoriaternatea L. These standards will help in authentication of raw material.

IND-43

Inhibition of struvite crystal growth in presence of cystone, a well-known ayurvedic formulation


Suryakant DA, Azeemuddin M , Rajesh S, Rangesh P, Patki PS, *Mohamed Rafiq

Department of Pharmacology, R & D Centre, The Himalaya Drug Company, Makali, Bangalore, Karnataka.

*E-mail: dr.rafiq@himalayahealthcare.com

Objective: The present study was carried-out to study the effect of Cystone, a well knownAyurvedic formulation on the formation of Struvite crystals (stones) by single diffusion gel crystal growth technique. Materials and Methods: The single diffusion gel growth technique provides an excellent in vitro model of highly complex growth of urinary calculi in vivo. This technique was adopted to study the effect of Cytone, a well-known antilithiatic agent the on formation of struvite crystals. A gel matrix (media) was prepared to form a struvite crystal matrix. This was prepared by mixing sodium meta-silicate solution of specific gravity of 1.05 with 0.5M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate to obtain pH 7.2. The CS was dissolved and sterilised in 1M magnesium acetate and tested at a concentration of 0.5, 1 and 2 %. The formation of struvite crystals were observed for 21 days. Results: Cystone syrup dose dependently inhibited the formation of struvite stones in the invitro single gel diffusion model. The weight of struvite crystals formed in Cystone Syrup was comparatively less than control (without inhibitor). The depth of struvite stones formed in the gel was also found to be less than the control. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that Cystone syrup significantly decreased/ retard the formation of struvite stones by invitro method. This further confirms that the adopted diffusion gel crystal growth technique can be used as a model to study the complex and dynamic process of renal stone formation.

IND-44

Effect of Argyreia nervosa leaf extracts on muscle relaxant activity in mice


Prudhvi Kumar Lingamallu, Sastha Ram V. Kishore, Uma Maheshwari S 1 , Maheswari E 2 , Saraswathy G. R. 2

Department of Pharmacy Practice, 1 Pharmacology, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 2 Department of Pharmacology, M S Ramaiah College of Pharmacy, Banglore, Karnataka.

Objectives: Argyreia nervosa commonly known as "Elephant Creeper" was studied for its muscle relaxant activity in mice. Methodology: Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of leaves of Argyreia nervosa were used for the studies. Healthy male albino mice of weight 20-30g were classified into seven groups each containing six animals. Diazepam (1mg/kg, i.p) and chlorpromazine hydrochloride (1mg/kg, i.p) served as standards, aqueous extracts of leaves of Argyreia nervosa (200 and 300mg/kg, i.p) and alcoholic extracts of leaves of Argyreia nervosa (200 and 300mg/kg, i.p) were administered 30 min before the tests. The methods used for the evaluation of muscle relaxant activity includes muscle coordination tests using rotarod apparatus and inclined plane, spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) using actophotometer, chimney test, climbing test and screen test. Results: Comparing to standard drugs alcoholic extract at high doses showed significant (P< 0.01) muscle relaxant activity where as aqueous extracts did not show significant muscle relaxant activity in the all tests. Conclusion: Present study reveals alcoholic extracts of leaves of Argyreia nervosa showed muscle relaxant activity in mice.

IND-45

Evaluation of antidiabetic and renoprotective activity of Terminalia chebula and its comparison with glibenclamide in rats

Pranav Sikka , Manish Saini, KK Saxena

Department of Pharmacology, LLRM Medical College, Meerut (U.P.), PIN code: 250004, India.

Objective: To evaluate antidiabetic and renoprotective activity of chloroform extract of Teminalia chebula Retzius (T. chebula Retz.) seeds and its comparison with glibenclamide in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats, rendered diabetic (blood glucose > 400mg/dl) by streptozotocin injection (75 mg/kg, i.p.; dissolved in 0.1 M acetate buffer), were divided into groups of 6 each. Chloroform extract of T. chebula (1% sodium CMC suspension) was given orally at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg/day respectively. Glibenclamide (0.04 mg/kg) served as standard. Blood samples, collected from the retro-orbital plexus before and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h after drug administration, were analyzed for blood glucose by using glucose-oxidase/peroxidase method using a visible spectrophotometer. For renoprotective effect, the extract (300 mg/kg/day) was administered to diabetic rats, daily for 8 weeks. Urine samples, collected before the induction of diabetes and at the end of 8 weeks of treatments, were analyzed for urinary protein, albumin and creatinine levels. The data was compared statistically using one-way ANOVA. Results: The chloroform extract of T. chebula seeds produced dose-dependent reduction in blood glucose of diabetic rats (maximum at 4 hours) and comparable with that of glibenclamide. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats displayed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in urinary protein, albumin and creatinine after 8 weeks whereas rats treated with T. chebula (300 mg/kg) or glibenclamide (0.04 mg/kg) did not produce any change compared to their corresponding pre-diabetic values. Conclusion: the present study indicates antidiabetic and renoprotective activity of T. chebula but the possible mechanisms behind the hypoglycemic activity and the inhibition of diabetic nephropathy are yet to be studied.

IND-46

Antioxidant activities of Mimusopselengi Linn


Harish Kumar, Chirag Dhingra , Jyotsna Agnihotri, K. Sreedhara, Ranganath Pai.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka 576104.

Objectives: To evaluate antioxidant activities of Mimusopselengi Linn. Methods: Animals: Wistar rats of either sex (180-250g). Drugs: Extracts of M.Elengi L.(Alcoholic, Aqueous, Petroleumether, Dichloromethane, n-Butanol, Ethyl acetate) Prepared in various concentrations. Assay: In vitro antioxidant activity of various extracts and fractions

DPPH assay

ABTS assay

O-Phenanthroline reduction assay

In vivo

Estimation of superoxide dismutase

Catalase assay method

Results: CM and ethyl acetate fractions at dose of 100 and 200mg/kg increased levels of SOD by 96%,95%,98%,99% respectively as compard to that of EAC control group (P<0.05). Treatment with MED and MEE increased CAT levels by more than 50%when compared to EAC control (P<0.01)MEE (IC50 value of 0.6198μg/ml) possess strong antioxidant activity compared to ascorbic acid(IC50 value of13.39 μg/ml) In ABTS radical assay. Conclusions: M.Elengi Linn. Has a potent antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging and ferric Ion reduction assay.MEE was found much significant scavenging free radical (ABTS) radical assay compared to ascorbic acid

IND-47

Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of seed coat extract of Entada rheedii


thThakare PM , Bhoge PS, Gadpayle MG, Taksande BG, Kotagale NR

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Smt. Kishoritaibhoyar College of Pharmacy, Newkamptee, Nagpur-441 002, India.

Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of seed coat extract of Entadarheedii. Methods: Wistar rats were administered with alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg,i.p.) to induce diabetes and was confirmed by measuring blood glucose levels using glucometer. Diabetic rats were administered with either saline or alcoholic seed coat extract of Entadarheedii (50, 100, 200 mg/kg,p.o.) or CCl4 fraction of Entadarheedii (200 mg/kg, p.o.) or Ethyl acetate fraction of Entadarheedii (200 mg/kg,p.o.) or acetone fraction of Entadarheedii (200 mg/kg,p.o.) and evaluated for blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol and billirubin levels at 1h, 3h, 6h, 9h and 24 h.Seperate groups of Normoglycemic and Oral glucose loaded rats were treated with alcoholic seed coat extract of Entadarheedii(50, 100, 200 mg/kg,p.o.) and 1 and 2 h later blood glucose was checked. In vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by ferric chloride assay. Results: Alcoholic seed coat extract of Entadarheedii (100 and 200 mg/kg,p.o.), CCl4 fraction of Entadarheedii (200 mg/kg,p.o.), Ethyl acetate fraction of Entadarheedii (200 mg/kg,p.o), acetone fraction of Entadarheedii (200 mg/kg,p.o.) has shown to decrease blood glucose level at different time points, while at 3 h total cholesterol level has been decreased and at 9 h total cholesterol was increased significantly.Triglyceride and bilirubin levels were significantly increased at different time point after treatment. Ferric chloride assay showed significant antioxidant activity of Entadarheedii when measured at 700nm wave length. Conclusion: Seed coat extract of Entadarheedii posses significant antidiabetic activity, anti hyperglycaemic activity and antioxidant activity.

IND-48

Effect of herbal supplementation on appetite regulation during hypoxic exposure

Praveen Vats, D. Arul Joseph, Susovon Bayen, Mamta, Amitabh, K. Shipra Misra

Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110 054

Objective(s): The present study was aimed to understand the appetite regulation by various hormones and peptides during hypoxic exposure and to evaluate the effect of herbal supplementation. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats ~150 grams were divided into twelve groups (6/group). Experimental groups were exposed to a simulated altitude of 25,000ft whereas one group was kept as unexposed control.Unsupplemented animals were exposed for 6 Hr, 12 Hr, 24 Hr, 3 Day and 7 day. Six groups were supplemented with aqueous extracts of Glycyrrhizaglabra, Phyllanthusemblica, Withaniasomnifera, Piper longum, Zingiberofficinale and Cordycepssinensis respectively for 7 days during hypoxic exposure. Animals were kept at fasting before being sacrificed using xylazine/ketamine. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture and plasma was separated. The plasma levels of appetite regulatory hormones were measured by ELISA technique. Results: Hypoxic exposed group showed reduction in body weight and food intake as compared to unexposed group. Anorectic hormones/peptides like Insulin, Resistin and POMC levels peaked during early hours of exposure while Leptin levels peaked after 3 rd day of exposure. Cholecystokinin and GLP-1 plasma levels decreased immediately on hypoxic exposure and increased during later hours. Among orexigenic proteins, ghrelin levels increased after 3 rd day while AMPK levels decreased steeply during early hours of hypoxic exposure and increased in due course. Herbal supplementation had varying effects on appetite and appetite regulatory hormones. Conclusion: The study revealed various targets for modulation of appetite during high altitude exposure and the herbal extracts studied might serve to therapeutically modulate appetite.

IND - 49

Effect of diabecon-ds a polyherbal formulation with adrenalineand gliclazide in normal rats, with insulin in normal andalloxan induced diabetic rats


Anil Kumar KV 1 , Sumana Nayak 1,2 , Sree Sapna 1 , Sana Mallikarjuna 1

1 Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, BSK II Stage, Bengaluru-70, 2 Padmashree Institute of Clinical Research, Nagarabhavi circle, Bengaluru-72.

Objective: Diabecon-DS a polyherbal formulation contains various standardized extracts derived from indigenousherbs known for anti-diabetic activity. In the present study effect of Diabecon-DS with adrenaline andgliclazide in normal rats, with insulin in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats was studied after 21days of treatment. Method: In normal rats Diabecon-DS, was investigated for its effect with adrenaline, gliclazide and insulin.Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate 110 mg/kg, i.p. rats having sugar level >250 mg/dl onfifth day were selected for the study. To respective groups of normal and alloxan induced diabetic ratson 0 day blood sugar level was estimated, adrenaline 100μg s.c, gliclazide 25mg/kg p.o and insulin 0.25IU s.c, for normal rats and insulin 0.5 IU s.c, for diabetic rats was injected, blood sugar was estimatedvia tail vein puncture using glucostrips at 30, 60, 90, 120,180 and 240 mins. After basal blood sugarprofile, rats (n=6) of respective group administered with Diabecon-DS 500 and 1000 mg/kg p.o for 21days. Following overnight fast on day 21, blood sugar levels were estimated as on day 0 usingglucostrips. Result: Diabecon-DS treatment significantly reduced hyperglycemic response to adrenaline, prolongedhypoglycemic effect of gliclazide in normal rats. Potentiation of insulin action was observed in normaland diabetic rats following Diabecon-DS treatment. Conclusion: Studies revealed that, Diabecon-DS can be a good adjuvant with insulin and other oral hypoglycemics.This will help in reducing the dosage of antidiabetic agents thereby reduce their side effects.

IND - 50

Role of glycyrrhizaglabra: An new herbal approaches

Diptesh Gohil, Jimi Desai, Sateesh Belemkar, Amit Page, Ankit Modi, Saurabh Singh

School of Pharmacy & Technology Management, NarseeMonjee Institute of Management Studies, Babulde, Bank of Tapi River, Mumbai Agra Road, Maharashtra, India.

Objective: To study Anti-asthmatic effect of GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA on Rat Anococcygeus Muscle. Methods: Male Rat (Albino, Wistar strain 250-350 gm) was killed by a exsanguinations and decapitation. One of Anococcygeus muscles were dissected from the animal and Set up in 30 ml glass organ baths that contained Krebs Solution ( in gmNaCl- 20.4; KCI-1.05; MgSO 4 -0.84; NaH 2 PO 4 - 0.48; CaCl 2 -0.84; NaHCO 3 - 6.3; Glucose-6.0, Na 2 EDTA- 29.1). Organ bath temperature was maintained at 37 0 C and the Krebs solution was gassed continuously with 95% O 2 , 5% CO 2 . Then after doing the calibration on the Power Lab initial put the 0 gm running after that 5 gm running. A resting tension of 5 gm was placed on the tissue. We used Acetylcholine (1×10 -9 gm/ml), aqueous extract of GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA (1mg/ml Dose- 0.3ml) on the rat anococcygeus muscle. The contact time for the tissue is 60 second. After one dosing we give 2 minutes washing interval for two to three times for the tissue relaxation and drug withdrawal. The changes in tension were recorded by Isometric Force Transducer on the Power lab Instrument. Result: Acetylcholine and GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA at doses of [0.1, 0.2, 0.3 nanogram/ml] showed dose dependant contractile and relaxation responses on rat anococcygeus muscle. Conclusion: The Herbal drug GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA showed relaxation responses on the anococcygeus muscle which antagonise the response of cholinergic drug acetylcholine, its possible action may be on M 3 receptor of smooth muscle. Thus it may be a useful in the treatment and prevention of asthma.

IND-51

Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic activity of Abutilon indicum ethanolic extract in male albino rats

B. Pradeep Kumar , Venu gopal. R 1 , Sravani. E 1 , Raja Abhilash. P 2 , Shashikanth P 3 , B. Dinesh Kumar 1

National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hyderabad, 1 National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad, 2 S.R college of Pharmacy, Warangal, 3 Talla Padmavathi college of Pharmacy, Warangal.

E-mail: bollaniper@gmail.com

Objective : Urolithiasis is the one of the most common disease of the urinary tract which has been afflicting humankind since antiquity. In the traditional system of medicine in India, Abutilon indicum (A. indicum) is reported to be useful to treat urinary calculi. So in the present investigation anti- urolithiatic activity of A. indicum was validated as per reverse pharmacology. Materials and Methods : Acute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of A. indicum was evaluated as per OECD 420 guideline in male albino rats. Preventive and curative anti-urolithiatic activity of ethanolic extract of A. indicum (400mg/kg and 800mg/kg P.O) was evaluated by Calcium oxalate calculi induction by employing CPD (Calculi Producing Diet- 5% ammonium oxalate in rat feed) and gentamicin (40mg/kg; s.c.). The parameters evaluated in the study were calcium and oxalate deposition in the kidney, urinary excretion of calcium and oxalate, kidney weights and urinary pH. The in vivo antioxidant parameters such as LPO, GSH and catalase and in vitro antioxidant activity of NO and DPPH scavenging were also evaluated. Result : The ethanolic extract of A. indicum was found to be safe at 2000mg/kg P.O. The preventive and curative groups showed a significant decrease in the deposition and excretion of calcium and oxalate. There was also significant decrease in the kidney weights of test groups when compared to the control groups. The ethanolic extract of A. indicum also showed anti oxidant properties. Conclusion : Anti urolithiatic activity of ethanolic extract of A. indicum was found to be more preventive than curative. Key words: Abutilon indicum, antioxidant properties, anti-urolithiatic activity, calcium oxalate urinary stones, calculi producing diet.

IND-52

Evaluation of nephro protective activity of ethanolic extract of tropaeolium majus plant against gentamycin induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Balakrishna P*, Arun M, Sujana V, G. Anusha

Department of Pharmacology, C.L.Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai-97.

Aim: To investigate the nephro protective activity of ethanolic extract of tropaeolum majus plant against gentamycin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and Method : The plant was collected and extraction was done using soxhlet apparatus and preliminary phytochemical analysis were performed .The study was aimed to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of tropaeolum majus plant (ETM) against gentamycin induced nephrotoxicity in rats.The animals were administered gentamycin(100mg/kg, i.p) for 7 days and from 8 th day onwards (ETM, 200mg/kg, p.o) and the other group was with (ETM, 400mg/kg, p.o) and the other group just receives gentamycin(100mg/kg, i.p) which serves as negative control after the assigned treatment animals were sacrificed under ether anaesthesia and the biochemical parameters like urea, creatinine and uric acid were estimated and the kidneys were preserved in 10% formalin and used for histopathological study to find the effect of drug in glomeruli and tubules. Result: ETM at both the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg shows significant reduction in serum urea, uric acid and creatinine when compared with negative control animals. Histopathological studies shows normal glomeruli with normal epithelial lining in animals treated with (ETM 200 and 400mg/kg,p.o), where as negative control animals shows damaged tubules and destruction of lining epithelium. Conclusion: It was concluded that ETM both the dose level of 200 and 400mg/kg shows promising nephro protective activity in gentamycin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The absence of destruction of lining epithelium and damaged tubule shows the nephro protective activity.

IND-53

Antiurolithiatic activity of hydroethanolic extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (lam.) Oken: A pharmacological and biochemical evaluation on wistar rats

*Gnaneshwari , Savita Singh, Ram Garg, Binayak Deb, Rahul Sharma, Ayaz Ahmad

Department of Pharmacology, NIMS Institute of Pharmacy, NIMS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan-303121

*E-mail: gnaneshwari.pharma@gmail.com


Urolithiasis is the presence of calculi (uroliths) at any location within urinary tract. The objective of the study is to determine the efficacy of hydroethanolic extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum in Urolithiasis induced by ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride. Plant was collected from Ranchi, and leaves were dried in shade. Leaf powder was extracted by cold maceration. Phytochemical constituents detected were alkaloids, flavonoides, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpinoids, and proteins . Urolithiasis was induced with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride in male Wistar rats. Five groups, six in each, which include, control, urolithiatic rats, leaf extract-treated (30mg/kg and 50mg/kg) and cystone-treated (5ml/kg) rats. Parameters evaluated in urine analysis were oxalate, calcium, phosphorus, and in serum analysis, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, and oxalate. The results indicated increase in urine volume, decrease in calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus in urine analysis and showed decrease in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, phosphate, oxalate, calcium in serum analysis of hydroethanolic extract, cystone treated rats when compared to urolithiatic rats. All these parameters were normal in control rats. Histopathological studies were seen in kidney with haematoxylin-eosin stain viz., cortex, medulla, and papilla. Control rats showed normal tubular histology, ethylene glycol group was found to cause glomerular and blood vessel congestion and result in the presence of inflammatory cells in kidney sections. Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract treated was found to reduce such changes dose dependently in kidneys histology.

IND-54

Sub-chronic toxicity study of a standardized aqueous extract of labisia pumila: A traditional malaysian herb.


Sheikh Rayees, Rohit Sharma, Prem Narayan Gupta, P. Koul, Vijay K Gupta, Rakesh K. Johri, Surjeet Singh,Gurdarshan Singh

PK-PD -Toxicology Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR), Canal Road, Jammu-Tawi, 180001 (J & K)

Objective: The present study was designed to determine the general pharmacological/physiological effects of LP-1 in rodents on central nervous system, gastrointestinal system and cardiovascular system. Materials and Methods: Aqueous extract of Labisia pumila (LP-1), a Malaysian medicinal herb was used in the present study. Authenticated plant material (Labisia pumila) was provided by Tropical Botanica, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia under the Indo-Malaysian research program. The extract was standardized by HPLC method on the basis of two markers pyrogallol and gallic acid. The extract was evaluated for the general pharmacological/physiological effects in rodents on central nervous system, gastrointestinal system and cardiovascular system. The animlas were administred with three doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) along with standard drugs in comparision with control group. The parameters observed were General behavior, Spontaneous Motor Activity, Anti-convulsive activity, Electric shock induced convulsion, Analgesic activity (Hot plate method), Pentobarbitone induced sleeping time, Anti-pyretic activity, Charcoal meal transit time test, Billary secretion, Blood pressure and Heart rate. Results: The results of the present study showed that LP-1(125-500 mg/kg) did not produce any adverse effects on general physiological functions at the highest dose tested (200-fold) of therapeutic dose (2.5 mg/kg/day). Conclusion: Labisia pumila did not produce any adverse effects on general physiological functions at the highest dose tested (200-fold) of therapeutic dose (2.5 mg/kg/day).

IND-55

Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of Trigonella foenum graecum linn (fabaceae) in experimentally induced myocardial infarction

Joshi JK* , Shah Chitrang, Tejal Gandhi, Kirti Patel

Objective: To evaluate the Cardioprotective effect of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn (Fabaceae) in experimentally induced MI by Coronary Artery Ligation method. Materials and Methods: Male wistar-albino rats (250-300 gm) were randomly allocated to 6 groups containing 8 animals each. Group I(Normal Control), Group II(Sham operated) and Group III(model control) animals received distilled water throughout study period. Group IV(ascorbic acid 250), Group V(MTfg 300) and Group VI(MTfg 600) received Ascorbic acid(250 mg/kg), MTfg 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg respectively once a day p.o for 28days. After 28 days of treatment, surgery was performed. Blood was collected from each animal and stored for 1 to 2 hours at room temperature. Serum was obtained by centrifugation at 4000rpm for 15min and at the same time heart was rinsed with ice-chilled physiologic saline and weighed. It was then used for the estimation of various biochemical parameters (CK-MB, LDH, Concentration of Ions, Assay of Na/K ATPase, Ca ATPase and Mg ATPase, GSH, MDA, SOD, and Catalase. Result: Significant decrease in Na/k ATPase, K + conc., MDA and increase in CK-MB, LDH, Ca ATPase, Mg ATPase, Na Conc., GSH, SOD, and Catalase was observed in model control group. These changes were significantly prevented by treatment with Ascorbic acid and MTfg extract. Conclusion: Cardioprotective activity of MTfg can be attributed to decreased Cardiac Marker Enzyme level and normalized ATPase and oxidative stress.

IND-56

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Chrysanthemum flower

N. Paramakrishnan , K. Mruthunjaya, HS Poornima, SN Manjula

JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore - 570 015, Karnataka, India.

Objectives: To carry out antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of different extracts of Chrysanthemum flower petals. Methods: Different extracts of Chrysanthemum flower petals were prepared by successive soxhlet extraction method using different organic solvents of increasing polarity viz. Hexane, Chloroform (CC), Ethyl acetate, Acetone and Methanol (CM). Total sugar, phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents of all the above extracts were carried out to understand the chemical nature of each extract. The preliminary anitimicrobial activity of all these extracts were carried out. CC and CM which showed better antimicrobial activity were the selected for detailed anti-microbial activity followed by antioxidant activity. Antimicrobial activity of CC and CM was determined by disc diffusion method and the MIC was determined by using planktonic (free floating) bacterial cells. Antioxidant activity of CC and CM were carried out by DPPH radical scavenging, Hydroxyl radical scavenging and Ferrous ion chelating methods. Results: The CC and CM showed potent antioxidant activity. IC 50 values for CC and CM were found to be 312±25.15 and 13.05±2.12, 9.02±2.32 and 51.45±1.76 and 43.2±3.12 and 12.56±3.58 μg/ml in DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and ferric ion chelating activity methods respectively. The CC and CM showed detectable antimicrobial activity. Ascorbic acid content the total sugar content was found to be highest in CM. The total phenolic content found highest in CACE. The flavonoid content was found to be more in CH. Conclusion: The present study indicated the potent antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Chrysanthemum. This justifies the use of Chrysanthemum in traditional and folk medicine for various ailments.

IND-57

Evaluation of antidiabetic, hepatoprotective activities of Hiptage bengalensis (l) kurz

P. Maheshwari, A. Rama Narsimha Reddy*

Department of Pharmacology, Vaageswari College of Pharmacy, Karimanagar-505481, Andhra Pradesh, India

Objective: The present study was aimed at evaluating the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Hiptage bengalensis (L) kurz (MEHB) against alloxan induced diabetes in rats and chicks. The hepatoprotective activity of MEHB was also evaluated against CCl 4 induced hepatoxicity in rats. Methods: Alloxan (120 mg/kg, i.p) was used to induce diabetes in rats. Diabetic chicks were produced by administration of alloxan (0.6mg/30gr egg) into the fertile eggs at 14 th day of incubation in a suitable incubator. The MEHB at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg were used to evaluate the antidiabetic activity by measuring the blood glucose levels in rats and chicks. The hepatoprotective activity of MEHB was also evaluated against CCl 4 induced hepatoxicity in rats by measuring liver tissue damage markers like SGOT, SGPT and total bilirubin levels. Results: The present study results showed the antidiabetic activity of MEHB against alloxan induced diabetes in rats and chicks. There is dose dependant reduction (P<0.05) in the blood glucose and lipid profiles were observed with administration of MEHB. The MEHB also showed the hepatoprotective activity by lowering CCl 4 induced elevation of SGOT, SGPT and total bilirubin levels (P<0.05) and it also elevates the reduced glutathione levels (P<0.01). Conclusion: The methanolic extract of Hiptage bengalensis at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg able to produce antidiabetic and hepatoprotective activities. Experiments showed that further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action and chemical compounds responsible for the biological effects of the methanolic extract of Hiptage bengalensis

IND-58

Preparation and evaluation of anthelmintic activity of trikatu formulation with its comparative study

Pooja R. Malvankar, Poonam P. Taru, Sonali A. Barke, Mukta M. Abhyankar, Ashok V. Bhosale

Department of Pharmacognosy, PDEA's Seth Govind Raghunath Sable College of Pharmacy, Saswad, Taluka-Purandar, Dist-Pune, Maharashtra, India, PIN code 412301

Objective: Trikatu is a mixture of pimpli i.e. piper longum (piperaceae), black pepper i.e. piper nigrum (piperaceae), sunthi i.e. zingiber officinale (zingiberaceae). It is widely used in ayurveda to cure various ailments like digestion and absorption, improvement in lung function and in diabetes mellitus. The objective of this project is to prepare and evaluate the anthelmintic activity of trikatu formulation. Further the prepared trikatu formulation and its brand was compared with standard anthelmintic drugs like albendazole and vidang (Emblica ribes). Method : Earthworms (Pheritima postuma) were used for Anthelmintic activity. About 5-7 cm long earthworms were taken and grouped into six (2 standards and extracts 1, 2, 3 and 4) and each group taken into the Petri dish. The crude drugs were dried and powdered. The macerated water extracts of trikatu and its individual ingredient so obtained were taken in various concentrations like 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml. The anthelmintic activity was compared with albendazole (20 mg/ml) and vidang (Emblica ribes) (20 mg/ml). Result : Time required for the paralysis and death was noted. It was found that all the extracts showed good Anthelmintic activity in the concentration of 40 mg/ml. i.e. at their highest concentration. Conclusion : Trikatu formulation was found to possess a similar anthelmintic activity as that of the standard drugs like albendazole and vidang (Emblica ribes).

IND-59

Antiarthritic activity of methanolic extract of Sida cardiofolia against freunds complete adjuvant in male rats


Rajyalakshmi K.G, Malleswari I, Meganath Reddy G, Swetha K, Rajaram C.

Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy, Mohan Gardens, Vaishnavi Nagar, Tiruchanoor-517503

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic disorder with symmetrical, inflammatory polyarthritis that may produce progressive joint damage. Objective: Sida cardiofolia (Family: Malvaceae) is used in the indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of arthritic conditions. However, there is no reported literature on detailed investigation to support the rationale behind its use in arthritis. Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the anti arthritic activity of methanolic extract of S. cardifolia (MESC) against Freunds complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis in male rats. Methods: Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of FCA in to the sub plantar region of the left hind paw. After induction, male wistar rats (150 -200 gm) were randomly divided in to 5 groups (n=6) and treated for 28 days. Group I serves as normal and treated with vehicle, Group II serves as control and received FCA alone, Group III serves as standard treated with Ibuprofen (15 mg/kg per oral) along with FCA, Group IV and V s erves as Test 1and Test 2 treated with 200 mg / kg p.o and 400 mg/ kg p.o of MESC along with FCA respectively. Results: After 28 days of treatment the parameters monitored in the present study were paw volume, paw diameter, mean diameter, X- ray of rat paw, haematological parameters (WBC and ESR) and in vitro heat induced haemolysis. The in vivo anti oxidant parameters like lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were also assessed in the blood. Treatment with MESC at both the doses cause siginificant reduction in paw volume, paw diameter, mean diameter and haematological parameters (WBC and ESR) were noted when compared to the control group. A significant stabilization of lysosomal membranes was observed with MESC in in vitro heat induced haemolysis and significant protection against oxidative stress was also noted with both the doses of MESC as shown by increased levels reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and decreased levels of lipid peroxidation. The antiarthrtic activity of MESC was further supported by the X- ray of rat paw, which indicated marked decrease in destruction of bone cartilage when compared to the control group. Conclusion: Hence the results obtained in this present study indicates that MESC not only directs towards the control of arthritis progression and/or the inflammation associated with joint synovitis, but also prevents cartilage and bone destruction of the arthritic joints of AIA rats. Hence, orally applicable MESC may have great potential as an alternative to therapeutic agents currently available for treatment of RA.

IND-60

Sub-chronic toxicity study of a standardized aqueous extract of Labisia pumila: A traditional malaysian herb


Rohit Sharma, Sheikh Rayees, Prem Narayan Gupta, P. Koul, Vijay K Gupta, Rakesh K. Johri, Surjeet Singh, Gurdarshan Singh

PK-PD -Toxicology Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR), Canal Road, Jammu-Tawi, 180001 (J & K)

Objective: To evaluate thepotential side effects of Labisia pumila followed by 90 days repeated dose treatment. Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Standardized aqueous extract of Labisia pumila was used for this study. The plant was provided by Tropical Botanica, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The extract was standardized by HPLC method on the basis of two markers pyrogallol and gallic acid. The doses were selected according to OECD Guidelines No. 408. Accordingly one highest dose of 1000 mg/kg p.o. was selected with the aim of inducing some observable toxic but not death or severe suffering. Thereafter concurrent doses were selected with the view to demonstrate any dose related response and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) at the lowest dose level. The doses applied were 1000, 500, 250 and 62.5 mg/kg. Animals were randomly divided into five groups and following test drug treatments were administered. Group 1 (20 rats/group/sex) served as concurrent control receiving vehicle only. Animals in Group 2-4 (10 rats/group/sex) and group 5 (20 rats/group/sex) received 62.5 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg of LP-I respectively. Ten animals (per sex) each in the control (Gr. 1) and in the highest dose group (Gr. 5) were designated as satellite groups. The parameters observed were Body weight, food intake and water consumption, Hematology and serum biochemistry, Urinalysis, Gross necropsy and organ to body weight ratio and histopathology. Results: In this present study aqueous extract of Labisia pumila (LP-I) reported to have NOEAL at 62.5mg/kg, whereas at higher doses it has significant adverse effect on liver supported by increase in AST, ALP and pathological changes in histopathological architecture. Conclusion: The present investigation reports that LP-I is fairly safe at lower doses (62.5 mg/kg) in relation to its folkloric therapeutic dose (2.5 mg/kg), whereas higher doses (250-1000 mg/kg) were associated with some toxicity concerns.

IND-61

Evaluation of hypolipideimc and anti-atherosclerotic effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum (kasuri methi) in cholestrol fed rabbitS

Sudhanshu Shukla , Harish Rijhwani, Shivshakar P. 1 , Pathak P. 1 , Mangala Lahkar 2

National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (Niper), Guwahati, Assam, India, 1 Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Assam, India, 2 Chief Academic Co-Ordinator, Niper-Guwahati, Ex-Hod & Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Assam, India.

Objectives: Coronary artery disease (CAD), which is a multi-factorial disease frequently, causes morbidity and mortality in human beings. Scientists now believe that there is a good link between the inflammatory process and coronary atherosclerosis. Trigonella foenum-graecum (locally known as methi), is a well-known traditional medicinal herb which contains hypolipidemic compounds and flavonoids with high antioxidative properties. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract on blood lipids and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet. Methods: Twenty four male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups (normal diet group, high cholesterol diet (500 mg/kg/day) with coconut oil (5ml/rabbit/day) and groups received with high cholesterol diet supplemented with Trigonella foenum-graecum extract (400 mg/kg and 800mg/kg every day). The concentration of Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol was determined in rabbits at the start of experiment, and at the end of the 4 th , 8 th and 12 th week of study. At the end of experimental period the aorta was removed for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques done histopathologically. Results: The aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum shows significant decrease in TC, LDL and TG levels and increase HDL. Histopathology shows lessen atherosclerotic lesion in aorta. Hence, theextract can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. Conclusion: In this study an increase in serum HDL with a concomitant decrease in other lipid levels was observed. This is likely due to the effect on plasma lipoproteins and its antioxidant and anti- inflammatory properties.

IND-62

Boswellic acids- a triterpene mixture from Boswellia serrata is protective to bone loss in rodents

Surjeet Singh , Rohit Sharma, G.D. Singh, P. Koul, V. K. Gupta, R. K. Johri, R.A. Vishvakarma

Department of inflammation Pharmacology and Natural Product Chemistry Division, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR), Canal Road, Jammu Tawi (J&K) Pin code-180001

Objective : Evaluate of protective effect of Boswellic acids against different models of bone mass and bone density in rodents Materials and Methods : A standardized mixture of boswellic acids (BA) was used for the study. The total boswelic acids were extracted from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata. The total acid fraction comprised besides four boswelic acids and about 15-20% of tetracyclic triterpenoic acid also known as tirucallic acids. The total acid contents in the mixture by titrimetric method were calculated to be 92-95% which consist of the four boswelic acids (60-65%), 15-20% tirucallic acid and 13-18% other acids related to boswellic and tirucallic acids. Boswellic acid mixture was evaluated against two test models for protective effect of bone loss. The methods applied were (a) Steroid induced (Prednisolone 5mg/kg) bone loss assay, and (b) Ovariectomy induced bone loss assay. The parameters observed were Fresh bone weight, bone volume, bone length and bone density. Three doses of BA i.e., 125, 250 and 500mg/kg p.o. were applied. Alendronate sodium at a dose of 1.16mg/kg was taken as a positive standard and a group without any treatment was kept as control for the comparison. The treatment was given for a period of 15days. Results : The results of the present study revealed BA to possess mild to moderate protective effect on bone loss against both the assay models. The effect was dose related and in the range of 12 to 22% at 125 to 500mg/kg. Alendronate sodium also showed similar effect at 1.16mg/kg and the effect was 23%. Conclusion: BA showed mild to moderate protective effect on bone loss against both the assay models i.e., Steroid and Ovariectomy induced bone loss assays.

IND-63

Antifilarial Activity of Ficus lyrata - An In vitro Study

Waseem Rizvi , Rakesh Kumar, Anil Kumar

Department of Pharmacology, J. N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aligarh (U.P.)-202 002

Objective: To evaluate the antifilarial activity in Root of Ficus lyrata (F.lyrata) using cattle filarial parasite Setaria cervi (S. cervi). Methods: The effect of aqueous extract of Root of F.lyrata was studied on the spontaneous movements of the whole worm (w.w.) preparation and nerve muscle (n.m.) complex of Setaria cervi (S. cervi). The n.m. complex is made by stripping the cuticle of the worm. Results: The aqueous extract caused inhibition of spontaneous movements of the w.w. and n.m. complex characterized by initial stimulation followed by reversible paralysis in w.w. and n.m. complex. Lesser concentration of extract was required to inhibit the movements of n.m. complex than the w.w. suggesting a cuticular permeability barrier. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Root of F.lyrata was found to possess potential antifilarial activity.

IND-64

Antimicrobial Activity of various extracts of Mirabilis Jalapa Linn.

E. Sravani , N. Ravi Shankar Reddy 1 , Chitta Suresh Kumar

Apex Biosciences, Hyderabad, 1 Sri Krinadevaraya University, Ananthapur, India. E-mail: edulasravi@yahoo.co.in

Introduction: Apart from antibiotic resistance to bacterial infections, identifying effective and safe category of test compounds are being investigated. Among them sources of medicinal plants is also considered. An attempt has been made to evaluate antibacterial activity of Mirabilis Jalapa Linn. which reported to have virus inhibitory, anti tumour profile etc. Materials and Methods: The bacterial activities of various leaf extracts (acetone, chloroform, ethanol and methanol) of Mirabilis jalapa against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococci pneumonia and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus have been evaluated by using streptomycin sulphate as standard for anti-bacterial activity and Fluconazole as standard for anti-fungal activity by Agar disc diffusion method and determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results: Among all extracts, methanol extract of Mirabilis Jalapa exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (500μg/ml disc) and lowest MIC (39μg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus and the highest inhibition of fungal radial mycelia growth (500mg/ml) and lowest MIC (45mg/mL) against Aspergillus flavus. Conclusion: The preliminary results of the present study demonstrate that, Mirabilis Jalapa has potential anti-microbial activity and anti-fungal activities. This leads can be further evaluated to determine the dose effective concentrations and its effect on range of organisms. So that its use can be recommended in clinical situation.

IND-65

Pharmacological evaluation of polyherbal preparations for its antidiabetic profile

A. Padmanabha Rao, Kaiser Jamil, Prakash V. Diwan 1

School of Biotechnology (MGNIRSA), University of Mysore, India- 500 029. 1 Department of Pharmacology, Lalitha College of Pharmacy, Ghatkesar, Hyderabad-501 301, India.

E-mail: padmanabha.rao.a@gmail.com


Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and the management is an important criterion for pharmacotherapy. Literature survey reveals that plethora of plants play a vital role in preventing and managing diabetes mellitus. Present study is undertaken to screen the herbal extracts of Eugenia jambolana and Cinnamomum zeylenicum and its combinations using in vitro techniques for its antidiabetic activity. The direct soxhlet method was employed for the extraction using polar and non-polar solvents. The in vitro evaluation was performed by using cell culture assays, alpha-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant property. Organic and aqueous extracts of the plants were screened against HepG2, C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells using a glucose uptake assay. The results showed that the glucose uptake was significantly high in APKJ-004 polyherbal extract when compared with other extracts. α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was found in all the extracts and they were comparable to acarbose and the significant inhibitory activity was found in the polyherbal extract APKJ004 (IC 50 147.2μg/ml). The in vitro antioxidant potential revealed that the extract APKJ004 is more potent and is comparable to the standard. Further the polyherbal extract APKJ-004 was selected and subjected to in vivo studies i.e., acute and sub acute studies for the determination of safety and efficacy. APKJ-004 has significantly decreased the blood glucose levels indicating the potential antidiabetic activity. All the microscopic changes noticed in the study appeared to be incidental as their frequency and severity remained identical for the control and the treated animals. Hence it can be concluded that polyherbal extract-APKJ004 tends to act as a potent antidiabetic agent with minimal or no side effects. The results of in vitro and in vivo evaluations on the polyherbal preparations are encouraging and may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of diabetes.

IND-66

Neuropharmacological studies of Alpinia galanga (L.) wild on A
β induced amnesia in mice.

Hanish Singh J. C, Narsimha Reddy Y. 1 , Prakash V. Diwan 2 , Alagarsamy V, Rahul Kshirsagar P., Padmanabha Rao A.

Department of Pharmacology, Lalitha College of Pharmacy, Ghatkesar, Gr. Hyderabad, 1 Department of Pharmacology, UCPSC, Kakatiya University, Warangal, 2 Medicinal Chemistry Lab., MNR College of Pharmacy, Sangareddy, Gr. Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. E-mail: hanishsinghjc@gmail.com

Amyloid β(25-35) (Aβ) peptide is neurotoxic throughout the progression of neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer's type of dementia. The accumulation of Aβ was evidenced by eliciting the reactive oxygen species, increase in neurotransmitter metabolic enzymes and changes in biogenic amines. The application of folklore medicine is prevalent and herbs which possess rejuvenating property are having the potentiality to act as natural antioxidants which may useful for the development of novel drugs in neurodegenerative disorders. The study was designed to investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd (EAG) on oxidative stress induced Alzheimer's type of amnesia in mice. The present study was designed to screen cognitive improvement of Alpinia galanga (AG) fractions in Alzheimer's dementia in mice induced by Aβ(25-35) . Alzheimer's disease induced mice treated with fractions (n-hexane, Chloroform and Ethyl acetate) of AG in 200 and 400 mg/kg. Neurotoxicity was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ(25-35) on 14 th day of 21 days drug treatment. In behavioral parameter the step down inhibitory avoidance task was studied determine short term memory and long term memory. Biochemical parameters of neurotransmitter metabolic enzymes such as monoamine oxidase A and B isoenzymes (MAO-A and MAO-B) were evaluated. The elevated levels of MAO-A and MAO-B in amnesia induced mice are attenuated by treatment with EAG. In passive avoidance the STM and LTM were enhanced which indicated the classical one trial memory. These findings suggested the Alpinia galanga exert anti-amnesiac effect in Aβ induced neurodegeneration through inhibition of neurotransmitter metabolic enzyme and antioxidant property.


 » Imp Top


IMP-1

Newerpharmacological approches to manage rheumatoid arthritis

Yashoda C , Pushpa VH, Suresha RN, Shivaprasad MG

Department of Pharmacology, JSS Medical College, Mysore

Introduction : Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes significant disability and reduces life span with progressive destruction of joint and bone. Pathogenesis - Activated CD4 T cells and B lymphocytes, cytokines like TNFα and IL-1 have pivotal role in Retreatment should be early using combination of drugs. Established drugs like methotrexate, sulfasalazine, leflunomide, corticosteroids, TNFα inhibitors, etc are incapable of curing RA completely. Recent approaches are : Abatacept - Inhibits T cell co stimulation. Rituximab - acts on CD20 of B cells. Belimumab and Atacicept - It suppresses progression of B cell development from progenitors to plasma cells. Tocilizumab - antibody against IL 6 receptor. Gene therapy - Used locally or systemically using viral (adeno virus, r Adeno Associated) or non viral vectors. It inhibits pro inflammatory cytokines and NF-kB activation. While search for new vectors (viral and non viral) continues, local method using rAAV is one of most promising treatment for RA. Stem cell therapy is used in RA refractory to conventional treatment. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells are used. The advantages are It eliminates potential problems with immunogenicity and rejections, Injections can be performed on an outpatient basis, A minimally invasive approach, patients can return to work sooner. Conclusion : Amazing developments have taken place over last 3 to 5 years. Despite these advances, safety studies and toxicity of gene therapy should be evaluated. Further studies are required to understand phenotype, mechanism of action and to optimize their use in RA.

IMP-2

Immunomodulatory activity of hydroalcoholic acivity of andrographis paniculata in rats and mice


Kale R.S.

Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha, Maharashtra.

Objective: To assess cell-mediated and humoral immune response of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographispaniculata in rats and mice. Methodology: Healthy albino rats (150-200 gm) and Swiss albino mice (20-30 gm) of either sex were taken for the experiment. Hydroalcoholic extract of shed-dried aerated part of A.paniculata was given orally to rats and mice.Hydro-alcoholic extract of whole plant of Ocimum sanctum was used as standard. To assess cell-mediated immune response, neutrophil adhesion test and cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia were carried out while humoral immune response was evaluated by measuring sr. immunoglobulin level and indirect haemagglutination test. Results: P value is calculated by using Student's 't' test. AP extract showed a significant (P value <0.05) increase in neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibre and significant (P value < 0.01) protection against Cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia indicating its effect on cell mediated immunity. While on measuring serum immunoglobulin levels, it showed significant (P value < 0.01) increase in the level and increase in the haemagglutinationtitre (P value < 0.01) values suggesting its effect on humoral immunity. Conclusion: From the above results, it is concluded that the hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographispaniculata has significant immunomodulatory activity.

IMP-3

Effect of whole plant methanolic extract of celastrus paniculata on cellular and humoral immunity in mice

Aarti Iyer, Neelam Balekar, Dinesh Kumar Jain

College of Pharmacy, IPS Academy, Rajendra Nagar, A.B Road, Indore (M.P.), PIN code-452012, India.

Objective: Celastrus paniculata is a native Indian shrub, widely used for its leucoderma and anti-arthritic activity. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to explore the immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of whole plant of Celastrus paniculata. Methods: The plant was collected from forest department of Indore, shade dried and the methanolic extract was prepared by maceration. The immunomodulatory activity was characterized in different models of cellular and humoral immunity. Intially, methanolic extract (CPME) was administered to mice at different doses (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and its effect on organ weights, and hematological parameters was determined. The immunomodulatory effect was further confirmed as humoral antibody response (hemagglutination antibody titre), cell mediated immune response (delayed type hypersensitivity) and neutrophil adhesion test at a dose of 200 mg/kg, p.o. Results: Oral administration of CPME at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg in mice markedly decreased the weight of thymus and spleen (73 % and 83% respectively). Further, at the dose of 200 mg/kg it inhibited both humoral and cell mediated immune responses as evidenced by production of the circulating antibody titre and DTH response respectively (25% and 3% respectively). The % neutrophil adhesion was also reduced by 27%. Conclusion: The findings from the present investigation reveal that Celastrus paniculata causes immunosuppression in mice, which supports its use in rheumatoid arthritis and leucoderma.

IMP-4

Effect of immunostimulant activity of tinospora sinensis on albino rabbits

V.J. Hemajiji *, Rakesh A. Joshi, K. Karthikeyan, P. Muralidharan

Department of Pharmacology, C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai-97.

Objectives: The herbal drugs are used for the treatment of fever are the potential source for immunostimulants. The aqueous extract of Tinosporasinensis can be evaluated by Neutrophil adhesion test. The present study was to evaluate the immunostimulant activity of Tinosporasinensis. Materials and methods: Fresh leaves, stem or roots of Tinosporasinensis washed cut in small pieces.10gm of each part taken with 100ml.Albino rabbits were divided into three groups(n=3) .Before administration of drug they act as control.The aqueous extract was administered orally at a dose of 5ml/day for 14 days. Blood was collected before administration of drug, on 7th and 14th day for assessment of immune stimulant effect. The neutrophil adhesion test was carried out by total leucocyte counts and differential leucocyte count. Complement activity alternative pathway was studied on principle that rat erythrocyte was antigen in serum. Results: Immunostimulant activity was evaluated based on complement activity alternate pathway and by chemotaxy. The selected drug was administered in the form of aqueous extract to albino rabbit. Complement activity alternate pathway evaluated based upon haemolysis of RBC as a immune response and chemotaxy was evaluated by ability of neutrophils adhere to foreign particles like nylon fibres. The results indicated that complement activity and chemotaxy was increased by after 7th, 14th day. Conclusion: The study reveals that Tinosporasinensis has significant complement alternate pathway activity and chemotaxy.

IMP-5

Immunomodulatory activity of Terminalia bellirica extract in mice

Anshuman Mandloi , Hiral Bhalodiya, Bala Saraswathi J, Mudagal Manjunatha, Surendra V, Divakar Goli.

Acharya & B. M. Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-90.

E-mail: mandloianshuman@gmail.com

Aim: To evaluate immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of T. bellirica in mice. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of Terminalia bellirica fruits was prepared and analysed for phytochemically properties. Immunomodulatory efficacy of extract (doses: 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) was determined in testing phagocytic index, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, relative organ weight and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction. Results: Pretreatment with ethanolic extract of T. bellirica (350 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant (P<0.01) increase inphagocytic index and significant (P<0.05) protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia. Moreover, significant (P<0.01) increase in relative weight of spleen at 350 mg/kg was observed but no significant change in thymus index was observed in test doses of plant extract. Furthermore, both the doses of ethanolic extract of T. bellirica showed significantly (P<0.01) potentiated the DTH reaction by facilitating the footpad thickness response to SRBC's in sensitized mice. Conclusion: Results of the study conclude that the ethanolic extract of T. bellirica demonstrated that T. bellirica triggers both non-specific and specific cellular immunity. Key Words: Immunomodulatory activity, phagocytic index, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, Terminalia bellirica.


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MIS-1

Analysis of adverse drug reactions in a private tertiary care teaching hospital

Jyothsnya S., Pratibha Nadig, Bhanuprakash, Murali Mohan, Subramanian, Ananya Chakraborty

56, 3 rd cross, church street, 6 th block annexe, Koramangala, Bangalore, Karnataka.

Objectives: To monitor and analyse the suspected adverse drug reactions (ADR's) reported from clinical departments at Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore. Methods: A prospective observational study was undertaken for a period over 1 year from May 2010 to August 2011.Suspected ADR's reported by the clinicians in CDSCO forms to pharmacovigilance unit were analysed for

1. Type of reaction

2. Severity

3. Seriousness

4. Causal relationship with the drug using the Naranjo and WHO -UMC causality scale

5. Group of suspected drugs associated with ADR

Results: A total 78 ADR forms were received from various clinical departments; 65 completed forms as per the pharmacovigilanceprogramme of India were utilized for analysis. 98.46% of the reactions were type B and 1.53% type A. 32.30% of the reactions were mild, 56.92% were moderate, and 10.76% severe.7 reactions (10.76%) are considered serious. There was no death due to ADR. As per the Naranjo scale, 73.2% were possibly related, 24.4% probably related and none were definitely related. Analysis as per WHO -UMC causality scale showed that 11.38% of the drugs suspected to cause the reaction were probably or likely related, 85.36% possibly related, 3.25 % unlikely related.The major group of drugs that caused the reactions were antimicrobials. The most common ADR's in our study were cutaneous reactions. 50.76% of ADRs were noted in patients on combination of drugs. Conclusions: Study revealed that systemic reactions were under reported. Awareness and meticulous monitoring is necessary for identification and further prevention of ADR's.

MIS-2

Cost analysis of oral anti-diabetic drugs available in Indian market


P.R. Pandit, Pratiksha Mainkar , Nisha Jadhav, Manisha Bhosale

Department of Pharmacology, Topiwala National Medical College & B.Y.L Nair Ch Hospital, Dr. A.L Nair Road, Mumbai Central, Mumbai 400 008.

Objectives: 1. To find different oral anti-diabetics available either singly or in combination and number of brands available for each 2. To evaluate cost of oral anti-diabetics of different classes 3. To evaluate difference in cost of different brands of same active drug by calculating percentage variation of cost. Methods: We perused through "CIMS and IDR" for analysis of different oral anti- diabetic preparations. Prices of oral antidiabetic drugs mentioned in these books were reviewed. Difference in maximum and minimum price of same drug manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies. Results: There are at least 16 individual drugs and more than 10 combinations of these drugs available in a plethora of more than 100 formulations. Prices of total of 18 drug formulations (11 single and 7 combinations) were analysed.In single drug therapy, among Sulfonylurea group, Glimepiride (2 mg) shows maximum price variation of about 836.20%. In Biguanides and Thiazolidinediones groups of drugs, Metformin (500 mg) and Pioglitazone (15 mg) show maximum price variation of 308.33% and 542% respectively. In combination therapy, Glipizide and Metformin combination shows maximum price variation up to 399.04 %. Conclusion: The average percentage price variation of different brands of the same drug manufactured in India is very wide. It is recommended that the appraisal and management of marketed drugs should be directed toward maximizing the benefits of therapy and minimizing negative personal and economic consequences.

MIS-3

The availibility of prescription analgesics from online pharmacies in India


Kiran Bhave, Nitin Maksane

G-154, Reserve Bank Staff Quarters, Near Diamond Garden, Sion Trombay Road, Chembur, Mumbai -400071, Maharashtra.

Objectives: To investigate the availability of prescription-only analgesics to the Indian population from the Internet. Methods: The search for Online pharmacies was conducted in May- June 2011 using the Google and Yahoo search engine and the entire web was searched using as keywords 'online pharmacies', 'online drugstore', 'drugs Online' and 'medicines online'.One thousand websites were investigated and a database (Microsoft Excel Spread-sheet) was created containing details of 108 sites that met three inclusion criteria: (i) they sold analgesics to the public, (ii) they delivered orders to Indian addresses, and (iii) they provided free access.Details included:website name and URL;physical address; analgesics available; quantities and cost;prescription requirements; questionnaire requirements; and the amount of information about the drugs. Results: 52 % websites sold prescription analgesics, including five opioids and 12 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. 74 % of these online pharmacies did not require the customer to possess a valid prescription. 57% provided no information as to the physical location of the company. 63% did not provide any online information regarding instructions for use, side-effects, contraindications or interactions; the remaining 37 % provided varying amounts of information. 31% required the customer to undertake some form of health screening. This took the form of an online questionnaire, or 'consultation'. Conclusion: Prescription-only analgesics, including controlled opioids, are readily available from internet websites, often without a valid prescription.

MIS-4

Comparing the antinociceptive effect of Amitriptyline and Fluoxetine in rats

Nisha Michael *, Bharti Chogtu, Eesha BR, Abdul Hafeez S, Chaitanya M. Karanth

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka-576104, India

Introduction: Antidepressant drugs are found to exacerbate the responses to noxious stimuli and they have been reported to be used in the management of various types of pain. They have an important role to play in various types of neuropathic pain as well. This present study is designed to find the efficacy of different antidepressants acting through different mechanisms in pain. Objective: In this study we compared the antinociceptive effect of Amitriptyline and Fluoxetine using standard in vivo methods of central analgesic activity. Materials and methods: The rats were divided into three groups with eight animals in each. Group one was the control Group I, Group II and III were given Amitriptyline and Fluoxetine 20 mg/kg i.p respectively. Acute nociceptive pain models of tail flick and hot plate were used to assess the analgesic affect. One way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Amitriptyline showed a significantly superior response i.e increase in antinociceptive effect as compared control (P<0.01). On intergroup comparison Amitriptyline is superior to Fluoxetine (P<0.05). Conclusion: Amitriptyline is significantly superior to control and Fluoxetine in animal model of pain.

MIS-5

Drugs of physical harm in pregnancy: Nature vs nurture - A silent battle

Deepanjana Dass , Sunil Kumar Pandey

Department of Pharmacology, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, 5 th Mile, Tadong, Gangtok, Sikkim, India

Introduction: Drug misuse is a major social, legal, and public-health challenges in the modern world. Drug misuse affects society, family, individual user and offsprings. Using illicit substances duringpregnancy is common. A study in UK inner-cityclinic demonstrated 16% of the women hadtaken one or more illicit substances. Screening newborns in a high-risk urbanpopulation of USA revealed 44% of 3010 babies tested positivefor opiates, cocaine or cannabis. Maternal drug abuse jeopardizes maternal health and results in poor foetal outcome. Here we discuss mainly about antenatal, postnatal, foetal consequences and management of maternal drug abuse. Body: Four drugs i.e Heroin, Methadone, Barbiturate and Cocaine has been selected because they have maximum propensity to cause physical harm. These drugs easily cross the placenta and pass into breast milk, affecting the baby and are so addictive that the unborn baby can become dependent on the drug. Women abusing these drugs during pregnancy can experience memory loss, irritability, changes in alertness and can increase the risk of antepartum haemorrhage, preterm birth, low birth weight, neural tube defects, cleft palates, cardiac defects and microcephaly. Cocaine may cause an unborn baby to die or experience stroke, which can result in irreversible brain damage as they have not yet developed the enzyme that inactivates it. Neonatal withdrawal symptoms have also been reported in infants. Discussion: Drug use in pregnancy is a potentially complex bio-psychosocialproblem and is best managed through careful assessment leadingto a care plan that is implemented by a multidisciplinary team.

MIS-6

Atorvastatin and simvastatin as analgesic agents in experimental models

Harish Kumar V.S. , Dwajani S., Keerthi D., Umakant N. Patil

Department of Pharmacology, S.S. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, NH-4, Bypass road, Davanagere - 577005, Karnataka, India.

Objectives: To evaluate the analgesic effect of atorvastatin and simvastatin. To compare analgesic activity of these with an established drug aspirin. Methods: Healthy Albino rats were taken. They were randomly divided into 4 groups of six animals each. Group I: Normal Saline (0.5 ml), Group II: aspirin (400 mg / kg b w), group III: atorvastatin (10 mg / kg b w) and group IV: simvastatin (10 mg / kg b w). The animals were subjected to 3 different tests at different interval of time. The tests conducted were hot water tail immersion, eddy's hot plate and tail clip method. Results:Atorvastatin and simvastatin differ significantly from control hence they have analgesic action and even at any of the time intervals they do not differ significantly from aspirin; hence their analgesic effect is nearly comparable to aspirin. The results of the present study indicate that atorvastatin and simvastatin have analgesic action. Conclusion: These statins are found to have analgesic effect other than hypolipidemic activity and can be used in these patients. However further study has to be undertaken in a broader way.

MIS-7

Cases of Steven Johnson syndrome reported at pharmacovigilance center of a tertiary care hospital during 8 months period from Jan'11 to Aug' 11

Akshata K ., Sudhir P., Manjari A., Neha K.

Department of Pharmacology, LTM Medical College and General Hospital, Sion, Mumbai - 400 022

Objective: To evaluate the causality of Steven Johnson Syndrome secondary to drug intake admitted at a tertiary care hospital during 8 month period from January '11 to August '11. Methodology: Cases of Steven Johnson Syndrome (SJS) secondary to drug intake were reported to the department of Pharmacology (Pharmacovigilance center) from the clinical departments as a part of pharmacovigilance activity at the institute. Reporting of the cases was voluntary. The cases were then recorded by pharmacologists as per the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) form. Causality was then assessed using the WHO scale. Results: 7 cases of SJS secondary to drug intake were admitted during the 8 month period of which 3 were males and 4 females ranging from 2 to 34years of age. 3 cases progressed to TEN. The reactions occurred within 7- 16 days of drug intake. Drugs responsible for them were Nevirapine, Carbamazepine, Lamotrigine, Phenytoin, NSAIDs and Anti-tubercular drugs. Causality for 2 cases was found to be 'probable' and for 5 cases 'possible' on WHO scale. All cases were symptomatically treated and recovered. Conclusion: Steven Johnson Syndrome, as an ADR is an important cause for hospitalization and morbidity. However with timely intervention and treatment, mortality rates are decreasing.

MIS-8

Case report of lithium toxicity

Ambirwar S. , Joshi G., Pandey D., Mali S., Pednekar S., Thakur S., Pawar S.

Room. No. 15, 2 nd Floor, College Building, Department of Pharmacology, LTM Medical College and General Hospital, Sion, Mumbai - 400 022

A 57 years old woman, known case of bipolar disorder and hypertension, was admitted to our hospital with the symptoms of lithium toxicity i.e. tremors, altered sensorium, disorientation, confusion, nausea and diarrhoea. She was receiving tab lithium 800 mg/day, tab valproate 1000 mg/day, tab topiramate 50 mg/day, tab quetiapine 50 mg/day since 9 years and tab enalapril 5 mg bd since 5 years. Her serum lithium levels on admission were 2.82mmol/L. She was suffering from diarrhoea 10 days prior to development of these symptoms. Drug interaction between lithium and ACE inhibitors is well known and that with topiramate has been documented. Though the patient was taking these drugs concomitantly since 5 and 9 years respectively, the lithium toxicity got precipitated when she developed acute gastroenteritis. Dehydration might have decreased lithium clearance and accentuated its toxicity. Patient was stabilized with 2 sessions of haemodialysis. On 5 th day of admission serum lithium level was 0.5 mmol/L. Patient was improved and was discharged on 8 th day of admission. Thus though certain drug interactions are well known, attention should also be paid to trivial factors which might precipitate severe reactions.

MIS-9

Anti-lithiatic effect of vitex negundo linn on ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in rats

Loganathan A.S. , Babu C., Chidambaranathan N., Sakthi Vel C., Kumaran N., Rabiyamma S.K.M.

College of Pharmacy, Madurai-625107.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-lithiatic activity of hydro alcoholic extract of vitex negundo linn on ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in male rats. Methodology and Results: Lithiasis was induced in rats by administering 1% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and manifested by high urinary calcium, phosphate, oxalate, uric acid, creatinine and low urinary magnesium content. Simultaneously administration of hydro alcoholic extract of vitex negundo (HEVN 200 mg/kg B.W) orally for 28 days along with ethylene glycol (1%) reduced urinary calcium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid, creatinine and elevated urinary magnesium levels. It also increased the urinary volume, thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction of lithiasis as a micro crystal deposition was observed in section of kidney from animal treated with ethylene glycol. This was reduced, however, after treatment with the extract. Conclusion: These observations enable us to conclude that HEVN is effective against ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis.

MIS-10

Protective effect of punica granatum fruit extract on benzo (a) pyrene -induced oxidative damage in the lung of mice


N. Madhusudhanan, A. Ruckmani, G. Karthikeyan , R. Lakshmipathyprabhu, V. Venkataramanan, S. Arulraja

Department of Pharmacology, Chettinad Hospitals and Research Institute, Rajiv Gandhi salai, Kelambakkamkanchipuramdist,

TN-603103

Objectives: To find out whether the fruit extract of Punicagrantum has protective effect on Benzo(a)pyrene induced oxidative damage in the lung of mice. Methods:Aqueous extract of Punicagrantum fruit was prepared and tested for its effect against Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) induced oxidative damage in mice. 24 male mice were randomly divided into four groups of 6 each. Group I served as control and received distilled water 0.5ml, Group II Benzo(a)pyrene 50 mg/kg, Group III received Benzo(a)pyrene 50 mg/kg + PFE 250 mg/kg and Group IV received PFE 250 mg/kg per orally once a day for 15 days. On the 16th day the animals were sacrificed and the lung tissues were analyzedfor LPO and antioxidants levels. Results: B(a)P treated group had a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), but a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activity in lung tissue. Combined treatment of PFE and B(a)P declined the LPO levels but increased SOD, CAT, and GPx activities significantly(p<0.05) showing antioxidant activity. Lung histopathological examination showed reduced cellular changes in Punicagranatum fruit extract treated group. Conclusion: The present study has shown that aqueous extract of Punicagranatum fruit has antioxidant activity against B(a)P induced oxidative stress in mice Lung.

MIS-11

Comparative assessment of multiple choice questions versus essay questions in Pharmacology among II year Medical students.

*Kiran B. , Akila L., Jamuna Rani R.

Department of Pharmacology, SRM Medical College Hospital & Research Centre,SRM Nagar,Potheri-603203, Kancheepuram District, Tamilnadu.

*E-mail: kiranshenoy777@gmail.com

Objectives : To compare the multiple choice questions versus essay questions in II year MBBS Pharmacology Examinations considering the gender differences. Methods : It is a retrospective observational study, which included a total of 128 regular (2009-2010) batch students studying second year MBBS at SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chennai were included. Six internal assessment tests and 2 model test marks were considered.Marks obtained by the students got from departmental records. Since, we do not have the access to the university exam marks, those marks were not considered in this study. MCQ marks and essay marks were compared with respect to genders. Results : Students who performed better in MCQ did proportionately well in essay questions also.Students who got good marks in both the MCQs and Essay questions shared first, second third ranks in pharmacology.Girl students always topped the examinations throughout the year in all the examinations.Failure to score more than 50% including both MCQs and essays were greater among boys.Some students who performed poor in MCQs performed extraordinarily well in essays and vice versa. Conclusion : In our study,girl students out performed boys in all the tests.Students who were having the sound knowledge of Pharmacology did consistently well in MCQs and Essay questions.Students performed well only in MCQs may be due to mere luck and good performance only in Essays were due to lack of through reading.

MIS-12

Comparison of rational pharmacotherapy approach by medical students with and without who guide to good prescribing


Vasundara K., Raghunandan R., Vijendra R.

Department of Pharmacology, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bengaluru

Objective: To compare rational pharmacotherapy approach in management of essential hypertension and acute bronchial asthma by MBBS students before and after exposure to WHO GGP. Methods: Sixth-term MBBS students conventionally trained in management of essential hypertension and acute bronchial asthma and randomly divided into group A (n=36) and group B (n=42), were asked to make a treatment plan for a hypothetical case of essential hypertension and acute bronchial asthma respectively in an open unstructured format. Following an interactive teaching session on WHO GGP guidelines for each group separately, both groups were asked to remake the treatment plan for the same hypothetical case in an objective structured format based on GGP. The treatment plan written before and after exposure to GGP was compared based on various steps of GGP. Paired Student's t- test was used for analysis. Results: The score enhancement with GGP (mean±SD) in group A for defining the patient problem, setting up the therapeutic goal, selecting P drug, writing the prescription, providing the drug information, monitoring the drug treatment and updating drug information was 0.61±0.55, 0.53±0.51, 2.75±1.4, 9±1.24, 14.64±0.8, 6.08±1.59, and 3.39±1.02 respectively. The score enhancement (mean±SD) in group B for the above mentioned steps was 0.85±0.36, 0.97±0.17, 1.73±1.57, 6.18±2.88, 6.21±1.47, 5.79±1.49 and 6.36±2.04 respectively. The score enhancement with GGP guidelines was statistically significant with p value 0.001 in both groups. Conclusion: With widely rampant irrational prescribing behaviour in our country, the study showed a statistically significant improvement in rational pharmacotherapy approach by medical students after exposure to GGP guidelines.

MIS-13

Factors influencing Prescribing Behaviour of general practitioners in Primary Health Care Centres of Eastern Maharashtra: A questionnaire based survey


Ghia Canna J, Rathod Ameet M , Rathod Roheet R, Khobragade Linesh R, Jha Rajesh K.

Department of Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi Meghe, Wardha-442 004, Maharashtra, India.

Background: Clinical effectiveness should be the most important factor influencing drug prescription. But physicians in primary health centres often prescribe keeping in mind the availability of drugs and the socioeconomic status of their patients. Aims and objectives: To evaluatethe attitudes and the factors whichinfluence physician prescribing decisions and practice. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and administered to a sample of 100 physicians posted in primary health care centres of rural Eastern Maharashtra.The questionnaire-part one had questions regarding demographic details and part two contained questions regarding prescribing behaviour and practice. Results: Physicians take many criteria under consideration, such as the drug form, recommended daily dose and individual patient preferences before prescribing drugs. The list of main sources of information for physicians includes: medical journals, medical textbooks, conferences andpharmaceutical sales representatives. Only half of prescribers considered the cost carried by theirpatients. The majority of doctors agreed that the effectiveness, safety and efficacyof generic drugs may not be excellent but it is acceptable. Physicians believe that new drugs are not always better and their higher prices are not necessarily justified. Majority of doctors do not inform the authorities on adverse drug reactions. Conclusion: The present study highlights the attitudes and the factors influencing physician behaviour and may be used for developing policies to improve their choices and hence to increase clinical and economic effectiveness and efficiency in rural areas.

MIS-14

Assessment of Attitude of Medical Student and Graduates towards Clinical Research in Academic Cirriculum


Rathod Roheet
M., Gaikwad Nitin R. Jha Rajesh K., Rathod Ameet M., Ghia Canna J., Ahmed Tabish SM.

Department of Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha-442004, Maharashtra, India.

Objective: To assess the attitude of medical students and graduates towards clinical research in academic curriculum. Method: A cross-sectional, questionnaire based study was conducted in 2010-2011 in Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe) Wardha Maharasthra. Second year, third year medical students and fresh graduates were included. Descriptive statistics were done using SPSS. Result: Most of the participants had journal reading habits due to the requirement of their institution. Mostly, undergraduates had already participated in research project. Institutional influence and speciality of interest was found to be statistically significant factors related to a participant's interest or involvement in research. Conclusion: There is keen interest and involvement in research, among second year and third year medical student but medical graduates are involved in preparation for their post graduate studies. However, the factors driving them are based on their university research encouragements and future plans.

MIS-15

Effect of locally administered metformin on alveolar bone density in periodontitis induced rat model

Om Prakash N.P. , Rema Razdan, Vinod K., Deepak Kumar Khajuria

Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Dept of Pharmacology, Near Lal Bagh Main Gate, Hosur road, Bangalore-560027

Objective : To formulate mucoadhesive metformin film and evaluate the effect of combination of locally administered metformin film with systemically administered co-enzyme Q 10 and minocycline on alveolar bone density in periodontitis induced rats. Method : Metformin film was formulated using chitosan as a polymer and 0.3% glycerine as plasticizer. Metformin film was evaluated for drug content uniformity, invitro drug release, drug content, thickness and tensile strength. Periodontitis was induced by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) around the mandibular first molar of each rat once in 24 hours for 9days. Rats were divided into 4 groups(n=6) Group A: Negative control( No treatment), Group B: Positive control (LPS treated), Group C: LPS+Minocycline+Co-enzyme Q 10 , Group D: LPS+Minocycline+ Co-enzyme Q 10 +Metformin film.On day10 after induction of periodontitis , metformin film was placed in periodontal pocket and minocycline and Co-enzyme Q 10 administered orally for 24 days. 30days after treatment the rats were sacrificed to measure bone mineral density of mandible by X-ray imaging and physical evaluation. Result: In LPS induced periodontitis locally delivered metformin along with systemically administered minocycline and Co-enzyme Q 10 showed significant reduction in alveolar bone loss compared to positive control rats. Conclusion : Our finding suggest that locally administered metformin may exert beneficial effect on alveolar bone density in periodontitis.

MIS-16

Knowledge of medical professionals about fixed dose combination

Pragathi B , Kalabharathi HL, Suresha RN, Shivaprasad MG.

Department of Pharmacology, JSS Medical College (Constituent of JSS University), Mysore-570015

Objective: To assess the knowledge of medical professionals about fixed dose combination (FDC). Methods: A pre-tested questionnaire designed to evaluate the knowledge about FDC was given to 200 medical professionals including teaching staff, post graduates (PG's) and interns of JSS Medical College, Mysore. Results: Majority (98%) of doctors have heard and 95% of them think FDC's are necessary as a treatment option, stating that it is imperative to update ones knowledge about FDC's. There was statistically significant difference about the knowledge of FDC's between the 3 groups. Among the groups staff had good knowledge about FDC's. Conclusion: The knowledge of medical professionals about FDC's is inadequate. Integration of knowledge and expertise about FDC's among medical professionals are essential to avoid irrational drug prescription and hence to achieve the best possible therapeutic outcomes.

MIS-17

Assessment of barriers for subject recruitment in clinical trials


Vishaly S, Ruckmani A, Saradha S, Lakshmipathyprabhu R, Priya A.

Department of pharmacology, Chettinad Hospitals and Research Institute, Rajiv Gandhi salai, kelambakkamkanchipuramdist, TN-603103

Objective: To find out the assessment of severity of barriers for subject recruitment in clinical trials by clinical research professionals. Methods: A survey was conducted online among Principal investigators, CRAs and CRCs. Standardized questionnaire was sent to a total of 1004 participants after getting their willingness. 25 identified barriers for subject recruitment were included in the questionnaire, of which 14 barriers were patient related, 7 investigators related and 4 common to both. The severity of the barriers was rated by giving four options as severe, moderate and mild and not a barrier. The responses received were tabulated and the results analyzed. Results: Out of 1004 invitees only 105 responded to the invitation. All the responders have accepted the 25 barriers as barriers. Among 25 barriers only 2 were rated severe, 12 mild and 11 moderate barriers. The 2 severe barriers are recruitment for rare diseases and negative impact from the media. Some of the mild barriers are migration of the subjects, low compensation, local cultural practices etc. Moderately severe barriers include complex nature of the trial design, quantity and frequency of blood collected, inconvenient schedule of clinic visits etc. Conclusion: The study enabled us to identify the severity of barriers for subject recruitment in clinical trials as assessed by the clinical research professionals. The 2 severe barriers identified could really affect subject recruitment .Hence suitable strategies according to the severity have to be evolved to overcome the barriers which would facilitate subject recruitment and successful conduct of clinical trials.

MIS-18

A randomized, open label, comparative study of lysine cream with standard Treatment in patients with second degree superficial burns

Saravanan P., Nandini R., Jayaraman 1 , A.C.Yegneshwaran

Institute of Pharmacology, Madras Medical College, 1 Burns Unit, Kilpauk Medical College & Hospital, Chennai - 600003, Tamilnadu, India.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Lysine cream in patients with second degree superficial burns. Methods: In this Randomized, Open label, Comparative Study patients with second degree superficial burnsreceived either combination of Lysine cream 15% and silver sulfadiazine cream 1% or sulfadiazine cream1% alone twice daily for period of 4 weeks. Patients were visited every week. The primary outcome, pain, discharge, size and total body surface area (TBSA) were assessed in each visits. Results: 106 patients were screened, among this 56 patients were enrolled. 20 patients in Lysine cream andsilver sulfadiazine cream group and 20 in silver sulfadiazine cream group completed the study. There wassignificant decrease in the pain (P<0.001), discharge (P<0.001), size (P<0.001), and TBSA (P<0.001) in combination group than the silver sulfadiazine alone group, during the first 4 weeks. No adverse events werereported with lysine cream. In addition, significantly more patients in lysine group had adequate relief ofitching. Conclusions: Combination of Lysine cream and silver sulfadiazine cream for 4 weeks provided better reliefof symptoms and TBSA than silver sulfadiazine alone. Lysine cream was well tolerated.

MIS-19

Bridging studies in clinical trials


Soundary V, Ruckmani A, Maignanakumar R, Lakshmipathyprabhu R.

Department of Pharmacology, Chettinad Hospitals and Research Institute, Rajiv Gandhi salai, kelambakkamkanchipuramdist, TN-603103

Objective: To assess the knowledge of Bridging clinical trials among clinical research personnel. Methods: A questionnaire on clinical trials was personally submitted and also mailed to the clinical research personnel's, principal investigators (PI), clinical research associates(CRA), clinical research coordinators(CRC) and clinical research students. After getting their consent. The questionnaire contained all the elements of bridging studies. The answers obtained from the participants were analyzed statistically. Results: Questionnaires were sent to a total of 400 participants. 66 participants answered the questions. The answers were categorized based on the role of participants (PI, CRA, CRC, CR students) in clinical trials and the number of right answers as below average (7 and below), average (8-10) and above average (above 11). 13.2 % of the investigators scored below average. Among the 4 groups of participants 41.66% of PI, 48.27% of the CRA, 42.85% of CRC and 61.11% of CR students have scored above average. None of the participants answered the entire question correct. CR students and CRA are comparatively well aware of bridging studies than the PI and CRCs. Between CR students and CRAs CR students have scored high . Conclusion: Bridging study has to be conducted when a new drug is introduced from outside the country. The number of bridging studies is on the increase at present. The guidelines for bridging studies are different from regular clinical trials .A knowledge of bridging study are essential for clinical trial personnel. Hence a well structured training program is mandatory for clinical trial personnel on bridging studies.

MIS-20

An Audience Response System Enhances Learning and Problem Solving Skills at the Oman Medical College


Bindu Susan Varghese, DJ Smith, SM Khusaibyand JM Connors.

Department of Pharmacology, Oman medical College, Pc 321 Al-Tareef, Sohar, Sultanate Of Oman And Robert C Byrd Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, Wv26506 - 9229, USA

Objectives: Students enter the Oman Medical College after secondary education and take pharmacology in their 5th year. The curriculum, modeled after the western style instruction of US schools, is taught in English.Students are generally Arabic speaking with English as their second language. In order to promote classroomdiscussion with these students, who are generally reserved with respect to oral communication, a classroom response system (Turning Point - Turning Technologies Inc.) was used which guarantees anonymity. Methods: The response system was generally used in sessions that occurred 1 to 2 days following the presentation of the material. MCQs constructed as clinical or experimental scenarios in the style of the USMLEwere used. Results: Students evaluated the approach after two months. Fifty-four of 76 students completed a survey. Fiftythree agreed that Turning Point was helpful and encouraged its use. Students (75-87%) indicated that the sessionshelped them to recall drug names, to understand basic concepts, to prepare for problem solving questions on regular exams and to apply pharmacology in a clinical context. Eighty-five (85)% were more comfortable answering. Turning Point questions (presumably due to the anonymity of the response) rather than responding orally to questions. Faculty reported that students who initially selected distractors (often incorrectly) applying remote memory began to use clear reasoning skills and faculty had better insight into approaches for guiding students' learning. Conclusions: Students became comfortable with this mode of instruction and recognized that the approach made communication more comfortable and promoted the integration of basic pharmacology into clinical problemsolving.

MIS-21

Restraint stress during postweaning period decreases dendritic arborization of substantia nigra neurons in albino mice

B. Prakash Babu , Muddanna S. Rao, Ramachandra Bhat K.

Anatomy Department, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal

Objective: Several brain regions are highly plastic. Hippocampus and substantia nigra are shown to be affected by stress. Aim of the present experiment was to study the effect of duration of restraint stress during post weaning period on substantia nigral neurons in mice. Materials and Methods: Post weaned mice (21 days old) were restraint stressed in a wire mesh restrainer (6h/day) for 5, 21 or 60 days. A day after last days stress, all stressed mice (n=6 in all groups) were anesthetized and sacrificed for Golgi staining, along with age matched control mice (n=6 in all groups). Well stained substantia nigral neurons were traced using camera lucida and dendritic intersections and branching points were studied by concentric circle method. Results and Conclusions: Significant increase in suprarenal weight, presence of ulcers in gastric mucosa and decreased body weight in mice stressed for 21 and 60 days indicate the effectiveness of the stress. In mice stressed for 5 days there was no significant change in number of dendritic intersections in any concentric circles, in mice stressed for 21 and 60 days, there was a significant decrease in dendritic intersections at 20,40μ and at 40, 60, 80μm concentric circles respectively compared to age matched control mice. There was no significant change in number of branching points in all concentric zones in 5 days stress group, 21 and 60 days stress resulted in significant decrease in dendritic branching points at 20-40μ,40-60μ and at 20-40μ,40-60μ, 60-80μ concentric zones respectively. Restraint stress of long duration (21,60 days) during post weaning period affects the dendritic arborization of substantia nigra neurons which may result in altered synaptic projections on these neurons and precipitate in functional deficit.

MIS-22

A study of occurance of antibiotic resistance reported against Klebsiella spp. In a tertiary care hospital in Assam

Dhar M , Das S, Borthakur KA, Gohain K.

Department of Pharmacology, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dist-Dibrugarh, Assam, Pin-786002.

Objectives : To study the antibiotic resistance reported against Klebsiella spp. isolated from culture of different samples collected in the Department of Microbiology, Assam Medical College and Hospital (AMCH). Methods : A retrospective study is being conducted in the Dept. of Microbiology, AMCH, where pus, urine, blood, sputum and wound swab samples from 0-85 years old patients were collected and cultured on MacConkey Agar and Blood Agar Media plates at 370 C for 18-24 hrs. Total of 100 samples were collected where Klebsiella spp. grew. This bacterium was identified by culture, morphological and biochemical characteristics of bacteria using standard microbiological method. Antibiotic sensitivity was testedusing conventional disc diffusion method by Kirby Bauer technique using Mueller Hinton Agar plates. Results: A total of 53 Klebsiella spp. positive samples were studied so far with 9 antibiotics given below. The data on antibiotic resistance out of 53 samples are- AMOXYCILLIN-CLAVULINIC ACID = 51 samples (96.22%), CEFTRIAXONE = 44 samples (83.01%), CEFOTAXIME = 39 samples (73.58%), PIPERACILLIN-TAZOBACTAM = 32samples (60.37%), GENTAMYCIN = 26 samples (49.05%), CIPROFLOXACIN = 25 samples (47.16%), AMIKACIN = 23 samples (43.39%), OFLOXACIN = 20 samples (37.73%), IMIPENEM = 0 SAMPLES (0%). Conclusion: Increased antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella spp. as seen in the study conducted increases concern over judicious use of antibiotics and impresses on effective application of issues of "antibiotic stewardship".

MIS-23

Expharm online


R. Raveendran

Department of Pharmacology, JIPMER, Pondicherry - 605 006

ExPharm is a popular computer assisted learning (CAL) software to replace animal experiments carried out for teaching undergraduate medical, pharmacy and veterinary students. The existing free version of the software (available from www.indphar.org) which can simulate 5 animal experiments can work offline only and does not include the examination mode for the experimental modules. The new version being released is a browser based online version and includes 2-3 examination modules for each of the five experiments and administrator control. The advantages are: (a) the software need not be installed on each user's computer (b) students can be examined and evaluated on the experiments (c) the software can be operated from any location using an internet connection (d) the administrator (teacher) and students need not be present in the same premises (e) the students in remote locations can practice the experiments, take examinations and submit the results to the teacher online. The new version has been given a complete overhaul by introducing new features and improving the existing ones i.e. pre and post-tests, detailed instructions on how to conduct the experiments, full experimental set up, new look and feel for the interface and experimental page, facility for data entry and transmitting the results, log page for recording the actions of the user to prevent cheating and questions for testing the user's knowledge are included. The online version of ExPharm will be more easily accessible and useful than its previous avatars. The software will be demonstrated to the delegates.

MIS-24

Awareness of pharmacovigilance in teaching hospitals around Guntur district, A.P.

Biswas Rinku Rani , Vemuri Prem Kumar, K. Ravi Shankar, ASR Srinivas Rao, B. Ramesh, G. Hari Jagannadha Rao, Das M.C.

Department of Pharmacology, NRI Medical College, Chinakakani, Mangalagiri, Guntur dist, A.P.

Objective : The Adverse drug reactions and subsequent withdrawal of many drugs from the market demands a continuous monitoring of safety of new and old drugs. In this context the study was conducted to assess the awareness of medical professionals in teaching hospitals. Methods : Faculty, Post Graduates and Internees interested to participate were asked to respond to the predesigned and validated questionnaire with open and closed end questions. The responses were converted to data base and analyzed. Results : A total of 300 members responded in a period of 6 months. 85% respondents had inadequate knowledge about Pharmacovigilance (P.V). Only 43% respondents are aware of the cause of withdrawal of any drug from the market. The source of information regarding PV was professional colleagues only 37%, books 24%, internet 8% and journal 7%. Conclusion : The findings indicate that only 15% of the respondents have some knowledge about PV. Inclusion of PV in educational curriculum will help in safe and rational Pharmacotherapy.

MIS-25

Nanoerythrosomes - A novel drug delivery system


Usha N. S.

Department of Pharmacology, Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Sreepuram, Narketpally, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh

Erythrocytes are most abundant cells in human body having potential capabilities for delivery of drugs. Erythrocytes can be used as carriers in two ways by targeting particular organ or tissues and by continuous or prolonged release of drugs. If haemoglobin content is depleted, it serves as carriers for encapsulation of number of drug molecule. Erythrocytes are collected from different animals and isolated by various methods and from these erythrocytes "Erythrocyte ghosts" are prepared. Nanoerythrosomes (NES) are developed from extrusion of erythrocyte ghosts suspension through polycarbonate filter membrane and have average diameter of 100nm. Since this novel drug delivery system involves usage of natural product and is biodegradable in nature, provides advantages over other systems. NES can be administered through different routes. In present era of Nanotechnology NES are applied in targeted drug delivery systems, treatment of tumors. In order to reduce the immunogenicity of proteins the polyethylene glycol coat is preferred which is in clinical trials. In near future NES develops with an ability to provide continuous, controlled targeted drug delivery system in management of disease. NES are called GOLDEN EGGS in novel drug delivery system considering their tremendous potential.

MIS-26

A review on therapeutic potential of sargassum sp., brown seaweed

Subhash R. Yende, Uday N. Harle

Gurunanak College of Pharmacy, Nari, Nagpur-440024.

Seaweeds are floating submerged large algae (macroalgae) of shallow marine meadow. These are the most nutritious plants, since they are low in fats but contain bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fibre, proteins and minerals. Among seaweeds, brown algae are widely used in Asia and Europe for human consumption as food. Sargassum is tropical and sub-tropical brown Algae, common to all oceans except Antarctica, comprising 150 species. The chemical composition of Sargassum has been studied extensively and many biologically active compounds like terpenoids, flavenoids, sterols, sulphated polysaccharides, polyphenols, sargaquinoic acids, sargachromenol, pheophytine were extracted from different Sargassum algae such as S. fulvellum, S. wightii, S. ilicifolium, S. fallax, S. latifolium, S. macrocarpum, S. tenerrimum etc. The Several compounds isolated from and different extracts of Sargassum exhibit diverse biological activities like analgesic and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, fibrinolytic, immune-stimulatory, immune-modulatory, anticoagulant, hepatoprotective, antiviral activity etc. This review discusses the current knowledge of phytochemical and pharmacological studies carried out on different extracts from different species of genus Sargassum.

MIS-27

Awarness of knowledge, attitude and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting

*Sumeet Rathod , Subhash Ainapure, Y.A. Deshmukh, Rohita Shetty, Shreyas Lathi, Yogesh Garje

Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Research, MGM Medical College, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai

*E-mail: drsmrathod@gmail.com

Objective: To evaluate the awareness of ADR and its reporting using (knowledge, attitude and practice) KAP survey. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of ADR and its reporting was conducted and distributed to healthcare professionals at tertiary care centre. Completed forms were collected, compiled and data was analyzed. Results: Total 105 filled questionnaires were used in the final analysis. Almost all clinical healthcare professionals were aware of the term ADR and 68% were aware of ADR reporting. About 20% knew about signal generation.76% out of them encountered ADRs in clinical practice but only 26% reported ADR. Most of them reported to the hospital authorities or medical representatives. 44% are aware of spontaneous reporting and only 34% knew about reporting to regional vigilance centre. 46% felt the lack of availability of reporting resources.68% had heard about Pharmacovigilance and 49% were aware that National Pharmacovigilance Program existed. Conclusion: More efforts should be undertaken by CDSCO/ Pharmacovigilance authorities to create awareness. Most of the practitioners felt the need to incorporate concept of ADR and Pharmacovigilance in undergraduate curriculum and be updated through CME/workshops/ journal publication.

MIS-28

Doping in sports

Vishesh Rohatgi , S. Narayana Reddy

Room No. 27, BMC PG and HS Hostel, Albert Victor Road, 1 st main, Chamrajpet, Bangalore - 560018

Objective: To create awareness of Doping among medical fraternity and general public. Methods: Review of literature: Doping is widely known as the use of banned substances and practices by athletes in an attempt to improve sporting performances. There are at least two essential reasons to support the fight against doping: the potential harmful effects on athletes and the depth of corruption on the fair competition. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. When current antidoping programmes were developed, the most frequently used doping agents were xenobiotics, such as stimulants and anabolic steroids, that are readily detectable in urine with the use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. As control of traditional doping agents became effective, some athletes turned to other means to improve performance, including blood doping and the application of recombinant peptide hormones such as erythropoietin and insulin-like growth factor-1. And hence highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping' .With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping. This poster reviews the past, current status of doping in sports and candidate's performance enhancement genes (gene doping).

MIS-29

Exploration of wound healing potentials of chlorogenic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA): A preclinical study

Amardeep Singh, Phani Krishna K , C. Mallikarjuna Rao, Rekha R. Shenoy

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka-576104

Objectives : To study the Effect of two antioxidant compounds Chlorogenic acid and Ferulic acid on normal and delayed wound models of rats. Methods: Animals- Wistar rats of either sex (180-250g). Drugs-Chlorogenic acid (CA) 50mg/kg; Ferulicacid (FA) 20mg/kg; Dexamethasone 0.34mg/kg for 4 days and then at 0.17mg/kg on alternate days. Methods : Incision wound model- Skin breaking strength was measured. Excision wound model- Wound contraction. Dead space wound model- Hydroxyproline estimation. Results: In Incision wound model (normal rat) test drugs(FA and CA) significantly increased the breaking strength of skin;(delayed healing rat) FA and CA significantly promoted the breaking strength of skin. In Excision wound model percentage wound contraction (normal rat) of test groups showed no significant difference from control animals;(delayed healing rats)none of the treatment groups shown significant difference from normal control animals. Period of epithelialisation (normal rat) both FA and CA were not able to shorten the period of epithelialisation in comparison to control ;( delayed healing rats) also the same result was seen. In Dead Space Wound model breaking strength of granuloma tissue (normal rats)in test groups increased but it was not statistically significant;(delayed healing rats) same result was seen. Collagen content (normal healing rats) of normal control rats was not affected by any of the given drug treatment;(delayed healing rats) same result was seen. Dry weight of the granuloma tissue (normal rats) was not significantly affected by the drug treatments; (delayed healing rats) same result was seen. Conclusion: In incision wound healing model, both CAand FA showed significant difference in the breaking strength in comparison to normal wound healing control groups. In excision wound model, both compounds failed to show any enhancement in wound contraction or period of epithelialisation in normal or delayed healing in comparison to the respective controls. In dead space model under normal and delayed wound healing both, hydroxyproline content and dry weight of granulation tissue were found insignificant in comparison to their respective controls.

MIS-30

Recent advances in drug delivery systems

Keny Mukundraj , Rataboli PV.

Department of Pharmacology, Goa Medical College Bambolim-Goa, India

For most of the industry's existence, pharmaceuticals have primarily consisted of simple, fast-acting chemical compounds that are dispensed orally or as injectables. During the past three decades, however, formulations that control the rate and period of drug delivery and target specific areas of the body for treatment have become increasingly common.Development of new drug molecule is expensive and time consuming. Hence improving safety and efficacy of "old" drugs has been attempted using different drug delivery systems. Quantum leaps made in the field of proteomics, genomics and biotechnology are creating revolutionary therapeutics that require equally impressive drug delivery systems in order for patients to derive optimum benefits. The main goal of drug delivery is liberation of drug agents at the right time in a safe and reproducible manner to a specific target site. To achieve this goal, researchers are turning to advances in the worlds of micro- and nanotechnology. Advances in drug delivery systems are also expected to offer a host of additional advantages such as ease of administration, increased patient compliance, decreased side effects and cost reduction. Through this poster I want to depict the various drug delivery systems with emphasis on Gastroretensive carbamazepine, antifungal bioadhesive film, powder haleapomorphine, insulin microneedles, ocular Azithromycin insert, oral osmotic delivery agents, solid dispersion tablets of antihypertensives, fast dissolving tablets ,drug eluting stents and metformin chewing gum.

MIS-31

An evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice about fixed dose combinations in resident doctors

Goswami NN , Patel PP, Gandhi AM, Dikshit RK

Department of Pharmacology, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad 380016

Objective: To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the use of fixed dose combinations (FDCs) in resident doctors. Methods: The study was carried out in resident doctors working at Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad a tertiary care teaching hospital. One hundred resident doctors from departments of medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology, surgery, paediatrics, skin and psychiatry, who gave their informed consent, were enrolled. A pre-validated questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitude and prescribing practice of fixed dose combinations was filled up. Data was analysed with suitable statistical tests. Results: Out of 100 residents recruited in the study, 34, 33 and 33 residents were selected from 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd year respectively. On an average knowledge about Essential Medicine List (EML) existed in only 31% of the residents (lowest 16% among 1 st year residents). Knowledge about rationality of given FDCs was lacking in 81% of residents. Only 47% could name a single banned FDC in India. Common sources of information about FDCs were medical representatives, colleagues/peers, MIMS/CIMS and Continuous Medical Education (CMEs). Majority of residents (96%) agreed that FDCs should allow to be marketed. The residents opined that most commonly prescribed FDCs were of antimicrobial drugs, amongst which amoxicillin + clavulanic acid was the most frequent. Conclusion: There is a need to improve knowledge about rationality, EML, usage and banned FDCs in post graduate medical students to promote rational use of drugs.

MIS-32

A study of the information provided on the Ayurvedic drug labels

Patel NM , Patel PP, Dikshit RK

Department of Pharmacology, B.J. Medical College, Ahmedabad- 380016

Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the information provided on the ayurvedic drug labels and to evaluate if it is in compliance with the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 (Part XVII). Materials and Methods: Ayurvedic drugs sold at three pharmacies in Ahmedabad were chosen. Every 3 rd sample from rack was selected and the labels were checked against the criteria mentioned in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 (Part XVII).The contents of the label were recorded in a predesigned form. Results: A total of 100 ayurvedic drug labels were studied. Most of these labels displayed the basic information like name and address of the manufacturer (96%), license number (98%), batch no. (99%), manufacturing date (100%), net weight (70%), ingredient list (85%) and drug quantity in metric units (85%). Most of the (90%) labels had mentioned the cautions or warning only in one language. However, some information like references from standard authorative book, dosage instructions, specific warning and instructions for storage were not mentioned. Conclusion: The information available on the labels was generally incomplete. It lacked important items like dosage instructions, specific warnings and storage conditions which are important for safe and effective use of drugs.

MIS-33

An impact of certain interventions on reporting of adverse drug reactions by clinicians at civil hospital, Ahmedabad

Patel SV , Desai CK, Dikshit RK

Department of Pharmacology, B.J. Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad- 380016

Objective: To evaluate the impact of certain interventions on reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by prescribers at Civil Hospital Ahmedabad (CHA), a tertiary care, teaching hospital. Methods: Randomly selected prescribers (169) were allotted to group A (n= 84) or B (n= 85). After a 3 month pre-intervention phase (Pre-IP), a Pharmacovigilance Awareness Programme (PAP) was conducted for them and posters about pharmacovigilance were displayed in the hospital during the intervention phase (IP). Group A received periodic SMS and a personal briefing. Group B received periodic E-mails and a leaflet. ADR reports were collected and analyzed throughout the study period. The quality of reports was analysed on a score of 0 to 50 (Chi Square test). Results: Out of 169 participants, 71 (45%) attended PAP. About 30 ADRs/month were reported from CHA during pre-IP and IP. The participants reported a total of 37 ADRs in Pre- IP and 28 in IP (P = 0.22). No significant difference in number of reports was observed between group A and B during IP. No spontaneous reports were collected in pre-IP and 7 in IP (P = 0.019). Quality of reports was better in IP as compared to Pre- IP (P = 0.005). During IP, significant improvement in quality of reports was seen in group A (P = 0.02) but not in group B. The number of reports with scores between 26-30, 31-35 and 36-40 were 20, 57 and 17 respectively during pre-IP and 9, 53 and 30 respectively during IP (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Educational interventions improved number and quality of spontaneous ADR reports. The effect was also observed in prescribers who received no interventions, probably due to posters displayed in the hospital. Personal communications and SMSs had a better impact than email and leaflets.

MIS-34

Comparative analysis of online ADR reporting forms of different countries

Tulasi Raman P, Jagan Mohan R, Padmavathi S.

Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Research Institute, Pondy-Cuddalore Main Road, Pillaiyarkuppam, Puducherry 607402.

Objectives: To study and analyze the online (ADR) reporting form of various countries for the adequacy of the data collected. Methods: Online ADR reporting forms of 5 different countries (India, US, UK, Canada Malaysia) were analyzed and compared for data fields like patient information, adverse reaction, suspected drug, reporter information etc. Presence of different data field is expressed as yes (√) or no (×); presence of each data field is given the score one and absence as zero. Finally the scores are totaled. Results: After analyzing online ADR forms we found that all the five countries including India did not include Pregnancy status in the online ADR reporting forms. Indian online ADR forms also did not include other parameters like actions taken or treatment given following ADR, ADR due to Medical Devices or other Health Products, option of whether this ADR to be reported to manufacturer / user facility, option of Identity disclosure etc. Conclusions: Each country has its own online ADR reporting form as per the individual countries requirements. However, our study reveals that the online ADR reporting form from different countries fails to capture all the required information. Therefore, there should be international guidelines for drafting and designing of online ADR reporting form by countries.

MIS-35

Antinociceptive and anticonvulsant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Jasmine gandiflorum on experimental animals

R.K. Gupta , Arup Kumar Misra, Pooja Reddy

Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha-442102, Maharashtra.

Objective: Antinociceptive and Anticonvulsant activity of Jasmine Grandiflorum(HEJGL) on experimental animals. Methodology: Wistar rats (150-220 gms) 8 to 12 weeks old were used for tail flick method and MES convulsion method whereas Swiss Albino mice (22-25 gms) of either sex used for acetic acid induced writhing and PTZ induced seizure. Animals were divided into 5 groups of 6 animals each where Group I is served distilled water and used as control. Grp II administered standard dose whereas Grp III,IV and V administered HEJGL in three graded doses(50,100 and 200 mg/kg resp.). Results : Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test. At the doses of 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg HEJGL showed significant analgesic and anti-convulsant effect in experimental animals.HEJGL shows significant central nociceptive activity with tail flick test and peripheral analgesic activity with acetic acid procedure. HEJGL showed a significant decrease in seizure in PTZ and MES model induced seizure. Conclusion: HEJGL possesess both central and peripheral analgesic activity with anticonvulsant activity.

MIS-36

Protective effect of Murraya koenigii leaves in haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia

Prashant Morankar , Yogesh Hiray, Rupali Patil

Department of Pharmacology, MGV's Pharmacy College, Nashik, PIN code: 422 003, Maharashtra.

E-mail: morankarpv@gmail.com

Objective: Orofacial dyskinesia (OD) is a late complication of prolonged neuroleptic treatment characterized by involuntary movements of the oral region. Chronic treatment with neuroleptics leads to the development of vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rats. VCMs in rats are widely accepted as an animal model of OD. Hence the objective of this research was to study the effect of Murraya koenigii leaves on haloperidol-induced OD. Methods: Effect of alcoholic extract of Murraya koenigii leaves (EEMK) and its alkaloid fraction (AMK) on body weight, locomotor activity, behavioral parameters like VCMs, tongue protrusions (TPs), orofacial bursts (OBs) and biochemical parameters like antioxidant defense enzymes levels (SOD and catalase), glutathione (GSH) levels and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the forebrain region were studied in haloperidol treated rats. Results and Conclusions: Rats chronically treated with haloperidol (1 mg/kg, ip, 21 days) significantly decreased locomotion and developed VCMs, OBs and TPs. Biochemical analysis reveals that chronic haloperidol-treated rats exhibited decreased levels of SOD and Catalase. Chronic haloperidol treatment significantly induced LPO and decreased the forebrain GSH levels in the rats. Co-administration of EEMK and AMK along with haloperidol significantly reversed the effect on locomotion. EEMK and AMK significantly reversed the haloperidol-induced decrease in forebrain SOD and catalase levels in rats and significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation and restored the decreased GSH levels by chronic haloperidol treatment. The study concludes that Murraya koenigii could be screened as a potential drug for the prevention or treatment of neuroleptic-induced orofacial dyskinesia.

MIS-37

In vitro
antioxidant activity of Nardostachys jatamansi

Rupali Patil, * Mahendra Patil , Sanjay Kasture

Department of Pharmacology, MGV's Pharmacy College, Nashik, PIN code: 422 003. Maharashtra.

*E-mail: mahendrapatil.r15@gmail.com

Objectives: To study the in vitro antioxidant activity of roots and rhizomes of Nardostachysjatamansi. Methods: The in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of roots and rhizomes of Nardostachysjatamansi was evaluated using scavenging activity of different radicals like free radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation generation was determined using thiocyanate method. Total soluble phenol content was estimated using FolinCeiocalteu reagent. Results and Conclusions: The ethanol extract of roots and rhizomes of Nardostachysjatamansi produced dose dependent scavenging activity. The IC 50 values for free radical, hydrogen peroxide radical and hydroxyl radicals were found to be 80 ppm, 177 ppm, and 217.5 ppm respectively. Total antioxidant activity was found to be ppm. Total soluble phenol content in terms of gallic acid equivalent was found to be 226.4 ± 2.88 mcg/mg. Further neurochemical investigation can explore the mechanism of action of these plants with respect to antioxidant activity and help to establish the plants as an effective treatment in various neurodegenerative disorders.

MIS-38

Study of analgesic activity of Tectonagrandis Linn.stem extract on rats and mice

Sapna P. Giri, Sushilkumar Verma.

Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha, Maharashtra.

Objective : To study the analgesic activity of Tectonagrandis Linn. stem extract on rats and mice. Methodology: Healthy albino rats (150-200 gm) of either sex were taken for the central analgesic activity by tail-flick method. Peripheral activityevaluated by acetic acid induced writhing test in mice (20-30 gm) of either sex. Animals were divided into five groups of six animals each for both the experimental models. Group I received distilled water and served as control. Group II, III and IV administered TG extract in three graded doses (100, 200 and 400mg/kg respectively) and Group V administered standard drug aspirin. In tail-flick method, reaction time and in writhing test, numbers of writhes were recorded before and after drug treatment. Results: In acetic acid induced writhing test, TG extract at a dose of 100mg/kg was not significant. However, TG extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg showed a significant analgesic activity (P<0.01) whereas its effect with the dose of 400mg/kg was highly significant (P<0.001) as compared to control group.In the tail flick method TG extract in all the three doses (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg p.o.) showed significant increase in the reaction time as compared to the control group. Conclusion: TG extract in all the three doses showed significant central as well as peripheral analgesic activity.

MIS-39

A review on thrombocytopenia and its pharmacotherapy

Mangesh A. Jagdale , Namrata M. Tekchandani, Mayuresh S. Garud, Vaishali R. Undale, Chandrashekhar D. Upasani, Ashok V. Bhosale

Department of Pharmacology, PDEA's Seth Govind Raghunath Sable College of Pharmacy, Saswad, Taluka-Purandar, Dist-Pune, Maharashtra - 412301, India.

Objective: The objective is to discuss overview on thrombocytopenia and its pharmacotherapy. Method: A throughout literature survey on thrombocytopenia and its pharmacotherapy was performed. Result: Thrombocytopenia is an abnormally low level of platelets in the blood. The risk of haemorrhage increases as the platelet count decreases. It can develop as a secondary complication of diseases such as cancer ora viral infection. Now days the platelet research in liver disease is a growing area of investigation. Anti-plateletantibodies cause thrombocytopenia through Fcγ receptor-mediated platelet destruction by the reticuloendothelialsystem. The functional blockade of platelet surface receptors by autoantibodies may further promote bleedingtendency. The major targets of these autoantibodies are platelet membrane glycoproteins, including GPIIb/IIIaand GPIb/IX receptors for fibrinogen and other platelet-activating ligands, but some patients with ITP haveantibodies to a receptor for thrombopoietin, which is a growth factor required for megakaryocytogenesis andplatelet production. Sometime it can be chronic which leading to death. The current treatment available forthrombocytopenia includes Corticosteroids, Anti-D, immunoglobulin and the platelet transfusion. Some clinical evidence supports use of lepirudin and argatroban for the prevention of thrombotic complications in patients whosuffer from thrombocytopenia. However worsening of condition, cost of treatment and serious side effects thatcan lead to death are certain limitation with current therapy for thrombocytopenia. Conclusion: The current therapy available for treatment of thrombocytopenia is costly and having seriousside effect so there is a great need to give safe and cost effective treatment.

MIS-40

Good, bad and the ugly; dispensing accuracy of the pharmacists based on the good, legible and illegible prescription patterns of physicians

Sureshbabu N. , Ushakiran P., Sudha J., Vijay T., Sudhakar K., Sandhya D.

Department of Pharmacology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam

Objectives: To study the dispensing accuracy of the pharmacists depending on the legibility of the physician prescriptions. Methods: Prospective, single blind, observational study of accuracy of the dispensers based on three hand writing patterns the good, bad (legible) and the ugly (illegible) prescriptions. Results: Good handwriting prescriptions are dispensed with 96% accuracy, 2% dispensed a totally unrelated drug and 2 % didn't dispense as they couldn't identify the drug. Bad (legible) handwriting prescriptions are dispensed with 8% accuracy, 54% dispensed a totally unrelated compound and 38% didn't dispense as they couldn't identify the drug. 38% of the bad (legible) handwriting group said that they don't know the drug. Ugly (illegible) handwriting prescriptions are dispensed with 0% accuracy and 30% are dispensed a totally unrelated compound and 70% didn't dispense as they couldn't identify the drug. Conclusion: The illegible handwriting practises resulted in dispensing errors which may result in adverse outcomes to the patients sometimes leading to hospitalization. Hence electronic prescriptions are encouraged wherever feasible and physicians, pharmacists and patients should be educated on how to reduce such errors.

MIS-41

To evaluate the analgesic effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Impatiens balsamina linn.By acetic acid induced writhing method.in albino mice

Debashree N. , Subhalakshmi A., Rita S.

Department of Pharmacology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal.

Objectives: Impatiens balsamina belongs to the family Balsaminaceae. The aerial parts of Impatiens balsamina are used to treat articular rheumatism, beri beri, bruises, pain and swelling. Leaf juice is applied to nails in case of injuries. Therefore the present study was undertaken to evaluate the analgesic effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Impatiens balsamina in albino mice. Methods: The analgesic effect was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing in albino mice. Aqueous extract of the leaves of Impatiens balsamina was administered at varying doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight orally to three groups of 6 animals each. Aspirin (100 mg/kg body weight) was used as the standard drug. Results: The test drug produces analgesic effect in a dose dependent manner and appreciable analgesic effect was noted at doses 1000mg/kg and 2000mg/kg body weight. Analgesic effect obtained was lesser than that produced by the standard drug. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the significant analgesic potential of the aqueous extract of Impatiens balsamina Linn.in albino mice.

MIS-42

To evaluate the antipyretic property of aqueous extract of meriandrabengalensis benth. In brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in albino rats

Kholi SM , Khomdram KPD, Rajkumari BD

Department of Pharmacology, RIMS, Imphal.

Objectives: Meriandrabengalensis Benth. belonging to the family Labiatae is used extensively in traditional medicine for various ailments like fever, tonsillitis, sore throat and also as antiseptic, astringent, carminative etc. So the present study was carried out to evaluate the antipyretic property as no scientific work been done till now. Methods: The antipyretic property was evaluated by brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in albino rats. Varying doses of the test drug (500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg body weight) were given per oral to five different groups of six animals each. Paracetamol 33mg/kg body weight per oral was used as standard drug. Results: The test drug produce antipyretic effect in a dose dependent manner and an appreciable antipyretic effect were noted at the dose 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the significant antipyretic potential of the aqueous extract of Meriandrabengalensis Benth. in animal model. The antipyretic property may be due to glycosides present in the plant extract.

MIS-43

To evaluate the analgesic property of aqueous extract of Meriandra bengalensis benth. By hot plate method in albino rats

Nongkynrih BS , Sanjenbam R, Akham S.

Department of Pharmacology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal.

Objectives : Meriandra bengalensis Benth. belonging to the family Labiatae has been used extensively in traditional medicine for various ailments like sore throat, tonsillitis, high blood pressure and also as carminative, astringent, antiseptic. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the analgesic property as no scientific work was carried out till today. Methods : The analgesic property was evaluated by hot plate method in Albino rats. Varying doses of the test drug (500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg body weight) were given per oral to five different groups of six animals each. Pethidine (30 mg/kg body weight) was used as standard drug. Results : The test drug produce analgesic effect in a dose dependent manner and an appreciable analgesic effect were noted at the dose of 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion : The present study demonstrates significant analgesic property of the aqueous extract of Meriandra bengalensis Benth. in animal model. The analgesic property may be due to glycosides present in the plant extract.

MIS-44

Effect of combination of angiotensin ii antagonist and hmg-coa reductase inhibitor on uni-nephrectomized stz0 induced diabetic rats


Patel Jay Dilipkumar, * Haritha Koneti , Manjunatha P.M., Uday Raj Sharma, Divakar Goli

Acharya & B. M. Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-90.

*E-mail: konetiharitha@gmail.com

Objective: The objective of the present study is to determine the reno-protective effect of Telmisartan and Atorvastatin in combination and in monotherapy on uni-nephrectomized STZ induced diabetic rats. Method: Diabetic rats were randomly grouped and treated with Telmisartan and Atorvastatin in combination as well as mono-therapy for period of 30 days. The serum and urine creatinine, serum triglyceride, serum cholesterol, serum albumin, microalbumin, blood urea nitrogen, total protein and histology analysis of the kidney were performed at end of the studies. Results: The renal injury in diabetic rats was attenuated by treatment with either Telmisartan or Atorvastatin and further reduced by the combination of the two. In biological parameters, the combination has shown significant (P<0.05) improvement in urine glucose, serum cholesterol and triglyceride, serum and urine creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, serum albumin, microalbuminuria levels as compare to mono-therapy. However, this combination has not shown significant changes on serum glucose level. Conclusion: The combination of Atorvastatin and Telmisartan confers superiority over mono-therapy on renal function, as assessed by prevention of albuminuria and rise in plasma blood urea nitrogen, creatinine levels, which were further confirmed by histopathological studies.

MIS-45

Pharmacological evaluation of reno-protective effect of naringin and hesperidin in renal i/r injury in diabetic rats


Arun R, * Zabiulla S , Mohammed Asif Ansari, Divakar Goli

Acharya & B. M. Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-90.

*E-mail: zabi.mohammed2006@gmail.com

Objective: To evaluate the renoprotective effect of Naringin and Hesperidin in renal ischemia-reperfusion inducedrenal damage in rat model. Method: Diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Each group was having seven subgroups with five animals to each subgroup. The animals were anesthetized to induce ischemia. All the animals in each group underwent 30 min of renal ischemia by occluding left renal artery and knot with sterile cotton thread at renal pedicel of the left kidney, followed by a 4 h reperfusion by releasing the knot. The drugs Naringin (20, 40 mg/kg ) and Hesperidin (20, 40 mg/kg) were administered 10 min before the beginning of reperfusion. Then after 4 h reperfusion, animal was sacrificed and immediately the left kidney was removed, homogenized, centrifuged and supernatant was collected, in both non diabetic and STZ induced diabetic rats. The levels of biochemical parameters such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were estimated after reperfusion in both the groups. Results: Naringin and Hesperidin showed significant renoprotective effect (P<0.001)by decreasing degree of free radical formation and levels of biochemical stress markers came nearer to normal group compared to I/R control group. Conclusion: Present study showed that renoprotective effect of Naringin and Hesperidin through antioxidant mechanism against the damage by oxygen free radicals in reperfusion injury.

MIS-46

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ethanolic and hexane extracts of Alternanthera sessilis on ccl 4 induced hepatic damage in rats


G. Pranavswarup*
, V. Jayashree, K. Karthikeyan, M. Srikanth, Prakash. R, P. Muralidharan

Department of Pharmacology, C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai-97.

Objective : To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ethanolic and hexane extracts of Alternantherasessilis against CCl 4 induced hepatic damage in rats. Materials and methods : Group-I animals were treated with normal saline for 5 days. Group-II was served with ccl 4 3ml/kg,s.c,. group-III received silymarin (50mg/kg) orally for 5days.Fraction dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic and hexane extracts of Alternantherasessilis were administered in oral route to the groups (IV, V,) and (VI, VII) respectively for 5 days. On third day, except group-I all the groups were received ccl 4 (3ml/kg,s.c,.). The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetictransminase (SGOT), Alkaline phoshotase (ALP), bilirubin, glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, hepatic malondialdehyde formation, and glutathione content were estimated in rats. Results and discussion: The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of SGOT, SGPT, and bilirubin due to ccl4 treatment were restored in normal dose dependent manner. The ethanol and hexane fractions prevented the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde formation and depletion manner. Silymarin as standard exhibited hepatoprotective activity on ccl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver histopathological studies has been performed to analyse the fatty change, cell necrosis, hyaline degeneration. Conclusion: The results of this study strongly indicates that ethanolic and hexane fractions has a potent hepatprotective action against ccl4 induced hepatic damage in rats.

MIS-47

Anti obesity activity of the roots of ethanolic extract of Operculina turpethum linn in high fat diet induced obesity in rats

N. Gayathri *, P. Amudha

Department of Pharmacology, C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai-97.

Objectives: Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. It leads to complications like DM, Stroke, Hypertension, Fatty liver. Drug therapy (Appetite suppressants, Statins) helps in controlling the body weight, however has side effects. Herbal remedies have gained their attention because of the minimized side effects with good therapeutic value. Present study is to find the anti obesity activity of the roots of ethanolic extract of Operculina turpethum Linn in high fat diet induced obesity in rats. Abbreviations: 1.OECD- Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development 2.MEOT- Methanolic extract of Operculina turpethum 3. HFD- High Fat Diet. Materials and methods: Roots of the plant Operculina turpethum were dried, powdered and extracted using methanol as solvent. Acute toxicity studies were performed according to OECD 423 guidelines. Albino rats were divided into five groups (n=6). Group I treated with saline and Group II treated with HFD, Group III, IV treated with MEOT 200 and 400mg/kg/p.o respectively and Group V treated with Simvastatin (10mg/kg/p.o.) animals were fed with HFD for 30 days and on day 31 the parameters like Triglycerides, Total Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Atherogenic index, Apolipoprotein A and B, SGOT, SGPT were estimated. Histopathological studies were performed and body weight was measured. Results: MEOT (200 and 400mg/kg/p.o) treated group showed a reduced body weight, decrease in LDL, VLDL levels, decreased Arthrogenic index and increased HDL levels when compared to control. Histopathological studies showed reduced perirenal, uterine and mesenteric fat pad weights in MEOT (200 and 400mg/kg/p.o) treated groups when compared to control. Conclusion: The results suggest that MEOT has showed significant anti obesity activity in rats fed with HFD. However further studies were required to find the exact mechanism of action behind the anti obesity activity of MEOT.

MIS-48

Evaluation of antiurolithiatic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Adansonia digitata linn. In urolithiatic rats


Neelam Balekar, Pankaj Dixit , Dinesh Kumar Jain, Swaroop Singh

College of Pharmacy, IPS Academy, Rajendra Nagar, A-B Road, Indore (M.P.), PIN code - 452012, India

Objectives: This study investigated the antiurolithiactic activity of the aqueous extract of leaves of Adansonia digitata Linn. (AAD) against sodium oxalate (NaOx) induced urolithiasis in male Wistar albino rats. Methods: The AAD was prepared by decoction method (patented) and tested in an animal model ofurolithiasis, developed in rats by intraperitoneal administration of NaOx (7mg/100g body weight) for 7 days. The AAD was administered orally (200 mg/kg) simultaneously. Urine volume, pH, body weight, kidney weight (wet and dry), serum and urine level of creatinine, urea, magnesium (Mg 2+ ), calcium (Ca 2+ ) and oxalate (Ox) were evaluated following the 7 days treatment in rats. In addition histopathological changes in kidney and oxalate in urine and kidney were evaluated. Results: Urinary Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , creatinine and urea excretion decreased gradually in urolithiatic group while Ox excretion increased. Creatinine and urea also increased in serum. AAD treatment increased urinary excretion of Mg 2+ (60.05 %), creatinine (115.79%), urea (236.84%). Serum levels of urea (56.94%), creatinine (52.24%) decreased in AAD treated group. Kidney weight increased in urolithiatic group and decreased (dry-41.20 %, wet- 21.76%) in treated group. AAD restored the altered biochemical parameters in urine and serum to normal and decreased oxalate deposition in kidney and excretion in urine. Conclusion: The present investigation suggests the potential of AAD in preventing Calcium oxalate crystallization and deposition in kidney, which may be attributed to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory activity and presence of magnesium and negatively charged acidic amino acids.

MIS-49

Evaluation of antiobesity activity of apamarg seeds in high fat diet induced obese rats

Alok Kumar Jain, Pankaj Dixit, Dinesh Kumar Jain

College of Pharmacy, IPS Academy, Rajendra Nagar, A.B. Road, Indore-452012 (M.P.), India.

Objective: Apamarg seeds (Achyranthes aspera), widely used in traditional system of medicine to curb hunger, were investigated for antiobesity effect in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods: Weaning rats of either sex were maintained on a normal pellet diet (NPD) for one week before start of experiment. After one week, rats were randomly assigned into normal and obese groups and fed with NPD and High fat diet (HFD), respectively, for 60 days. After 60 days, the HFD-fed rats showing significant weight gain compared to the NPD rats were again divided into four groups (n=5): the HFD control group, the HFD + A100 group (100 mg/kg, p.o.), the HFD + A1000 group (1000 mg/kg, p.o.) and HFD + Sibutramine group (10 mg/kg, p.o.). The treatments were given from 61 st to 75 th day. Body weight gain, food consumption were monitored weekly and BMI, Lee Index were calculated to assess obesity. At the end of day 75 biochemical parameters like glucose, and lipid profile was determined in all rats. Results: High fat diet administration for 60 days induced obesity in rats as indicated by a significant increase in the BMI and Lee Index. Further, treatment with apamarg seed powder (1000 mg/kg) markedly lowered the BMI and Lee index in obese rats. Correspondingly the food intake was also reduced. Further, the elevated glucose and lipid profile was normalized. Conclusions: In conclusion, the apamarg seed powder showed marked antiobesity effect via appetite modulating and antihyperlipidemic effect.

MIS-50

Characterization of the wound healing potential of aqueous extarct of leaves of Melia azedarach linn


Pankaj Dixit, Pritesh Paliwal, Shashank Jain .

College of Pharmacy, IPS Academy, Rajendra Nagar, A-B Road, Indore (M.P.),-452012, India.

Objectives: To investigate the wound-healing potency of aqueous leaf extract of Meliaazedarach Linn. Methods: Leaves of Meliaazedarach was collected from local garden of Indore and adueous extract was prepared by maceration process. Quantitative estimation of extract wad done for alkaloids and flavonoids. Excision, incision and dead space wound model (dose 15% w/w topical aqueous extract ointment for test group and 15% w/w turmeric ointment for standard group) were used to evaluate the wound healing activity of Meliaazedarach Linn. onwistar rats of either sex. Results: Aqueous leaf extract promoted (15% w/w topical) promoted the wound healing activity significantly (P<0.001) in all the wound models. High rate of wound contraction, decrease in period of epithelialisation, high skin breaking strength and granulation strength, increase in dry granulation tissue weight. Elevated hydroxyproline content and increase collagenation in histopahological section were observed in animals treated with aqueous leaf extract when compared to control. Conclusions: The present investigation revealed that the test extract showed significant wound healing activity which may be attributed to its rich flavonoids content.

MIS-51

Knowledge of clinical trials among investigators


R. Pavithra, A. Ruckmani, R. Lakshmipathyprabhu

Department of Pharmacology, Chettinad Hospitals and Research Institute, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Kelambakkamkanchipuramdist, TN-603103

Objective: To assess the knowledge of clinical trials among the investigators of clinical trials. Methods: A total of 200 clinical trial investigators in India were invited online and in person to take part in the study. The questionnaire on clinical trials was sent to all of them. The questionnaire contained details on the basics of clinical trials, guidelines, patient recruitment, informed consent and ADR reporting. The answers from the participants were tabulated, categorized and analyzed statistically. Results: Out of 200 investigators 53 responded to the invitation and answered the questions. The answers were categorized based on the number of right answers as below average (7 and below), average (8-10) and above average (above 11). 13.2 % of the investigators scored below average, 30.1 % average and 56.6 % above average. But none of the investigators answered all the questions correctly. When the response to the individual questions was analyzed 96.2% of the investigators answered correctly to the questions in areas related to informed consent and regulatory authorities but only 35- 45 % answered correctly for ethics, ADR, patient recruitment and BA/BE studies. Conclusion: The clinical trial regulations mandate that investigators must be qualified and experienced. Selection of the right investigator(s) is an important requirement for the effective conduct of Clinical trials. But the present study has shown that though the investigators are conducting clinical trials they need basic knowledge about clinical trials and training would help them conduct clinical trials better.

MIS-52

A study on food drug interaction between fruit extract of Capsicum frutescens l.(solanaceae) and glimepiride in diabetic rats

Manisha R.L , Jeevan D., Rao N.V., Basheer M.D.

Department of Pharmacology, V.L. College of Pharmacy, Raichur-584103, Karnataka

Objective: The study was designed to explore the food drug interaction between C.Frutescens, a culinary herb on hypoglycemic activity of glimepiride, used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: LD 50 study for AQEFCF was carried out in albino mice upto dose limit of 2000mg/kg 1/5 th , 1/10 th and 1/20 th doses from the maximum dose tested for LD 50 studies was selected for the present experimental study to check the effect of C.Frutescens on the anti diabetic activity of glimepiride. Before treatment with either AQEFCF or glimepiride fasting 0 blood samples were collected and serum glucose levels were analysed by GOD-POD method using semi auto-analyzer. AQEFCF(100,200 and 400mg/kg p.o)glimepiride ½ TD,TD and 2TD(0.036,0.072 and 0.144 mg/200g p.o) were administered orally alone as well as in combination i.e;AQEFCF as single dose followed by single dose of glimepiride 30 minutes later in phase I, in phase II repeated doses of AQEFCF for 8 days. Followed by a single dose of glimepiride on 8 th day in phase III both drugs are administered as single doses for 8 days in the same group of diabetic rats. After the treatment serum glucose levels were determined in all groups of rats at pre fixed time intervals. Result: Both AQEFCF glimepiride when administered as single doses reduced dose dependant anti diabetic activity in diabetic rats. Conclusion: AQEFCF augumented anti diabetic effect of glimepiride but no severe hypoglycimia are noted hence C.Frutescens and glimepiride can be used concomitantly in diabetic individuals.

MIS-53

A study on calcium channel blockers as hepatoprotective agents in different hepatotoxic models in rats


Riyaz S., Rao N.V., Rajesh K.

Department of Pharmacology, V.L.College of Pharmacy, Raichur-584103, Karnataka

Objective: To study the hepatoprotective activity of 3 ca++ channel blockers namely LER, FEL and ISR with 3 selected doses i.e;1/4 th TD, 1/2 nd TD and TD in PCM and ALC induced hepatotoxicity in rats both at preventing and curative aspects. Materials and methods: LER, FEL and ISR, PCM, ALC, biochemical kits, silymarin and semi auto-analyzer are used during the experimental study. The hepatoprotective activity ca++ channel blockers is evaluated in PCM (2g/kg) and ALC (3.76g/kg) induced hepatotoxic models in rats TST i.e;thiopental induced sleeping time, physical parameters like liver weight and liver volume, biochemical parameters like ALT,AST,ALP,BILD,BILT,ALB and PRO were estimated by Erba chem.biochemical kits using semi auto-analyzer. Silymarin is used as a standard reference drug in both the PCM and ALC induced hepatotoxic models. Result: Standard reference SIL produced significant hepatoprotective activity. Ca++ channel blockers too at three different doses mentioned above both at preventive and curative aspects produced significant hepatoprotective activity in PCM and ALC induced hepatotoxic models. Relatively better hepatoprotective activity recorded with curative treatment than preventive treatment in both models. Ca++ channel blockers prevented hepatotoxic effect of both PCM and ALC in rats and offered hepatoprotective activity. Conclusion : It was reported that hepatotoxicants disrupts the cellular mechanism that are maintaining low intracellular cytosolic calcium. PCM and ALC induced hepatotoxicity also related to over dose of ca++ in the hepatocytes. Treatment with 3ca++ channel blockers at selected doses prevented the entry and accumulation of ca++ ions in hepatocytes prevented PCM and ALC induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

MIS-54

A study on drug-drug interaction between carvedilol and gliclazide in rats


thSowmya S, Shivaraj G, Rao N.V, Sowmya U.

Department of Pharmacology, V.L. College of Pharmacy, Raichur, Karnataka, India

Objectives: To study the drug-drug interaction between Carvedilol, a non selective β-blocker with Gliclazide (sulfonyl urea derivative used in type-II diabetes). Materials and methods: 0.1N NaOH is used as vehicle for both Carvedilol and Gliclazide, Streptozotocin is used to induce diabetes in rats and serum glucose levels were analysed by using GOD/POD method on semi auto-analyser (ERBA Mannheim,CHEM-5 plus v2), and serum glucose levels were analysed at prefixed time intervals like 0,0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24h. Results: Gliclazide 10 mg/Kg has exhibited a significant hypoglycemic activity and antidiabetic activity in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats respectively. Carvedilol at different doses as mentioned above also produced a significant and dose dependent hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activity in normal/streptozotocin induced diabetic animals respectively. Carvedilol in combination with single dose of Gliclazide and also repeated doses followed by a single dose of Gliclazide combination produced a significant reduction in hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activity of Gliclazide. Conclusion: From the experimental study it was noted that dose of Gliclazide has to be readjusted during these drugs combination. However an opposite effect is noted than the theoretical effect reported in literature i.e, β-blocker Carvedilol reduced the antidiabetic activity of Gliclazide rather than potentiation. So the interaction has to be checked in human volunteers with hypertension and diabetic conditions.

MIS-55

Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract from Lagenaria siceraria fruit on ethanol induced toxicity in rats


Ankur Sahu, Peeyush Kumar Srivastava, Chanchal Raj, Navin Raj, A. Balasubramaniam, Sayyed Nadeem

Technocrats Institute of Technology Pharmacy, Anand Nagar, Bhopal (M.P.), India

Objectives: Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to be one mechanism by which ethanol causes liver injury. There is a lack of reliable hepatoprotective drugs in modern medicine to prevent and treat drug-induced liver damage. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic extract of Lagenariasiceraria fruit (ELSF) on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Methods: The rats were treated with 45 % ethanol (4.8 g/kg b. wt) for 16 days to induce alcoholic diseases in the liver. The activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and triglyceride were monitored to evaluate the protective effects of ELSF (100,200,300 mg/kg/day). Results : Chronic ethanol administration resulted in a statistically significant elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and triglyceride levels. Conclusion: These results highlight the ability of Lagenariasiceraria fruit to ameliorate oxidative damage in the liver.

MIS-56

Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazoline Derivatives for in vitro Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity


Rajeshkumar D.A., Sebastian S., Kutty N.G.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal

Objectives : To synthesize and evaluate novel 1, 3, 4-oxadiazoline derivatives for anticancer and antioxidant activities by various invitromethods. Methods: Three different oxadiazoline derivatives [OXD1, OXD2 and OXD3] were synthesized by the cyclisation of the nicotinic acid hydrazide Schiff bases, which were synthesized from the nicotinic acid hydrazide and ortho-, meta- and para- hydroxybenzaldehydes. Cell lines used: He La, A 549, HCT 15, U343, MCF 7, HBL 100. In vitro anticancer screening: Cytotoxicity by Trypan Blue Exclusion assay and MTT assay, Antiproliferative activity by Sulphorhodamine B assay, Assessment of apoptosis by Acridine Orange, Ethididum Bromide assay and DNA fragmentation assay, Antimigration activity by Scratch wound healing assay. Invitro antioxidant activity: DPPH radical scavenging assay, ABTS radical scavenging assay, Total antioxidant capacity. Results: The cytotoxic potency of the compounds was confirmed by MTT assay against 5 different cell lines. Among the 3 derivatives, OXD2 showed very good activity against MCF 7 with IC 50 of 14.35μM and U343 with IC 50 of 16.44μM. In the SRB assay against 6 different cell lines, OXD2 showed activity on MCF 7, U343 and HCT 15 cell lines. After 72 hours of treatment, excellent apoptosis was obtained by DNA fragmentation assay for OXD2. AO/EB staining performed on A549 displayed clear blebbing and clear condensed nuclei in the OXD2 treated cells. None of the compounds had any significant antioxidant activity in any of the in vitro antioxidant tests. Conclusions: From the study it can be concluded that only OXD2 has significant anticancer activity among all the three test compounds. A detailed study is warranted with oxadiazolidines to optimize activity and reduce toxicity.

MIS-57

Exploration of in-vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of newer flavones derivatives


Ringu Kumari, Alkesh Patel , K. Nandakumar,Yogendra Nayak, Jay Shree, Abhishek Kumar

Room No.762, NBQ Hostels, Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka.

Objectives : To study in-vitro evaluation of some newer flavones derivatives for antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. Methods: Animal: Wistar rat of 200-250 gm. In vitro antioxidant potentialof newly synthesized 20 flavone derivative assessed by(1)DPPH free radicals scavenging activity (2) ABTS free radical scavenging activity(3)Lipid peroxidation activity. In vitro Antidiabetic potential of flavone derivatives assessed by(1)DPP-IV enzyme(2)α-Glucosidase enzyme(3)α-Amylase enzyme(4)Glucose uptake by using rat diaphragm (5)HMG-CoA reductase. Results: In DPPH radical scavenging activity compounds 7, 10, 16, in ABTS radical scavenging activity compounds 2, 8, 10, 13, 16, 20 and in lipid peroxidation test compounds 2, 7, 10, 16 show good Antioxidant activity compared to standard compound ascorbic acid. Based on the antioxidant study test compound 2, 7, 8, 10, 13, 16, 20 were selected for antidiabetic study. In DPP-IV enzyme inhibition compound-2 showed significant activity comparable with standard drug sitagliptin. In α-amylase enzyme inhibition non of the compound show any activity. In α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition compound 8 show good inhibition compared to acarbose.In glucose uptake by using rat diaphragm compound 16 showed promising activity in the presence and absence of insulin compared to standard drug rosiglitazone.In HMG-CoA reductase inhibition assay non of the compound showed activity. Conclusions: Compound 10 and 16 showed potent antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS in vitro antioxidant assay, compound 2 show significant (P< 0.05) DPP-IV inhibition compared to standard drug sitagliptin,compound 8 showed significant (P< 0.05) α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition compared to standard drug acarbose, compound 16 showed significant (P< 0.05) glucose uptake in rat diaphragm compared to standard drug rosiglitazone.Compounds 2 and 16 require further study by using other antioxidant and antidiabetic activity.

MIS-58

Gum Arabic induced water transport in the everted intestinal segments of the frog

Kirtana M. Pai , J. Prakasa Rao

Department of Physiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal-576104

Introduction: Gum Arabic (GA) is a nonviscous soluble fiber, edible, dried, gummy exudate obtained from the stems and branches of Acacia senegal and A. seyal trees. Previous experiments had shown proabsorptive effects of GA in normal rats and in animal models of diarrhoea. As amphibian small intestine is similar to human intestine in many respects, it could be a useful model for intestinal absorption. Our study aimed to find out the effect of GA on water transport in everted intestinal preparations of frog gut. Materials and Methods: Frogs (RanaTigrina) from the animal house of Kasturba Medical College, Manipal were used for this study after approval from animal ethics committee.Five centimeter segments of duodenum and jejunum were dissected out and were everted to prepare the sacs, each of which was filled with 1 ml of phosphate Ringer and placed in 5 ml of the Ringer with GA (2.5G/L) contained in a flask. The flasks were also aerated for 2 min initially and then stoppered and incubated in shaker bath (frequency100 oscillations/min) for 1 hour at 30 degree C. Control samples were also filled with 1ml of Ringer and placed in Ringer without containing GA. The study was also carried out with Ringer containing glucose with or without GA in the incubating fluid. The sacs were weighed before (initial weight) and after (final weight) incubation. The total gain in the weight of the sac was determined by the difference between the initial and final weights. Results and conclusion: There was significant increase in absorption of water from the mucosa of everted sacs in the presence of Gum Arabic. Furthur studies should evaluate the route of absorption and its potential value in diarrhoea.

MIS-59

Demonstration or experiential learning: Assessment of preference and acceptance in undergraduate medical students

Archana Dhaval Shankh , Sunita Patil, Chitra Khanwelkar 1

Department of Pharmacology, D.Y. Patil Medical College, Kolhapur, 1 Department of Pharmacology Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra.

Objective: In today's practical syllabus experimental pharmacology practices are designed to teach concepts and techniques through demonstrations. Demonstration of animal based experiments play a pivotal role in pharmacological teachingbut experiential learning used in the practical lessons help students to learn and improve skill. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the preference and acceptance about the demonstrations of the various animal experiments and to assess the impact of the demonstration and experiential learning by students in practical pharmacology. Materials and Method: 120 students from second year attended the practical class were involved in study. Six animal experiments (Hot plate andRadient heat analgesiometer, Rota rod andacto photometer, Effects of Atropine eye drops on rabbit eye) were shown to students by teachers and the same was conducted by students in group of ten. Questionnaire was served to the students to find out their preference and acceptance. Results: 120 students involved in this study. Results showed that 80% students agree with the use of animals in medical education without sacrificing animals. 90% students accept that the fact can be learnt after demonstration by the teacher but 97% students accept that performing experiment by themselves is more explicable, motivatingand interactive. Conclusion: Animal experiment helps to impart hands-on training to students, reinforce their knowledge from lectures and textbooks. 97% preferred doing practical in future without sacrificing animal and accepted that animal experimentation done by them today will be helpful in future.

MIS-60

Anti obesity effect of stigmasterol in high fat diet induced obesity in rats

Shrijal Bhavsar, Priyanshi Gohil, Gaurang Shah, Mehul Chorawala, Vandit Trivedi, Hemlata Sukhval

107, Azad Society, Ambawadi, Ahmedabad, GUJARAT - 380015

Objective: Stigmasterol is a plant sterol, insoluble in water, forms intestinal miscel and compete for the absorption of cholesterol. This activity of stigmasterol is due to Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) antagonism. The present investigation was carried out to find the anti obesity effect of stigmasterol on High fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in rats. Method: Rats of control group were fed Normal pellet diet (NPD) for 11 weeks and rats of disease control were fed with diet containing high fat for 11 weeks. Rats of test and standard group were fed HFD for 8 week and at the end of 8 th week both the groups were received stigmasterol and Sibutramine respectively for 3 weeks along with HFD. At the end of 11 th week all rats were sacrificed and epididymal fat and interscapular fat mass was collected. Results: Stigmasterol significantly decreased food intake (64.47 +/- 0.92), body weight (90.03 +/- 3.93), serum cholesterol (88.43 +/- 4.88), serum triglyceride (89.54 +/- 5.93), glucose (71.03 +/- 5.8) level, atherosclerotic index (0.09 +/- 0.01) and globule size of the adipocytes (13.62 +/- 0.32 μm) as compared to HFD group. Conclusion: The above results suggest that stigmasterol might have beneficial in the treatment of obesity

MIS-61

An approach to the molecular mechanisms of cancer Cachexia


Thammera Saimithra, Robert Rhikes N, Nitesh Kumar, C. Mallikarjuna Rao

Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal.

Background: Despite the fact that cachexia has been estimated to be responsible for the death of up to 22% of cancer patients, progress in this area has been slow to date. This was basically due to poor experimental models of this condition and a lack of understanding of the mechanisms involved. Cachexia is seen not only in cancer patients, but in those with sepsis, CHF, diabetes, severe trauma, and renal failure leading to metabolic acidosis, denervation atrophy, and weightless- There is certainly an overlap between the mechanisms of tissue loss, particularly muscle atrophy, in these conditions and those seen in cancer patients. Introduction: Anorexia, cachexia, nausea and vomiting are common in advanced cancer. Up to 50% of cancer patients suffer from a progressive atrophy of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, called cachexia, resulting in weight loss, a reduced quality of life, and a shortened survival time. Anorexia often accompanies cachexia, but appears not to be responsible for the tissue loss, particularly lean body mass. Mechanisms: 1. An increased resting energy expenditure is seen, possibly arising from an increased thermogenesis in skeletal muscle due to an increased expression of uncoupling protein, and increased operation of the Cori cycle. 2. Loss of adipose tissue is due to an increased lipolysis by tumor or host products. 3. Loss of skeletal muscle in cachexia results from a combined effect of increase in protein degradation and decrease in protein synthesis. The increase in protein degradation may include increased activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and lysosomes. The decrease in protein synthesis is due to reduction in the levels of various steps of translation like decrease in the levels of the initiation factor 4F, decreased elongation, and decreased binding of methionyl-tRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit. Conclusion: These studies show myriad factors with the potential to mediate loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle protein in cancer cachexia . Since the primary mediators of the cachectic process in humans have not been established clearly, therapies aimed at the above mentioned signaling systems may be helpful in understanding and for the treatment of this disorder.

MIS-62

Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic extract of leaves of Parkinsonia acculeata against paracetamol and anti-tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in rats

Jeevani V.C , Manjula S.N, Mruthunjaya K, Shah Vaibhav

JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysore - 570 015, Karnataka, India.

Objectives : To explore the hepatoprotective potential of leaves of P. aculeata (PA) against Paracetamol and Anti-tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity model Methods: Alcoholic extract of PA was prepared by Soxhlet extraction method. In paracetamol model, Wistar rats were treated with PA at 200 and 300mg/kg p.o for 7 days. On day 7 th after 2h of PA treatment, animals were administered Paracetamol 2g/kg orally. In anti-tubercular model, wistar rats were treated with above two doses of PA and combination of anti-tubercular drugs (Isoniazid 50mg/kg, i.p, Rifampicin 100mg/kg, i.p. and Pyrazenamide 350mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 consecutive days. After 48h of toxin treatment, blood samples and liver samples were collected to estimate the serum biochemical markers and liver endogenous antioxidant enzymes respectively. Results: PA treatment at both the doses significantly reversed the Paracetamol and antitubercular drugs induced alteration in serum enzymes and endogenous antioxidant enzymes to near normal levels as compared to hepatotoxin control. However activity of PA at a dose 300mg/kg was comparable to that of standard silymarin 100mg/kg. Conclusioin: PA posses marked hepatoprotective activity via its antioxidant property owing to the presence of flavonoids viz. Luteolin, orientin, iso-orientin, apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, chrysoeriol etcwhich were reported as potent antioxidants. Thus PA has a promising role in the reversal of acute and sub-acute hepatic injury induced by hepatotoxins.

MIS-63

Effect of benfotiamine on behavioural, electrophysiological properities in cisplatin induced peripheral neuropathy in rats.

Hariprasad M.G , Rema Razdan, Tejaswi

Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Near Lalbgh main Gate, Hosur Road, Bangalore- 560027

Objectives: Antineoplastic drugs like cisplatin, taxols are associated with the development of peripheral neuropathy (PN). Which is a dose-limiting and disabling side effect and may severely affect the quality of life of cancer patients. Severe neuropathy can occur in 3% to 7% of treated cases with single agents but can increase to 38% with combined regimens. The treatment options for PN currently include antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioid analgesics like tramadol and capsaicin. These agents are modestly effective for symptomatic relief, but they do not affect the underlying pathology nor do they slow progression of the disease. Therefore, effective treatment for chemotherapy induced neuropathy would be a major advantage for cancer patients. Benfothiamine is fat-soluble, more bioavailable and physiologically active than thiamine and was shown to prevent experimental diabetic retinopathy. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the neuroprotective activity of benfotiamine in cisplatin induced PN in rats. Methods: PN was induced Cisplatin 2mg/kg i.p. twice weekly for 8 weeks. The degree of protection was determined by measuring electrophysiological properties of sciatic nerve like nerve conduction velocity, motor incordination, thermal, cold hyperalgesia and grip strength. Results: PN was evidenced by decreased nerve conduction velocity, motor incordination, grip strength and thermal, cold hyperalgesia. Administration of benfotiamine (100 mg/kg p.o) for 4weeks significantly improved all above parameters. Conclusions: Benfotiamine exhibited neuroprotective activity, which would be attributed to its activity as co-enzyme.

MIS-64

Cutaneous adverse drug reactions profile in central India: An evaluative six year study in 1335 patients

Sachin Hiware , Meena Shrivastava, Dharmendra Mishra, Jayesh Mukhi, Ganesh Dakhale, Mohini Mahatme

Department of Pharmacology, Above Dean's Office, Indira Gandhi Govt. Medical College & Hospital, C A Road, Nagpur, Maharashtra, PIN code-440018, India.

Objectives: Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) are among the most frequent ADRs. Number of CADRs reported from Central India is very scanty. The study was plan to detect the cutaneous drug reactions through spontaneous reporting system in Central India, and analyze them using standard assessment scales. Methods: An observational, prospective study was performed in patients attending dermatology out-patient department (OPD) in tertiary care public teaching hospital in Nagpur, from 1 st June 05 to 31 st May 11. Adverse event history, medication history and other relevant details were captured in a format as adopted in the National Pharmacovigilance Programme. CADRs were graded as certain, possible and probable according to World Health Organization (WHO) causality assessment scales. Results: Among 4046 total ADRs reported, 1335(32.99%) were CADRs. Antimicrobials (60.22%) were the main drugs involved followed by NSAIDs (19.62%) and steroids (8.23%). Maculopapular rash (37.82%) followed by Fixed drug Eruption (18.65%) and Urticaria (14.75%) were the most frequently observed CADRs. The common drugs causing CADRs were cotrimoxazole (20.82%), ibuprofen (8.16%), ampicilin (6.66%), diclofenac(6.51%) and betamethasone (5.91%). Conclusions : Antibiotics and NSAIDs lead to maximum number of CADRs. Hence, strict vigilance is required while using them. This study offers a representative profile of CADRs in Central Indian population and provides a database of ADRs to common drugs, which will help clinicians in safe use of these drugs.

MIS-65

Nanotechniques in Pharmacology

Akshay Khandeparkar , P. V. Rataboli

Department of Pharmacology, Goa medical college, Bambolim, Goa

Nanomedicine is defined as submicron size (<1micron) modules used for treatment, diagnosis, monitoring and control of biological system. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology embraces application of nanoscience to pharmacy as devices like drug delivery, diagnostics, imaging and biosensor. Impact of nanopharmacology can mainly be seen in drug release techniques and regenerative medicine. Drug in nanometer range enhances performance. Major advantage of nanosizing include 1) increased surface area 2) enhanced solubility 3) increased rate of dissolution 4) increased oral bioavailability 5) decreased dosing. The poster gives an overview of applied nanopharmacology advancement of new drug delivery such as liposomal drug delivery, nanopatch, fullerenes, dendrimers and other therapeutic application. Poster also depicts environmental and health concerns of nanopharmacology.

MIS-66

Co-relation of HIV and Tuberculosis in terms of clinical and radiological presentation with CD4 counts in Rajasthan

L. K Sharma , M. Kumar 1 , S. Singhal 2 , B. Sharma 3 , K. Sharma

Department of Pharmacology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, 1 Department of TB & Chest, RNT Medical College, Udaipur 2 Department of Physiology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, 3 ABST, KVMM, Jaipur, India.

Introduction : In India, estimated 40% of population is infected with tuberculosis as against 1% with HIV infection. HIV co-infection is strongest known risk factor for the development of tuberculosis disease. The fact is that tuberculosis kills more adults in the most productive age group in India than any other infectious diseases. Unlike other opportunistic infections that occur at CD-4 cell counts <200/cumm, active tuberculosis occurs throughout the course of HIV disease. As HIV related immunosuppression increases, the clinical pattern of TB changes with increasing number of smear negative and extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases. Thus clinical radiological presentation depends upon the degree of immunosuppressant. Objectives : to know the prevalence and spectrum of clinical radiological presentation of tuberculosis in HIV positive patients and find out correlation with CD4 cell counts. Methodology: The present study was carried out at Government Medical Colleges in Rajasthan, included indoor 153 HIV positive patients during Sep.2009 to Sep.2010. Written consent was taken with proper counseling. HIV sero-status was done in all the patients as per NACO guidelines. Routine blood tests, sputum examination for AFB and Culture, chest X-ray, USG, tuberculin test with 5 TU, were performed. FNAC, Biopsy, fluid Cytology, Biochemistry were used to diagnose EPTB and CD 4 counts were performed. Results : Out of 153, 138 patients were diagnosed to have HIV-TB co-infection, amount that 78.99% males and 21,01% were females, Pulmonary lesions were present in 82.61% patients; Extra-pulmonary alone in 17.39% and 53.62% have both pulmonary and Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. 42.98 (49) had sputum smear positive for AFB whereas 57.07% were smear negative. Overall 50/138 (36.23%) had lymph node TB, followed by pleural (22.46%) and abdominal tuberculosis (19.57%). The most common presenting symptoms was cough (82.61%), followed by fever (68.12%), loss of appetite and shortness breathlessness (52.17% and 42.75%) respectively. 79.73% of pulmonary and Extra-pulmonary patients had CD4 cell counts <200/cumm. Conclusion: Most of the HIV-TB co-infected patients were belong to productive age group of 21 to 40 yrs and were sexually active. Driving was most common occupation (28%) and females were housewives. This study highlights the higher prevalence of HIV and TB in patients who lack basic education and awareness. Patients with low CD4 counts (<200/cumm) had more incidence of Extra-pulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis with atypical radiological presentation.

MIS-67

Evaluation of aphrodisiac activity of Clitoria ternatea l. In male rats


N.S. Vyawahare, S.P. Sarode, N. Piarchand

AISSMS College of pharmacy, Kennedy Road, Near RTO, Pune- 411001

Objective: To validate the traditional claim of Clitoria Ternatea L. towards its aphrodisiac potential using Non-contact erection model. Method: Healthy adult male rats were divided into 03 groups with 06 in each group and treated respectively with vehicle (distilled water)-1ml/kg in control group, hydro alcoholic extract of flowers of CTW-200 mg/kg in group II and CTW-400 mg/kg in group III for the period of 21 days. The evaluation was carried out on 1 st , 11 th , and 21 st day, one hour after the respective treatment for 15 minutes in presence of inaccessible female rats and parameters like total Non-contact erection (NCEs) and latency to NCEs were recorded. Results: The administration of CTW-400 for 21 days significantly increased the number of NCEs and decreased the latency to NCEs that resembles a psychogenic erection in humans. These results postulate the involvement of centrally mediated mechanism. Conclusion: Results of this study in an animal model of Non-contact erections validate the claim of Clitoria Ternatea L. towards its aphrodisiac activity. Key words: Aphrodisiac, Non-contact erections, psychogenic erection

MIS-68

Effect of Zingiber officinale roscoe (ginger) on acute and chronic inflammation in adult albino rats


*Nagaraj B. Malipatil, S. Manjunath

Department of Pharmacology, M R Medical College, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India.

*E-mail: nagaraj.malipatil@gmail.com

Objective: 1. To evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe (Ginger) on acute inflammation 2. To study the histopathological changes produced by aqueous extract of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) for chronic inflammation. Methods: A total of 30 rats, 15 for acute inflammation and 15 for chronic inflammation and histopathological study, were used for the study.For acute inflammation, rats were divided into 3 groups of 5 animals each (n=5). Drugs were given orally as follows, Control Group: 4% Gum Acacia, dose 10 ml/kg body weight. Standard Group: Diclofenac sodium, dose 4.5 mg/kg body weight. Test Group: Ginger, dose 500 mg/kg body weight. Carrageenin (1% strength, 0.1 ml, sub-plantar injection) was used to induce acute inflammation.Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by rat paw oedema method using plethysmograph. For Chronic inflammation and histopathological changes, rats were divided into 3 groups of 5 animals each (n=5).

Drugs were given orally as follows,

Control Group: 4% Gum Acacia, dose 10 ml/kg body weight

Standard Group: Diclofenac sodium, dose 4.5 mg/kg body weight

Test Group: Ginger, dose 500 mg/kg body weight

Results are evaluated after 7 days of daily drug administration. Results: Percentage inhibition of oedema in test group was 33.08% as compared to 61.43% in standard group (p value <0.01) Percentage inhibition of granulation tissue in test group was 63.94% as compared to 31.55% in standard group (p value <0.001) Conclusions: The results obtained from the study revealed, aqueous extract of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe (Ginger) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in both acute and chronic models of inflammation. Histopathology of the chronic inflammation also revealed significant inhibition of inflammatory activity in test group as compared to standard.

MIS-69

Role of sepsis in acute renal failure: A prospective observational study


Aniket R. Patel, Nailesh G. Patel 1 , Shuba Rani 1 , Shivprakash Ratnam 1

Sarswati School of Pharmacy, Ranela, Mahesana and Institute of kidney diseases and Research center, Ahmedabad. 1 Synchron Research Services Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad.

Objectives: To study the potential factors that might affect on survival of sepsis and predictors of mortality in patients of ARF with sepsis. To analyze number of patients in different age groups and gender. Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in 52 patients with sepsis induced ARF by collecting their histories, clinical features and laboratory parameters. The pre prepared proforma was filled during first nephrology consultation to hospital discharge. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 15 and SAS for multivariate logistic regression analysis. Parametric values were expressed as means ± SD with considering P < 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: The age and gender of the patients were found weak predictors of mortality. Factors like sex, blood urea, total counts were found to be weakly associated with mortality prediction. The mean Serum creatinine, SOFA and anuric parameters were strongly associated with mortality. The adjusted odd ratio with 95% confidence interval and p-value of factors like- age, sex, Hb, blood urea, total counts, length of hospital stay, serum creatinine at discharge, SOFA discharge and dialysis that determined the survival of patients. The study is in agreement with other studies in male to female ratio (1.26), studies of H.neveu et al 2.56 and Michael Oppert et al 1.72. Conclusions: The predictor of mortality like SOFA score (>3.5), higher Serum creatinine value (>5.5 mg/dl) and anuric condition of patients can guide for better management decisions and to bring down the mortality. The aggressive dialysis, discharge serum creatinine and low age are good prognostic factor of sepsis associated ARF patients. This indicates that aggressive dialysis is one of the good management along with antibiotic treatments. The study confirms the spread of diseases to younger (Median age 32 year) populations and almost equally spread to both the sex. ARF: Acute renal failure, SOFA: Sepsis related organ failure score

MIS-70

Knowledge of medical professionals about prescription of drugs in pregnancy and lactation


Ashwini V, JC Huralikuppi, Suresha RN, Shivaprasad MG, Pragathi B.

Department of Pharmacology, JSS Medical College (Constituent of JSS University), Mysore - 570015

Objective: To assess the knowledge of medical professionals about prescription of drugs in pregnancy and lactation. Methods : A pre-validated questionnaire designed to evaluate the knowledge about prescription pattern of drugs in pregnancy and lactation was given to 200 medical professionals including 34 teaching staff,38 post graduates (PG's),28 interns,100 undergraduate students(( 2nd year onwards) of JSS Medical College, Mysore. Results: All (100%) medical professionals knew that it is not safe to prescribe all drugs available in pregnancy and lactation and that drugs administered in pregnancy/lactation can cause adverse effect in foetus/child. There was significant difference in the knowledge of prescription of drugs in pregnancy and lactation between the 4 groups. Among the groups teaching staff had good knowledge about safe use of drugs in pregnancy and lactation. Conclusion: The knowledge of medical professionals about prescription of drugs in pregnancy and lactation is inadequate especially in interns, undergraduate and postgraduate students as compared to teaching staff about specific drugs in this category. Stringent measures need to be adapted by the pharmacovigilance units to monitor prescriptions in these subsets of patients. A constant update of information of medical professionals about the safety of drugs prescribed in pregnancy and lactation especially targeted towards undergraduate students, interns and postgraduate students is necessary.

MIS-71

A survey on how many people read the Patient information Leaflets

Rajesh Kumar R. , Jagan Mohan R., Manimekalai K.

Department of Pharmacology, Mahatama Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Pondy-Cuddalore Main Road, Pillaiyarkuppam, Puducherry - 607 402, India.

Objectives : A general survey to estimate the percentage of people read the product information Leaflet. Materials and Methods : A questionnaire on interview basis is prepared. It has the fields for age, sex, designation and two questions with Yes /No answers. Then the questionnaires are collected and the results tabulated and the No. of Yes and No are calculated. Percentage of Reader, occasional Reader, and those who do not read the Leaflet calculated and the results obtained. Results : Out of 500 people interviewed 376 (75.2%) people do not read the leaflet at all, 108(21.6%) people read occasionally, and only 16(3.2%) people read the leaflet for all the drug they purchase. It clearly points out only few people read the PIL. Conclusion : Many countries have their own guidelines for drafting the Patient information leaflet for the manufacturing authority to make it easy for general public to easily understand and for better readability with proper font size, signs and symbols to educate and warn about Adverse Drug Reaction. In India many people don't read the Patient information leaflet even for the medicines which they are supposed to take for lifelong like anti diabetic & anti-hypertensive drugs. Many read the instruction on cosmetic preparation available. It is time to educate the people to read the Patient information leaflet to avert or minimize the side effects caused by it. It is on the part of the Government Authority to draft guidelines for manufacturing authority to prepare Patient information Leaflet that is easy to read and understand for the general public.


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NEU-1

Anxiogenic effect of moxifloxacin in wistar rats


Shenoy S, Chakravarty S, Nayak A, Zurica PC, Shanbhag T.

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal University, Karnataka-576104, India.

Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate whether moxifloxacin can cause anxiety in rats. Methods: Elevated plus maze and open field test were used to assess the anxiogenic activity of moxifloxacin. Four groups of rats were treated orally with distilled water (10 ml/kg), levofloxacin (40 mg/kg) and moxifloxacin (36 mg/kg and 72 mg/kg), respectively. The time spent, number of entries, rears in the arms of the elevated plus maze and central and peripheral areas in the open field were observed. Results: Moxifloxacin (both doses) significantly increased (P<0.05) the time spent in the closed arms of elevated plus maze and significantly decreased (P<0.05) the time spent in the open arms of the elevated maze and central area in the open field as compared to control. The number of entries in the central area was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in moxifloxacin and levofloxacin treated rats. The number of rearings was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in both arms of the elevated plus maze and peripheral areas of open field in moxifloxacin and levofloxacin treated groups. There was no significant difference between the effects of moxifloxacin and levofloxacinin the elevated plus maze. Conclusion: Moxifloxacin produced anxiogenic activity in wistar rats.

NEU-2

Effect of atorvastatin and simvastatin against pentylenetetrazole (ptz) induced seizures in rats

*Ravi Sharma , Poornima BM, Arpita Garg, Shalini Adiga, Veena Nayak

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka-576104.

*E-mail: ravinsoncruso@yahoo.in

Objective: To evaluate the potential antiepileptic activity of statins against PTZ induced seizure in rats. Methods: The antiepileptic activity of Atorvastatin and Simvastatin was evaluated against the Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model. Four groups of male wistar rats with 6 rats in each group were administered with Gum acacia (1ml oral), Sodium Valproate (180mg/kg oral), Atorvastatin(3.60mg/kg oral), Simvastatin (1.80 mg/kg oral) respectively one hour before administering pentylenetetrazole (60mg/kg i.p). Each rat was placed in an individual cage and observed for episodes of seizure for up to 30 minutes. Result: Simvastatin showed significant (p<0.001) decrease in the duration of seizures and lowered percentage of mortality as compared to vehicle treated PTZ injected rats. Its anticonvulsant activity was similar to the sodium valproate treated group. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest the potential use of Simvastatin against epilepsy, which has to be further confirmed using different animal models.

NEU-3

Effect of lovastatin against pentylenetetrazole (ptz) and maximal electroshock (mes) induced seizures in albino rats


* Arpita Garg , Ravi Sharma, Poornima BM, Shalini Adiga, Veena Nayak

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka-576104.

*E-mail: arpitagarg@ymail.com

Objective : Statins, the hypolipidemic agents which reduce the cholesterol level are also found to reduce the risk of developing epilepsy in the elderly. Hence, we aim to evaluate the potential anticonvulsant activity of lovastatin against maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in rats. Methods: Antiepileptic activity was evaluated by using two animal models- pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) model. Inbred male wistar rats were divided into 3 groups with 6 rats in each group for each model. They received Gum acacia (1 ml, oral), as control and Lovastatin (3.60 mg/kg, oral), as test. Sodium Valproate (180 mg/kg, oral) and Carbamazepine (108 mg/kg, oral) were given as standard drugs in PTZ and MES model respectively. Convulsions were then induced by injecting pentylenetetrazole (60 mg/kg, i.p) after 1 hour and by using electroconvulsiometer after 45 minutes of drug administration. Results: The results were analysed using ANOVA. In PTZ induced seizure model lovastatin showed significant (P<0.001) decrease in duration of seizure and also lowered percentage of mortality as compared to vehicle treated PTZ injected rats. In MES model lovastatin produced hind limb extension but with delayed onset when compared to control (P=0.019). Conclusion: The results of our study suggest the potential use of lovastatin in treatment of epilepsy.

NEU-4

Comparing the efficacy of carbamazepine and gabapentin in chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in rats

Chogtu B, Bairy KL, Himabindu P, Dhar S, Smitha D.

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka- 576104. India

Objective: In this study we compared the efficacy of carbamazepine and gabapentin in neuropathic pain using chronic constriction injury model. Materials and Methods: Neuropathic pain was induced in rats by chronic constriction injury. The rats were divided into three groups of six animals each. Group I was treated with oral gabapentin60 mg/kg, group II was treated with oral lamotrigine 40 mg/kg and group III was the control group. The drugs were administered orally from fifth to fourteenth day. Behavioural testing for mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed by Randall Siletto test. One way analysis of variance followed by Scheffe's post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Gabapentin (P<0.01) and Lamotrigine (P<0.01) groups showed a significantly superior response i.e increase in mechanical threshold as compared to control. On comparing the two groups, it was shown that there was no statistical significant difference between the two groups (P>0.5). Conclusion: Gabapentin and lamotrigine are significantly superior to control in chronic constriction induced neuropathic pain.

NEU-5

Anticonvulsant and central nervous system depressant actions of solasodine isolated from Solanum sisymbriifolium fruits

Pratik Gor* , Kinjal Chauhan, Vipul Patel, Samir Rabadiya, Navin Sheth, Sachin Parmar

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360005, Gujarat, India

Objectives: We investigated anticonvulsant and CNS depressant effects of solasodine isolated from S. sisymbriifolium using several experimental models. Methods: Swiss albino mice were employed for pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and picrotoxin (PCT)-induced convulsions and thiopental-induced sleep time (n = 6). Different groups of Wistar albino rats were subjected to maximal electroshock (MES) test (n = 6). Solasodine, a steroidal glycoalkaloid, was isolated from dried fruits of S. sysimbriifolium and identified by GC-MS. Results: The results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of solasodine (25 mg/kg) significantly delayed (P< 0.01) latency of hind limb tonic extensor (HLTE) phase in the PCT-induced convulsions. In the MES model, solasodine significantly reduced (P< 0.001) duration of HLTE at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg i.p. in dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, solasodine did not produce any significant reduction in PTZ-induced convulsions. Prior treatment of solasodine (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg i.p.) significantly potentiated thiopental-provoked sleep in dose-dependent manner (P< 0.001). Conclusions: Our study, for the first time, shows potent anticonvulsant and CNS depressant activities of solasodine. It is likely that solasodine, in part, is responsible for the anticonvulsant and sedative properties of S. sisymbriifolium. The future study should focus on the exact mechanism of action of solasodine.

NEU-6

Effect of aqueous extract of Vitex tifolia leaves on learning and memory in wistar rats by morris water maze


Meena Kumari K., * Kiran Kumar N. , Chandrashekar BR, Pradeepa HD, Rockson Christoper, Nandit PB, Mohan A.

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal-576104.

*E-mail: sampkiran@gmail.com

Objective: The study was undertaken to find the effect of aqueous extract of Vitex trifolia leaves on learning and memory in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Morris water maze was used to assess learning and memory in Wistar rats. The drugs used were rivastigmine 1.5mg, scopolamine 0.5mg/kg, Vitex trifolia 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg. Escape latency and time spent in probe quadrant was measured. Analysis: Data was analyzed by one way-ANNOVA using SPSS software (17 version). Results: Mean escape latency time was found to be significant when both the doses of Vitex trifolia extract (150mg/kg and 300mg/kg) were tested Vs control (P<0.01) and also found to be significant when compared to standard group rivastigmine (P<0.05). In probe quadrant parameter, mean time spent was significant when 300mg/kg and150mg/kg plant extract was treated Vs control (P<0.001) and (P<0.01) respectively. Conclusion: In the present study Vitex trifolia showed significant learning and memory ability and requires further evaluation to find out the phytochemical constituents and exact mechanism of action.

NEU-7

Evaluation of activity of buspirone against pain in animal models

Kedare Rahul Vitthal , B.B. Ghongane

B. J. Medical College, Pune -411001 Maharashtra, India

Abstract: Pain treatment has undergone many strides over past few years and number of acting through different mechanisms are now available for treatment. The opioids have abuse liability which is their main drawback and have other adverse effects like respiratory depression. Whereas non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have adverse effects like Gastro-intestinal disturbance, prolonged bleeding time, sodium and water retention. Hence the search for an ideal analgesic drug continues. Buspirone is a 5HT1A receptor partial agonist and mainly used in the treatment of anxiety and depression. It has shown marked analgesic effect in tail - flick and hot plate tests on rats, producing significant analgesia. In some studies 5HT1A agonist shows hyperalgesic effect. In view of this contradictory findings, the analgesic activity of Buspirone is being further evaluated and its mechanism of action needs to be explored. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on different pain models such as tail clip, tail flick, acetic acid induced writhing test (acute) and formalin test (chronic) models. Pethidine 5.0 mg/kg, Diclofenac 2.7 mg/kg, Haloperidol 0.1mg/kg and Hydroxyzine 10mg/kg were used for comparison in this study. Results: The high dose of Buspirone 5.0 mg/kg was more effective compared to the low and medium dose (1.25mg/kg,2.5mg/kg). The results of high dose of Buspirone were less significant when compared with Pethidine and Diclofenac sodium. However, the high dose of Buspirone was more effective as compared to Haloperidol and Hydroxyzine. Conclusion: The Buspirone (1.25 mg/kg,2.5 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg) shows significant analgesic activity in the acute and chronic pain models in rats.

NEU-8

Evaluation of effect of Febuxostat in behavioural model of depression in mice


Kunal A. Chitnis

Department of Pharmacology, Topiwala National Medical College & B.Y.L. Nair Ch. Hospital, Dr. A.L. Nair Road, Mumbai Central, Mumbai- 400008

Objectives : The 'monoamine hypothesis' suggests that a deficiency or imbalance in the monoamine neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine can lead to depression. Tryptophan is the aromatic amino acid precursor of 5-hydroxytryptamine (Serotonin) which is a 'monoamine' neurotransmitter in the brain. The antidepressant action of tryptophan has been demonstrated to be more than that compared to placebo. Tryptophan is degraded to amphibolic intermediates via the kynurenine-anthranilate pathway tryptophan pyrrolase is the enzyme that oxidizes tryptophan. Xanthine oxidase has been identified as an endogenous activator of tryptophan pyrrolase thus reducing the levels of tryptophan and thereby the levels of serotonin. Febuxostat is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine oxidase which is primarily used in the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. Thus it is hypothesised that Febuxostat inhibits tryptophan pyrrolase and increases the levels of Serotonin in brain thereby possessing anti-depressant activity. Methods : After taking Instititutional Animal Ethics Committee permission eighteen swiss male albino mice were randomised to 21 days of p.o. once daily therapy with 0.5 % Carboxy-methyl-cellulose (vehicle control, n=6), Fluoxetine 10 mg/kg (positive control, n=6) and Febuxostat 15.6 mg/kg (study group, n=6). On the 21 st day animals were subjected to Photo-actometer testing for assessement of locomotion followed 15 minutes later with Forced Swim Test (FST) for assessment of depression. Results : Febuxostat showed a significant decrease (P <0.05) in immobilisation time in Forced swim test (FST) without any significant change (P >0.05) in locomotion in Photo-actometer. Conclusion : The study suggests that Febuxostat has anti-depressant action.

NEU-9

Comparing the antinociceptive effect of duloxetine and fluoxetine in rats

Chaitanya Karanth , Chogtu B, Eesha BR, Abdul Hafeez S, Nisha Michael

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka-576104. India.

Introduction : Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience arising from actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage. The association between depression and pain is, at best blurred. The tendency to report somatic symptoms, including pain is a feature frequently encountered among depressed patients. Conversely depression often accompanies and complicates the chronic pain condition. It is conceivable that dysregulation of neurotransmitter systems common to depression and pain mediation underlies both entities. Objective: In this study we compared the antinociceptive effect of duloxetine and fluoxetine using standard in vivo methods of central analgesic activity. Material and methods: The rats were divided into three groups with eight animals in each Group one was the control group, group two and three were given duloxetine (20 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) i.p respectively.Acute nociceptive pain models of tail flick and hot plate were used to assess analgesic affect. One way analysis of variance followed by dunnett's post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Result: Duloxetine (P<0.001) group showed a significantly superior response i.e increase in antinociceptive effect as compared to control, whereas fluoxetine did not show a significant difference (P>0.05). On intergroup comparison, duloxetine was significantly superior to fluoxetine (P<0.001). Conclusion: Duloxetine showed a significantly superior response as compared to control and fluoxetine group in animal model of pain.

NEU 10

Effect of Atorvastatin and Simvastatin in maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizures in Albino rats.

Poornima BM , Ravi Sharma, Arpita Garg, Shalini Adiga, Veena Nayak

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal-576104,

E-mail: Sharada.p13@gmail.com

Objective : To study the effect of Atorvastatin and Simvastatin in maximal electroshock induced seizures in Albino rats. Methods: Albino rats were divided into 4 groups, each containing 6 rats. Group 1 to 4 were given Gumacacia (1ml, oral), Carbamazepine (108mg/kg, oral), Atorvastatin(3.60mg/kg, oral) and Simvastatin (1.80mg/kg, oral) respectively 45 min before the electroshock. Electrical stimulation (150mA for 0.2 sec) was applied through ear clip electrode with electroconvulsiometer. Duration of seizure and absence of tonic hind limb extension were observed. The results were analysed statistically. Results : Carbamazepine protected all the animals against hind limb extension as compared to control. Latency period was prolonged in Atorvastatin and Simvastatin groups significantly (P=0.001). Duration of seizures was reduced in Simvastatin group significantly (P<0.001) as compared to control and Carbamazepine. Conclusion : Simvastatin was found to be effective in maximal electroshock model. Further studies are required to confirm its protection in grandmal seizures.

NEU-11

Anti-oxidant and cytokines modulating property of Fumaria indica in chronic stressed rats

*Anshul Shakya, Gireesh Kumar Singh, Vikas Kumar

Neuropharmacology Research Lab, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005.

*E-mail: anshul.shakya@gmail.com

Objective: Fumaria indica has been found to possess anti-stress activity in behavioral models of chronic stress in rodents. To elucidate its mechanism of action, modulating effect of Fumaria indica on anti-oxidant status of brain tissue and expression of cytokines were planned. Methods: Fifty percent ethanolic extract of Fumaria indica (FI) used in this study was standardized for fumaric acid and its conjugates (0.45% and 0.35% respectively). Stressed Charles Foster rats received unpredictable foot shocks (2 mA, 1 hr, 14 days) through electric grid. FI was given orally as 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose suspension in 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses. For comparison, Panax ginseng (PG) extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as standard adaptogen. On 14 th day, after last shock treatment rats were sacrificed to remove brain tissue and blood collection. Brain levels of lipid peroxides (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH), and expression of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 in white blood cells were quantified. Results: Due to chronic stress, there was significant increase in the level LPO and level of SOD, CAT and GSH declined significantly. Rats treated with FI and PG showed normalization of above perturbed oxidant status. FI treatment also suppressed the elevated level of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 in stressed animals. Conclusion: Observed anti-oxidant activity and modulation of some specific cytokines seems to be responsible for anti-stress activity of FI.

NEU-12

Anti-aggressive activity of standardized extract of Fumaria indica in rodents

*Gireesh Kumar Singh , Vikas Kumar

Neuropharmacology Research Lab, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005.

*E-mail: bholenathg.singh@gmail.com

Objective: Fumaria indica, known as pitpapra has been mentioned in ayurveda and has been found to possess diverse CNS modulating activities such as depressant, anxiolytic, anti-stress and nootropic. In this context present study was conducted to evaluate putative anti-aggressive activity of standardized 50% ethanolic extract of Fumaria indica (FI) using validated models of rodents. Methods: Fifty percent ethanolic extract of Fumaria indica used in this study was standardized for fumaric acid and its conjugates (0.45% and 0.35% respectively). FI was administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. as 0.3% CMC suspension. Lorazepam (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as standard anti-aggressive agent. Charles Foster rats and Wistar mice used in this study were provided with commercial food pellets and water ad libitum. Principles of laboratory animal care (NIH publication number # 85-23, revised in 1985) guidelines were followed, and prior approval of Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (Dean/2009-10/694) of Banaras Hindu University was obtained. Foot-shock induced aggression, isolation-induced aggression, resident-intruder aggression and apomorphine-induced aggression test were used to assess anti-aggressive activity. Results: All the three doses of FI (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant anti-aggressive activity in behavioral models used for aggression. Aggressive behavior like vocalization, screaming, leaping, running, rearing and facing each other, biting, boxing, pursuit frequency, tail rattle and aggressive posture were significantly decreased by FI and Lorazepam treatment. At the same time onset of fight was delayed and total time of fight was reduced by FI and Lorazepam treatment. Conclusion: FI possesses significant anti-aggressive activity in rodents.

NEU-13

Evaluation of the effect of vanillin on electrical and chemical induced seizures in rodents


Vishma Hydie Menezes, Preethi G. Pai, Srikanth D., Ahsan Shoeb, Pradeepti MS, Amritha Rai

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore - 575001

Objectives : To evaluate the effect of vanillin on electrical and chemical induced seizures in rodents. Methods : Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats of either sex (n=6) were induced with seizures usingPentylenetetrazole (PTZ) 60mg/kg i.p. andMaximal electro shock (MES) (50mA for 0.2 seconds) respectively. Sodium valproate 100mg/kg and Phenytoin 25mg/kg served as controls for the respective groups. Vanillin was administered at 100, 200, 500mg/kg per oral one hour prior to induction of convulsions. The parameters studied include: Onset and duration of tonic flexion and extension, onset of clonic seizure, time for recovery/ death (MES model); Onset of myoclonic jerks and number of episodes (PTZ model). Kruskal Wallis Test followed by Mann-Whitney Test was used for statistical analysis of the data. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results : In the MES model, vanillin showed a dose dependent significant decrease in the onset and duration of extension when compared to Phenytoin (P< 0.01). A similar decrease in the onset and duration of flexion was also noted at 100 and 200mg/kg but this was not significant at 500mg/kg dose. In the PTZ induced seizure model, it showed no protection as it failed to decrease both the number and duration of onset of myoclonic jerks. Conclusion : To conclude, vanillin has protective effect in the MES induced but not against PTZ induced seizures.

NEU-14

A study on effect of trazodone, amoxapine and venlafaxine on MES (maximal electroshock) induced seizures in albino rats

Jyothi C.H, Santhosh R., Gokul C.G., Prabhakar A., Abhishek A., Naveen M.

PG-student, Department of pharmacology, Davangere, India.

Objectives: To study and compare the anticonvulsant effect of Trazodone, amoxapine and venlafaxine.To observe the dose dependent effect of Trazodone on experimental induced seizures.To observe the effect of combination of Trazodone and sub-therapeutic dose of Phenytoin on MES induced seizures . Methods : Anticonvulsant activity of Trazodone (50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, oral), Amoxapine (18mg/kg, oral), Venlafaxine (22.5mg/kg, i.p) and combination of sub therapeutic dose of phenytoin (12.5 mg/kg, i.p) and trazodone (50mg/kg, oral) were tested in albino rats by MES induced seizures by using normal saline(1ml/kg) and phenytoin sodium (25mg/kg) as control and standard respectively. Parameters : 1. Hind limb tonic extension (HLTE) (absent or present) and 2. Time taken for regaining righting reflex. Complete absence of HLTE and significant decrease in time taken for regaining righting reflex were taken as protection. Results : The present study revealed that Phenytoin sodium showed 100% protection against MES as compared to control. Trazodone (50mg/kg, oral) showed 33% protection and significant decrease in time taken for regaining righting reflex as compared to normal saline where as trazodone (100mg/kg, oral) and amoxapine (18mg/kg, oral) showed no protection. Nearly 84 % of animals in Venlafaxine (22.5mg/kg, i.p) group were protected against MES induced seizures. Phenytoin in sub therapeutic (12.5mg/kg, i.p) did not show any protection but combination of Trazadone (50mg/kg, oral) and sub therapeutic dose of phenytoin (12.5mg/kg, i.p) showed nearly 84% protection against MES induced seizures. Conclusion : This study showed that Trazadone (low dose) and venlafaxine showed significant protection against MES induced seizures in albino rats. Amoxapine and trazodone (high dose) failed to show any protection against MES induced seizures. Combination of low dose trazodone and subtherapeutic dose of phenytoin showed significant protection against MES induced seizures.

NEU-15

Antidepressant activity of amantidine in albino mice

Prabhakar Adake , Somashekar HS, Narendranath S, Gokul CG, Santosh R, Abhishek Acharya

Department of Pharmacology, JJ Medical College, Davanagere

Objectives : To evaluate the antidepressant activity of amantidine and compare it with Imipramine in Methodology: Total of 18 swiss albino male mice were used. They were divided into three treatment groups and with normal saline (control) 10mg/kg, Imipramine (standard) 10mg/kg and amantidine 26 mg/kg (test drug) given orally. Each group contained 6 animals. Duration of immobility was observed for 6 minutes in tail suspension test and for 4 minutes in forced swimming test on separate set of animals. Results : Results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Post hoc Tukey's test. Amantidine at the dose of 26 mg/kg significantly reduced the immobility time in both the tests compared to control (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Amantidine has significant antidepressant activity in acute models of depression. Key words: Amantidine, imipramine, NMDA antagonists

NEU-16

Antiepileptic effects of panchagavya ghrita in mice

Ramya K, Sheetal Ullal, Amritha Rai

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Light House, Hill Road, Mangalore- 575001.

Objective : To evaluate antiepileptic effects of panchagavya ghrita in mice. Methods: Anticonvulsant activity of panchagavya ghrita (260 and 390mg/kg dose, orally) was assessed in albino mice using Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 60mg/kg) induced seizure model. Standard drug used was Sodium Valproate 100 mg/kg orally. Acute effects of test drug were tested after one dose and chronic effects after 15 days therapy. Results: In PTZ induced seizure model, panchagavya ghrita at a dose of 260 mg/kg, significantly delayed onset of myoclonic jerks (P = 0.005) and at a dose of 390mg/kg it didnot delay onset of myoclonic jerks (P = 0.355 ). It did not delay the onset of generalised tonic clonic convulsions in both doses (260mg/kg, 390mg/kg) (P = 0.110, 0.235 respectively). Mortality was significantly lower with both the doses of test drug (P = 0.000, 0.016 respectively). Conclusion: Panchagavya ghrita delayed onset of myoclonic jerks and decreased mortality in PTZ induced seizures which suggests this drug possesses antiepileptic activity and may be useful for myoclonic and petit-mal seizures.

NEU-17

Antidepressant activity of artesunate in experimental animal models.

Megha Rani N. , Shyamjith M., Deepa B. 1 , Rao S.N.

Department of Pharmacology, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore, 1 Department of Pharmacology, KSHEMA, Mangalore.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant action of Artesunate. Methods: Artesunate (36.4mg/kg, i.p) was administered to Swiss albino mice for studying its antidepressant effect by Forced Swim Test (FST). The duration of immobility (in seconds) was noted. Results: Artesunate (36.4mg/kg, i.p) significantly decreased the immobility time in the forced swim test. Conclusions: The data suggests that Artesunate has antidepressant activity.

NEU-18

Anxiolytic activity of artesunate in experimental animal models.

Prathima S. , Shyamjith M., Deepa B. 1 , Rao S.N.

Department of Pharmacology, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore, 1 Department of Pharmacology, KSHEMA, Mangalore.

Objectives : The aim of the present study was to investigate anxiolytic effect of Artesunate. Methods: Artesunate (36.4mg/kg, i.p) was administered to Swiss albino mice for study of its anxiolytic effect using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) apparatus and Light Dark Arena (LDA) apparatus. The time spent in the open arm of EPM and light chamber of LDA were noted respectively. Results: Artesunate (36.4mg/kg, i.p) significantly increased time spent in the open arm of EPM and light chamber of LDA. Conclusion: The data suggests that Artesunate has anxiolytic activity

NEU-19

Memory enhancing activity of Nardostachys jatamansi in electron beam irradiated mice

Deepa B. , Divya B., Rao K.S.N., Shyamjith M. 1 , Suchetha K. 2 , Rao S. 3

Department of Pharmacology, KSHEMA, Mangalore, 1 Department of Pharmacology, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore, 2 Department of Biochemistry, KSHEMA, Mangalore, 3 Department of Psychiatry, KSHEMA, Mangalore

Objectives : The aim of the present study was to investigate memory enhancing effect of N .jatamansi in electron beam irradiated mice. Methods: The ethanolic root extract of N. jatamansi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was studied for its antiamnesic effect in electron beam irradiated (EBR) mice using Hebb Williams Maze (HWM) apparatus. The time taken to reach reward chamber in seconds were noted. Results : The EBR mice treated with ethanolic extract of the root of N.jatamansi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly reduced the time to reach the reward chamber in HWM on comparing with EBR mice. Conclusions : The data suggests that exposure to low levels of electron beam radiation; can cause amnesia, which can be reversed by the co-administration of N.jatamansi.

NEU-20

Anti depressant activity of fresh leaves of amruthaballi (Tinospora cordifolia miers) in albino mice

Kalabharathi HL , Suresha RN, Pragathi B, Pushpa VH, Satish AM, Shivaprasad MG

Department of Pharmacology, JSS Medical College (Constituent of JSS University), Mysore-570015

Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-depressant activity of fresh tinospora cordifolia miers (amruthaballi) leaves' paste, in experimentally induced anti-depressant animal models. Methods : Swiss albino mice weighing around 25 g - 30 g of either sex were randomly selected and divided into 4 groups (n=6); control (vehicle), Standard (15mg/kg of imipramine), T1 (100mg/kg of Amruthaballi) and T2 (50mg/kg of Amruthaballi and 10mg/kg of imipramine). Study was conducted for 14 days. Animals were administered drug orally every day morning for 14 days. Experiments were carried out on the 14th day and on the day of the experiment each mouse was fed orally with the respective drug 1hr prior to conducting the test. The anti-depressant activity was studied using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) . Results: Fresh amruthaballi leaves' paste produced significant antidepressant effect, as indicated by reduction in immobility time in both tail suspension test and forced swim test as compared to control. The efficacy of combination of fresh amruthaballi leaves' paste (50 mg/kg) and standard imipramine (10 mg/kg) was comparable with that of standard imipramine (15 mg/kg), where as amruthaballi leaves' paste at dose of 100 mg/kg dose showed significantly less antidepressant activity compared to imipramine. Conclusion: Fresh amruthballi leaf in its paste form also shows considerable anti-depressant acivity. Hence they can be used as a potential adjuvant with the conventional anti-depressant drugs for the treatment of depression.

NEU-21

Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of the methanolic extract of syzygium cumini (sc) seeds in albino mice

Pushpa VH , Suresh RN, Shivaprasad MG, Satish AM, Kalabharathi HL, Pragathi B.

Department of Pharmacology, JSS Medical College (Constituent of JSS University), Mysore- 570015

Objective: To evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of SC seeds in albino mice. Methods: Albino mice (25-30gms) of either sex were randomly selected, from central animal facility, JSS Medical College, Mysore. They were divided into 4groups of 6 mice each, group I (Control) - gum acacia (vehicle) 1ml, group II (Standard) -Valproic acid (100mg/kg), group III- methanolic extract of SC seeds (200mg/kg), group IV -methanolic extract of SC seeds (400mg/kg). All the drugs were suspended in gum acacia and administered orally 1hr prior to induction of seizures. The anti- convulsant activity was screened using maximal electro shock (MES) model and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model. Results: The methanolic extract of SC seeds both 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg showed a dose dependent reduction in the duration of hind limb extensor phase in MES model and also delayed the latency of seizures induced by PTZ when compared with control group. Conclusion: By this study we can conclusively state that the methanolic extract of SC seeds has definite beneficial role as an anticonvulsant. Further studies using the extract of SC are indicated to identify optimal treatment routes, dosage and which constituents may be conferring its anti-epileptic potential on this natural product.

NEU-22

Nootropic activity of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis linn. In rodents


Ajay Kumar, * Arvind Kurmi, Vikas Kumar

Neuropharmacology Research Lab, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005.

*E-mail: kurmiarvind125@gmail.com

Objective: Rosmarinus officinalis (Family: Lamiaceae) is a typical member of the Mediterranean coastal 'macchia' vegetation. It is an aromatic shrub with an intense and pleasant smell. Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) has been reported to have many therapeutic activities. Recently we have demonstrated antidepressant and anxiolytic activity ofROin rodents. In view of central modulating effect of RO, the putative nootropic activity of standardized extract of RO containing 10% w/w carnosic acid and 1% w/w carnosol was evaluated followed by its anti-oxidant activity. Methods: Three validated behavioural animal models of learning and memory viz. transfer latency on elevated plus maze (EPM), passive avoidance test (PAT) and active avoidance test (AAT) were used. Level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in rat tissue homogenate was estimated. RO was administered orally as 0.5% v/v Tween-80 suspension, in doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day for seven consecutive days to Charles Foster rats. Piracetam (500 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was used as standard nootropic drug for comparison. Results: RO has significantly shortens the transfer latency in EPM and increased the step through latency in PAT. In AAT, RO treated rats have shown significant less number of total trial, shocked trial and less total time taken to cross the electrified chamber indicating improvement in memory functions in dose dependent manner. The results of RO were qualitatively comparable to piracetam. RO treated rats exhibit significant increase in the activity of SOD and CAT in comparison to control group. Conclusion: RO has potential for memory enhancing activity.

NEU-23

Ultra Low Dose of Risperidone Shows Antistress Effect Without Exhibiting Catalepsy Behaviour


Debapriya Garabadu, Milind Geed , Sairam Krishnamurthy

Neurotherapeutics Lab, Department of Pharmaceutics, I.T., BHU, Varanasi -221005 (U.P.)

Objective: Risperidone (RIS), an atypical-antipsychotic, is used clinically in post-traumatic-stress-disorders and other stress related disorders. It has been reported that there is dose differences in the pharmacological effect of RIS in schizophrenia and stress-induced anxiety. Therefore, the present study explores the antistress effect of ultra low dose (ULD) of RIS in cold restraint stress (CRS) model. Furthermore, the catalepsy behaviour, a marker of extrapyramidal side effect, is evaluated. Methods: Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each. Rats received repeated treatment of RIS in dose of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg orally for 21 days. The sham and RIS treated animals were subjected to 2 h CRS procedure on day 21 after 1 h of vehicle or drug administration. After 30 min of CRS, animals were subjected to the bar test and were killed immediately. The plasma and stomach were collected for the estimation of corticosterone and ulcer index respectively. Result: Ultra low dose of RIS (ULD; 0.1 mg/kg) in comparison to higher dose (1.0 mg/kg) significantly reduced stress in terms of ulcer index. The ULD significantly reverse CRS induced increase in plasma corticosterone level compare to high dose indicating robust activity on HPA axis. Further both ULD and higher dose did not show any cataleptic behaviour indicating absence of extrapyramidal side effects. Conclusion: The study indicates a potential use of ULD of RIS in stress disorders. The effective anti-stress dose of RIS in the current study is several times lower than its anti-psychotic dose without extrapyramidal side effect.

NEU-24

Differential effect of diabetogenesis on stress-induced brainmitochondrial bioenergetics


Debapriya Garabadu, Rajesh K. Meena *, Sairam Krishnamurthy

BHU, Varanasi, U.P

Introduction: Stress is an aversive stimulus, plays an important role in the pathobiogenesis of metabolic disorders like diabetes. Recently, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is prevalent among young work force due to changes in life style. Further, it is reported that the brain mitochondrial bioenergetics is disturbed in stress and diabetes individually. As stress and diabetes are closely associated, the present study explores the temporal effect of diabetogenesis on stress-induced brain mitochondrial bioenergetics. Materials and methods: Male albino rats were grouped into five and named control (CON), diabetes (DM), stress (S), diabetes induction after (S+DM) and before (DM+S) stress. The diabetes was induced on day-3 (D3) in DM, S+DM and DM+S. The cold restraint stress (CRS) was exposed repeatedly on D1 and D2 to S and S+DM, and DM+S received on D7 and D8 of the experimental design which was performed for 9 days. The plasma glucose, corticosterone, ulcer index, mitochondrial bioenergetics and mitochondrial oxidative parameters in different brain regions were estimated. Results: The plasma corticosterone and glucose level was significantly increased in DM+S than S+DM. The ulcer index was increased significantly in DM+S than S+DM, indicating that diabetogenesis increases the stress effect. The mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative damage were significantly altered in all the brain regions in DM+S and S+DM. Conclusion: DM+S is more perilous to brain than S+DM. This confirms through HPA-axis modulation and alteration of brain mitochondrial bioenergetics probably through differential mitochondrial oxidative damage. Therefore, mitochondrial targets may be effective in stress co-occurring diabetes conditions.

NEU-25

Anti- amnestic and anti-acetylcholine esterase activity of rosmarinus officinalis linn in rodents

Bandna Kumari, Ajay Kumar, Vikas Kumar

Neuropharmacology Research Lab, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi-221 005

Objective: Rosmarinus officinalis is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves. It is native to the Mediterranean region. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae. Recently, we have reported memory enhancing activity of Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) in rodents. To elucidate its mechanism of action, anti-amnestic and anti-AChE study of standardized extract of RO standardised to contain 10% w/w carnosic acid and 1% w/w carnosol was performed. Materials and methods: Three different behavioural models of learning and memory viz. elevated plus maze (EPM), passive avoidance test (PAT) and active avoidance test (AAT) were used. Whole brain AChE activity was evaluated. Adult Charles Foster rats of either sex, were used in the study. RO was administered orally as 0.5% Tween-80 suspension in doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day for seven consecutive days. Piracetam (500 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was used as standard nootropic drug. To induce amnesia, scopolamine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) was given on day 1 immediately after learning trial. Results: Scopolamine treated control rats demonstrated significant amnesia on EPM, PAT and AAT on second and ninth day. RO has dose dependently and significantly reversed the scopolamine induced amnesia, which was qualitatively comparable to piracetam. Further, the whole brain AChE activity was significantly inhibited in RO treated amnesic rats dose dependently compared to scopolamine control rats. Conclusion: RO may have potential for anti-amnesic activity which seems to act through central cholinergic mechanism.

NEU - 26

Effect of Methanolic extract of Sidacordifolia on Na+ / K+, Ca2+atpases in MES treated rat brain.

Pushpakumari B. , Priyanka P., Ranganaykulu D.

Department of Pharmacology, Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy, Tiruchanoor, Tirupati.

Due to the great importance of Na,K-ATPase in the maintenance of neuronal resting membrane potentials and propagation of neuronal impulses, the malfunction of this enzyme has been associated with neuronal hyper-excitability, cellular depolarization and swelling. Na,K-ATPase activity is decreased by toxic actions of normal neurotransmitters such as glutamate, which is the cause of cell injury and death of neurons, the basic events of cerebral ischemia in epilepsy and in various neurodegenerative disorders. Hence aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Sidacordifolia on Na + K + and Ca 2+ ATPases in MES treated rat brain. Male wistar rats of Albino strain (150 - 200g body weight) were divided into five groups, each group containing five rats. Group I received vehicle and served as control, whereas group II was treated with phenytoin to serve as standard (50 mg/kg, p.o), and groups III, IV and V were treated with methanolic extract of Sidacordifolia (MESC) at doses 250 mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg respectively. All the groups were treated with maximum electric shock to induce epilepsy prior to treatment. The results of the present study indicated the antiepileptic activity of MESC as shown by increase in onset of extensor and clonus when compared to the control animals. Na/k and CaATPases levels were elevated in animals treated with MESC when compared to control animals which explains the benefit of MESC in stabilizing neuronal excitability. Hence MESC can be further studied for developing novel lead compound to treat epilepsy.

NEU-27

Proconvulsive effect of Levofloxacin

Amitabh Kumar, Kiran Prasad Reddy, Pravin Kumar

Department of Pharmacology, NTR University, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, PIN -524002.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of levofloxacin in Maximal Electric Shock induced convulsions in rats. Materials and method: In this study three groups of rats were used each containing six rats. Rats were subjected to MES (Maximal Electro Shock) half an hour after administration of levofloxacin (15, 25 mg/kg Intraperitoneal), while control group received normal saline. Results: The result of the study shows that levofloxacin treated group at a dose of 25 mg/kg, has decreased the onset of seizure (2.1sec) and increased the duration of tonic hind limb extension (10.5 sec) in MES as compared to control group (3sec and 7sec respectively)*P< 0.05, and levofloxacin group at a dose of 15mg/kg (2.8 and 8 sec) respectively. The results were subjected to student t-test. Conclusion: Our study concludes that levofloxacin is having dose dependent proconvulsive effect which may be due to its GABA antagonistic action, as proconvulsive effects of ciprofloxacin are well documented in animal studies. Therefore, Levofloxacin must be used judiciously in case of epileptic patients.

NEU - 28

Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of areca catechu linn. in mice


Ruckmani A, Shivakumar K, Babu P, Kavitha K.N, Vinayak Meti,

Madhusudhan Chettinad Hospitals and Research Institute, Kelambakkam, Kanchipuram (dist) TN, India-603103.

Objective: To evaluate the anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of aqueous and methonolic extract of areca catechu. Linn.in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: 30 Adult albino mice weighing 25 - 30 gms were selected and randomly allocated to 5 groups of 6 animals in each. The control group received vehicle (1% gum acacia 10 ml/kg P.O), standard group 1, Diazepam (1mg/kg P.O.) and standard group 2 Imipramine (10 mg/kg P.O.) and the 2 test groups received the aqueous (AEAC) (300mg/kg P.O) and methonolic extract (MEAC) (250mg/kg P.O) of areca catechu. For acute study single dose was given 60min prior to the experiment and for chronic study all the drugs were given for 15 days. Elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to assess the anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Results: The AEAC and MEAC significantly increased the duration of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT indicating anxiolytic activity and it was found to be comparable to diazepam. Decrease in the duration of immobility in FST and in TST in all the animals treated with Imipramine and areca nut extracts indicates that both AEAC and MEAC have antidepressant activity as well which was comparable to that of Imipramine. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that the AEAC and MEAC have anxiolytic and antidepressant activities comparable to that of standard drugs, Diazepam and Imipramine.

NEU-29

Leuprolide attenuates ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability by increasing gaba and decreasing glutamate levels

Pardhi PJ, Mendhe PK, Umathe SN

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, RTM Nagpur University, Amravati Road, Nagpur- 440 033 (MS), India

Objective: To study the influence of leuprolide on the behavioral consequences of withdrawing ethanol in dependent state and changes in GABA and glutamate levels. Methods: In the present study, ethanol dependence was produced in mice by providing ethanol liquid diet for 10 days; and its withdrawal on day 11 led to physical signs of hyperexcitability with its peak at 7 th h. At the end of behavioural experiments, all mice were decapitated and various brain areas were removed for the estimation of GABA and glutamate. The levels of GABA and glutamate were estimated by the HPLC-ECD system. Results: Acute treatment with leuprolide (20 ng/mouse, i.c.v.), 10 min prior to peak, significantly attenuated hyperexcitability. Chronic treatment with leuprolide (10 ng/mouse, twice daily, i.c.v.) till day 10 significantly reduced the signs of hyperexcitability in ethanol withdrawal state. Antide (20 ng/mouse, i.c.v.), a LHRH antagonist produced just opposite effects to that of leuprolide. After the behavioural experiments each mouse was dissected and various brain areas were removed. Chronic administration of ethanol increased glutamate and decreased GABA levels in hypothalamus, striatum, cortex and hippocampus. Interestingly, it was found that treatment with leuprolide increased GABA and decreased glutamate levels in these brain areas. Leuprolide per se did not affect physical signs and locomotor activity in control group. Conclusion: The present study revealed that leuprolide treatment attenuates ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability by increasing the GABA and decreasing the glutamate levels in brain.

NEU-30

Screening of aqueous extracts of ananas comosus fruits on antistress activities in rats

Torgal SS , Rasal VP 1 , Dwivedi S 1 , Hiremath SV.

Department of Pharmacology, J. N. Medical College and 1 KLE's College of Pharmacy, KLE University, Belgaum, Karnataka

Objectives: To investigate the anti-stress activity of fruit extract of Ananas Comosus in rats. Methods: The anti-stress activity of Ananas Comosus was evaluated using the immobilization induced stress model for chronic stress. Serum estimation of enzymes (AST, ALT, CK), glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol were done. The gastric ulcer index and weights of adrenal, spleen and thymus glands were also estimated Result: Levels of serum enzymes (AST, ALT, CK), glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol were significantly decreased (P<0.001) in aqueous extract of Ananas comosus fruit treated group as compared with control group. Also there was significant decrease in adrenal gland weight (stress increases adrenal weight) and significant increase (P<0.001) in weight of spleen and thymus gland in aqueous extract of Ananas comosus fruit treated group as compared with control group. Also there was significant decrease (P<0.01) in gastric ulcer index in aqueous extract of Ananas comosus fruit treated group as compared with control group. Conclusions: The aqueous extract of Ananas comosus fruits has significant anti-stress activity on immobilization induced stress in rats with unknown mechanism.

NEU-31

Pharmacological evaluation of 2-chloro substituted thiophene compound for analgesic activity in mice

G. Surendra Kumar , P. Muralidhar, A. Revanna Swamy, Niroop R., Ambrish C., Shivaji Bhattacharjee, G. Surendra Kumar

Department of Pharmacology, PES Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Kuppam, Chittoor district, Andra Pradesh

Objectives: To evaluate the central and peripheral analgesic activities of 2-chloro substituted thiophene compound in mice. Methods: The study was carried out in 5 groups each containing 6 male Swiss albino mice weighing between 20-25 g. 2-chloro thiophene was administered orally for different groups at 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg, 40mg/kg and the results were compared to control (tween-80) and standard groups. The central analgesic activity was evaluated by Eddy's hot plate method and morphine-5mg/kg/ip was used as standard. Both central and peripheral analgesic activities were evaluated by Formalin induced paw licking and Acetic acid induced writhing tests in mice and aspirin-100mg/kg/PO was used as standard. Results: 40mg/kg dose of 2-chloro thiophene has shown maximum Pain Inhibition Percentage (PIP) of 46.15% at 60 min compared to 128% by morphine in hot plate method. Under Formalin method, 20mg/kg 2-chloro thiophene has shown maximum PIP of 22.91% in early phase and 52.63% in late phase compared to 12.5% and 47.37% by aspirin. Acetic acid induced writhing test shown maximum PIP of 74.32% by 20mg/kg dose of 2-chloro thiophene compared to 47.61% by aspirin. The results were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant). Conclusion: 2-chloro substituted thiophene compound shown significant peripheral analgesic activity at 20mg/kg/PO and maximum central activity at 40mg/kg/PO.

NEU-32

Novel strategies to overcome blood brain barrier

G. Sirisha , B. Santhamma

Department of Pharmacology, Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Narketpally, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh - 508254.

The treatment of diseases of Central Nervous System is particularly challenging because the delivery of drug molecules to brain is often precluded by Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). The presence of efflux transporters in BBB makes the brain a pharmacological sanctuary, which is poorly penetrated by pharmacological agents and is therefore a place where tumor cells or infectious organisms can escape the effects of drug therapy in brain. So modulation of these efflux transporters by drugs like Verapamil and Quinidine at BBB forms a novel strategy to enhance permeation of drugs into the brain. The BBB can also be manipulated by osmotic diuretic like mannitol and chemical opening by synthetic analogue of Bradykinin -RMP 7 as well as by other transport systems or carrier systems. Numerous new class drug formulations for crossing BBB like Biodegradable Polymer Wafers, Nanoparticles, Microspheres, Immunoliposomes and peptide vectors have been developed. Thus recent developments in drug delivery techniques provide reasonable hope that the formidable barrier shielding the brain may ultimately be overcome in times of need like infections in the brain and brain tumors.

NEU-33

Limonene decreases nitric oxide levels to facilitate adaptation to stress


Sharad M. Sadaphale, Neh Nalin Shukla , Kuldeep U. Bansod, Sudhir N. Umathe

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, RTM Nagpur University, Amravati road, Nagpur- 440 033 (MS), India

Objective : Limonene, a monocyclic terpene reported to exhibit antistress activity but very little is known about its mechanism. The present study aims to investigate involvement of nitrergic system in the antistress effect of limonene in mice. Methods: Mice were subjected to social interaction test or forced swim test or locomotor activity on day 1, 4, 7 and 10 to assess the adaptation to over-night audiogenic stress exposure for ten days (10 sec of each min for 12 h). Limonene (25-100 mg/kg, oral), L-arginine (5-20 μg/mouse, i.c.v.), L-NAME (25-75 μg/mouse, i.c.v.), 7-NI (0.1-10 ηMol/mouse, i.c.v.), SNP (1-4 mg/kg, i.p.) and aCSF (2 μl/mouse, i.c.v.) were administered before audiogenic stress or behavioral paradigm. Nitric oxide levels were measured at the end of the experiments. Results: Audiogenic stress induced anxiety and depression on day 1 and 4 but no effect was observed on day 7 and 10 indicating adaptation to stress. Limonene, L-NAME and 7-NI not only decreased the anxiety and depression but also facilitated the adaptation to stress. On the contrary, L-arginine and SNP treatments impaired the adapation to stress. Anxiogenic effect of per se L-arginine was blocked by pretreatment with limonene. Sub-effective doses of limonene with L-NAME or 7-NI showed anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effect. Limonene attenuates audiogenic stress-induced increase in NO levels. Conclusion: Thus, the present study indicates the involvement of nitrergic system in the antistress effect of limonene.

NEU-34

Analysing the prescription pattern, pain assessment and quality of life in diabetic peripheral neuropathy

Deepthi S. Vagge, C. R. Jayanthi

Department of Pharmacology, BMCRI.

Objectives: 1) To study the prescription pattern in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) predominantly somatosensory type 2) To assess pain associated with DPN 3 ) Impact of DPN on patient's quality of life. Methods : Study included 30 patients diagnosed with DPN, who were on treatment for 6months. Patient with history of psychiatric or medical condition, other causes of neuropathy were excluded. Pain experienced by the patient in the past 1 week was assessed using 11 point visual analogue scale (0- no pain to 10 - worst pain possible). Their health related Quality of life was assessed by EQ VAS (Euro Quality of life visual analogue scale) - scale ranging 0 to 100 where 0 indicates worst and 100 best imaginable health status respectively. Results : Mean age of patients was 65 years (male 73.5 years, female 61.4 years). Duration of DPN ranged from 4 months to 5 years mean being >1year.Drugs prescribed were mainly standard analgesic( diclofenac) in 63.3% patients, Gabapentine in 53.3%, Pregabalin in 20%, Amitryptiline in 20%, Carbamezapine in 6%. Mean visual analogue score for pain assessment was 4 in patients treated with gabapentine, 4.5 in pregabalin, 5.2 in carbamezapine, and 5.7 in amytriptiline. Assessment of quality of life by EQ VAS showed mean QOL as of 63.6 in patients treated with gabapentine, 60.2 in pregabalin, 57.4 in carbamezapin, 55.2 in amytriptiline. Conclusion: Gabapentine is the commonly prescribed drug and in our study it appears to be more efficacious than others in relieving pain and improving quality of life.

NEU-35

Evaluation of antianxiety like activity of 2-(4-phenyl piperazine-1-yl) 1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid (7a), a serotonin type-3 (5-ht 3 ) receptor antagonist: An investigation using behavioural tests battery of anxiety


Radhakrishnan Mahesh, Arghya Kusum Dhar, Sudha Singh, Ankur Jindal, Ankur Sharma, Shvetank Bhatt

Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, Rajasthan, India

Objective: The present study was designedto evaluatethe anxiolytic activity of 7a, a serotonin type-3 (5-HT 3 ) receptor antagonist, identified from a series of compounds synthesized with higher pA2 (7.6) and good log P (3.235) in behavioral tests battery of anxiety. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino mice of either sex approved by Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (Protocol No. IAEC/RES/13/03) were used in elevated plus maze, hole board, light-dark and open field tests to evaluate the anti-anxiety activity. Results : Acute treatment of 7a (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice significantly increased the number of entries and time spent in open arm as compared to vehicle control mice in EPM test. In hole board test, 7a significantly increased the number of head dips and time spent for dipping. Furthermore, 7a significantly increased the time spent in light chamber and latency to leave the light chamber as compared to vehicle control group. However there was no significant effect observed on the number of transition between light and dark compartment. 7a also significantly increased the time spent in central square as compared to vehicle control group and augmented the ambulation and rearing scores in mice. Diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p.) standard reference produced the anxiolytic effect in rodent's models of anxiety as expected. Conclusion: In conclusion, the behavioral investigations proved that 7a, a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist exhibits anxiolytic effect in acute rodent models of anxiety which could be useful for treatment of cancer-induced nausea and vomiting, co-morbid with anxiety

NEU-36

Behavioral investigation on antidepressant-like activity of 2-(4-phenyl piperazine-1-yl)1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid (7a), a novel serotonin type-3 (5-ht 3 ) receptor antagonist: For comorbid depression with cancer chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting


Ankur Sharma, Radhakrishnan Mahesh, Arghya Kusum Dhar, Ankur Jindal, Sudha Singh, Baldev Kumar

Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, Rajasthan, India

Objective: The present study was conducted to assessthe anti-depressant-like effect of 7a, a serotonin type-3 (5-HT 3 ) receptor antagonist, identified from a series of compounds synthesized with higher pA 2 (7.6) and good log P (3.35) for co-morbid CINV and depression. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino mice of either sex were used in actophotometer test, forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced head twitch response, whereas reserpine induced hypothermia (RIH) was performed in male wistar albino rats. All the experiments on animals were in compliance with the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India (Protocol No. IAEC/RES/13/03). Results: The tested doses (0.5-2 mg/kg, i.p.) did not alter the locomotor scores in actophotometer. Acute treatment with 7a (0.5-2 mg/kg i.p.) significantly decreased the duration of immobility in mice FST and TST as compared to vehicle treated group. Acute treatment with 7a (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) augmented the 5-HTP-induced head twitch responses in mice. In addition, treatment with 7a (1 and 2 mg/kg, p.o.) reversed the reserpine-induced hypothermia in rats. Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and bupropion (20 mg/kg, i.p.) standard references produced the antidepressant effect in animal models of depression as expected. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results obtained in present study exhibited that 7a , a serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist may be a potential antidepressant candidate for co-morbid CINV.

NEU-37

Antiepileptic drug utilisation pattern among adult patients at tertiary care hospital in Goa

Mayuresh V. Fegade , Siddharth Naik, P.V. Rataboli

Department of Pharmacology, Goa Medical College, Goa.

Objectives : To analyse the utilisation pattern of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for the treatment of various types of seizures in Goa Medical College and Hospital, Goa. Methods: In a six months study, the epileptic patients on AEDs from neurology outpatient department (OPD) of Goa Medical College were considered for analysis. The patients were diagnosed by consultant neurologist. Data was collected in standard questionnaire format designed to provide specific information about types of seizures, types of AEDs and details of their use. Results : A total of 100 epileptic patients (> 12 years old) on AED were analysed in the study. Generalised tonic clonic seizure (73 %) was the most common type of seizure found in this study followed by focal seizures with secondary generalisation (10 %). Monotherapy was prescribed to 66% of patients while rest were on polytherapy. Phenytoin (49%) was the most commonly used AED followed by sodium valproate (32%), carbamazepine (31%) and phenobarbitone (14%). Other than traditional AEDs, newer AEDs used included levetiracetam, gabapentine, topiramate and zonisamide. Drowsiness was the most commonly observed adverse effect in our study followed by phenytoin hypersensitivity syndrome, ataxia, headache and vomiting. Conclusion s: Generalised tonic clonic seizure is the most common type of seizure among the patients of Goa Medical College and Hospital. Prescription pattern was quite consistent with current knowledge about the spectrum of efficacy of individual AEDs in different types of epilepsy. Though monotherapy was commonly used, increasing use of polytherapy is a cause for concern.

NEU-38

Neuropharmacological evaluation of some novel compounds in four experimental models of mice


Yukti Singh, Monika Sharma, Sriram D., Yogeeswari P.

Neuropathic Pain Drug Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, BITS - Pilani Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad -700058

Objective: Major depression, a common and recurrent disorder, is associated with considerable morbidity and excess mortality. In similar lines, anxiety is an exaggerated feeling of apprehension, uncertainty and fear. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the neuropharmacological potential for lead identification in ten novel in-house heterocycles (synthesized in drug discovery research Laboratory). Materials and Methods: Neuropharmacological properties were evaluated by performing spontaneous motor activity using actophotometer, skeletal muscle relaxation by rotarod test, anxiolytic and antidepressant property using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) respectively. Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n=6).The control (vehicle, 30% PEG), standard drug diazepam (2.5mg/kg) and test compounds (30mg/kg) were suspended in vehicle 30% PEG400 and administered intraperitoneally one hour prior to study. Result: In Forced swim test, immobility time was significantly decreased (P<0.05) and in elevated plus maze, open arm exploratory time was significantly increased (P<0.05) in test compounds treated group as compared to control. Acute treatment of test compounds exhibited antianxiety and anti-depressant effects in elevated plus maze and forced swim test without affecting the baseline locomotion in actophotometer and motor incoordination in rotarod. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the antidepressant and anti-anxiety potential of the test compounds with non- neurotoxic property and provide support in the identification of lead molecules against anxiety and depression.

NEU-39

Evaluation of effect of antioxidant on cognitive performance in rats

Rewatkar S. P., Nanhore P.V., Tundulwar M.R., Yeole P.G., Patole A.M.

Swati P. Rewatkar, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Borgaon (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra - 442 403

Objective: Evaluate the role of antioxidants in scopolamine induced cognitive impairment in rats. It is now well-known fact that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to immediate damage or death of cells in various tissues, including the central nervous system. ROS and oxidative events have been implicated in a variety of non-neuronal and neuronal disorders, including atherosclerosis, cerebral ischemia, seizure disorders, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimers and Parkinson's disease. In present study, it was hypothesized that chronic enhancement of oxidative defenses that is administration of two antioxidants carnosic and phytic acid alone and in combination, should improve cognition in rats with scopolamine induced cognitive impairment. Material and Methods: The cognitive impairment was induced in animal (Wistar strain male albino rats of age 8-12 months weighing 150-200g) by administration of scolpolamine hydrochloride (1.5 mg/Kg body weight, i.p). Carnosic acid (10 mg/kg, oral) and/or phytic acid (150 mg/kg, oral) solutions were freshly prepared in distilled water and adminitered daily. Cognitive performances of rats were evaluated using radial arm maze and elevated plus maze. Result: Present investigations have demonstrated that antioxidant carnosic acid and phytic acid improves the memory performances alone and in combination. Carnosic acid is more potent antioxidant than phytic acid in scopolamine induced cognitive impairment in rats. Conclusion: Present study demonstrate that the combination of carnosic acid with phytic acid more potent than either of alone for the improvement of cognitive performances in rats.

NEU-40

Role of phosphodiesterase inhibitors in diabetes induced learning and memory impairment in rats

Nimsatkar G.K. , Shende C.M., Tenpe C.R., Patole A.M., Tundulwar M.R.

Ganesh K. Nimsatkar, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of pharmaceutical Education And Research, Borgaon (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra - 442 403

Objective : The present study was carried out to study the effect of various PDE's inhibitors in diabetes induce learning and memory impairment in rats. Method : Male wistar rats were used for the study. Diabetes was induced in rats by Streptozotocin (50mg/kg). Thirty days after diabetes induction rats exhibited marked and persistent hyperglycemia, weight loss. The acute and chronic treatment of Sildenafil (0.5mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg, p.o.) and Rolipram (0.05mg/kg, 0.1mg/kg, i.p.)improved learning and memory performance and reduced glucose level. Learning and memory function on diabetic rats was assessed in the Radial Arm Maze Test. Result : The present study showed that experimental diabetes of 30 days impaired learning and memory in the RAM task. In the RAM, Increased number of correct choices and % accuracy along with decreased number of error and time taken to complete the task in RAM task in repeated trails demonstrates intact learning and memory function. Conclusion : Thirty days after diabetes induction rats showed a severe deficit in learning and memory. In contrast, chronic treatment with Rolipram and Sildenafil improved learning and memory performance.

NEU-41

Neuroprotective effect of hesperidin against ptz-induced epilepsy: Possible behavioural, biochemical alterations in mice


Sree Lalitha*, Jitendriya Mishra, Anil Kumar

Pharmacology Division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC Centre of Advanced Study, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India.

Objective : The aim of our study was to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of hesperidin against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsions in mice. Materials and Methods : Male Laca mice (20-30 g) were used and were divided into various groups (n=6), consist of Naïve, PTZ (80 mg/kg), Hesperidin (100 and 200 mg/kg). Hesperidin was administered orally for 7 days before PTZ challenge. On 8 th day, animals were challenged with PTZ (80mg/kg) and various behavioural parameters (onset of jerks, severity of straub tail, myoclonic seizures, extensor phase, mortality) followed by the biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, reduced glutathione and catalase) in brain were assessed. Results : PTZ (80 mg/kg) administration significantly produced severe convulsions (quick onset of jerks, severe straub tail and myoclonic seizure, extensor phase and death) and oxidative stress as compared to naïve animals. Seven days pretreatment with hesperidin (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly attenuated PTZ induced seizure (delayed onset of jerks, reduced the severity of convulsion, delayed mortality) and produced antioxidant like effect (reduced lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration and restored reduced glutathione and catalase activity) as compared to control. Conclusion: Present study highlights the protective effect of hesperidin against PTZ induced convulsion and oxidative stress.

NEU-42

Screening of antiparkinson's activity of methanolic extract of Hygrophila auriculata in rats

V. Greeshma , E. Thejaswi, K. Meghana, P. Muralidharan

D. No: 3\31, New street, Sri Nagar, near RRE, Thoraipakkam, Chennai-600097.

Objective: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that impairs motor skills, cognitive processes, and other functions. PD is the most common cause of chronic progressive parkinsonism, a term which refers to the syndrome of tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability. Non motor symptoms are autonomic dysfunction, cognitive, neurobehavioral problems including dementia, and sleep difficulties. The present study aims at screening methanolic extract of Hygrophila auriculata (MEHA) for anti parkinson's activity. Methods: The present study was designed to determine the effect of methanolic extract of dried whole plant of Hygrophila auriculata on parkinson's disease in albino mice. Animals were treated with MEHA for 7days dose-dependently (200 and 500 mg/kg, p.o) and Levadopa as standard drug and were tested using instruments like hole board, rota-rod, actophotometer, catalepsy.The readings were observed and noted. Results: Effect of MEHA on extra pyramidal symptoms such as rigidity, motor co-ordination and depression, key parameters found in parkinson's disease were studied. MEHA at the dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited significant antiparkinson's activity as compared to standard drug levadopa + carbidopa, seen as increase in exploratory behaviour like head dippings and line crossings in haloperidol administered rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that MEHA (200mg/kg body weight) is effective and can be used as supportive therapy for parkinson's.

NEU-43

Pharmacological and biochemical evaluation of indomethacin and nifedipine combination for its anti-parkinsonism activity in 6 - Ohda induced rat model


A.A. Sheik Mokamad, P. Muralidharan

Department of Pharmacology, C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai-97.

Objectives: Indomethacin is a powerful NSAID (non-selective COX inhibitor) which is useful in rheumatoid arthritis, gout and other inflammatory conditions. Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker (CCB) which is useful in hypertension and angina. This study was undertaken to pharmacologically and biochemically evaluate the anti-parkinsonism activity in 6-OHDA induced rat model. Materials and Methods : Healthy, adult wistar rats (180-200 g) were divided into 4 groups (each group containing 5 male and 5 female rats). GROUP I: Control (normal), GROUP II: Sham operated control, GROUP III: L-DOPA treated group, GROUP IV: Indomethacin treated group (20 mg/kg P.O), GROUP V: Nifedipine treated group (50mg/kg P.O), GROUP VI: Indomethacin and nifedipine combination treated. The anti-parkinsonism activity of indomethacin and nifedipine combination was evaluated on all 6 groups of rats using pharmacological evaluations like catatonia and biochemical evaluations like measurement of dopamine and its metabolites using HPLC estimation of superoxide dismutase assay (SOD). Results : Results of pharmacological evaluations: Catatonia - groups III and VI showed less catatonia.Results of biochemical evaluations: HPLC measurement of dopamine and its metabolites - groups III and VI showed increased dopaminergic levels, SOD assay - groups III and VI showed increased dopaminergic levels. From the above mentioned observations, the anti-parkinsonism activity of indomethacin and nifedipine combination was proved. Conclusion : This study gives us a conclusion that the indomethacin and nifedipine combination possesses significant anti-parkinsonism property.

NEU-44

Evaluation of memory enhancing and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of Alternanthera sessilis linn.

Shreya M ., Sahithi B., Rajani G.P., Deepthi R.K.N.

KLE University's College of Pharmacy, Rajajinagar II Block, Bangalore, Karnataka, PIN code: 560 010.

Objective: The present study was aimed at evaluating the ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. at doses of 200 and 400mg/kg b.w. for memory enhancing and anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: Memory enhancing activity of ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis (ASE 200 and 400mg/kg was evaluated by both exteroceptive (elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm) and interoceptive behaviour models (scopolamine induced amnesia).Anti-inflammatory activity of Alternanthera sessilis ethanolic extract (200 and 400mg/kg) was evaluated by employing carrageenan induced hind paw edema model. Result: Ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis at both the doses produced significant (P<0.001) memory enhancing activity when evaluated by elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm models. This was evident by the increase in transfer latency in the extract treated animals in elevated plus model and decrease in step down latency in passive avoidance paradigm model. Both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Alternanthera sessilis produced anti-inflammatory activity when evaluated by carrageenan induced rat paw edema model. In the extract treated animals, there was a decrease in paw volume. Maximum percentage inhibition of edema was observed at the third hour. Conclusion: Interpretation of the results was done after subjecting the data obtained from various studies to statistical analysis which included one way ANOVA followed by post-test(Tukey's).The results suggest that the ethanolic extracts of parts of Alternanthera sessilis possess memory enhancing and anti-inflammatory activities.

NEU - 45

Analgesic activity of Murrayakoenigii leaves in experimental animal models


th*Yogesh Dhumal, Padmaja Langade, Rajendra Bhambar, Rupali Patil

Department of Pharmacology, MGV's Pharmacy College, Nashik, Maharashtra 422 003.

*E-mail: yogeshdhumal1988@gmail.com


Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the analgesic activity of Murrayakoenigii leaves. Methods: The effect of pet ether extract of Murrayakoenigii leaves (PEMK) and alkaloids isolated from PEMK (AFMK)was observed in different animal models of analgesia. In Acetic acid-induced writhing method, the number of writhes induced by 0.6% acetic acid (10 ml/kg, i.p.) was counted. In Hot plate method, animals were placed individually on hot plate maintained at a temperature of 55 ± 0.5°C. The latency to lick the paw was noted at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. In Tail immersion method, the distal 2-3 cm portion of mouse-tail was immersed in hot water maintained at 55 ± 0.5°C. The time taken by the animal to withdraw the tail from hot water was noted as reaction time at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results and Conclusions: PEMK and AFMK significantly and dose-dependently reduced the number of acetic acid-induced writhing, when compared to vehicle treated group, indicating significant peripheral antinociceptive activity. In Hot plate model, treatment with PEMK and AFMK significantly increased the latency of paw licking. The basal reaction time in tail immersion method was significantly increased by PEMK and AFMK. Thus pet ether extract of Murrayakoenigii leaves and alkaloids isolated from pet ether extract exhibited central as well as peripheral analgesic activity.

NEU-46

Effect of gabapentin on haloperidol-induced inhibition of conditioned avoidance response in rats

Vaniya HV , Bhanshali NB, Trivedi HR

Department of Pharmacology, M.P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat-361008.

Objective: To test the effect of Gabapentin on acquisition of learning using conditioned avoidance response with a Cook's pole climbing apparatus and haloperidol in rats. Methods: Twenty four Charles Foster Rats of either sex (excluding pregnant rats) weighing 250-350 gm, were used. Four groups of six rats were taken. Group A was given Haloperidol which served as a control group, Group B was vehicle group that received distilled water, Group C was given Gabapentin and Group D Gabapentin + Haloperidol. All the rats were first given drugs for five days and then trained for a period of 15 days using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. Mean scores for each rat and each group were calculated. To assess the effect of treatment on acquisition response, student's unpaired "t" test was used. A learning curve showing the rate of acquisition was plotted. Results : In Haloperidol group no significant learning could be achieved. In gabapentin group the acquisition was similar to that of the control group, but the rate of acquisition was slightly better than control group. While in gabapentin + haloperidol group the rate of learning was not equivalent to Control group but it was better than the haloperidol group, suggesting that gabapentin might be antagonizing the haloperidol's inhibitory effect on acquisition response. Applying student's 't' test, the gabapentin did not reverse the haloperidol's inhibition of conditioned avoidance response (p=0.262566989, 95% CI). Conclusion : Gabapentin improved the rate of acquisition in rat, Gabapentin did not have any reversal role in the avoidance response inhibited by haloperidol.

NEU-47

Effect of combination of calcium channel blocker and vitamin-c supplement on hyperglycaemic cerebral ischemia in rat


Divyesh Sakariya, *Trishila Chatterjee , Tausif Ahmad, Viswanath J., Manjunatha P. M., Nagalakshmi C.

Department of Pharmacology, Acharya and B. M. Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-560 090.

*E-mail: trishila.rumpa@gmail.com


Objective: Rise in intracellular calcium concentration can generate more free radicals like superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Nifedipine and Vitamin-C as mono therapy and combination in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injured diabetic rats. Methods : In this study, diabetic male Wistar albino rats weighing 150-250 gms were used. Under anaesthesia, common carotid arteries were identified and separated carefully from Vago-sympathetic nerve and made ischemic by occluding bilateral common carotid arteries (BCCA) with silk thread for 30 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 4 hrs by removing the occlusion. Body temperature was maintained, and the drug Nifedipine (3mg/kg), Vitamin-C (10mg/kg) and combination were administered at the end of the occlusion period i.e. 20 th minutes and before the beginning of reperfusion. After 4hrs of reperfusion, animal was sacrificed and immediately the brain was isolated and homogenized, centrifuged and PMS was collected and subjected for various biochemical estimations. Results : Nifedipine showed significant decrease in the level of ROS than compared to Vitamin-C in diabetic cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury. Effect of combination treatment is more than compared to mono therapy with Nifedipine and Vitamin-C alone in cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury. Conclusion : Antioxidant effect of Nifedipine is significant than compared to Vitamin-C. The simultaneous administration of Nifedipine and Vitamin-C showed synergetic antioxidant effect than their individual treatment. Antioxidant effect of Nifedipine is potentiated with Vitamin-C.

NEU-48

Effect of hesperetin and naringenin on ischemic reperfusion retinal injury in stz induced diabetic rats


*Deepak Singh B, Nayan M, Md. Asif Ansari, Divakar Goli

Acharya & B. M. Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-90, *E-mail: deepakpharmacism@gmail.com

Objective: To investigate retinoprotective activity of Hesperetin and Naringenin in retinal ischemia reperfusion injury in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats. Method: In the present study, wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 150-250 g were anesthetized by giving thiopentone sodium (45 mg/kg) by i.p. surgical technique for the induction of retinal ischemia was adopted from the earlier published method. Under anesthesia, midline incision was performed. Common carotid arteries were identified and separated carefully from vago-sympathetic nerve. Rats were made ischemic by occluding bi-common carotid arteries (BCCAO) with thread for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 4 h by removing the occlusion. The drugs Hesperetin (20, 40 mg/kg) and Naringenin (20, 40 mg/kg) were administered 10 min before reperfusion. Then after 4h reperfusion, animals were sacrificed and immediately both eyes were retracted and retinas were separated, homogenized, centrifuged and supernatant was collected, then subjected for various biochemical estimations and same procedure was followed in STZ (45 mg/kg; i.p.) induced diabetic rats. Results: In I/R group significant increase in malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase and depletion in catalase and superoxide dismutase levels were observed as compared to sham control group. Treatment with Hesperetin and Naringenin significantly (P<0.001) decreased the MDA and MPO levels and increased the SOD and CAT levels when compared I/R group in both non diabetic and diabetic rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Hesperetin and Naringenin exert protective effect against retinal injury probably by radical scavenging and oxidant activities.

NEU-49

Neuroprotective effects of combination of Nifedipine and Vitamin -C on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injured rats


Divyesh Sakariya, *Swetha P.M. , Thulasi Ram N., Tejaswi A., Manjunatha P. Mudagal, Nagalakshmi N.C.

Acharya & B. M. Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-90.

*E-mail: swetha1533@gmail.com


Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of calcium channel blocker- Nifedipine and Vitamin-C in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injured rats. Methods: In this study, male Wister albino rats weighing 150-250gms were used. Under anesthesia, common carotid arteries were identified and separated carefully from vago - sympathetic nerve and madeischemic by occluding bilateral common carotid arteries (BCCA) with silk thread for 30 minutes, followedby reperfusion for 4 hrs by removing the occlusion. Body temperature was maintained, and the drug Nifedipine (3mg/kg) and Vitamin- C (10mg/kg) alone and combination were administered at the end of the Occlusion period i. e. 20 th minutes and before the beginning of reperfusion. After 4hrs of reperfusion, animal was sacrificed and immediately the brain was isolated and homogenized, centrifuged and PMS was collected, then subjected for various biochemical estimations. Results: Nifedipine showed more significant (P<0.001) decrease in the level of ROS than Vitamin-C in cerebral ischemic reperfusion injured rats as compared to I/R control rats Conclusion : Antioxidant effect of Nifedipine is more than Vitamin-C. The combination administration of Nifedipine and Vitamin-C showed synergetic antioxidant effect than their individual/ mono- treatment, antioxidant effect of Nifedipine is potentiated with Vitamin- C.

NEU-50

Effect of acetazolamide and dorzolamide on ischemic reperfusion retinal injury in stz induced diabetic rats


Kapil M, * Sidramesh H , Md. Asif Ansari, Divakar Goli

Acharya & B. M. Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-90. *E-mail: hiremathsiddu6@gmail.com

Aim: The aim of study is to investigate retinoprotective activity of acetazolamide and dorzolamide in retinal ischemia reperfusion injury in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats. Materials and Method: Rats (150-250 g) were anesthetized by giving thiopentone sodium (45 mg/kg) by i.p. Under anesthesia midline incision was performed. Ischemia was induced by occluding bi-common carotid arteries (BCCA) for 30 min, followed by 4h reperfusion. In treatment groups with acetazolamide (30 mg/kg, 60 mg/kg) and Dorzolamide (10mg/kg, 20 mg/kg) were administered at the 10 min before reperfusion. After 4h reperfusion, rat was sacrificed and immediately both eyes were retracted, retina were separated and homogenized, centrifuged. Supernatant was subjected for various biochemical estimations in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats. Results: Acetazolamide and Dorzolamide showed significant (p< 0.001) and dose dependent increased the levels of SOD and CAT whereas, decreased the levels of MDA and MPO as compared to I/R group. Conclusion: Acetazolamide and Dorzolamide showed protective effect in retinal ischemia reperfusion injury in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats.

NEU-51

Ameliorating effect of ficus gibosa on
βeta-amyloid induced cognitive dysfunction in alzheimer mice.

D. Sivaraman *, P. Muralidharan, P. Panneerselvam

C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Chennai, India.

Introduction : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common of the senile dementias. It is estimated that 14 million affected worldwide by 2025. AD is a progressive, neuro degenerative disease characterized by memory loss, language deterioration, poor judgment, impaired visuospatial skills, etc. Dysfunction of cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain contributes to the salient cognitive decline in AD. Amyloid β protein (Aβ) may be neurotoxic during the progression of Alzheimer's disease by eliciting oxidative stress. Methods: The present study was designed to determine the effect of ethanol leaf of extract Ficus gibosa (EEFG) on Aβ25-35-induced cognitive deficits and oxidative stress in mice. Animals were treated with EEFG for periods of 4 weeks dose-dependently (200 and 400 mg/kg) then received a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ25-35 (10μg/mouse). Behavioral changes in the mice were evaluated using passive avoidance, Y-maze, object recognition, hole board and water-maze tests. Anti-oxidant enzymes and neuro-transmitter levels were also been estimated. Results: EEFG at the dose of 400mg/kg significantly ameliorated the cognitive and memory deficits caused by i.c.v. injection of Aβ25-35. EEFG attenuated the Aβ-induced increase in brain levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. There was an increase in glutathione peroxides, glutathione reductase and super oxide dismutase activity in EEFG -treated groups. The acetyl cholinesterase activity in the brain was lower in EEFG supplemented groups than in Aβ-injected group. EEFG treated group showed a significant alteration in behavior when compared to Aβ-injected group in all the in-vivo parameters. Conclusion: These findings suggest EEFG exerts a protective effect against cognitive deficits induced by Aβ25-35 accumulation in Alzheimer's disease, because of its potential antioxidant property.

NEU-52

Iso-6-Spectaline effects on convulsions induced in epilepsy

S. Prudhviraj , P. Muralidharan, Amutha, Prakash.

Department of Pharmacology, C.L Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai-600097, India.

Aim: Iso-6-Spectaline effects on convulsions induced in epilepsymodels. Materials and Methods : Plant material and chemistry study, pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions, picrotoxin-induced convulsion. The central nervous system (CNS) and anticonvulsant activities of iso-6-spectaline (SPEC) from sennaspectabilis were investigated in animal models. The SPEC from senna spectabilisvar.excelsa (schrad) ( 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg) injected by oral route (p.o) in mice caused a significant decrease in the motoractivity up to 24 h after the administration and in the dose of1.0mg/kg significantly reduced the remaining time on the Rota -rod apparatus. Additionally, SPEC (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg,p.o.) was alsocapable of promoting increase of latency for development of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole. This SPEC was also capable of promoting an increase of latency for development of convulsions induced by picrotoxin (PIC) only at highest dose. In the same way, the anticonvulsant effect of SPEC was affected by pretreatment with flumazenil, a selective antagonist of the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor. These results suggest possible anticonvulsantactivities in mice that needs further investigation. Results and Conclusions : The anticonvulsant effects of iso-6-spectaline from senna spectabilis. The possible behavioral effects produced by iso-6-spectaline are notclear, however, the GABAergic, noradrenergic and setoninergic neurotransmitter systems might be involved. So, future studies will be reguired for elucidation of these action mechanisms.

NEU-53

An experimental evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of asparagus racemosus

*Meena Kumari K , Amberkar MV, Rockson Christopher, Chandrashekar BR, Pradeepa HD

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

*E-mail: mini41178@yahoo.co.in


Objectives: To evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of A. racemosus against the seizures induced by Maximal Electroshock (MES) in wistar albino rats. Methods: The ethanolic extract of A.racemosus (EEAR) was administered orally in graded doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) in the MES model (50 mA for 0.2 sec using ear clip electrodes) and the effect was compared with vehicle and standard drug treated group (phenytoin sodium). Results : Oral administration of two doses of EEAR 200 and 400 mg/kg, did show anticonvulsant activity by abolishing the extensor phase and animal protection in 33.34% and 66.67% of rats respectively, to significant extent against maximal electroshock seizures (MES) and it also prolonged post-tictal depression significantly (P<0.05) in a dose of 400 mg/kg in comparison to control, but not comparable to the standard phenytoin. Conclusions: These findings suggest that EEAR possesses anticonvulsant activity against MES induced convulsions. Further research is required to isolate the active principles and mechanisms involved in the anticonvulsant activity of this plant.

NEU-54

A combined effect of root extracts of acorus calamus and Bacopa monnierii in mes induced epileptic rats

K. Anusha *, M. Arun, W. Clement Atlee.

Department of Pharmacology, C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai-97.

Objective: To investigate the anti-epileptic activity of methanolic root extracts of Acorus calamus and Bacopa monneirii on MES induced epileptic rats. Materials and methods: The roots were collected and extraction was done using soxhlet apparatus and preliminary phytochemical analysis were performed.The study was aimed to determine the effect of methanolic extracts of Acorus calamus and Bacopa monnierii roots on MES induced epileptic rats. The animals were treated orally with the root extracts for 14 days dose dependently (200 and 400 mg/kg) and phenytoin (4mg/kg,p.o) as a standard drug.The MES seizures were produced by inducing 60 Hz alternating current of 160mA for 0.2 sec. The 0.9% NaCl drop is placed on corneal electrodes, as it increases the contact and reduces incidence of fatalities. After the study, the brain was isolated, homogenized, centrifuged and neurotransmitters were estimated. Result: The combined root extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg) had shown a significant decrease in the duration of tonic extensor phase and comparable significance (P<0.01) with the control. Phenytoin (PHT) treated animals have shown 100% protection against MES induced seizures whereas combined root extracts 200 and 400 mg/kg have shown 69.23% and 79.48% protection respectively against MES induced seizures. Conclusion: It was concluded that both the dose levels of root extracts show promising anti-epileptic activity in MES induced epileptic rats. The effect is due to increase in dopamine and nor-adrenaline levels significantly compared to the control groups.

NEU-55

Neuroprotective effect of flavonoids in global cerebral ischemic conditions

V. Chithra *, N. Gayathri, K. Karthikeyan, P. Muralidharan

Department of Pharmacology, C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai-97.

Objective: Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by progressive irreversible loss of neuron from specific region of brain. The ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, lipid peroxy radicals are important functions of flavonoids. Quercetin obtained from Capsicum parfivolium showed protective effect in cerebral ischemia induced by four vessel occlusion method.Our present study is to investigate the neuroprotective effect of flavonoids on cerebral ischemia by four vessel occlusion method. Materials and Methods: Sprague dawley rats were divided into five groups (n=6). The first group is treated as negative control and the second group is treated as positive control in which ischemia is induced by four vessel occlusion method. The third,fourth and fifth group were pretreated with Quercetin 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg p.o and memantine(20mg/kg i.p. Cerebral ischemia was established by permanent occlusion of vertebral artery followed by 10mins occlusion of bilateral carotid arteries.The treatment was continued for another week after surgery with quercetin and the animals were evaluated for sensorimotor functions. The animals were sacrificed and brain was removed and homogenized. The homogenized content was used for the estimation of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant levels. Result: The administration of quercetin(200 and 400mg/kg) showed significant improvement in sensorimotor functions, increase in brain antioxidant enzymes, decrease in the levels of lipid peroxide and nitrites when compared to ischemia groups. Histopathological studies were further performed on ischemic and quercetin treated groups. The results obtained were compared with standard group treated with memantine (20mg/kg i.p). Conclusion: Quercetin can improve the neurological status and may reduce the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injured rats.

NEU-56

Cognition and emotional enhancement - ethics and dilemmas in cosmetic neuro psychopharmacology

Kaur Kiranpreet, Singh Harinder, Gupta Anita

Department of Pharmacology, Govt. Medical College & Hospital, Patiala. Punjab-147001.

Introduction : Neuroethics is a developing field, concerned with addressing present and future applied ethical issues brought about directly and indirectly by neuroscience advancements. One domain where neuroscience has begun to have far-reaching ethical implications is in the research and development of pharmaceutical emotion & cognitive enhancers. It is important to review the term neuroenhancement which refers to improvement in the cognitive, emotional and motivational functions of healthy individuals through, inter alia, the use of drugs. Methodology: An extensive search for relevant article was carried out on Medline Plus, pub med,Embase.Cross references were hand searched. Psychopharmacology provides readily available options, such as methylphenidate as memory enhancer in students and modafinil used in army and pilots for maintaining wakefulness, memory and attention .Prozac transforms a person's character and emotional disposition. Psychopharmacological enhancers, as well as other enhancement technologies, raise moral questions concerning the boundary between clinical therapy and enhancement, risks and safety, coercion and justice. Conclusion : Some positive portrayals of the non-medical use of drugs for performance enhancement in the print media and bioethics discourses could entice further uses. Medicine and society need to prepare for more prevalent non-medical uses of neuropharmaceuticals by fostering better informed public debates. The ethical and policy questions are primarily concerned with subclinical or nonclinical uses of pharmacological intervention.

NEU-57

A cross sectional study of non epileptic uses of antiepileptic drugs in a tertiary care hospital

Shwetha H. , Jayanthi C.R., Geetha A.

Department of Pharmacology, Bangalore Medical College and Research Centre, Fort, K.R.Road, Bangalore.

Objectives : To analyse the use of antiepileptic drugs in neurological disorders other than epilepsy. Methodology: A cross sectional study conducted on non-epileptic uses of anti-epileptic drugs on 50 adult patients(30 male and 20 female) attending neurological, diabetic and psychiatry opds with neurological disorders other than epilepsy at Victoria hospital, Bangalore. Study period -august 2011-september 2011 (1 month). Relevant study proforma was prepared and appropriate diagnostic questionnaire used. Relevant drug history like analgesics, antidepressants their dose, duration and side effects were enquired. Results: 1)Clinical conditions where antiepileptic drugs were prescribed - Trigeminal neuralgia-20%, hemifacial spasm-10%,painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy-30%,migraine- 10%,bipolar disorder-30%2)Carbamazepine was prescribed for 30% of patients10% with trigeminal neuralgia received carbamazepine only and other 10% received carbamazepine and gabapentin10% patients with hemifacial spasm were prescribed carbamazepine alone3)Gabapentin was prescribed to 40% of patients30% with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy received gabapentin alone10% patients with trigeminal neuralgia were prescribed gabapentin along with carbamazepine 4)Topiramate was prescribed to 10% patients with migraine 5)Sodium valproate was prescribed to 30% patients with bipolar disorder. Conclusion : Carbamazepine has remained the gold standard drug in trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. Sodium valproate in bipolar disorder. Newer antiepileptic drugs gabapentin used in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy and topiramate in migraine.

NEU-58

The behavioural effect of caffeic acid on chronic alcohol induced cognitive impairment in mice


Jumale P. M., Ingole
S. R., Chourasia A. J., Chaple D.R.,

J.L.Chaturvedi College of Pharmacy, Electronic Zone, MIDC, Hingna Road, Nagpur (MH) 16.

Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the possible effect of Caffeic Acid (C.A.) on cognitive performance of ethanol intoxicated mice. Method: Chronic administration of C.A ( 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg) for 30 days and its co-administration with or without ethanol (15% w/v, 2gm /kg P.O)for 24 days to test behavioural paradigm. The assessment was done by Morris water Maze (MWM) and Elevate plus maze apparatus (EPM). In EPM the Transfer Latency to enter the closed arm was measured and in MWM the escape latency to reach the platform was measured. Result: Chronic ethanol treated mice showed poor retention of memory in EPM and MWM. The result of behavioural study shows that the shorter transfer latency than first day indicating the mice to recall the learned aspect in the lesser period of time in EPM. The time spend in target quadrant in probe trail in search of platform was more than acquisition period in MWM. Conclusion: The present study shows that chronic C.A treatment reverses cognitive deficit in ethanol intoxicated mice, which may be associated with its antioxidant property and modulation of some neurotransmitter system. Further studies are to be done to confirm the mechanism of action.

NEU-59

Behavioral effect of berberine in colchicine induced experimental alzheimers model

Selote R. , Ingole S.R., Chaurasia A.J., Chaple D.R.

J.L.Chaturvedi College of Pharmacy, Electronic Zone, MIDC, Hingna Road, Nagpur (MH).

Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the behavioural effects of Berberine against Colchicine-induced Alzheimers model and oxidative damage in mice and it's modulation by some neurotransmitter system. Methods: Intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) Administration of colchicines to induce cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress as an Alzheimers model.Morris water maze, elevated plus maze, actophotometer to study cognitive behaviour. Results: The result shows that colchicines at 15 μg/mice significantly increase escape latency in acquisition training as compared to aCSF group. Application of Two Way ANOVA showed interaction between variables viz., colchicines treatment and acquisition days. Application of post hoc bonferroni tests revealed that colchicines on first day do not show any difference in escape latency, but significantly increased escape latency (sec.) on day second third and fourth. Conclusion: Berberine showed improvement in cognitive impairment and may show its clinical significance in memory impairing disorder such as Alzheimer's diseases. Further studies can be conducted to determine its mechanism of action.

NEU-60

Analgesic activity of Artesunate in experimental animal models

Manohar VR , Shyamjith M, Deepa B 1 , Rao SN

Department of Pharmacology, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore, 1 Department of Pharmacology, KSHEMA, Mangalore.

Objectives : The aim of the present study was to investigate analgesic effect of Artesunate. Methods : Artesunate (36.4mg/kg, i.p) was administered in Swiss albino mice to study its analgesic effect using Tail Flick Analgesiometer (TFA) apparatus. The tail flick latency in seconds was noted. Results : Artesunate (36.4mg/kg, i.p) significantly increased the reaction time for tail flick method. Conclusions : The data suggests that Artesunate has analgesic activity which involves a central mechanism.

NEU-61

Effect of antioxidant on cognitive function of type ii0 diabetes patients Using mini mental state examination scale in a secondary care hospital in Ooty

Romy John Thomas , P.R. Anand Vijayakumar

Department of Pharmacy Practice, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, Tamil Nadu,-643001, India

Objectives : To assess the effect of antioxidant on cognitive function in the type II diabetic using Folstein Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) Scale. Methods : This was an open labelled randomized controlled study done in type II diabetic patients for a period of 9 months (from July 2008 to April 2009) in a secondary care hospital in Ooty. Intervention groups were treated with oral antidiabetics and Vitamin E 400 mg (antioxidant) were as the control group was treated only with oral antidiabetics. Cognitive function assessments were done on baseline, 30th and 90th day of treatment using MMSE scale. Results : Out of 36 enrolled patients, 18 each were in control and intervention group. Patients in intervention group showed significant increase in the orientation on the 90th day in comparison with control group. Intervention group in 35-50 years of age showed significant increase in the orientation and total MMSE score on 30th and 90th day of assessment in comparison with same age group in control. Intervention group having diabetes for 1- 5 years duration showed significant increase in total MMSE score when compared with control group of similar duration. Intervention group treated with monotherapy and combination antidiabetics therapy showed significant increase in total MMSE score on 90th day when compared to control group. Conclusion : Antioxidant use in the initial stage of type II diabetes especially in 1 - 5 years duration is effective in improving the orientation and total MMSE score.

NEU-62

Evaluation of protective effect of Aegle marmelos corr. In an experimental model of chronic fatigue syndrome.

Bhavin Patel , V. Lalremruata, Prasanna GS.

KLE University's College of Pharmacy, Rajajinagar II Block, Bangalore: 560010, Karnataka.

Objective: Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and considering the proven antioxidant nature of Aegle marmelos, this study evaluated its protective effect in animal model of CFS. Materials and Methods : CFS was induced in naïve animals by subjecting them to forced swimming and was treated with increasing doses of ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos (EEAM). Measurement of duration of immobility, anxiety level and locomotor activity were assessed on day 1, 7, 14 and 21 followed by biochemical estimation of brain homogenate for biomarkers of oxidative stress. Results: Administration of EEAM produced a statistically significant (P<0.01) reduction in the duration of immobility, reduction (P<0.001) in latency to enter open arm and elevation in time spent in open arm, significantly higher (P<0.01) locomotor activity score, compared to positive control group of animals. Peak Changes were observed on day 14th of the experiment. Biochemical estimation of brain homogenate revealed significantly (P<0.001) elevated level of products of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and significantly lower (P<0.001) level of CAT in positive control group (cf to naïve group). Extract treatment produced a dose dependent and significant reduction (P<0.05) in MDA, elevation in CAT activity (P<0.05 and P<0.01) and significant reduction (P<0.01) in SOD levels. Conclusion : Extract treatment relieved (in a dose dependent manner) symptoms of depression, anxiety and the associated biochemical changes due to chronic stress, as observed in CFS - likely to be via antioxidant mechanism.

NEU-63

Evaluation of antiepileptic activity of polyherbal formulation sjt-az0 -04

Sevak KS , Mansuri JA, Ghelani HS, Jadav PD, Gokani RH, Rachchh MA, Dr. Manish A. Rachchh.,
"Shree Kunj", 3-Archna park Society, B/H Krishna Complex, University Road, Rajkot, Gujarat (India).

Objective : To evaluate antiepileptic activity of patented polyherbal formulation SJT-AZ-04 using experimentally induced convulsion. Materials and Methods: The patented polyherbal formulation (SJT-AZ-04) was prepared as per the method developed in house. It was given in dose of (300mg/kg, p.o) before 1 hr of shock. Convulsions were induced by maximal electro shock (MES) method in wistar rats. Time spent in different stages of convulsions viz. flexian, extention, tonic-clonic, stupor and recovery were observed. Phenytoin (100mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a reference standard. Similarly SJT-AZ-04 was evaluated using strychnine (2mg/kg, i.p.) induced convulsion, wherein diazepam (4mg/kg, i.p.) was used as a reference standard. Result: The polyherbal formulation (SJT-AZ-04) was found to beeffective against convulsions induced by MES.There was significant reduction (P < 0.05) in tonic-clonic phase (29.88 ­± 4.82) as well as recovery time (128 ± 6.37) as compared to control (74.2 ± 5.73, 193.8 ± 8.27 respectively). But it has shown non significant (P>0.05) reduction in onset and recovery time in strychnine model. Conclusion: Our patented polyherbal formulation SJT-AZ-04 produced significant anticonvulsant activity by GABA-modulating effect and devoid of Glycine-modulating effect.

Neu-64

Evaluation of CNS activity of polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 in experimental animals

Ghodasara JV , Dabhi RH, Rajyaguru HS, Jadav PD, Gokani RH, Rachchh MA

S J Thakkar College of Pharmacy, Rajkot

Objective : To evaluate CNS depressant, anxiolytic and nootropic activity of patented polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 using experimental models. Materials and Methods: The patented polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 was prepared as per standard method developed in house. SJT-HT-03 was given at the dose of 300 mg/kg, p.o. in open field behavior model and elevated plus maze model to check its CNS activity and anxiolytic activity respectively, where in diazepam (5 mg/kg, p.o) was used as a standard. Nootropic activity of SJT-HT-03 (300 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using elevated plus maze model using piracetam (150 mg/kg, p.o) as a reference standard, where in scopolamine (300 μg/kg, i.p) was used as an amnestic agent. Results: In open field model SJT-HT-03 showed significant reduction (P< 0.05) in no. of square crossed (78.75±2.01) and no. of rearing (5.5±1.19) as compared to control (124.33±3.75, 13.75±2.75). In elevated plus maze model SJT-HT-03 showed significant increase (P<0.05) in time spent in open arm (95.5±7.26) as compared to control (28.33±3.51). In nootropic model SJT-HT-03 showed significant increase (P< 0.05) in time spent in open arm (11.4±1.31) as compared to control (29.2±1.31) on day 3 after administration of scopolamine. Conclusion: Our patented polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 possessed significant CNS depressant, anxiolytic and nootropic activity in experimental models.

Neu-65

Evaluation of cns0 activity of polyherbal formulation sjt-dia0 -02 in experimental animals

Herbha MR , Padaliya MK, Jadeja VK, Jadav PD, Gokani RH, Rachchh MA

Dr. Manish A. Rachchh., "Shree Kunj",3-Archna park Society,B/H Krishna Complex,UniversityRoad, Rajkot, Gujarat (India).

Objective : To evaluate CNS depressant, anxiolytic and nootropic activity of patented polyherbal formulation SJT-DIA-02 using experimental model. Materials and Methods: The patented polyherbal formulation SJT-DIA-02 was prepared as per standard method developed in house. SJT-DIA-02 was given at the dose of 300mg/kg, p.o. in open field behavior model and elevated plus maze model to check its CNS activity and anxiolytic activity respectively, where in diazepam (5 mg/kg, p.o) was used as a standard. Nootropic activity of SJT-DIA-02 (300 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluted using elevated plus maze model using piracetam (150 mg/kg, p.o) as a reference standard and scopolamine (300 μg/kg, i.p) was used as an amnestic agent. Results: In open field model SJT-DIA-02 showed significant reduction (P< 0.05) in no. of square crossed (19.8±1.8) and no. of rearing (2.6±0.74) as compared to control (85±3.35, 13.75±2.45). In elevated plus maze model SJT-DIA-02 showed significant increase (P< 0.05) in time spent in open arm (47.75±3.92) as compared to control (29±2.63). In nootropic model SJT-DIA-02 showed significant reduction (P< 0.05) in latency time period (9.8±3.07) as compared to control (29.2±3.39) group. Conclusion: Our patented polyherbal formulation SJT-DIA-02 possessed significant CNS depressant, anxiolytic and nootropic activity in experimental models.

NEU-66

Evaluation of analgesic activity of patented polyherbal formulation SJT-ONC-01


Patel SM, Bataviya NR, Shah MB, Kanani BT, Rachchh MA, Gokani RH

Dr. Rina Gokani, "Shree Kunj",3-Archna park Society,B/H Krishna Complex,University Road, Rajkot, Gujarat (India).

Objective : The present study was aimed to evaluate analgesic activity of patented polyherbal formulation SJT-ONC-01 (Anti-cancer) using acetic acid - induced writhing method and rat radiant heat model. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino mice (20-35 g) or wistar rats (150-300 g) of either sex were used for acetic acid - induced writhing and rat radiant heat models, respectively. The animal groups, administered with SJT-ONC-01 (300 mg/kg, p.o.), tramadol (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or aspirin (25 mg/kg, p.o.) and vehicle, were served as test, standard and control respectively. Afer 1 hr of drug administration writhing was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of of 0.6% acetic acid (10 ml/kg) and the number of writhes was counted for 30 min immediately. The tail flick latency was assessed by the analgesiometer (Inco, India) with the 4 Amps current. The time taken for the withdrawal of the tail after switching on the current was taken as the latent period, in sec, of "tail flicking" response and was considered as the index of nociception. Results: In Acetic acid-induced writhing test, pretreatment with a single dose of SJT-ONC-01 showed significant reduction in number of writhes (48.77%) which was comparable with the standard drug, aspirin (43.85%). In tail flick method, SJT-ONC-01 did not produce significant increase in latency period. Conclusion: The present study showed that patented polyherbal formulation SJT-ONC-01 have significant peripheral analgesic activity and devoid of central analgesic effect. These findings are useful for the clinical use of the patented formulation in the different peripheral painful conditions.

NEU-67

Evaluation of analgesic activity of patented polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03

Garala TC , Vachhani NS, Zalavadiya SK, Rachchh MA, Gokani RH

Dr. Rina Gokani, "Shree Kunj", 3-Archna Park Society, B/H Krishna Complex, University Road, Rajkot, Gujarat (India).

Objective : The present study was aimed to evaluate analgesic activity of patented polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 (Anti-hypertensive) using acetic acid - induced writhing and rat tail-flick models. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino mice and wistar rats of either sex, were used for acetic acid - induced writhing and rat tail-flick models respectively. The animal groups, administered with SJT-HT-03 (300 mg/kg, p.o.), tramadol (10mg/kg, p.o.) or aspirin (25mg/kg, p.o.) and vehicle, were served as test, standard and control respectively. The treatments were given 1 hr prior to the experimentations. In Tail-flick method, latency period to heat stress applied to rat tails was measured by using a analgesiometer with the current intensity 4 ampere. In writhing test, injection of acetic acid (10 ml/ kg b.w., 0.6%, i.p.) was used to create pain sensation. The number of writhings were calculated for 30 mins at an interval of 10 min after the acetic acid. Results: In Acetic acid-induced writhing test, pretreatment with a single dose of SJT-HT-03 produced significant (P< 0.001) reduction in number of writhings. In radiant heat tail-flick test, 60 min after the oral doses of SJT-HT-03 and tramadol produced 45.16% (P<0.01) and 41.93% (P<0.01) elongation of tail flicking time respectively, while, after 120 min the SJT-HT-03 and tramadol showed 86.66 % (P<0.01) and 42.22 % (P<0.05) elongation, respectively. Conclusion: The present study on patented polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 has demonstrated that this polyherbal formulation has significant analgesic effect, and it justifies the use of this formulation in the treatment of various types of pains.

NEU - 68

Antinociceptive effect of green tea extract in diabetic neuropathic pain in rats.

M.V.N.Kasyap , Prem Kumar N., Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq, Suresh Kumar Nagpal, Rajesh Kumar Rawri 1

Department of Pharmacology, 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, VarthurHobli, Chikkabellandur Village, Carmalaram Post, Bangalore-560 035, INDIA.

Objectives: There is strong correlation between hyperglycemia and the development of diabetic neuropathy. The present study was to investigate the effect of Camellia sinensis (Green tea) in diabetic neuropathic pain in rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were divided into different groups. Group I was considered as normal control. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were divided into different groups such as diabetic control group II, green tea extract (300mg/kg) group III, Glibenclamide (4mg/kg) group IV and group V was treated with a combined therapy of green tea extract (300mg/kg) and Glibenclamide (low dose). Thermal stimulus was used as diabetic neuropathic pain model. Preventive therapy was started before the induction of diabetic neuropathic pain and continued for 60 days. Glucose tolerance test was carried out at the end of 15 th , 30 th , 45 th and 60 th day of the treatment period. Sciatic nerve homogenate was used to estimate, SOD, catalase, lipid Peroxidation and reduced glutathione. Histopathological study was performed on sciatic nerve of rats at the end of the treatment. Results: Diabetic control animals showed significant hypersensitivity control group. The combined therapy of green tea extract with oral hypoglycemic agents produced more significant reduction in postprandial glucose level when compared to the diabetic groups treated with their individual treatments. Preventive therapy significantly prevented the development of diabetic neuropathy which was supported by restoration of antioxidant status and sciatic nerve integrity. Conclusion: We conclude that the combined therapy of green tea extract with oral hypoglycemic agent was useful in preventing STZ induced diabetic neuropathic pain.

NEU - 69

Neuroprotective effect of methanolic extract of Areca catechu on sleep depriviation induced cognitive dysfunctionin mice

Sowmya CH ., P. Muralidharan

Department of Pharmacology, C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai-97.

Aim: To investigate the neuroprotective effect of methanolic extract of areca catechu on sleep deprivation induced cognitive dysfunction in mice. Materials and method : The areca catechu fruit were peeled and outer layer was removed and nuts were cut in to two pieces and finely powdered, extraction was done using soxhlet apparatus and preliminary phytochemical analysis were performed. The study was aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of methanolic extract of areca catechu (MEAC) on sleep deprivation induced cognitive dysfunction in mice. The animals were treated orally with MEAC for 21 days dose dependently (200 and 400 mg/kg) and piracetam (100mg/kg) as standard drug and after the assigned treatment, animals were subjected to sleep depriviation for 5 days. The animals which were subjected for 5 days sleep deprivation by multiple platform method. Each mice was kept on small platform (3cm diameter) each in a water tank like water maze (41 × 34 × 16:5 cm) and water is kept 1cm below the platform by giving bright light whole the night.After sleep depriviation process animals were again treated orally with MEAC for seven days.Assesment of habitual behavior, memory and retention were done using hole board, Ymaze, elevated plus maze. Result: MEAC at both the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant (P< 0.001) increase in memory and habituation, when compared with untreated group. The standard drug piracetam (100mg/kg b.w/p.o) treatment also showed significant (P< 0.001) increase in memory and habituation when compared with treatment groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that MEAC at both the dose level of 200 and 400mg/kg shows promising neuroprotective activity in sleep depriviation induced cognitive dysfunction in mice. The neuroprotective activity may be due to increase in acetylcholine and dopaminergic levels of brain.

NEU-70

Effect of caffeic acid against aluminium chloride induced dementia in rats


Kafeel A. Khan., Magith Thambi , Jayesh Mudgal

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal-576104

Objectives : To study the effect of caffeic acid against acetylcholinesterase enzyme and aluminium chloride induced dementia in rats. Methods: Caffeic acid (1nM - 100 mM) was tested for in- vitroacetylcholinesterase inhibition using rat brain homogenate. Further, caffeic acid was assessed against rat model of Alzheimer's disease / dementia. Dementia was induced in rats injecting aluminium chloride (i.p.) for 20 days. After 20 days of induction, rats were divided into 4 groups i.e. Control (vehicle, i.p.), aluminium chloride (10 mg/kg, i.p.), rivastigmine (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) and caffeic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and treatment were continued for 10 days. In Behavioural assessment (Morris water maze test) total time (TT) and escape latency time (ELT) were recorded on day 5 (probe day), 26 (after induction) and 36 (after treatment). On day 36, Animals were sacrificed and brain was isolated to perform acetylcholine esterase activity, catalase activity, reduced glutathione estimation, nitrite assay, and glutathione-S-transferase activity. Results: Caffeic acid showed significant (P<0.05) in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition compared to control group. Effect was observed from 100 μM dose with maximum inhibition at 100 mM concentration. Caffeic acid significantly (P<0.05) reduced the ELT and increased the TT (Water maze test) compared to aluminium chloride group. Caffeic acid brought the altered levels of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, GSH and GST to normal. Caffeic acid increased cholinergic transmission by significant (P<0.05) inhibition of acetylcholine esterase enzyme in -vivo. Conclusion : Caffeic acid showed anti-Alzheimer effect against aluminium chloride induced dementia in rat by reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting acetylcholine esterase enzyme.

NEU-71

Attenuation of 3-nitropropionic acid induced neurotoxicity by PDE-4 and PDE-5 inhibitors in rats


Tarun Thakur 1 , Rahul Deshmukh, P. L. Sharma

Department of Pharmacology, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga (Punjab), and 1 Department of Pharmacology, V.P. Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi-110 007

Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of PDE-4 and PDE-5 inhibitors in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induced neurotoxicity in rats. Methods: 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), PDE-4 inhibitor (RO 20-1724) and PDE-5 inhibitor (Sildenafil) were co-administered i.p. for 14 days, and the effects of such drug administrations were assessed on Morris Water Maze test, Spontaneous Locomotor Activity, Limb Withdrawal Test, and String test for grip strength. Biochemical parameters measured were: Succinate Dehydrogenase, Malondialdehyde, Reduced glutathione, Nitrites and Lactate Dehydrogenase. Morris water maze test data were analyzed by repeated measure two way ANOVA and rest of the parameters by one way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test by using statistical software. Results : Chronic administration of 3-NP significantly reduced body weight, caused cognitive, motor deficits and increase in oxidative-nitrosative stress - indictive of neurodegeneration. Pharmacological inhibition of PDE-4, and to a lesser extent, PDE-5 significantly improved cognitive and motor functions in 3-NP administered rats. Conclusions: These experimental results suggest that the up-regulation of cAMP signaling may be comparatively more beneficial than cGMP signaling in neurodegenerative disorders associated with cognitive and motor deficits.

NEU-72

Rolipram, a Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) enzyme inhibitor as a potential anti-depressant: An investigation using behavioral tests battery of depression

Ankur Kumar Jindal , Radhakrishnan Mahesh, Baldev Kumar, Shvetank Bhatt, Dilip Kumar Pandey

Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, Rajasthan, 333031, India.

Objective: The present study was designedto investigatethe antidepressant potential of Rolipram (ROL), a Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) enzyme inhibitor in behavioral tests battery of depression. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino mice of either sex were used in actophotometer test, forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced head twitch response, whereas olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) and reserpine induced hypothermia (RIH) were performed in male wistar rats. Results : In the present study, acute treatment of ROL (0.25-1 mg kg -1 ) in mice exhibited sdose dependent anti-depressant-like effects in a FST and TST, without affecting the baseline locomotor scores in actophotometer. Moreover, ROL (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the 5-HTP-induced head twitch responses in mice and reversed the RIH in rats. Interaction studies with standard anti-depressants such as escitalopram and desipramine in FST and bupropion in TST were carried out. ROL (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly augmented the anti-depressant action of escitalopram (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) and desipramine (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice FST and bupropion (10-20 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice TST.Furthermore, chronic treatment (14 days) with ROL (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and escitalopram (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reversed the behavioural anomalies (ambulation and rearing) in bilateral OBX rats in modified open field exploration. Conclusion: In conclusion, the behavioural investigation revealed that rolipramexhibits antidepressant-like activity in acute and chronic rodent models of depression.

NEU-73

Agmatine attenuates the development of ethanol tolerance in nicotine treated mice

Paliwal NP *, Kalantri AH, Taksande BG, Kotagle NR, Ugale RR, Chopde CT

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur-441 002. INDIA

Objective: To evaluate the effect of agmatine on cross tolerance between ethanol and nicotine. Material and Method: S wiss albino mice were injected with either saline or ethanol (2g/kg,ip) for 9 days and development of tolerance was assessed for muscle incordination using rotarod test. Cross tolerance of nicotine and ethanol was developed by nicotine (2mg/kg,ip) treatment for 8 days and assessed by injecting acute ethanol (2g/kg,ip) on ninth day. Agmatine (5,10 or20 mg/kg,ip) was administered either as a single dose on 9 th day or everyday from day 1 - 8 before nicotine injection for 8 day and animals were assessed for muscle incordination. Similarly effect of co-administration of agmatine and UK 14 304 (0.5mg,ip) or yohimbine (0.5mg/kg,ip) or RX 82 1002 (0.5mg/kg,ip) was also examined on nicotine ethanol cross tolerance Results: Tolerance to ethanol induced ataxia (2 g/kg,ip) was evident on 9 th day after chronic administration for 9 days; however, same dose failed to induced motor incoordination in nicotine pretreated (for 8 days) mice demonstrating the development of cross tolerance. Agmatine (10 mg/kg,ip) injected for 8 days before nicotine injections suppressed the development of tolerance to ethanol; however, single dose of agmatine 30 min before ethanol on 9 th day was devoid of effect. While UK14304 (0.5mg/kg,ip) potentiated the effect of agmatine (5mg/kg,ip), yohimbine (0.5 mg/kg,ip) and RX 82 1002 (0.5 mg/kg,ip) antagonized its effect on cross tolerance between ethanol and nicotine. Conclusion: Attenuation of nicotine induced cross tolerance to ethanol by agmatine seems to be modulated via α2 adrenoreceptor.

NEU-74

Agmatine alleviates ethanol reward via imidazoline receptors


Yerpude MT, Sameer SM, Ugale RR.

Division of Neuroscience, Department Of Pharmacology, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur-441 002. INDIA

E-mail: Megha.Yerpude@Gmail.Com

Objective: To investigate the effect of agmatine on acquisition and expression of ethanol reward and its modulation by imidazoline receptor acting agent. Materials and Methods: Swiss Albino mice wereeither treated with vehicle or agmatine on conditioning days (3-5 days) before ethanol treatment or injected with vehicle or agmatine on 6 th day before CPP test to observe the effect on acquisition and expression respectively. Separately, mice were treated with efaroxan (3, 9 mg/kg, ip) or BU224 (2.5, 5 mg/kg, ip) 30 min. before administration of agmatine (40 mg/kg, ip) orthey were treated with either moxonidine (0.2, 0.4 mg/kg,ip) or 2-BFI (2.5, 5 mg/kg,ip) alone or administered sub-effectively 5 min. before administration of agmatine (20 mg/kg,ip). Results: Agmatine [(40 mg/kg, ip) P>0.05] inhibited the acquisition but not expression of CPP induced by ethanol (1.25 g/kg,ip). Efaroxan [(3 mg/kg,ip) P<0.01] and BU224 [(5 mg/kg,ip) P<0.0001] reversed the inhibition produced by agmatine on ethanol induced CPP. Whereas Moxonidine [(0.4 mg/kg, ip) P<0.05] and 2-BFI [(5 mg/kg,ip) P<0.05] alone inhibited the CPP induced by ethanol. Further sub-effective doses of moxonidine [(0.2 mg/kg, ip) P<0.05] as well as and 2-BFI [(2.5 mg/kg, ip) P<0.05] along with subeffective agmatine (20 mg/kg, ip) significantly inhibited the ethanol induced CPP. All the agents used at their effective doses did not impair the locomotor activity. Conclusion: Present study suggests the role of agmatine in ethanol reward and its modulation by imidazoline receptor. Thus the agents acting on the imidazoline receptors might be good therapeutic target in ethanol addiction.

NEU-75

Influence of dopaminergic (d1&d2) receptors modulation in prefrontal cortex on memory facilitating effect of cb1 antagonist

Puthuve AM , Thorat VD, Ugale RR, Chopde CT

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur-441 002. INDIA

E-mail: srarchana2007@rediffmail.com

Objective: To investigate the role of prefrontocortical dopaminergic (D1 and D2) receptors in memory facilitating effect of cannabinoid (CB1) antagonist, AM 251 in Morris Water Maze test in mice. Material and Method: Different drugs were administered intra-PFC in swiss albino mice (20-25g) dose dependently to study the effect on retrieval of spatial learning and memory. Mice were treated with either D2 antagonist, raclopride 1μg or D1 antagonist, SCH 23390 1μg alone or 10 min before CB1 antagonist, AM 251(5.5ng) administration and subjected to Morris water maze test. Separately, mice were treated with sub effective combination of either D1agonist, A68930 (0.5, 1μg/0.25μl/side) or D2 agonist, Quinpirole (1μg) along with CB1antagonist AM-251(5.5ng/0.25μl/side) and effect on memory retrieval was observed. Results: AM-251(5.5ng) significantly increased time spent in the platform quadrant (p.q) (P<0.05) and decreased escape latency (P<0.01) indicative of memory enhancement. Further this memory enhancing effect of AM251 was antagonized by D2 antagonist raclopride (1μg) and D1 antagonist raclopride SCH 23390 (1 μg). On the contrary, co-administration of subeffective dose of AM 251 (2.5ng) with D1 agonist A 68930 (0.5 μg) or D2 agonist quinpirole (0.5 μg) increases time spent and escape latency (e.l) in p. q as compared AM 251(2.5ng) treated group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our study implicated that dopamine and it's regulation in PFC is an important phenomenon in executive function and memory processes, and also show that D1/ D2 receptors in PFC have influence on CB 1 antagonist AM 251 mediated effect on retrieval of spatial memory.

NEU-76

Hypophagic effect of peraventricularly administered pentazocine Iin rat

Madankar NB , Hadole P, Taksande BG, Kotagle NR, Ugale RR, Chopde CT

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur-441 002. India.

Objective : To investigate the involvement of sigma receptors in paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus in feeding behavior in rats. Material and Method: Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were cannulated for intra-PVN (AP -1.8 L +0.4 V 7.6) administration. Rats were administered with either aCSF or Pentazocine (30, 60 and 90 μg/rat, intra-PVN) 1h before the end of light phase and food intake was measured. Separate group of rats were also administered with Pentazocine (10, 15 and 20 mg/rat, ip) 1h before the end of light phase and food intake was measured. Results: Intra-PVN administration of Pentazocine (60 and 90 μg/rat, iPVN) resulted in a significant decrease in food intake at 1, 2, 4 and 6th hours (1 h) compared with aCSF-treated rats, while intra-peritoneal administration of Pentazocine did not shown any significant difference on food intake in mice. Conclusion: The decrease in the food intake observed with in PVN administration of pentazocine may be mediated through other than sigma-1 receptors.

NEU-77

Involvement of allopregnanolone in antidepressant effect of agmatine

Thakre PP* , Rahangdale SR,Ugale RR, Chopde CT

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur-441 002. India.

Email: thakre_prajwal@yahoo.co.in

Objective: To investigate the involvement of neurosteroids in antidepressant effect of agmatine in olfactory bulbectomy induced depression in rats. Materials and methods: Adultmale Sprague Dawley rats (200-250g) were depressed by removal of olfactory bulbs (OB) followed by 14 days recovery period. Rats were cannulated for intracerebroventricular ( - 0.8 mm AP, + 1.3 mm L, 3.5 mm V) drug administration. (ALLO) allopregnanolone (0.25, 0.5, 1μg/rat icv) or progesterone (5 mg/kg ip) were administered either alone or 15 min and 30 min respectively before agmatine. Similarly, indomethacine (5mg/kg ip) and finasteride (100mg/kg sc), alone or in combination were administered 30 min before agmatine and antidepresant effect was observed in open field test and emotional score test (EST). Results: Intra-cerebroventricular (icv) administration of agmatine (5, 10 mg/kg ip) as well as ALLO (0.5,1μg/rat icv) significantly inhibited hyperactivity and hypermotility indicative of antidepressant action. Further sub-effective dose of agmatine (2.5mg/kg ip) in combination with either ALLO (0.25μg/rat icv) or its precursor progesterone (5mg/kg ip) also inhibited hyperactivity and hypermotility in bulbectomized but not sham operated rats. On the contrary, neurosteroid synthesis inhibitors like indomethacine (5 mg/kg ip) and finasteride (100mg/kg sc) both reversed the inhibition produced by agmatine (5 mg/kg ip) on OB induced hyperactivity and hyperemotility. Conclusion: Endogenous regulation of neurosteroid ALLO may act as a probable mechanism in the antidepressant effect of agmatine. Thus, agmatine/analogs and neurosteroidogenic drugs can be investigated for therapeutic efficacy in depression.

NEU-78

Agmatine attenuates nicotine induced place preference via A 2 adrenoreceptors

Nagchandi,DS, Walke,SG, Taksande BG, Kotagle NR, Ugale RR, Chopde CT

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur-441 002. INDIA.

Objective: The study was designed to explore the role of agmatine in nicotine induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and its modulation by α2 adrenoceptor. Material and Method: Male albino mice were intraperitoneally (ip) injected with nicotine (0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) or α2 agonist clonidine (30 μg/kg, i.p.) or selective α2 agonist UK 14304 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or α2 antagonist yohimbine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or selective α2 antagonist RX821002 (0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or I 22 imidazoline agonist idazoxan (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or I 1 agonist moxonidine (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or I 2 agonist 2-BFI (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or I 1 antagonist efaroxan (1 mg/kg, i.p.) either alone or in combination with agmatine (10,20 mg/kg, i.p.) and tested for preference (sec) in CPP apparatus. Results: Agmatine (10,20 mg/kg i.p.) have significantly attenuated nicotine induced CPP. This effect of agmatine on nicotine induced CPP was significantly potentiated by clonidine (30μg/kg, i.p.) and UK 14304 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and completely attenuated by yohimbine (5 mg/kg,i.p.), RX821002 ( 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) and idazoxan (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). The effect of agmatine on nicotine CPP remains unaffected by moxonidine, 2-BFI and efaroxan. Conclusion: Attenuation of nicotine induced place preference by agmatine seems to be mediated via its interaction with α2 -drenoreceptors. This study projects that agmatine may prove better therapeutic alternative in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation.

NEU-79

Anxiolytic effect of agmatine modulated by neuropeptide y in rats

Dixit MP, Gawande DY, Taksande BG, Kotagle NR, Ugale RR, Chopde CT

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur-441 002. India.

Objective: To investigate role of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) system within central nucleus of amygdale (CeA) in anxiolytic effect of agmatine. Methods: Male Sprauge-Dawley rats were canulated for intra-CeA (AP -2.3, L 4.5, V 8.0) drug administrations and injected with aCSF or Agmatine (65,130 or 260 pg, 0.5μl/side) or NPY (1,10 and 20 pmol, 0.5μl/side) or NPY Y1 agonist [Leu 31 Pro 34 ]-NPY (15,30 and 60 pmol, 0.5μl/side) or NPY Y1 antagonist BIBP 3226 (1, 2 and 4 μg, 0.5μl/side) either alone or their combinations and evaluated for anxiety in Vogel Conflict Test. Results: Intra CeA administration of agmatine (130 or 260 pg, 0.5μl/side), NPY (10 and 20 pmol, 0.5μl/side) and [Leu 31 Pro 34 ]-NPY (30 and 60 pmol, 0.5μl/side) demonstrated anxiolytic effect as indicated by significant increased in no. of shock received while BIBP 3226 (1 μg, 0.5μl/side) showed anxiogenic response. NPY (1 pmol/rat) and [Leu 31 Pro 34 ]-NPY (15 pmol/rat) potentiated while BIBP 3226 (1 μg, 0.5μl/side) completely attenuated anxiolytic effect of agmatine. Agmatine, NPY, [Leu31 Pro34]-NPY, BIBP 3226 and their combinations did not have any effect on water intake, nociception or locomotor activity. Conclusion: Agmatine andNPY interaction within CeA exhibited anxiolytic effect through NPY Y1 receptors. Thus agmatine might offer significant advantage in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

NEU-80

Involvement of sigma receptor modulation in antidepressant like effect of quetiapine in mice

Doble NG , Mendhi SM, Taksande BG, Kotagle NR, Ugale RR, Chopde CT

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur-441 002. India.

Objective: To investigate the role of sigma receptors in the antidepressant effect of quetiapineeffect of quetiapine. Materials and Methods: Female Swiss mice were treated with aCSFquetiapine (10, 40 mg/kg, ip; 20, 80 μg/mice, icv), pentazocin (σ1-agonist)(60, 150 μg/mice, icv) or BD-1063(σ1-antagonist) (10, 20 μg/mice, icv) orPB-28(σ2-agonist) (10, 20 μg/mice, icv) or SM-21 maleate (σ2-antagonist )(5, 10 μg/mice, icv) and evaluated for locomotor activity, rotarod and forced swim test.The influence of σ1and σ2-agonist/antagonist on the effect of quetiapine was also assessed. Results: quetiapine (40 mg/kg, ip),pentazocine (60 μg/mice, icv), PB-28 (10-20 μg/mice, icv)and combination thereof significantly decreased ,whereas BD-1063 (10-20 μg/mice, icv), SM-21 maleate (5-10 μg/mice, icv) increased the immobility time without affecting locomotor activity. Pentazocine (60 μg/mice, icv) andPB-28 [(10 μg/mice, icv) potentiated the effect of quetiapine (20 μg/mice, icv), which was reversed by pre-administration BD-1063 (10 μg/mice, icv) or SM-21 maleate (5 μg/mice, icv). Conclusion : The present study suggests that, both σ 1 and σ 2 R subunits are playing a crucial role in antidepressant like effect of quetiapine in mice.

NEU-81

Adrenergic receptor manipulations in hippocampus influences action of memory enhancers

Ali MT, Naik KS, Ugale RR

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Shrimati Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur (M.S.), 441 002, India.

Objective: To investigate the role of hippocampal nor-adrenergic system in the action of memory enhancers. Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated either with saline or memory enhancers memantine (2.5, 5mg/kg, i.p.), tactrine (5, 10mg/kg, i.p.), bacopa monniera (BM) extract (20, 40, 80mg/kg, p.o.) or Superoxide dismutase (SOD) (2500IU, 5000IU, i.p.) post training and assessed for consolidation of memory in inhibitory avoidance apparatus (IA). Rats were intra-hippocampally (AP -3.8, L 2.2, V 2.7) administered either with aCSF or α-2 agonist clonidine (1, 2μg/rat), α-2 antagonist yohimbine (2, 4μg/rat), α-1 agonist phenylephrine (2, 4μg/rat), α-1 antagonist prazosin (2, 4 μg/rat), adrenergic enhancer moclobemide (2, 4 μg/rat) or adrenergic depleter reserpine (2, 4μg/rat) alone or 15 min before memantine, tacrine, BM or SOD post training and assessed for consolidation of memory in IA. Results: Memantine (5mg/kg, i.p.), tacrine (10mg/kg, i.p.), BM extract (40, 80 mg/kg, p.o.) and SOD (5000IU, i.p.) post training increased step through latency as indicative of facilitation of memory consolidation. Whereas clonidine (1μg/rat), phenylephrine (1μg/rat) and moclobemide (2μg/rat) potentiated effect of memantine, tacrine, BM extract and SOD, on the contrary yohimbine (2μg/rat), prazosin (2μg/rat) and reserpine (2μg/rat) attenuated its memory enhancing effect. Conclusion: The involvement of nor-adrenergic system (α-1 and α-2) within hippocampus appears to be common mechanism contributing to consolidation of fear memory. This physiological mechanism may further suggest the pharmacological targets involved in memory.

NEU-82

To evaluate the antioxidant activity of cleome viscosa by in vitro and in vivo methods


Mihir S., Viral K., Pai K.S.R., Naseer M., Manjunath Setty

M.Pharm Part-II, Departmant of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal

Aim: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of Cleome viscosa by in vitro and in vivo methods. Objectives : 1. Preparation of crude alcocholic extract of selected plant, fractionation of crude extract with suitable solvent system based on solvent polarity 2. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of various extract and fractions Methods : The antioxidant activity of the various fractions was evaluated by the following methods 1. DPPH assay 2. ABTS assay3.OPhenanthroline reduction assay 4. Extent of lipid peroxidation in EAC mice 5. SOD assay6. Catalase assay Results: 1. IC 50 concentration of fractions of CVA, CVP, CVD, CVE, CVB and CVW by DPPH radical scavenging assay were found to be 3.58, 4.50, 3.98, 7.01, 2.03 and 3.49 mcg/ml, respectively. 2. IC 50 concentration of fractions of CVA, CVP, CVD, CVE, CVB and CVW by ABTS assay were found to be 22.2, 103.8, 17.28, 67.7, 18.5 and 172.4 mcg/ml, respectively 3. IC 50 concentrations of fractions of CVA, CVP, CVD, CVE, CVB and CVR by O-phenanthroline reduction assay were found to be 11.57, 53.63, 88.47, 68.92, 141.7 and 97.97 mcg/ml, respectively. Discussion: Selected fractions of Cleome viscosa Linn. also showed concentration dependent free radical scavenging activity in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays, as well as ferric ion reduction potential in O-phenanthroline assay. There was a significant rise in glutathione levels. The level of total thiols was also found to be significantly more in CVP and CVD treated mice. The extent of lipid peroxidation was very high in EAC control mice, but treatment with CVP and CVE had reduced level of lipid peroxidation significantly. These studies implicate that Cleome viscosa Linn. has a potential antioxidant activity which probably reduces the cellular stress.

NEU - 83

A case of salmonella typhimuriumendophthalmitis in a systemic lupus erythematosus patient on cyclophosphamide and corticosteroid

Jaijanani R , Pradeep S, Bindhulatha Nair, Jacob George 1 , Sreejesh B 1

Department of Pharmacology, Govt Medical College, Trivandrum, 1 Department of Nephrology, Govt. Medical College, Trivandrum.

Objective : To report a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by gram negative bacterium Salmonella typhimurium in a systemic lupus erythematosus patient on treatment with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroid. Method : A 32 year old female patient diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus 15 years back and on regular treatment with corticosteroid after completing NIH protocol, presented with altered behavior and difficulty in swallowing with history of mucous diarrhoea, received three doses of cyclophosphamide with a provisional diagnosis of CNS vasculitis. Later she developed fever, hypotension followed by pain and redness in right eye with diminished vision which was diagnosed as endogenous endophthalmitis by ophthalmologist along with elevated hepatic and renal parameters. Blood culture was positive for Salmonella typhimurium sensitive to third generation cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin. She became afebrile and regained normal behaviour known case of systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosed before 15 years on regular treatment with steroids presented with altered sensorium, investigated to have CNS vasculitis and started on pulse cyclophosphamide. She developed redness and diminished vision in the right eye along with systemic complaints like elevated renal and hepatic parameters. She was diagnosed to have endophtredness of halmitis and blood culture report from microbiology laboratory showed Salmonella typhimurium. Patient was started on antibiotics and visual acuity improved in two weeks . Results : This report of endogenous endophthalmitis due to Salmonella typhimurium associated with the use of cyclophosphamide is reported but rare in literature. The Naranjo probability scale indicated a probable relationship between the drugs and infection. Conclusion : Since cyclophosphamide is a commonly used immunosuppressant and endophthalmitis is a potentially blinding complication for which the prognosis depends on virulence of the bacterial pathogen and early diagnosis and treatment, with similar case reports, we can predict early case diagnosis and prevent visual loss for the patient.

NEU-84

Central CRF1 receptor mediates Withania somnifera induced suppresion of ethanol reinstatement in conditioned place preference


Chakraborty SS, Kadu AB, Kotagle NR, Ugale RR

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur-441 002. India.

Objective : Ethanol consumption and reinstatement is often provoked by exposure to stress. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) system indirectly influences ethanol drinking during stress. Withania somnifera is known to have antistress, antiaddictive and adaptogenic like activities. Present study designed to investigate the mediation of CRF1 receptors in the withania somnifera extract (WSE) on ethanol primed reinstatement in mice using conditioned place preference (CPP). Material and Methods : Separate groups of male Swiss albino mice (20-25 g) were treated with different doses of ethanol (1,1.25 and 1.5g/kg, i.p.) to induce ethanol primed reinstatement in condition place preference box (CPP). Reinstatement protocol includes preconditioning, postconditioning, extinction and priming session. Influence of WSE, CRF receptor antagonist, CRF1 antagonist and subeffective doses of CRF receptor antagonist and CRF1 antagonist with WSE on ethanol primed reinstatement were investigated. Results : Administration of Ethanol [(1.25g/kg, i.p.)p<0.001] induces CPP and reinstatement in mice. Administration of WSE [(25mg/kg, i.p.) P>0.05; (50mg/kg, i.p.) P<0.001; (100mg/kg, i.p.) P<0.001], CRF receptor antagonist [α helical CRF(5μg/mice, icv) P>0.05;(10μg/mice, icv)P<0.001], CRF1 antagonist [Antalarmin (5μg/mice, icv,) P>0.05; (10 μg/mice, icv)P<0.001] , subeffective dose of WSE along with α-Helical CRF [(5μg/mice, icv)P<0.001] and antalarmin [(5μg/mice, icv)P<0.001] significantly attenuated ethanol reinstatement. Conclusion: These finding projects importance of adaptogen, WSE as important therapeutic agents for treatment of alcohol relapse. The study also provides the functional evidence that central CRF1 receptor mediates effect of WSE in ethanol reinstatement. Further it might be suggested that WSE exhibit antiaddictive potential by modulation of stress pathways in brain.

NEU - 85

Evaluation of memory enhancing activity of glycyrrhizaglabral. In passive avoidance paradigm


Sandhya Desai, Smruti Mulgaonkar, Eishita Patel, Chandan Pandey.

Prin K.M. Kundnani College of Pharmacy, 23-Jote Joy Bldg, RambhauSalgaonkarMarg, Cuffe Parade, Mumbai-05. (MS)

Objectives: To obtain Aqueous Liqourice Extract (ALE) and Glabridin Rich Extract (GRE) from roots and stems of Glycyrrhizaglabra Linn. and to study their effect on memory enhancing activity in Scopolamine induced amnesia. Methods: Cognitive deficit was produced in rats using a behavioural model i.e. Passive Avoidance Paradigm following administration of Scopolamine. The rats were treated at one dose level of ALE and two dose levels of GRE for 8 consecutive days. Memory enhancing activity was evaluated by measuring Step Down Latency (SDL) And by estimation of biochemical parameters such as brain levels of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Dopamine, Serotonin, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Reduced Glutathione (GSH) and Lipid Peroxidation (LPO). Results: In passive avoidance paradigm, ALE and GRE showed increase in SDL, a significant decrease in brain levels of LPO and AChE and a marked increase in SDL, GSH, SOD, Dopamine and Serotonin levels of brain. Thus reduced AChE levels in brain might suggest an anticholinesterase activity, increased Dopamine and Serotonin levels suggest Monoaminooxidase inhibitory activity and other parameters indicate antioxidant activity. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that ALE and GRE have potential dose dependent therapeutic effects in improving the memory in passive avoidance paradigm model that may be attributed to reduced levels of brain AChE, increased levels of Dopamine and Serotonin and their antioxidant property. As a result the susceptible brain cells may be exposed to less oxidative stress resulting in reduced brain damage and improved neuronal function probably due to the AChE inhibitory and MAO inhibitory activity.

NEU - 86

Assesment of aspirin and its derivatives in the treatment of parkinson's disease in 6-ohda lesioned rat model


Manasi Pimpley, A. Shanish Antony, Vidya Sabella, Karri Tulasi, L. Bhagheeradha, B. Suresh

Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy-A constituent college of JSS university Mysore, Rocklands, Ooty- The Nilgiris-643001, Tamil Nadu

Objective : The present study demonstrated a novel mode of dopaminergic neuroprotection by Acetyl salicylic acid and its 2- Acetoxy benzoic acid derivatives and their possible therapeutic implications in the treatment of 6-OHDA induced parkinsonism in rat model. Methods : The 6-OHDA lesionedwistar rats were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (200 mg/kg, p.o) and its 2-acetoxy benzoic acid derivatives (200 mg/kg, p.o) for a period of 60 days. Pharmacological evaluations performed are Quantification of circling behavior, Grip strength and Catatonia. The biochemical parameters assayed were Estimation of total protein by Lowry's method and Complex 1 activity.The results were statistically analyzed and interpreted. Results : When compared to 6-OHDA groups, Acetyl salicylic acid and its 2-acetoxy benzoic acid derivatives showed a significant decrease in circling behavior, grip strength and catatonia. A significant increase in the Complex I activity was observed in substantianigra of the rat brain. Conclusion : Studies with dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-OHDA showed that inhibition and ablation of COX markedly reduced the deleterious effects of this toxin on the nigrostriatal pathway. Both aspirin and its synthesized derivatives showed reliable neuroprotection with respect to motor performance, complex-I activity and protein levels. The investigations revealed that test drugs could be future molecules for treating clinical PD. At the same time, further clinical toxicological and pharmacological investigation is suggested for confirming the reliability or acceptability of these molecules for treating Parkinson's disease. Key words: 6-OHDA, aspirin,2-acetoxy benzoic acid derivatives, complex I, catatonia

NEU - 87

Evaluation of antiparkinson's activity of aspirin and its derivatives in 6-hydroxy dopamine lesioned rat model

Humair Khan*, A. Shanish Antony, L. Bhageeradha, G. Sindhura, Pimpley Manasi, B. Suresh

Department of Pharmacology, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy (J.S.S. University, Mysore), Rocklands, Ootacamund, Tamil Nadu - 643001

Objective: The present study evaluated the ability of acetyl salicylic acid and its 2-acetoxy benzoic acid derivatives to attenuate the neurotoxicity of the dopaminergic neurons in substantianigra of 6-OHDA induced Parkinsonism rat model. Methods: The 6-OHDA lesionedwistar rats were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (200 mg/kg, p.o) and its 2-acetoxy benzoic acid derivatives (200 mg/kg, p.o) for a period of 60 days. Biochemical evaluations performed are HPLC measurement of dopamine and metabolites, , Localization of iron in substantianigra(Perl's diaminobenzidene (Perl's-DAB) method), Complex I activity assay, Analysis of GSH/ Glutathion, Estimation of Superoxide dismutase assay (SOD) the results were analyzed and interpretated. Results: Acetyl salicylic acid and its 2-acetoxy benzoic acid derivatives showed a significant increase in total protein concentration, dopamine, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, complex I activity and significant decrease in the iron concentrations in substantianigra of mid brain region, when compared with 6-OHDA control groups. Conclusion: Both aspirin and its 2-acetoxy benzoic acid derivatives showed reliable neuroprotection with respect to motor performance, dopamine levels, iron degeneration, complex-I activity and anti-oxidant parameters. The investigations revealed that test drugs could be future molecules for treating clinical PD. But, reliability or clinical acceptability of these molecules for treating PD needs further clinical toxicological and pharmacological investigation. Hence we suggest that, these molecules have to be further investigated to make it a clinically acceptable. Key words : 6-OHDA, aspirin, 2-acetoxy benzoic acid derivatives, complex I

NEU-88

Evaluation of verapamil and diltiazem for mitochondrial iron, enzymes and its calcium alteration in 6-ohda lesionedparkinson's rat model

L. Bhagheeradha *, Humair Khan, Niroj Shrestha, Pimpley Manasi, A. Shanish Antony, B. Suresh.

Department of Pharmacology, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy (J.S.S. University, Mysore), Rocklands, Ootacamund, Tamil Nadu - 643001

Objective : Our present study is to evaluate the possible actions of Verapamil and Diltiazem in mitochondrial calcium concentration and mitochondrial complexes activity thereby alleviating the neurodegeneration in 6-OHDA lesioned Parkinson's Rat model. Methods : The 6-OHDA lesioned rats were treated with Verapamil (10 mg/kg) and Diltiazem (10mg/kg) for a period of 30 days. Biochemical evaluations were made, they include Estimation of Calcium in Brain, Brain Mitochondria Calcium Using AAS, Mid Brain Mitochondrial Complex-I Activity and Perl's DAB staining of substantianigra region in rat mid brain section. The results were statistically analyzed and interpretated. Results : Verapamil and Diltiazem showed a significant decrease in calcium concentration, complex I activity was not found to be significant with levodopa whereas it was found to be equally significant with the value of (P<0.005) for verapamil and diltiazem, and Iron concentrations were significantly decreased for verapamil and diltiazem in the SubstantiaNigra region when analysed with Perl's DAB staining images. Conclusions : One of the prominent features of PD onset and progression is due to the inhibition of mitochondrial enzymes. Their activity is significantly reduced by cellular calcium, especially of mitochondria. In our study, we understood that the two calcium blockers have reduced the influx of calcium ions with post treatment. Our finding on inhibition of calcium entry into mitochondria and subsequent protection of complex I, suggested the protective role of verapamil and diltiazem in Parkinson's and associated diseases. We suggested a detailed study of these molecules in the molecular model of experimental PD.

NEU-89

Effect of prenatal exposure of cypermethrin on responsiveness of cerebral and hepatic cyp450s in rat offspring

Anshuman Singh , Rakesh Kumar 1 , Vinay K. Khanna, Rajneesh Chaturvedi, Sanjay Yadav, Devendra Parmar

Developmental Toxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, P. O. Box 80, M. G. Marg, Lucknow-226 001, India. 1 Analytical Chemistry Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, P. O. Box 80, M. G. Marg, Lucknow-226 001, India

Introduction: The present study aims to understand developmental neurotoxicity of cypermethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide by investigating alterations in the postnatal development of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in brain and liver in rat offsprings exposed prenatally to cypermethrin. Methods: Low doses (1.5-, 2.5- and 5mg/kg b.wt) of cypermethrin were administered orally to the pregnant Wistar rats from gestation day 5 to 21. The offspring were sacrificed postnatally at 3-, 6-, 9- or 12 weeks .Brain and liver were immediately taken out and processed for RT PCR, immunoblotting and enzymatic studies. Behavioral activity, levels of cypermethrin and testosterone (serum) were also monitored at these time points. Results: Our data revealed that prenatal exposure of cypermethrin produced dose dependent alterations in the ontogeny of xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs in brain and liver of rat offspring. Increase in the CYP 1A, 2B and 2E1 isoenzymes were found to be significant upto 6 weeks in brain and upto 9 weeks in the liver at the highest dose, even though the increase persisted upto 12 weeks. This increase in the activity of CYPs was associated with alterations in spontaneous locomotor activity in rat offspring. Metabolism studies demonstrated dose-dependent accumulation of cypermethrin in brain of prenatally exposed offspring during, postnatal development. A dose dependent decrease in the circulating concentrations of testosterone was also observed in the exposed offspring during development. Conclusion: The data suggests that prenatal exposure to low doses of cypermethrin affects the ontogeny of CYPs and imprints the expression of the CYPs in brain and liver of rat offspring. The imprinting of cerebral and hepatic CYPs could be attributed to the decrease in the circulating testosterone concentrations. Further, the accumulation of pyrethroid residues in the brain of exposed offspring indicates the transplacental transfer of cypermethrin in levels that may be sufficient to produce the neurobehavioral alterations in the offspring

NEU-90

Influence of renin angiotensin system in alcohol withdrawal syndrome in rats

Deokar M.N. , Salunkhe P.R., Ghodki Y.R., Tenpe C.R., Tundulwar M.R., Patole A.M.

Mangesh N. Deokar, Institute Of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Borgaon (Meghe) Wardha, Maharashtra.

Objective: To evaluate effect of ACE inhibitor and angiotensin (AT) antagonist in alcohol withdrawal (AW) syndrome (anxiety, locomotor activity and somatic sign) in rats. Chronic abstinence of ethanol is a state of anxiety, during which alcoholic experience mood disturbance and negative effects. It has been known for same time that alcohol stimulates renin angiotensin (R-A) activity. This has been shown in both animal and in man and is found in both light drinkers and alcohol abusers.However the functional significance of this effect was unknown that the R-A system turn modulate alcohol intake and effect on AW syndrome. Method: The experiment was conducted for the duration of 21 days, in that from day (1-20) ethanol liquid diet was administered through feeding bottles with increased concentration of ethanol (2.4%, 4.8% and 7.2%) in ethanol control and drug treated group. The ACE inhibitors (Ramipril; 3.5mg/kg, i.p.) and angiotensin antagonist (Losartan; 20mg/kg, i.p.) was administered in form of acute, sub acute and chronic doses. On the testing day (day21 th ) withdrawal sign was checked which includes locomotor activity, somatic signs and anxiety using EPM. Result: The results indicate that, when compared with control, ethanol liquid diet group exhibited significantly higher scores of withdrawal induced somatic signs, anxiety between 2 and 36 h post withdrawal of ethanol. Sub chronic and chronic treatment of ACE inhibitors and AT antagonist significantly prevents withdrawal signs by inhibiting the somatic signs, locomotor activity and anxiety in rats. Conclusion: This study demonstrated beneficial effect of prolong administration of ACE inhibitor and AT antagonist on AW syndrome.

NEU-91

Neuroprotective effect of polyherbal formulation in rodent models of Cerebral ischemia


N.S. Vyawahare, S.V. Ravikar, R.R. Salian

AISSMS College of Pharmacy, Kennedy Road, Near RTO, Pune, India 411001

Objective: Cerebral Ischemia is caused by disruption in blood supply to a region of the brain mostly due to the occlusion of blood vessels, leading to the inadequate or complete cessation of oxygen delivery to the neurons called as cerebral hypoxia. Cerebral ischemia is a major cause of disability and death globally. Present therapeutic approaches to cerebral ischemia are centered on two distinct approaches, vascular (reperfusion) and neuronal (neuroprotection).The diversity of insults and multilevel nature of ischemic injury explains lack of potent and sustained protection with a monopharmacological approach. In this study, herbs from traditional system of medicine were investigated for its Neuroprotective activity using Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) Method: The animals were divided into five groups each having six animals. First group served as sham-operated group and second group served as BCCAO control group. Third, fourth, fifth I/R groups were served with PHF 1ml, 3ml, 10 ml respectively. After pretreating for 15 days,on 15 th day after 60 minutes of dose, all rats except sham operated were subjected to 30 minutes of BCCAO followed by 45 minutes reperfusion.The animals were sacrificed,their brains removed and subjected to histopathological evaluation and biochemical analysis. Result and Conclusion: Pretreatment with PHF significantly reduced the increase in elevation of LPO marker MDA, elevated the GSH level, GST level ,SOD, GR and GPx level.Histopathological study exhibited multifocal vacuolization, degeneration with shrinkage of neurons and atrophy of the neurons occurred in brain regions of I/R rats. This was later attenuated with the 3 ml and 10 ml PHF pretreatment.

NEU-92

Nootropic activity of herb-drug combinations in global cerebral ischemia model

Dinesh Wagh , Neeraj Vyawahare, Bharat Zope, Sunil Bhalerao, Rakshita Salian

AISSMS College of Pharmacy, Kennedy Road, Pune-411 001,Maharashtra, India

Objectives : Learning and memory are two fundamental cognitive functions that confer us the ability to accumulate knowledge from our experiences. Impairment of memory occurs due to decreased cholinergic firing in brain, rise in oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory reactions and cerebral ischemia .The present study based on combination of herb i.e. Celastrus paniculatus with synthetic drugs like piracetam and memantine. This study also tried to reduce the dose of Piracetam and Memantine. Materials and methods : In this study, the induction of cerebral ischemia produced by occlusion of bilateral carotid arteries for 10 minutes followed by 24 hr reperfusion produced significant increase in the oxidative stress. Celastrus paniculatus extract in combination with Piracetam (100 mg/ml), Piracetam (200 mg/ml), Memantine (10 mg/ml) and Memantine (20 mg/ml) significantly lowered the increased MDA level and increased CAT, GSH, GST, GPx thereby exhibited antioxidant activity in cerebral ischemia induced oxidative stress also increased reference as well as working memory in Radial arm maze test. Results : The Celastrus paniculatus extract with Piracetam and Memantine significantly exhibited marked protection by reversing the reactive changes, neuronal damage and shrinkage, in different regions of brain produced by global Cerebral ischemia model . Conclusions: The results of present study shown that CP + Piracetam 100mg/kg, CP + Piracetam 200mg/kg, and CP + Memantine 20 treatment improved the working as well as reference memory. And combination of CP with Piracetam may be more potent than with Memantine.

NEU-93

Effect of berberine on ethanol withdrawal induced behavioral changes in mice

Katolkar U.N , Hiware R.S, Rathod S.S, Tawori S.S, Mundhada D.R.

Ujwal Namdeo Katolkar, Agnihotri College of Pharmacy, Pharmacology Division, Bapuji Wadi, Sindhi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra.

Objective : Berberine, an isoquinoline plant alkaloid, is known to generate a wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological effects. Recently, berberine was reported to inhibit ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability signs and motivational effects of ethanol but, no evidence indicated influence of berberine against ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety and depression. Therefore, an attempt has been made to assess the effect of berberine against ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety and depression. Method : Mice were provided with a nutritionally balanced control liquid diet as the sole nutrient source on day 0; from day 1-4 (ethanol, 3% v/v), from day 5-7 (ethanol, 6% v/v) and from day 8-10 (ethanol, 10% v/v) was incorporated into the liquid diet. On day 11, the ethanol liquid diet was replaced with nutritionally balanced control liquid diet, and social interaction test and FST were performed. Result : The results revealed that acute administration of berberine (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to the peak hour (24 h) significantly increased social interaction time, and these results were comparable to diazepam (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). In forced swim test, acute administration of berberine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to the peak hour (24 h) significantly decreased immobility time, and these results were comparable to standard drug fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.). Further, chronic administration of berberine (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p. twice daily for 10 days) to the ethanol diet fed mice markedly increased social interaction time whereas decrease in immobility time in forced swim test. Conclusion : Results indicated that berberine exhibited an inhibitory influence against ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety and depression, which could be mediated through its neuromodulatory action.

NEU_94

Pharmacological effects of extract of hibiscus rosasinensis on volume and acidity of stimulated gastric secretion

Rajesh Mandade , S.A. Sreenivas, D.M. Sakarkar, R.S. Wanare

Sudhakarrao Naik Institute of Pharmacy, Pusad Nagpur Road Pusad, Dist. Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India

Objectives: Over production of gastric acid in response to various stimuli is responsible for peptic ulceration in majority of patients. Calcium plays an important role in the release of various stimulant mediators. The aerial part of Hibiscus rosasinensis are reported to have calcium channel blocking activity. This study was designed to find out the effects of extract on the volume and acidity, free and total, of Carbachol induced gastric secretion and to compare the results with that of Cimetidine and verapamil on the same parameters. Materials and Methods: The animals were kept on fasting for 48 hours after which the pylorus of each animal was ligated. The extract was injected 250/500mg/kg of body weight, Cimetidine 2.5 mg/kg and Carbachol 600μg/kg and verapamil 10mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally, in pylorus ligated rats. Results: It was found that the extract reduced the volume, free and total acidity of gastric secretion, which were statistically highly significant when compared with Carbachol (P<0.001). Cimetidine also had the same effects. When the difference of mean values, brought about by extract, were compared with those of Cimetidine, it was found out that these differences in the volume and free acidity were significant indicating that Cimetidine is more effective than the extract. Conclusion: The extract can, however, be used effectively in the treatment of peptic ulcer. Although, the extract reduced gastric acidity significantly, but is less effective than Cimetidine Key words : Cimetidine, carbachol, hibiscus rosasinensis, gastric secretion, verapamil

NEU-95

Effect of ethanolic extract of zingiber officinale in different stress models


B.V.S Lakshmi, S. Ranijith Kumar, G. Jyothi Kiranmai, P. Kameswari, M. Aparna, M. Sai Krishna

Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Secunderabad-500014, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Aim : The present study was undertaken to evaluate antistress activity of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (ZO) by forced swimming endurance stress and acute heat stress models in rats, using Withania somnifera (100mg/kg) as reference standard. Materials and methods : Albino Rats of either sex were divided into 6 groups for both the models i.e., Normal control, Positive control, Standard group, treated with withania somnifera (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and ZO (50 mg/kg, p.o, 100 mg/kg, p.o and 200mg/kg, p.o.). At the end of the study period, the rats are sacrificed and blood was collected by cardiac puncture to estimate biochemical parameters like serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, BUN, and blood cell count (RBC, WBC). The weights of organs such as liver and spleen were recorded after washing with alcohol.

Results: Zingiber officinale has significantly (P<0.001) reversed the forced swimming stress induced changes in glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, BUN; weight of liver and spleen and blood cell counts. The results were comparable to that of standard Withania somnifera .The ethanolic extract of ZO has significant antistress activity against a variety of biochemical and physiological perturbations in different stress models. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract at different doses offered significant protection in both models indicating antistress activity which may be due to the phytoconstituents i.e.,flavanoids present in the extract.

NEU-96

Pharmacological evaluation of piracetam and clopidogrel on experimentally induced cerebral ischemia in rats

Soumitra Das* , Ritu B.Pote, Banappa S.Unger

*Kle College of Pharmacy, Belgaum-10.

In the present study ,we evaluated the combinatorial effect of piracetam and clopidogrel o n ischemia /reperfusion injury induced by bilateral carotid artery occlusion in rats, a global ischemia/reperfusion injury induces the oxidative stress and causes neuronal damage in brain like cerebral oedema, cerebral congestion and neutrophilic infiltration, decreased antioxidant (SOD,CAT,GSH) level and increased lipid peroxidation.PIRACETAM (600mg/kg,p.o) and Clopidogrel (7mg/kg,p.o) were administered individually and also combination before induction of ischemia, using autramatic clamps for 30 min followed by 1hour reperfusion. Temperature was maintained round 37(+ or -) 0.5°C and artificial ventilation 95%oxigen and CO2. Piracetam and Clopidogel individually pretreated group significantly decreases in lipid per oxidation and increases SOD, CAT, GSH total thiole and total protein level and protected neuronal damage induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Key words : Antioxidant, cerebral ischemia, clopidogrel, piracetam

NEU_97

Study of the anticonvulsant activity of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber

Yadu Nandan Dey , Sudesh Gaidhani 1 , Shankhajit De 2 , Sarada Ota 1

National Research Institute of Ayurveda and Siddha Human Resource Development, (CCRAS, Dept. of AYUSH, MOHFW), Amkho Gwalior, India, 1 Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and F.W., Govt. of India, Opp. 'D' Block, Janakpuri, New Delhi, India, 2 Vinayaka Missons Sikkim College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vinayaka Missons Sikkim University, NH 31-A, Tadong-737102, East Sikkim, India

Objective: The objective of the current study is to screen different extracts of the tuber of A. paeoniifolius for anticonvulsant activity. Method: Assesment of anticonvulsant activity was carried out in Swiss Albino mice. Petroleum ether extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius at the dose of 200, 300, 400 mg/kg were used and onsets of convulsion were measured after administration of isoniazid. Diazepam at the dose of 4 mg/kg was used as the standard drug and 5% Tween 80 were used as vehicle for the extracts. Results: Petroleum ether extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius showed dose-dependent activity regarding onset of convulsion as compared with control. From the acute toxicity studies the LD 50 value of the isolated fraction was found to be 2500 mg/kg of body weight in mice when administered intraperitoneally. The phytochemical studies revealed that the petroleum ether extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius contain steroids. Conclusion The findings concluded that the petroleum-ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius showed anticonvulsant activity

NEU-98

Protective effect of nootropic on memory impairment induced by an anti epileptic

Shraddha J. Bennadi, K.L. Krishna

JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagar, Mysore - 570 015, Karnataka, India.

Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of nootropics on memory impairment induced by chronic administration of Zonisamide on mice. Method: The memory impairment of zonisamide was evaluated by Morris water maze model and escape latency time (ELT) and time spent in target quadrant (TSTQ) were observed. The activity of brain acetylcholinesterase was estimated. The drug was administered for 28 days and its effects were evaluated periodically. The protective effects of nootropics wereevaluated while co-administering with zonisamide. The nootropic herb was evaluated for its, in-vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential. The antiepileptic activity of zonisamide was evaluated by MES induced convulsions in mice when administered alone and in combination with nootropics. R esults: The chronic administration of zonisamide was found to cause memory impairment in mice. The ELT was significantly increased, while TSTQ was significantly reduced in zonisamide treated animal when compared with normal group. The determination of brain acetylcholine level supports the memory impairment effect of zonisamide. The co-administration of nootropics has reversed the memory impairment induced by zonisamide. The nootropic herb has shown good antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential.

Conclusion: From our studies it was concluded that, chronic administration of zonisamide has the ability to induce memory impairment. The memory impairment of zonisamide can be minimized by co-administration of nootropics without compromising on its antiepileptic activity.

NEU-99

Antidepressant effects of garlic and black sesame extracts in ovariectomized rats: Involving possible estrogenic and antioxidant mechanism


Bhandare SS, Jaiswal SM, Umap CS , Tembhurne SV

Department of Pharmacology, Sudhakarrao Naik Institute of Pharmacy, Pusad, Dist-Yavatmal - 445 204, Maharashtra, India.

E-mail: Chetan.umap@gmail.com

Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate antidepressant activity of Black Sesame and Garlic extract in Ovariectomized rat. The study was also undertaken to evaluate the possible antioxidant and estrogenic mechanisms in the prevention of depression in present study. Materials and Methods: Treatments of ethanolic extract of Garlic (250 and 500 mg/kg) and petroleum ether extract of Black sesame (500 mg/kg p.o.) were given for three month in one month old bilaterally Ovariectomized rats. Estradiol valerate (0.20 mg/kg) was used as a standard for the determination of estrogenic activity. At the end of study the immobility period in Force Swim Model was measured for the determination of antidepressant activity. For exploring the antioxidant activity thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in terms of lipid peroxidation and estrogenic activity by measuring the serum estrogen level. Results: The result of the present study was found to increase the immobility period in Ovariectomized rats indicates induction of depression, however treatments of Estradiol valerate, garlic and black sesame indicates to significant reduction in the immobility period represent antidepressant activity. The results of antioxidant activity represent to significant decrease in the level of TBARS indicating protective antioxidant mechanism. The studies also indicate to significant increase in the serum estrogen level represents estrogenic action. Conclusion: Thus present study, conclude that Garlic and Black sesame able to prevent the depression in ovariectomy animals. The drugs possibly show the prevention by acting as antioxidant or correcting the level of estrogen in present study so it could be valuable for treating menopausal depression. Key words: Antidepressant, antioxidant, estrogen, ovariectomized

NEU-100

Effect of nimodipine and sildenafil on aluminium chloride induced memory deficit in albino mice

CM Kavitha , Sinha S, Sharma AK

Department of Pharmacology, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune - 411 040, Maharashtra, India.

E-mail: kitts297@yahoo.co.in


Objective : To evaluate the potential of sildenafil and nimodipine in reverting the effect of aluminum chloride on memory in albino mice. Materials and Methods : Swiss male albino mice, aged 3 months, maintained at 85% of their normal weight, were selected after training on 8 arm radial-maze (RAM) and Morris water-maze (MWM) & divided into 5 groups of 6 animals each. All five groups were treated orally with aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 )1000mg/kg/day for 40 days and then the following treatment for next 40 days: Group 1: 1% Gum acacia (vehicle), Group 2: Nimodipine 25mg/kg/day, Group 3: Nimodipine 50mg/kg/day, Group 4: Sildenafil 1mg/kg/day, Group 5: Sildenafil 5mg/kg/day. On 81 st day of experiment, Index of RAM performance (IRAM), running time (RT) in RAM and escape latency (ELT) in MWM were evaluated. Results : In RAM as well as in MWM, no statistically significant difference in IRAM, RT and ELT was observed with the studied doses of nimodipine and sildenafil in comparison to control. Conclusion: Nimodipine at doses of 25mg/kg & 50mg/kg and sildenafil at doses of 1mg/kg & 5mg/kg are not effective in reverting the effects of aluminum chloride on cognitive functions

NEU-101

Evaluation of analgesic activity of Zingier officinale and Cinnamomum zeylanicum in albino mice

Purake RR , Godse AM, Jarag RJ

Department of Pharmacology, Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Pharmacy, Near Chitranagari, Kolhapur - 416 013, Maharashtra, India. E-mail: rohitpurake1626@gmail.com

Objective : To evaluate analgesic activity of Zingiber officinale and Cinnamomum zeylanicu, using Hot Plate Analgesiometer. Materials and Methods : Collection of plant materials and Preparation of extracts: The plants were collected and authenticated. The methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were prepared by the maceration process, and investigated for analgesic activity in albino mice. Cinnamon contains cinnamaldehyde which inhibits nitric oxide production implicated in the inflammatory disease process and also demonstrated inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 catalyzed prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis. Ginger also contains volatile oil, fiber and zingiberene as active chemical constituents. Selection of Animals: Wistar Albino mice were randomly allocated to 4 groups (n=3).Group A (Zingiber officinale), Group B (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Group C (methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale and Cinnamomum zeylanicum) while group D receives Diclofenac sodium which is used as standard drug in dose of 10mg/kg. Analgesic activity was estimated by eddys hot plate Analgesiometer. Protocol approved by IAEC BVCOP Kolhapur (Registered under CPCSEA, New Delhi). Result and Conclusion: Methanolic extracts of both Zingiber officinale and Cinnamomum zeylanicum shows better analgesic activity than individual extract hence, combination of this two extracts shows synergistic analgesic activity.

NEU-102

Evaluation of muscle relaxant activity of aqueous extract of sapindus trifoliatus (pericarp) in swiss albino mice, comparing with that of diazepam

A. Naveen , T. Jayasree

Department of Pharmacology, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India. E-mail: Naveenalasyam@gmail.com

Introduction : Soap nuts (sapindus trifoliatus) have historically been used in folk remedies as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, mucolytic, emetic, contraceptive and for treatment of chlorosis. Antiepileptic drugs cause muscle relaxation by depressing C.N.S. This study evaluates the muscle relaxant action of sapindus trifoliatusis. Objective : To evaluate muscle relaxant activity of aqueous extract of sapindustrifoliatus (pericarp) in Swiss albino mice. The main mechanism of controlling epileptic seizures is due to muscle relaxant action by different mechanisms. Materials and Methods : Swiss albino mice are divided into five groups 10 mice in each group. Group1 is taken as control and normal saline is given orally. In group 2 diazepam 10 mg/kg is given orally. In group 3, 4, 5 sapindus extract is given orally at the dose of 50, 100, 200mg/kg respectively. Muscle relaxant activity is studied by using Rota rod. Rota rod speed is set at 25 rpm and animals were placed one by one on the rotating rod. Swiss albino mice underwent a pretest on the apparatus. Time taken by mice to fall from the rotating rod was noted. Results : 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the time spent by the animals on revolving rod when compared to control (P<0.01). The standard drug (diazepam) also showed significant effect when compared to control (P<0.01). Discussion and Conclusion : There was dose dependent increase in muscle relaxation, maximum with 200mg/kg. Sapindus trifoliatus has muscle relaxant activity.

NEU-103

Non-pharmacological intervention for the treatment of headaches in perimenopausal women


Gayathry Nayak, Pratap Kumar N. 1 , Anjali Rao 2

Departments of Yoga Therapy, 1 OBG, and 2 Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Aim : A study of non-pharmacological intervention of yoga therapy in relieving headaches of perimenopausal women. Materials and Methods : It is a prospective study of 213 perimenopausal women aged between 40 -60 years. They were assigned into two groups, Yoga therapy [n=108] and control group [n=105] who practiced a set of loosening and strengthening exercises designed by expert in physical education meant to provide mild to moderate activity. The intervention schedule was carried out daily for 45 minutes for a period of three months. The pre and post assessment was done by using 'The Green Climacteric Scale' [GCS], a standardized 21 items questionnaire; in that headaches is one of the item. Result : The post intervention GCS score for headaches showed a significant improvement [P<0.001*] in yoga therapy group compared to the control group [P=0.28]. Conclusion : Headache is one of the irritable symptoms of the perimenopausal women which interfere in their quality of life. This study showed that yoga therapy could be one of the beneficial non-pharmacological interventions. It is easy, safe, non-expensive alternative method helping the well-being of large number of perimenopausal women. Hence, it must be encouraged in the regular management of such women.


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PKN-1

Metabolic stability of novel antithrombotic lead candidate CDRI-S002_333 using liver microsomes of different species and their respective genders

*Amrita Saxena, Girish Kumar Jain

Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, India.

*E-mail: amritasaxena5@yahoo.com

Objectives : Prediction of in vivo intrinsic clearance of S002_333, a novel antithrombotic lead molecule through in vitro metabolic stability studies to support its preclinical development. Methods : In vitro metabolic stability of S002_333 and its isomers, S004­_1032 (R) and S007_1558 (S) was carried out using liver microsomes of different species and their respective genders. Liver microsomes were prepared from overnight fasted, euthanized rats and rabbits using ultracentrifugation technique. Protein estimation was done by Lowry method and characterization through positive control, testosterone, a standard CYP3A4 substrate. In vitro half life (t 1/2 ) and intrinsic clearance (CL int ) was evaluated by drug disappearance time profile. A comparative data of in vitro intrinsic clearance was generated through a validated HPLC-UV method using dexamethasone as internal standard. In vitro in vivo extrapolation was performed through "well stirred" liver model for respective isomers in male rabbits. Results : A selective, sensitive, HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for the estimation of novel antithrombotics in in vitro reaction milieu using dexamethasone as internal standard. The response was linear over the concentration range 0.31-10 μM with lower limit of detection of 0.156 μM. The accuracy and precision of the method were within the acceptable limit of ±20% at the lower limit of quantitation and ±15% at other concentrations. Intrinsic clearance of S002_333 was found maximum in female rabbit liver microsomes while S004_1032 and S007_1558 were rapidly metabolized through rat liver microsomes. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study results of male rabbit were quiet similar to that obtained under in vitro conditions in case of S004 _1032 and S007_1558. Conclusion : Metabolic stability studies with rat and rabbit liver microsomes were performed. This data will form the basis for comparison of the data from higher animal species like dog and finally with human data for better correlation. Based upon the results surrogate model for humans will be selected to carry out further metabolic/ pharmacokinetic studies.

PKN-2

Validation of everted rat intestine apparatus to determine permeability of drugs


Pankaj Dixit, Dinesh Kumar Jain, Jacky Dumbwani

College of Pharmacy, IPS Academy, Rajendra Nagar, A.B. Road, Indore- 452012, (M.P.)

Objectve: Everted rat intestine apparatus was reported for the first time in 1980, and since then is routinely used for permeability studies. However, no one has yet attempted its validation. Hence, the objective was to validate the apparatus to determine permeability of drugs. Methods: Validation of apparatus was divided into two parts: one involved measures to determine integrity of barrier during the experiment; other part was concerned with determination of permeability of marker compounds, which were selected on the basis of Biopharmaceutics Classification System. For part I, phenol red was used as a zero permeability marker and its appearance in receiver compartment was considered as failure of the barrier, and the experiment. Metoprolol, propranolol, and atenolol were used as marker drugs. For experiments, adult Wistar rats of either sex were employed. After overnight fast, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and ileum were used after eversion with glass rod. The experiment was performed for 1 h, and drugs were sampled at 5 min interval and analyzed by HPLC. A concentration of 100 μg/ml was employed in the donor compartment. All tissues were subjected to histopathology at the end of the experiment. Results: Mean permeability values (in 10 -4 cm/sec) were found to be 0.94, 1.7, 0.17, for metoprolol, propranolol, and atenolol respectively. These correlated well with effective human permeability of these drugs. Tenfold difference of permeability was observed between high permeability and low permeability compound. Conclusion: The validation of the instrument will help in its systematic use for routine permeability experiments.

PKN-3

Simultaneous determination of curcuminoids by uplc-qtof-ms


S.C. Sharma, M.K. Verma, M.K. Tikoo, R. Anand, R.K. Khajuria, R.K. Johri

PK-PD -Toxicology and Instrumentation Division, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR), Canal Road, Jammu-Tawi, 180001 (J & K).

Objectives : To develop a validated, sensitive, and specific analytical method for simultaneous determination of curcuminoids by UPLC-Qtof MS. Method and Results : In the present investigation a UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of curcuminoids: curcumin (C), demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) has been developed. The analytes were separated on a reverse phase C-18 column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile: 5% acetonitrile in water (75:25, v/v) at a flow rate of 100 ul/min.. The q-ToF- MS was operated under single ion monitoring (SIM) mode using electro spray ionization (ESI) technique with positive ion polarity. The major precursor ions (m+H + ) for the curcuminoids, were at m/z 369.1875, 339.1733 and 309.1619 for (C), (DMC) and (BDMC) respectively. The recovery of analytes from mouse plasma was optimized using solid phase extraction technique. In a total run time of ten minutes the the retention time of (C), (DMC) and (BDMC) was 2.295 min, 2.465 min and 2.674 min respectively. The calibration curves of the analytes were linear in 2-100 ng/ml range. The estimated limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the analytes was 2 ng/ml. Intra -assay and inter- assay accuracy of the analyte was within acceptable limits. Conclusion : The method is sensitive, specific for bioanalytical determinations and may find application in pharmacokinetic studies as well as for the determination of curcuminoids in unknown samples.


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RDU-1

To study prescription pattern in lower caesarian section(LSCS) in a tertiary care teaching hospital

Rupinder Kaur , Mohd Tariq Salman, Uma Gupta 1 , V.K. Verma, Ali

Department of Pharmacolgy, Era's Lucknow Medical College, Sarfarzganj, Hardoi Road, Lucknow, 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Era's Lucknow Medical College, Sarfarzganj, Hardoi Road, Lucknow

Objectives: To study prescription pattern in lower segment caesarian section (LSCS) in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: Patients (n=127) undergoing LSCS admitted under obstetrics and gynecology ward at Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital between januray 2010 to December 2010 were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Preoperative prescription orders were studied according to WHO criteria for rational use of drugs (INRUD) for number of drugs, injections and antimicrobials prescribed per prescription, number of antimicrobials prescribed by generic names and number of drugs prescribed from the WHO Model list of Essential Medicines (EML) 15 th Edition. Cost to patient on antimicrobials was also studied. The above data were complied, scored and analyzed using WHO guidelines. Result: Average number of drugs prescribed per patient was 3.63 ± 0.79 out of which 3.49 ± 0.57 were injections and 1.07±0.32 were antimicrobials. Majority of antimicrobials were not prescribed by generic names. Most of the drugs (68.37 ±8.29) were from WHO EML. Cost to patient on antimicrobials was INR 52.25±42.39. Commonly prescribed drugs were 3rd generation cephalosporins, antiemetics and benzodiazepines. Most patients received a single antimicrobial agent. Conclusion: Majority of prescription were found to be in accordance with WHO criteria for rational use of drug expect for prescription by generic name. However, surgical prophylaxis was inappropriate in terms of choice of antimicrobial agent and timing of administration. Interventions are warranted to promote the development, dissemination and adoption of evidence based guidelines for antimicrobials prophylaxis and prescription by generic names.

RDU-2

Pattern of cutaneous adverse drug reactions due to the use of fixed-dose drug combinations

Radhika M. Sherkhane , Priyadarshini Kop

Department of Pharmacology, SDM College of Medical Sciences & Hospital, Dharwad- 580009.

Objectives : In view of the fact that fixed dose drug combinations (FDCs), possess a high risk of causing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) compared to a drug used individually, the present study was conducted with the objective of assessing the pattern of ADRs caused to the use of FDCs in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A prospective, spontaneous ADR reporting study was conducted for a period of two years at SDM medical college, Dharwad. ADRs reported due suspected FDC use, from various departments were recorded using the CDSCO forms and were evaluated for causality, severity and preventability using the WHO probability scale, modified Hartwig scale and modified Schumock and Thornton scale respectively. Results: A total of 30 ADRs were reported due to FDCs, of which 19 (63.34%) occurred in males. 29 (96.67%) of the ADRs were dermatological reactions. 19 (63.34%) were due to use of irrational FDCs. 7 (23.33%) were serious life threatening reactions which included Steven Johnson syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Majority of ADRs were due to FDCs of antimicrobials 18 (60%) and NSAIDs 6 (20%). The commonest ADR observed was fixed drug eruption 11 (36.67%), one of which was a disseminated reaction. Conclusion: Injudicious use of FDCs especially of commonly used antimicrobials and NSAIDs can lead to serious ADRs. Such ADRs pose a definite threat for future use of the ingredients of FDCs in these patients as the suspected drug causing the ADR cannot be definitely identified in the combination. Hence, caution should be exercised while prescribing FDCs.

RDU-3

Incidence of medication errors in tertiary care centre

P. Elango , T. Martha Mary, Balaji Singh, J. Damodharan, S. Seetalakshmi

Dr. P. Elango, Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai - 116.

Objectives: To screen and analyse medication errors to ensure safe medication. Medication errors are reported to PATC for remedial action. Methods: Medication safety nurse and Clinical pharmacists are deployed in patient care areas and the medication processes are closely monitored. Medication errors are collected through Adverse Drug Reaction Form and the errors are reported to PATC for remedial action. To ensure safe medication more than 20 policies are framed and implemented in all areas of the hospital. Medication errors are considered as five Quality Indicators. They are Medication defaults (MD), Adverse drug reactions (ADR), Delay in dispensing the drugs (DD), No of stock critical medicine (SCM) and Rate of antibiotic usage (AU).Prescription errors, transcription errors, dispensing errors and administration errors are brought under Medication defaults. We considered medication errors from January 2009 to August 2011 (32 months) for this study. Results: Quality Indicators in these 32 months are MD:2142, ADR:205, DD:14702, SCM:8/283 and AU:2370.52 from 1219642 prescriptions for 77685 discharges. Conclusions: This observations showed increased incidence of errors and finally it has come to the low levels due to better awareness and strict auditing and education to medication personals. Our hospital has been recognized with Joint commotion International accreditation.

RDU-4

A descriptive study of psychotropic drug utilization in elderly psychiatry inpatients

Sudarshan Reddy C , Ashwin Kamath, Bhimeesh Naidu, Miralidhar

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore - 575001

Objectives : A descriptive study of psychotropic drug utilization in elderly psychiatry inpatients. Methods : The case record files of all psychiatry inpatients ≥ 60 years of age admitted over a period of two years were studied. The demographic details, drugs prescribed on hospital admission and at discharge were recorded. The difference in drug utilization between the genders was ascertained using chi-square test. Use of more than one psychotropic drug was considered as polypharmacy. Results: Out of 78 elderly patients, 59% were females. The most commonly used drugs psychotropic drugs were antipsychotic (71.8%) followed by anxiolytics (44.9%). There was no statistical difference in psychotropic drug utilization between males and females. On discharge 50% of the patients received more than one psychotropic drug. Conclusion : There was no difference in psychotropic drug utilization with regard to gender. Antipsychotics were the most commonly used psychotropics.

RDU-5

Knowledge of pharmacology after undergraduate and on-going internship training at tertiary teaching hospital: A pilot study.

Prabhulingayy S.B. , Yasmeen A.M., Arati C., Umamageswari M.S.

Department of Pharmacology, S N Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess how adequately the undergraduate Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic (CPT) teaching had prepared interns for safe and rational prescribing and retrospectively to know how they wanted their curriculum to be modified so as to improve appropriate prescribing. Methods: A total of 50 interns were randomly selected from the S.Nijalingappa medical College and H.S.K Hospital Bagalkot Navanagar, Karnataka India. A structured questionnaire was the instrument of study. The questionnaire sought information about the demographics of the interns, their undergraduate CPT teaching, experience of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and drug interactions since starting work, confidence in drug usage and retrospectively perceived deficiencies in their undergraduate CPT teaching. Results: The response rate was 80%.All the respondents graduated from the S N Medical College; Bagalkot. The ability of the interns to prescribe rationally (33, 82.5%) and safely (26, 65%) was provided by undergraduate CPT teaching. Twenty three (57.5%) respondents had problems with prescription writing. The interns would likely prescribe Antibiotics (36, 90%), Nonsteroidal analgesics (33, 82.5%), Diuretics (28, 70%), Sedatives (26, 65%), and Insulin and Oral hypoglycaemics (22, 55%) with confidence and unsupervised. The higher the numbers of clinical rotations done, the more confident were the respondents to prescribe unsupervised (x 2 = 19.98, P< 0.001). Similarly, respondents who had rotated through the four major clinical rotations and at least aspecial posting (x 2 = 11.57, P< 0.001) or four major clinical rotations only (x 2 = 11.25, P< 0.001) were significantly more confident to prescribe drugs unsupervised. Conclusions: Medical students and interns should be periodically assessed on prescribing knowledge and skills during their training as a means of minimizing prescribing errors.

RDU-6

Detection of inappropriate prescriptions in older people using screening tool stopp

Yogita Karandikar , Mansi Sharma, Siddhartha Chaudhari, V.A. Pandit

B.V.D.U.Medical College, Pune-Satara Road, Pune-51.

Objective: Rational drug, though important at all ages, becomes more relevant in elderly. Given the high prevalence of inappropriate prescriptions and related adverse drug events, the present study was undertaken with the aim of finding out the pattern of drugs use and incidence of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) and related condition in elderly people. Material and method: Present study is an observational cross-sectional study, carried out in tertiary care hospital with age above 65 years. Data was collected using detailed indicators, and prescribing indicator form as per WHO. STOPP along with START criteria was applied to detect inappropriate prescriptions. Result: The result revels that a total of 22% potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) and 11% potentially Prescribing Omissions (PPO) were found. Most commonly found PIM were calcium channel blockers with chronic constipation, NSAIDS with hypertension, Beta Blockers with diabetes mellitus and the commonest PPO was stains for diabetic patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Increasing age and polypharmacy are important risk factors associated with inappropriate medications. Only 4.7% drugs were given by generic name and 67% were from Essential Drug List (EDL). Conclusion: Therefore STOPP/START criteria may be used not only to enhance prescribing decisions in elderly patients but also as an audit measure of appropriate prescribing. Application of such screening tool to prescribing decision may reduce the use of unnecessary drugs, related adverse drug events, hospital admissions and cost.

RDU-7

Pattern of drug use in acute fever by General Practitioners (GPs) in Pune city

S. G. Beri, V. A. Pandit, K. S. Khade, K.D. Sarda

1013/2 Swastik Housing Society, Near Deep Bungalow, Pune 411016, Maharashtra.

Objectives : 1) To determine WHO Prescribing Core Drug Use (PCDU) indicators in management of Acute Fever (less than 2 weeks duration) by MBBS(Allopathic) and BAMS(Ayurvedic) GPs in Pune city. 2) To verify the Appropriateness of the treatment 3) To compare the above parameters of MBBS and BAMS practitioners. Methods: Pune city was divided in five zones, north, south, east, west and central. List of doctors was obtained from Indian Medical Association and was divided zone wise. 2 MBBS and 2 BAMS GPs. were selected/zone. The Informed consent was obtained from GPs. Sample size was 20 encounters/GP. Patients of all ages and both sexes suffering from fever of less than 2 weeks duration were included in the study. Indicators studied were 1) WHO Prescribing Core Drug Use indicators and 2) Complimentary drug use indicators for appropriateness of the treatment. Results: 1) Age, sex and diagnosis wise distribution of patients were comparable in both groups. 2) In WHO PCDU indicators, highly significant difference was observed in average number of drugs prescribed, antibiotic usage and injections prescribed among MBBS and BAMS GPs. 3) Use of Drugs from EDL and generic drugs was comparable in both groups. 4) Marked irrationality was found in injectable antimicrobials by BAMS GPs. 5) Selection of antimicrobials was inappropriate in 64.14% and 17.5% encounters by BAMS and MBBS GPs respectively. Conclusion: BAMS GPs: WHO prescribing core drug use indicators, all significantly abnormal, inappropriate prescriptions, alarmingly high (92%), MBBS GPs WHO prescribing indicators, more use of antimicrobials, and proportion of inappropriate prescriptions is less (42%).

RDU-8

Study of financial implication of prescriptions in acute fever by medical practitioners in Pune city

K.D. Sarda , V.A. Pandit, S.G. Beri, K.S. Khade

Department of Pharmacology, Bharati Vidyapeeth University Medical College, Pune- 411043.

Objective: To determine average cost per prescription, compare cost for different groups of drugs per prescription and average cost per prescription as per diagnosis. Methodology: MBBS and BAMS medical practitioners registered with Indian Medical Association, Pune were divided according to their area of practice into North, South, East, West and Central zones of Pune city. 2 practitioners per zone as per qualification were selected randomly, 20 encounters of acute fever were collected from each practitioner. Data was collected using questionnaire similar to case record sheet. It was analyzed to calculate the cost a) per prescription b) cost per drug groups like Antimicrobials, NSAIDs, Antihistaminics, Acid reducing agents, etc. c) cost per prescription as per diagnosis. Result: Data was analyzed using Chi-square test. The average cost per prescription of BAMS practitioners was Rs 117.29 where as that of MBBS was Rs 87.39. Group and diagnosis wise cost per prescription was significantly higher in BAMS GPs in comparison to MBBS GPs. Conclusion: Financial implication of prescriptions in acute fever was much higher with BAMS as compared to MBBS medical practitioners.

RDU-9

Comparison of patient compliance and pharmacoeconomic profile of fluoroquinolone therapy: A prospective, randomized, hospital based study

Patel JR , Jha RK, Gupta VK, Kaikade SB, Ghia CJ, Giri KR.

Department of Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha-442004, Maharashtra, India.

Objectives : To study the pharmacoeconomic profile of commonly prescribed fluoroquinolones in Medicine OPD of Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha. Materials and Methods : A prospective study was conducted in Out-Patient Department of Medicine from 1st May 2011 to 30th June 2011 at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra. A total no. of 574 patients of Medicine OPD were considered for this study. The commonly prescribed brands of fluoroquinolones were sorted out and the pharmacoeconomic profile of therapy was analysed critically. Patient compliance of the therapy was assessed on the basis of in depth interviews of patients as well as clinicians. Results : Total no. of prescribed fluoroquinolones among all prescribed antibiotics were 193. The percentage of prescribed fluoroquinolones was 33.62. Most commonly used fluoroquinolones were ofloxacin (36.79%) in gastroenteritis, norfloxacin (29.02%) in gastroenteritis, ciprofloxacin (19.17%) in urinary tract infections and levofloxacin (15.02%) in lower respiratory tract infections. Some fluoroquinolones like pefloxacin, lomefloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, prulifloxacin were not used in Medicine OPD. Most commonly prescribed brands were O2 (23.31%) and Zenflox-OZ (13.47%) which contains ofloxacin (200 mg) and ornidazole (500 mg). The cost effectiveness and patient compliance of the commonly used brands were analysed statistically. Conclusion : Zenflox-OZ therapy is more cost effective in comparison to O2 therapy but the patient compliance of O2 therapy is better than that of Zenflox-OZ therapy.

RDU-10

Knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers regarding diarrhoea and drug prescibing patterns for the same in outpatient department of paediatrics of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Wardha district

Gupta C , Nema P, Patel J, Gupta V, Ahmed T

Department of Pharmacology, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra - 442004, India

Objectives: 1.To study attitude and practice of mothers regarding diarrhoea in children. 2) To study the prescribing trends for diarrhoea in paediatric outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methodology: A prospective study was conducted on 150 children and mothers accompanying them. Data was collected on a specified questionnaire after interviewing the mothers accompanying the children. The information was collected regarding their approach towards management of diarrhoea such as feeding practices, use of ORS, how to prepare ORS, whether or not continued feeding, whether used any drugs during current acute diarrhea episode, etc. Prescription sheets of these 150 patients were then studied. The data was then analysed on Microsoft Office Excel using appropriate statistical tools. Results: Only few mothers knew that microorganisms were the cause of diarrhoea. About three fourth of them preferred to visit doctors. 28 % mothers preferred to give increased amout of fluid to children. 32% mothers knew about ORS but only 11 of them knew correct procedure for its preparation. Also it was observed that ORS was prescribed to 84.6% (127) children, antibacterials to 74.6% (112), antiamoeabics to 20.6% (31), antidiarrhoeals to 4.6% (7) children. Cotrimoxazol and albendazole were the most frequently prescribed antibacterial and antamoebic respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers is not satisfactory but health education to the target population regarding early case management of childhood diarrhea may lead to decrease in diarrheal morbidity and mortality. These results indicate excessive prescription of antibacterials, antiamoebics and antidiarrhoeals. Intervention strategies need to be planned to improve the prescribing practices. Also awareness of low cost prescribing practices should be initiated among prescribers because a large percentage of patients visiting this hospital are from poor background.

RDU-11

Prescription analysis of antibiotics and their resistance in acute otitis media

Kaur G , Singh J, Sharma D, Rai J, Kaur I

Govt. Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab-143001.

Objective: To find out commonly prescribed antibiotics in treatment of AOM and comparative evaluation of their effectiveness and cost.To isolate prevalent organisms and their resistance pattern. Methods: In this prospective, open label, randomized and comparative study, 44 patients with diagnosis of AOM were included in accordance with prescribed criteria. Data on antibiotics used was collected from the prescriptions. Culture and antibiotic sensitivity of ear discharge was done on day 0 to find out the prevalent causative organisms and their sensitivity pattern to various antibiotics. Patients were assessed clinically on day 10. Results: Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic followed by cefixime, cefpodoxime, azithromycin and cefdinir. Although the treatment failure was maximum with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (43.75%) but the difference was not statistically significant within any two groups. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44.4%) was the most predominant isolate followed by Staph. aureus, coagulase negative Staph and H. influenza. Maximum sensitivity was seen with amikacin (83.33%) followed by gentamicin (61.11%). 40% of Pseudomonas showed resistance to 3 rd generation cephalosporins and 80% of Staph aureus to methicillin respectively. Treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was most expensive, followed by cephalosporins and azithromycin. Conclusion: Current treatment regimens consist of single antibiotic . Unlike previous reports, gram negative bacilli were found to be the main causative organisms of AOM in this study. Therefore treatment with commonly used antibiotics like amoxicillin/clavulanic acid resulted in treatment failure. The increased resistance to antibiotics further led to an increase in the overall cost of treatment. Thus there is a need to re-evaluate the management of AOM by choosing an antibiotic considering its cost, compliance and bacterial resistance in a particular region.

RDU-12

A study on rational use of acid suppressive medications in Medical inpatients of a tertiary care hospital

R. Jayachandiran , R. Nandini, A.C. Yegneshwaran

II yr MD Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Madras Medical College, Chennai-03

Objectives: To evaluate the use and indications of acid suppressive medications for medical inpatients in a tertiary care hospital and their associated cost impact. Methods: This study is based on a review of the patients' Medical Records for the usage of ASMs namely Histamine-2 receptor Antagonist (H2RAs) and Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) in patients admitted to the medical wards of Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Chennai from June through August 2011.The review included the type of ASMs used, dose, duration, cost and indications for use. Justification for the usage of Acid Suppressive Medication was based on the American society of Health System Pharmacist (ASHP) Therapeutic guidelines on Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved prescribing information. Results: Data was collected from 500 patients admitted in the Medical Ward, of which 338(67.6%) were males and 162(32.4%) were females. Ranitidine was the most frequently used drug (73%),followed by Omeprazole(23.6%) and Pantoprazole(3.4%).Based upon ASHP and FDA criteria, the usage of ASMs was justified in 204(40.8%) patients whereas 296(59.2%) patients received ASMs without any justified indication. Among patients treated with ASMs for justified use, only 64(12.8%) patients received therapy for Duodenal Ulcer/Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed. 112(22.4%) received ASM for Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Prophylaxis. Total cost spent on ASMs was Rs.6333 of which Rs.2086 (32.9%) was for non-justified indication. The cost of ASMs drugs alone was taken into account for calculating the cost analysis. Conclusion: ASMs are prescribed in the majority of these patients without justified indication.

RDU-13

Prescricbing pattern of medicine for acute diarrhoea in children up to 12 years in Indira Gandhi Govt. Medical College, Nagpur: A cross-sectional prescription analysis


Ganesh Dakhale, Mohini Mahatme, Sachin Hiware, Anoop Salve, Abhihit Shinde, Sumit Wankhede

Department of Pharmacology, Above Dean's Office, Indira Gandhi Govt. Medical College, Mayo Hospital, C A road, Nagpur, Maharashtra-440018, India

Objectives : The aim of this study was to analyse practitioners' prescriptions for acute diarrhoea for adherence to treatment guidelines and further to determine the factors affecting prescribing for diarrhoea in Indira Gandhi Govt. Medical College, Nagpur, India. Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted in paediatric OPD of IGGMC, Nagpur. The data collection instrument was designed to include all the possible medications that were given for an episode of acute diarrhoea to children up to 12 years of age. Information was collected regarding the current diarrhoeal episode and the treatment given from the prescriptions and inpatient case sheets and entered into the data collection instrument. Results: Information was collected from 564 prescriptions. It was found that only 16(3%) prescriptions having the recommended treatment with ORS along with Zinc, with no additional probiotics, antibiotics, antipyretics or antiemetics. ORS alone was prescribed in 3.54% of the prescriptions; while ORS with zinc was prescribed in 44% of prescriptions, however these also contained other drugs not included in the guidelines. Antibiotics were prescribed in 30% of prescriptions, while probiotics, antipyretics, antiemetics and I.V fluids were prescribed in 69%, 64%, 22% and 6% prescriptions respectively. Accompanying symptoms like fever, pain, blood in stool and vomiting significantly increased antibiotic prescribing. Conclusion: This study demonstrated low adherence to standard treatment guidelines for the management of acute diarrhoea in children under 12 years in IGGMC, Nagpur. To improve case management of acute diarrhoea, continuing profession development programme targeting the practitioners is necessary.

RDU-14

Evaluation of psychotropic drug use pattern among out patients attending Psychiatry Department at tertiary care hospital in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra

A. V. Dawari, Sarang Deshmukh, M.M. Bende, S. S. Dudhagaonkar

Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur.

Objective : To evaluate prescribing pattern of psychotropic medications in psychiatric departmental OPD, at a tertiary care hospital in Nagpur, Maharashtra. Material and Methods : In a prospective observational survey patients aged 21-50 yrs from 20 Oct 2010 to 9 March 2011(22wks) (515 prescriptions of new patients) were collected irrespective of age, sex and diagnosis and were analyzed for following parameters using WHO-drug-use indicator. A. Average number of drugs per prescription B. Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic names C. Percentage of FDC D. Most commonly prescribed drug/class E. Percentage of drugs from EDL/NEDL. F. OFF label use drugs G. Cost. Results : 515 prescriptions revealed the following: Number of drugs per prescription was 3.98%, schizophrenia was the most common illness (21.55%), 21-35 yr was the age group prescribed psychotropics, females received more antidepressants (43.10%), commonly prescribed classed was antidepressants (60.38%) and drug was olanzepine (26.6%), FDCs were 17.86% (antipsychotic +anti cholinergic=17.86%), all prescriptions used brand names (100%), Average cost per prescription was 68.33, off label use of SSRI was 10.29%, divalprovex(100%) used in high dose and of 43 classes 12 drugs were from WHO/NED list. Conclusion : Periodic therapeutic audit is essential to effective to rational drug use to produce rational prescribers.

RDU-15

Prescribing pattern of antihypertensives in geriatric and non geriatric individuals - A comparative study

Reshma S.R. Narendranath S, H.S. Somashekar, Keerthi Sagar J, Susheela Somappa Halemani, Naveen Kumar M.

Department of Pharmacology, JJM Medical College, Davangere - 577004

Objective: Analysis of prescribing pattern of antihypertensivesin geriatric and non geriatricindividual. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in an outpatient and in-patient department of general medicine at JJM Medical College hospital, Davangere for a period of 3 months (July 2011 to September 2011). Prescriptions of the patients were collected and relevant data was entered in the preformed proforma and analyzed. R esults: A total of 210 prescriptions were analyzed using Chi square test. Out of 81 prescriptions in non geriatric hypertensive individuals 27 received calcium channel blockers (34%), 17 beta blockers (21%), 9 angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (11%), 7 angiotensin receptor blockers (8%) and 10 fixed drug combinations of angiotensin receptor blockers and hydrochlorthiazide (12.5%). Prescriptions of 129 geriatric age group patients had 30 calcium channel blockers(23%), 26 beta blockers (20%), 22 angiotensin receptor blockers (17%), 12 angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (9%) and 20 fixed drug combinations of angiotensin receptor blockers and hydrochlorthiazide (15%). [χ2 =4.92, p=0.43]. Conclusion: The present study shows that the prescribing pattern does not differ depending on the age of the individual rather it depends on duration and severity of the illness and co morbid conditions. Calcium channel blockers are commonly prescribed drugs in both geriatric and non geriatric individuals. Angiotensin receptor blockers alone or in combination with hydrochlorthiazide are increasingly prescribed in geriatric individuals in the present study.

RDU-16

Prescription pattern of antihypertensives at a tertiary care hospital

Susheela Somappa Halemani , Narendranath S, H.S. Somashekar, Reshma S.R, Keerthi Sagar J, Ramachandra K.

Department of Pharmacology, JJM Medical College, Davangere - 577004

Objective: Analysis of the prescription pattern of antihypertensive use at a tertiary care hospital using DU-90% study. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted for a period of three months (July 2011-September2011) among the out patients and in patients admitted to medicine department at JJM Medical College, Davangere. Prescriptions were collected from the patient's records and relevant data entered into a preformed proforma and analyzed. Results : A total of two hundred and ten (210) prescriptions were analyzed and usage of 27 different types of antihypertensives were found. The present study shows that monotherapy, multidrug therapy and fixed drug combinations as well was used. DU-90% is constituted mainly by different antihypertensives among which major contribution is by amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker which constitutes 22%, telmisartan an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARBs) 14%, metaprolol β-blocker13.5%, fixed drug combination of telmisartan (ARBs) with hydrochlorthiazide diuretic 10.5% and ramipril angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor 8.5%. Conclusion: DU-90% has figured totally 15 different antihypertensives among which higher percentage of patients were initiated with amlodipine followed by telmisartan and metoprolol among various drugs used monotherapeutically. Telmisartan with hydrochlorthiazide forms the major fixed drug combination reflected in the present study.

RDU-17

Rational Drug Use

Rahul Saxena , S.K. Yadav, Matadeen Bharti, R.C. Saxena.

Rahul Saxena, 136-Block Colony, Dharphale Niwas, Vidisha (M.P.) Pin- 464001

Objectives: Main objective was to put highlights on the rational drug use, discussing various drug use problems (irrational use), Interventions to improve drug usage and its impact on public health and economic consequences. Methods: Rational drug use attained more significance nowadays in terms of medical, socio economical and legal aspect. Factors that have led sudden realization for rational drug use such as identifying the patient's problem, diagnosis of the disease, list out the possible intervention or treatment, educating the patient with instruction and warnings regarding treatment given etc. should be monitored. These factors also helps in identifying and eliminating causes of irrational drug use mainly on the community, healthcare and national level. The various effects on irrational use of drug has also been explained and an overview of different intervention material and approaches and what is known about their impact on drug prescribing and use. Conclusions: There is a compelling need for public education, as indiscriminate use of drugs not only waste scarce resources, but also leads to drug induced disease. The drug control authority, the teaching institutes, drug industries, N.G.O and the patient himself may be responsible for irrational drug use. More intervention research is needed on drugs which are not essential but widely prescribed and utilized. Thus the education of the patient and provision of basic health information to the public is an integral part of any rational drug use program.

RDU-18

Analysis of availability of pediatric medicines and perception about them among prescribers at a tertiary care teaching hospital

Jain KP , Desai MK, Shah SP, Dikshit RK.

Department of Pharmacology, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad-380016.

Objectives: Traditionally, adult dosage forms are fragmented to treat pediatric patients due to the poor availability of child friendly formulations in public health facilities. The present study was undertaken to assess the availability of pediatric medicines and the perception about them among the prescribers at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Method: The information on availability of pediatric dosage forms was obtained from hospital drug store and recorded. Each medicine with dosage form and strength was listed separately and compared with WHO Essential Medicines list for Children (EMLc). Pediatricians were interviewed with the help of a validated questionnaire regarding their practice, perception of pediatric formulations, etc. The data was entered in Excel sheet and analyzed. Results: Out of 27 drug groups listed in WHO EMLc, a large deficiency was observed in chemotherapeutic (47%), dermatological (65%), gastrointestinal (50%) and ophthalmic preparations (100%). Out of 258 pediatric medicines and 405 dosage forms, only 144 (55.8%) and 169 (41.7%) respectively were available. Out of 23 key tracer medicines, only 17 were available. A marked deficiency in oral solid (70%) and liquid dosage forms (89%) was observed. Analysis of structured interview showed that 84% of prescribers used fragmented adult formulations for children, 60% observed poor clinical response, 64% experienced drug administration problem, 44% recommended appropriate supply of pediatric dosage forms especially in case of azithromycin, co-amoxiclav, zinc sulfate, phenobarbitone and 28% suggested separate EMLc. Conclusion: The availability of pediatric medicines and oral liquid dosage forms was inadequate at the studied teaching hospital. Pharmacologically, children areseparate group and their needs should be addressed by including child friendly formulations in EML or having separate EMLc.

RDU-19

Prescribing pattern of NSAID in orthopedic OPD of an Indian tertiary care teaching hospital of Maharashtra in Wardha district

Nema Pallavi , Gupta C.

Pharmacology Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra, INDIA 442004

Objectives: 1. To study the pattern of prescription of NSAID in Orthopedic OPD of AVBRH, Wardha. 2. Recording demographic characteristics such as age, sex, diagnosis. 3. Analysis of NSAID utilization ([DU] 90%). Methods: This was a drug utilization study conducted in Orthopedic OPD from May 2011to August 2011.Demographic Characteristics were recorded. We also analyzed the NSAID utilization that accounted for 90% of drug use. (DU 90%) Result: Out of the 500 prescriptions screened, 300 patients received NSAIDs (215 males, 85 females). Diclofenac most commonly prescribed NSAID (36%) followed by Ibuprofen + paracetamol, Aceclofenac, Nimesulide, Ibuprofen, piroxicam, Indomethacin, Etoricoxib, Celecoxib. Five out of nine NSAIDs werefound in DU 90% segment. Ibuprofen + paracetamol was the most common fixed dose combination. There was no significant difference in analgesic prescription between males and females. Diclofenac was given more amongyounger patient Fracture was the most common condition for which NSAID was prescribed followed by osteoarthritis, cervical spondylosis, backache and sprain. Conclusion : Our study reveals that the most commonly prescribed NSAID is Diclofenac. The use of selectiveCoxibs has decreased in spite of their gastro protective advantage. Drugs like Diclofenac, Ibuprofen + paracetamolas fixed dose combination, Aceclofenac, Nimesulide and Ibuprofen as monotherapy were responsible for 90% prescription i.e were found in DU 90% segment.

RDU-20

Prescribing patterns in dental practice

Manasa CR , Padma L, Asha P Dass, Ranjani Ramanujam

Dr. B.R Ambedkar, Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka

Objective: Since there is a minimal knowledge on drug prescribing habits among dentists in general, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the prescribing patterns in dental practice. Material and Methods: 500 prescriptions of dental patients attending the dental outpatient departments at Dr.B.R.A.M.C, Bangalore were collected every day between Sep 2010 to Feb 2011. Results: Males numbered 215 (43%) and females 285 (57%). Most of the patients were aged between 13-25 years. The dental disorders most frequently reported in our study were diseases of pulp and periapical tissue (17%), periodontal disease (39%), and dental caries (10%), tooth extraction (13%), RCT (21%). Most commonly prescribing drugs are antimicrobials (66%) and analgesics (44%) namely amoxicillin and diclofenac, respectively. These drugs were prescribed for only 2-3 days which is inadequate. Conclusions: After reviewing the above prescription patterns, it was found that pattern of prescribing the drugs was not rational depending on the WHO criteria for rational use of drugs. Thus there is a clear need for the development of prescribing guidelines and educational initiatives to encourage the rational and appropriate use of drugs in dentistry.

RDU-21

Drug utilization study in the inpatients of Paediatric Department of Guru Gobind Singh Hospital, Jamnagar, Gujarat


Patel NM, Chavda DA, Trivedi HR, Singh A

Department of Pharmacology, M.P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat-361008.

Objectives: To identify pattern of drug use in the Inpatients of Paediatric Ward and to identify problems in drug utilization. Methods: A Cross-sectional prospective and observational study was carried out in the Paediatric inpatients department of G.G.H, Jamnagar from October 2010 to March 2011. All patients with age <12 years and either gender were included in the study while patients with uncertain diagnosis, referred indoor cases from other department and patients referred to higher-centre, discharged against medical advice were excluded. All information was recorded into the pretested Case Record Form (CRF). At the end of the study, all data was analyzed by suitable statistical test. Results: Total 630 patients including 391 (62.02%) males and 239 (37.94%) females were enrolled. The average age of the patient was 3.95 ± 3.15 years. The majority of children were prescribed 5 to 6 drugs. Total encounters with an antibiotic prescribed were 558 (88.57%). 64.44% drugs were prescribed from WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children, 2007. 61.89% drugs were given by generic name and 38.11% were given by brand name. Oral drugs were prescribed in 66.10% patients while injectable in 33.90%. The length of hospital stay was 4.89 ± 8.56 days. Conclusion: The incidence of poly pharmacy was high.Irrational prescriptions were few. The present healthcare can be improved by advocating rational drug prescribing, patient education and improving the facilities.

RDU-22

A cross-sectional study of prescribing patterns in end stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis in a tertiary care hospital

Divyashree. M , C R Jayanthi

Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Malleshwaram, Bangalore

Objective: To analyze the prescriptions in patients with End stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study of prescribing patterns in 100 ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis at Institute of Nephrourology, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute. ESRD patients on peritoneal dialysis, Acute renal failure patients, patients with Chronic kidney disease stages I, II and III on conservative management, renal graft failure patients, medications of other systems of medicine and self-medications were not included in this study. Data was collected on an everyday basis from the case-sheets of patients undergoing hemodialysis. Data collected includes socio-demographic data, etiology and duration of ESRD, significant medical history. All medications prescribed along with the dose, route of administration and duration were recorded. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the results. Results: Among 100 patients taken in the study, 34 were females and 66 were males. Total number of drugs prescribed was 747. Average number of drugs per prescription was 7.47. Majority of the drug groups prescribed belonged to Cardiovascular system (27.84%) followed by Anaemia medications including Erythropoeitin and Iron preparations (11.24%), Gastro-intestinal medications (10.97%), Vitamins/minerals (7.89%), Diuretics (7.22%), Drugs for endocrine disorders including Anti-Diabetic drugs (6.29%). Antihypertensives were the most prescribed drugs (24.36%) among which Nifedipine was commonest (7.76%). Other commonly used drugs were Erythropoeitin (7.76%) and Furosemide (6.82%). Antibiotics formed 1.74% of prescriptions. Common route of administration was oral(83.4%) followed by subcutaneous (11.91%) and intravenous (3.88%). 72.55% of drugs prescribed were from the essential drug list. 98% of drugs were prescribed using brand names. Conclusion: This study shows higher average number of drugs per prescription (5 or above amounts to polypharmacy) which gives a scope for review and educational intervention in prescribing practice. However the prescription of drugs which are not in essential drug list and that of antibiotics is lower, which is encouraging. Prescribing in generic names should be improved in our hospital as it reduces the cost of treatment and medication errors.

RDU-23

Prescription audit for rational fixed dose combinations in Pune

Yogendra Keche , Radha Yegnanarayan 1 , Anjali Pillay 2 , Vaibhav Patil 2 , Gargi Patil 2 , Renuka Dangare 2

Lecturer, Department of Pharmacology; 1 Professor and Head, Department of Pharmacology, 2 II MBBS Students, Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College and General Hospital, Narhe Ambegaon, Pune - 411041

Objective : This study was carried out in various hospitals to analyze the use of rational fixed dose combinations (FDCs) in Pune. Method: 279 prescriptions were evaluated in this study. Information about age, sex, names of the all the drugs prescribed by doctor/ physician, diagnosis for the use of prescription and adverse effects were noted in the audit form from the prescriptions of the patients. Rationality of fixed dose combination is evaluated according to WHO Model List of Essential Drugs, 17 th updated version, 2011. Results: 56.98% doctor's prescriptions in this study were containing of fixed dose combinations and out of this 10.69% prescriptions were including two or more FDCs in their prescriptions. Only 13.20% FDCs were in accordance with WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Nutrients (vitamins, iron), analgesic, antiulcer and antiemetic FDCs were commonly prescribed in Pune. Analysis of the prescriptions of our teaching hospital and other private non-teaching hospitals had shown that more number of FDCs were prescribed by Private hospitals. 64.61% prescriptions of private hospitals and 34.08% prescription of teaching hospital were containing more than one drug. 26.66% of nutrients FDCs had caused ADRs. Conclusions: This study has shown that about every alternate prescription contains FDC. More than 85% of prescribed FDCs are not in accordance with Essential Drugs List. Nutrients FDCs should be prescribed judiciously as they are not free from ADRs. More number of drugs (poly-pharmacy) and FDCs were prescribed by non teaching private hospitals.

RDU-24

Gaining insight into rationality of Fixed Drug Combination in clinical practice through Information, Education & Communication for medical students


Regina Roy, Alice Kuruvilla

Department of Pharmacology, Karuna Medical College, Vilayodi, Chittoor, Palakkad, Kerala.

Objectives: To bring about awareness of FDC through education and information and to analyse their rationality. Materials and Methods: Students of 2 nd Year MBBS were selected for conducting the study. Their basal knowledge was assessed through an objective-type pre-test, comprising of 15 questions about FDC. A standard proforma was devised and the data was collected by attending OP, visiting IP wards and through interaction with patients. Students also gathered information about FDC from medical indexes such as CIMS, MIMS and IDR. The period of study was for 2 months, which was followed by a post-test to assess the change in awareness level. FDC data collected by the students were evaluated for rationality over 12 parameters and awarded scores out of 12. FDC scoring above the median score of 6 were considered as rational combination. Results: This study kindled an awareness in the students about the wide array of FDC available in the market and the importance of evaluation of rationality as a pre-requisite to prescription. Students were motivated to select only the rational combination out of the FDC flooding the market. Conclusion: The study unveiled the need for Information, Education and Communication to budding Doctors to equip them to make rational choice of FDC so that their future prescriptions would be cost-effective, economically balanced and above all therapeutically effective and to prescribe single drug therapy in preference to Fixed Drug Combination.

RDU-25

Evaluation of the impact of pharmaceutical care in anemic pregnant women

D. Sri Preethi , S. Ponnusankar

Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund- 643 001, The Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu

Objectives: 1. To educates the pregnant women about their disease (anemic) condition and the need of a healthy diet. 2. To provide patient medication counseling. 3. To assess the impact of the educational intervention on patient outcomes such as patient medication knowledge and haemoglobin concentration. Methodology: 1. Designing data collection form. 2. Enrolment of the patient for treatment and control arm. 3. Informed consent process. 4. Haemoglobin concentration assessment method 5. Medication knowledge assessment. 6. Designing patient information leaflet. 7. Follow-up visit. Result: The mean haemoglobin concentration values for the patient in the counseled (Fst, Fst+Mvt, Becosules-Z, Carbonyl iron) group at the baseline were 10.02±0.74, 9.77±0.77, 9.98±0.82, 9.8±0.83 respectively and at the end of the study were 10.53±0.726, 10.95±0.58, 10.56±0.66, 10.57±0.71 respectively. The increase was 0.53(2.40%), 1.18(6.55%), 0.58(3.22%), 0.77(4.27%) respectively. The mean values of patient medication knowledge score for patients in the counseled group at the baseline and end of the study were 8.27±1.57 and 11.72±1.80, 7.38±1.72 and 12.61±2.0, 8.5±1.94 and 11.55±2.121, 8.16±1.50 and 12.44±2.148 in Fst, Fst+Mvt, Becosules-Z, Carbonyl iron group respectively. The increase in score were 3.45±0.23, 5.23±0.28, 3.05±0.17, 4.28±0.64 in Fst, Fst+Mvt, Becosules-Z, Carbonyl iron group respectively. The mean values of medication knowledge score for patient's in non-counseled group at the baseline and end of study was 3.45(15.68%), 5.23(29.05%), 3(16.94%), 4.28(23.77%), 2.21(9.20%). Conclusion: The implementation of pharmaceutical care programme by the pharmacist was found to be more benefit and thereby it shows a beneficial improvement in patient's medication knowledge score and haemoglobin concentrations of study group.

RDU-26

Healthcare failure mode and effect analysis of transcription medication order in a tertiary care hospital


Siraj Sundaran, Baljit Singh Thind, Geeta Chaudhary , Jiby Grace George

Department of Pharmacy Practice, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, Tamil Nadu

Objectives: To apply the HFMEA on a selected medication process in a hospital and provide recommendations for reducing its failure mode. Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (HFMEA) check the opportunity to learn from an event/medication error that did not happen and the event is averted. Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital for 6 months. The study involved- a) selection of a medication process; b) assemble a multidisciplinary team; c) set-up a flow diagram for the process; d) identify the area of the process to focus; e) identify all sub-process, f) proactive analysis of failure modes and conduct hazard analysis using probability and severity score; and g) recommendation for actions to be taken to avoid the event. Results: Transcription of the prescription order was the selected among the medication processes identified. The seven failure modes identified included a) wrong patient I.D entry; b) entry of drug/s that have allergic reactions to the patients; c) wrong drug; d) wrong drug strength; e) transcribing wrong route of administration; f) wrong entries in required quantity per day; and g) wrong transcription of dose and frequency. Recommendations were provided for avoiding the failure mode. Conclusion: The study has shown that HFMEA was successful in identifying the underlying causes that were to affect the transcription process and take proactive measures overcome the same. HFMEA creates an atmosphere that aid in the patient safety improvement by the healthcare.

RDU-27

Adverse drug reaction monitoring in a secondary care hospital in Ooty

Julia Mary Kurian , Siraj Sundaran, P. R. Anand Vijayakumar

Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund.

Objectives: 1. Assess the nature and pattern of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the study site; 2. Assess the mechanism of ADRs detected using Wills and Brown classification; 3. To assess the causality of ADRS using Naranjo's algorithm; 4. Assess the severity of ADRS using Modified Hartwig and Siegel scale; and 5. Assess the preventability of ADRS using Schumock and Thornton scale. Method: Study design was prospective spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting conducted from July 2011 - September 2011. Created awareness among the healthcare professionals to report the ADR of the drugs used in the study site. Study materials used included patient medical sheets; ADR notification form; Wills and Brown ADR classification; Modified Hartwig and Siegel Scale for Severity Assessment; Naranjo's algorithm scale for causality assessment; Schumock and Thornton preventability scale. The ADR reported by the patients and paramedical staffs will be confirmed by the physician before the documentation and assessments required for the study. Results: A total of 30 ADRs were reported. According to Wills and Brown Classification type H reactions (Hypersensitivity 60%) were most common; Antibiotics (40%) were the drug class commonly associated with ADRs; and Dermatology (63.33%) was the commonly involved organ system. Most of the ADRs were mild (76.66%). 66.66% cases were managed by drug withdrawal and 50% of the patients recovered following management. Causality assessment found majority of ADRs as probable (63.33%). 73.33% of the ADRs were unpreventable. Conclusion: ADR monitoring was found to be useful for the safe and effective use of medication.

RDU-28

Identification and assessment of drug related problems in therapeutic regimen of cardiovascular patients with comorbidities

Juliet James , Govinda Ajmera, Rahul Mishra, Vijay Kulkarni, Siraj Sundaran

JSS College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Ootacamund

Objectives: Identify and assess the drug related problems (DRPs) in cardiovascular patients with co-morbidities; estimate the types and frequency of DRPs; determine the influence of polypharmacy in DRPs; and propose the management plan for the DRPs. Methodology: The study was a prospective observational case sheet analysis conducted from July 2010 to December 2010 in a secondary care hospital in Ooty. Various factors analyzed included age, gender, types of DRPs: based on cardiovascular diseases, co-morbidities, frequent DRPs, influence of polypharmacy, number of DRPs per prescription and management strategy for the DRPs observed. Result: Among 45 patient cases randomly selected by the physicians it was found that as age increases DRPs increased. The number of drugs prescribed had a direct proportional relation to the DRPs. Among eight categories of DRPs - drug interactions (48.10%) followed by untreated indication (18.63%) and then inappropriate drug selection (13.31%) were observed. Cardiac arrhythmia with comorbidity was the condition in which DRPs were observed the most. The intensive care unit showed higher DRPs when compared to other wards. Among the management strategies proposed for DRPs drug interaction management was the highest, followed by monitoring patient response and adjust dose/dosing interval, followed by untreated indication. Conclusion: The study was helpful in finding the most reasonable DRP in cardiovascular disease with co-morbidities which through a careful prescription analysis can make it more helpful for the health care professionals to choose aid in rational therapeutic regimen.

RDU-29

Drug prescribing pattern in dermatology in a tertiary care teaching hospital: A periodic audit


Chintan Patel, Bijoy Kumar Panda, V. R. Sardesai1, Palak Patel, Asawari Raut

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, 1 Department of Skin and VD, Bharati Hospital and Research centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Objectives: To perform a periodic audit of drug prescribing for patients attending Dermatology outpatient department (OPD) for rationalizing prescribing practices. Methods: 260 prescriptions of patients attending dermatology OPD of Bharati Teaching Hospital, Pune were collected randomly by twice weekly survey between Jan 2011 to June 2011. This collected information was analyzed in consultation with clinical collaborators and critically evaluated using WHO drug use indicators. Results: A total of 260 prescriptions were analyzed from 226 patients with male to female ratio of 1.69. Average no. of drugs prescribed was 2.39 per prescription. Topical drugs (62.7%) were most commonly prescribed than systemic drugs (37.3%). The most commonly prescribed topical drugs were in combination (26.66%) followed by antifungals (20.51%) and steroids (17.44%) alone. Antihistaminics (33.62%) commonly prescribed systemic drugs followed by antifungals (22.41%) and antibiotics (20.69%). Major combinations prescribed were steroids in combination with emollients (41.51%) while few have steroids in combination with antibiotics, antifungals and keratolytics (3.77%, 11.32% and 13.20% respectively). In 43.47% instances very high potency steroids were prescribed while mild potency were least prescribed (15.22%). Frequency of administration was specified in majority of prescriptions (99%) for topical administered drugs but dose/strength was specified in 27 prescriptions only. The duration was specified for all the topical and systemically prescribed drugs. Patients who received systemic antifungal agents (30) also got a topical one simultaneously. Conclusions: A great majority of drugs were prescribed in brand names but no duplication of drugs in any prescription was found. Dose/strength for topical drugs was inadequately mentioned but chances of error were negligible as the brand had availability in single dose/strength.

RDU-30

Assessment of appropriateness in selection and dosing of selected corticosteroid therapy


Asawari Raut, Goutham Reddy 1 , Kushal Gohel 1 , Aeyna Tyagi 1

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 1 Student, Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm D Post Baccalaureate), Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune, Maharashtra

Objectives: To assess the utilization pattern and appropriateness of Glucocorticoid therapy in medicine inpatients. Method: A prospective observational study was carried out in medicine inpatients over a period of five months from November 2010 to March 2011 at Bharati hospital and medical research centre, Pune. The study was conducted in the patients admitted in medicine ward and prescribed with corticosteroid/glucocorticoid therapy. Case records of patients were assessed for the diagnosis, glucocorticoid prescribed and its dose, frequency of administration and duration of therapy. The data collected were analyzed for appropriateness of therapy with respect to the recommended treatment guidelines. Results: A total of 72 patients, 32 being male and 40 female who received glucocorticoid therapy were evaluated for assessing rationality of steroid drug therapy. The mean (SD) age was 51.4 (16.6) years in male and 43.1 (17.4) years in female patients. Hydrocortisone (25 %) was main drug of choice in majority of disease conditions and the least prescribed drug was Prednisolone (10 %). Intravenous administration was commonest route. Maximum numbers of patients were admitted with the diagnosis of fever with thrombocytopenia (25 %) and Dengue (20.9 %). Rational prescribing was found to be in 40.33% as per choice of drug and dosage. Irrational prescribing was found to be 12.6% which revealed unnecessary prescribing of the drug for no indication and under dosing was found in 44.5 % of prescriptions. Conclusion: Patient specific parameters such as body weight must be considered for initiating steroid therapy to ensure correct dosing for individualized therapy.

RDU-31

Evaluation of drug utilisation in pregnant women attending antenatal out patient department of a tertiary care hospital.

Patel TC , Gawde SR, Bhise SS, Chauhan AR, Mayadeo NM

Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 1 st Floor Main Building, Above Dean's Office, Seth G.S. Medical College, KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai -400012.

Objective: Pregnant women requiring medication represent a challenge to healthcare providers to avoid any teratogenic risk to fetus. The purpose of this study was to provide information on the prevalence of drug use among pregnant women in a tertiary care hospital. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing the antenatal care follow up cards of 400 random pregnant women. Demographic profile, detailed history of medical conditions and drug intake in current pregnancy was noted. The prescription pattern was assessed using prescription indicators. The drugs were classified based on the US FDA Risk Classification. Result: Anemia was found to be most common in women in third trimester. Majority drugs were prescribed for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection, fever with chills, vaginal discharge, nausea and vomiting. The average number of drugs perprescription was 2.28. Only 5.93% drugs were prescribed by their brand name and 94.07% by generic names. Iron, folic-acid and calcium were prescribed to all pregnant women. Category A drugs constituted 10.56%,category B 75.35% , category C 14.08 % and category D 1.4 % of total drugs. Total 90.28% of prescribed drugs were available in hospital pharmacy. Conclusion: Selection of drugs was rational in most of the cases and availability of drugs in the hospital pharmacy was satisfactory. Prescribing pattern observed in our study sets a good example which can be adapted by healthcare facilities in developing countries so as to improve prescribing behavior which will further reduce the potential risk to the developing fetus.

RDU-32

Impact of anti epileptic drug therapy on bone health in pediatric population

Vishal Goutham. J , Kannan.G, Padmasani L N 1 , Vanitha Rani N, Sastha Ram V K

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, 1 Department of Pediatrics, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai - 600116

Objective: To evaluate the impact of chronic anti epileptic drug therapy on bone health in pediatric population in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: All the patients (4-18 yrs) visiting pediatric department who are diagnosed with epilepsy and are on anti epileptic drug therapy for minimum 6 months were recruited into study with parent's consent. A specially designed proforma was used to collect patient demographics, anthropometric measurements, past medical, medication history and medications prescribed by direct patient interview method. Pediatric populations who were on oral calcium/Vit D supplements and non ambulatory were excluded from the study. Patients were made to undergo following investigations like Blood Count, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorus, and Alkaline Phosphatase. And as a result patients with normal levels of the above mentioned parameters were given a maintenance dose of Vit D and calcium. Patients who were found to have decreased calcium and increased alkaline phosphatase levels were treated with therapeutic dose of Vit D and calcium and followed up by respective unit. Results and Conclusions: The results showed increased level of alkaline phosphatase and decreased calcium level in more than 40% of pediatric population, and therapeutic dose of Vit D and calcium were found to be useful as a preventive measure for the maintenance of the bone health.

RDU-33

Drug utilization evaluation of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in a tertiary care teaching hospital


Suresh P, Manjunath S 1 , Sudeepthi K, Kannan G, Vanitha Rani N, Chamundeeswari D

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, 1 Department of General Medicine, Sri Ramachandra Medical College & Research Institute, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai - 600116, Tamil Nadu.

Objectives: To obtain the extended usage of NSAIDs in General Medicine Department of a tertiary care teaching hospital and to provide information to the health care provider and patients. Methodology: A prospective DUE was carried out for a period of 6 months (4+2) using a specially designed proforma was used collect patient data which included patient Demographics (Name of the drug dosage form, Frequency, Route of administration and Duration of treatment) and Cost. Patient receiving Paracetamol alone excluded from the study. Study was approved by institutional ethical committee and the data were tabulated and analyzed for statistical significance. Results: 451 patients were included in the study. As per WHO ATC / DDD (Anatomical Therapeutic chemical Classification code / Define Daily Dose) methodology DDD (mg) and PDD (Prescribed Daily Dose (mg)) were calculated. The PDD values were found to be higher than the recommended DDD values. The cost analysis Ketorolac cost effective followed by Diclofenac and other drugs. But side effects are high with Ketorolac. The Logistical regression carried out between two most commonly used drugs Ketorolac and Diclofenac. Conclusion: The dose prescribed for Ketorolac and Piroxicam was higher than the WHO recommended doses where as there is slight difference seen in case of Diclofenac.

RDU-34

Cost analysis of beta blockers in a tertiary care teaching hospital

Balachandar T. , Benson Reddy S.B., Vasantha J., Kannan G., Vanitha Rani N., Thennarsu P.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra University.

Objectives: To perform cost analysis for beta blockers, including comparison between Prescribed Daily Dose (PDD) and Defined Daily Dose (DDD) in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methodology: A prospective study on cost analysis of beta blockers were carried out for a period of 6 months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. A specially designed proforma was used to collect patient data which included patient demographics (Name of the drug dosage form, frequency, route of administration and duration of treatment) and cost. Results and discussion: 974 patients were included in this study, in which mean age was found to be 56.01(±19.9) years and 578(60%) males, 396(40%) females constituted total population. Five Beta Blockers namely Metoprolol, Carvedilol, Bisoprolol, Propranolol and Atenolol were prescribed. Of these Metoprolol 434 (44.56%) was most prescribed followed by Carvedilol 194 (20.95%), Bisoprolol 194(18.89%), Atenolol 116(11.9%) and Propranolol 36(3.7%) was least prescribed. All the five Beta blockers were prescribed in the recommended dosages. As per WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology, the DDDs for Metoprolol, Carvedilol, Bisoprolol, Atenolol and Propranolol are 150mg, 34.3m, 75mg, 10mg and 160mg respectively. But the PDDs in our study were 34.3mg, 9.03mg, 49.6mg, 8.3 mg and 36.52mg respectively. Conclusion: Cost analysis of various Brands of Beta Blockers showed wide variation in overall cost of therapy. All the prescribed drugs were according to the British Society of Hypertension (BSH) where ABCD (A-ARBs/ACEIs, B-Beta Blocker, C-Calcium Channel Blocker and D-Diuretics) approach is followed. Prescribed Daily Dose found to be lesser than the Defined Daily Dose because of our ethnicity.

RDU-35

A study on drug prescribing pattern in a government teaching hospital, Ongole

G. Hima Bindu , N. Uma Maheswari, Bhaskara Lingam, S. Ilias Basha

Department of pharmacology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ongole, Andhra Pradesh

Objectives : Providing the right medicine to the right people is an essential component in improving health care. Prescription auditing monitors and suggests modifications in prescribing practices. The present study was undertaken to observe the drug prescribing pattern in a teaching hospital, Ongole. Method: The study was carried out at Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science (RIMS) Ongole, Andhra Pradesh. Data was obtained from 120 repeat/fresh outpatient prescription slips from various departments. Each prescription slip was screened for average no. of drugs/ prescription, presence or absence of antibiotics, dose and duration of therapy. Results: Out of 120 prescriptions, the average no. of drugs per prescription is 3.5. About 29% prescriptions contained antibiotic. Dose was mentioned in only 24% prescriptions. Duration of therapy mentioned was only 38%. Conclusion: Poor quality prescriptions have a deleterious impact on public health. Prescription auditing helps in minimizing overuse and misuse of drugs and improves the quality of care. Few more seconds spent to prescribe quality of drugs hastens recovery in right time.

RDU-36

Mechanism of protective Effects of Aminoguanidine on Neuropathic Pain Behavior in Diabetic Rats

Rajeev Taliyan, P.L. Sharma

KIET college of Pharmacy-Ghaziabad & I.S.F College of Pharmacy-Moga, Punjab

Diabetes induced neuropathic pain is recognized one of the most difficult types of pain to treat with conventional analgesics. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the effect of aminoguanidine (AG) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced neuropathic pain behavior and to assess its mechanism of action. Materials and Methods : STZ (20 mg/kg, i.p, 4 days) was administered to induce diabetes. Pain hypersensitivity to radiant heat was measured using planter test and pain threshold by dynamic anesthesiometer (Ugo-Basile,Italy). Results : Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia was exhibited following STZ injection on day 28 and concomitantly increased oxidative stress and urinary and tissue nitrite concentration. Moreover, hyperglycemia markedly reduced sensitivity to the antinociceptive effect of morphine (8mg/kg).Administration of AG (50 mg/kg), an iNOS- inhibitor, inhibited thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia and attenuates oxidative stress and nitrite level in diabetic rats. Moreover, combining of sub-threshold dose of AG (12.5 mg/kg) with morphine (8 mg/kg), restores STZ- induced decrease in antinociceptive effect of morphine in rats. Administration of L-arginine (200 mg/kg), a NO donor, abolished the protective effect of AG . Conclusion : These results suggest that AG treatment with or without morphine may prove a useful strategy for treating diabetic neuropathic pain.

RDU-37

Antimicrobial utilization and prescribing pattern among the clinicians of a rural teaching hospital in southern india

*Revathi P , Jeyaseelan Senthinath T, Vigneshwari R.S., Balasaraswathi T., Manickavasagam S., Thirumalai Kolundu, Subramanian P.

Department of Pharmacology, Chennai Medical College Hospital & Research Centre ( Srm0 Group), Irungalur, Tiruchirapalli-621 005, India.

*E-mail: reva1923@yahoo.com

Background : Prescription pattern and utilization of antibiotics have contributed to anti-Microbial Resistance (AMR). Hence it is worth to conduct a study on these aspects in order to overcome AMR. Objectives: To determine the prescribing pattern of antibiotics among prescribers and to find out the effects of educational programme on anti-microbial prescription. Material and Methods: Institutional prescriptions on antibiotics entered in the computer over a period of 24 consecutive months September 2009 - August 2011 were retrieved and analysed with reference to before and after educational programme and in relation to the groups. Doctors' attitude towards prescribing antibiotics was elicited by Questionnaire survey. The data were analysed using SPSS software. Result: Of the total 2, 92,991 outpatients in 2009-10 and 3,05,731 in 2010-11, 76.2% and 48% respectively received one or other antibiotics. The volume of antibiotics used were semisynthetic penicillin (57.5%), fluroquinolones (27.4%), metronidazole (13.5%), cephalosporins(1.2%) and fixed dose combinations (0.17%) and others during 2009-2010. After training programmes antibiotic usage has come down and preferences were changed to the recommendations made by infection control committee. Conclusion: Educational programmes definitely improved the prescription pattern of antibiotics. However, expectations and demands of patients, peer pressure and market force have tilted the prescription pattern resulting in a gap between cognitive and affective domain/skills.

RDU-38

Evaluation of drugs used in the management of glaucoma in a tertiary care teaching hospital

Serin Anna Jacob , Elfride Sanjana 1 , Sastha Ram V Kishore, Kannan G, Vanitha Rani N and Vasantha Janardhan

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai.

Objectives: To study the utilization of anti glaucoma medications in the management of glaucoma and the reasons for non compliance in the patients. Methods: In the present prospective study, sixty two patients of either sex who were diagnosed with glaucoma were included after taking informed consent. A specially designed proforma was used for the collection of demographic data, past medical, medication, family and surgical histories and present medication from each patient. Data was analyzed in percentages for patient demographics, number of drugs prescribed, monotherapy vs. combination therapy of various glaucoma medications prescribed and various management modalities. Percentage of compliance and the reasons for non compliance were also evaluated. Results: Beta blockers were the most commonly prescribed anti glaucoma medication in which 21 patients (35%) received Timolol and 9 patients (15%) received Betoxolol. Prostaglandin analogues were the next common agents prescribed where Latanoprost and Bimatoprost were given in 2 (3.33%) and 11 (18.33%) patients respectively. Dorzolamide + Timolol combination was given in 6 (10%) patients followed by Bimatoprost + Timolol, Latanoprost + Timolol and Brimonidine + Timolol combinations in 2 (3.33%) patients each. 5 (8.33%) patients received alpha agonist Brimonidine and 2 (3.33%) patients were managed surgically. 38 patients (65%) were found to be compliant and 22 patients (37%) were found to be non compliant. Conclusions: Existing prescribing patterns, therapeutic options in the management of glaucoma and various reasons for the noncompliance were evaluated. Proper counseling regarding medication usage will increase compliance, achieve therapeutic goals and thereby retarding disease progression.


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RSP-1

Evaluation of mast cell stabilizing effect of ethanolic fraction of Thespesia populnea bark (Malvaceae)


Chirag Patel, Priyanka Shah, Nilesh Patel, Navin Sheth, Maulik Shah, Nimesh Panara

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360005, Gujarat, India

Objective: 1) To identify and fractionate an active constituents present in Thespesia populnea bark. 2) To study the mast cell stabilizing effect of sesquiterpenoid rich fraction of Thespesia populnea (SFTP) bark. Methods: Mast cell stabilizing effect of ethanolic extract of Thespesia populnea has been carried out earlier in our laboratory in standard condition. Active constituent of ethanolic extract was fractionated SFTP from the extract and its mast cell stabilizing effect was evaluated using various animal models like Compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation and Compound 48/80 induced systemic anaphylaxis model in rats. Result: Significant protection against mast cell degranulation was observed in 10 mg/ml dose of sesquiterpenoid rich fraction of Thespesia populnea (SFTP) which was comparable with Ketotifen. Also it showed significant protection against mortality at the dose of 25 mg/kg in Compound 48/80 induced anaphylaxis model in rats. Conclusion: Sesquiterpenoid, a main active constituent present in bark of Thespesia populnea, showed an excellent mast cell stabilizing activity by inhibiting mast cell degranulation, which is one of the factor responsible for asthma. So, sesquiterpenoid could be main responsible active component in the bark of Thespesia populnea responsible for anti-asthmatic activity.

RSP-2

New drug delivery systems for the treatment of tuberculosis

Rajbhoj S. , Advani M., Pawar S.

Room. No. 15, 2 nd Floor, College Building, Department of Pharmacology, LTM Medical College and General Hospital, Sion, Mumbai - 400 022

Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide. The global scourge of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is reaching epidemic proportions. It is the world's second most common cause of death from infectious disease, after acquired immunodefiency syndrome. Current methods of treatment are far from optimal and better ones are being sought to overcome the increasing spread of TB and the problem of incompletely treated TB that contributes to the emergence of drug resistant strains. Since many patients with TB have significant Social problems, compliance with drug therapy is frequently difficult. A number of novel micro particulate, encapsulation and various other carrier-based drug delivery systems incorporating the principal anti-tuberculosis agents have been fabricated that either target the site of tuberculosis infection or reduce the dosing frequency with the aim of improving patient outcomes. These developments in drug delivery represent attractive options with significant merit. This article gives an overview of the merits and demerits of the novel drug delivery system and discusses the feasibility of its use in TB affected population. Conclusion: The fabrication of novel drug delivery system of the principal anti-tuberculosis drugs, which attains segregated delivery of these drugs for improved bioavailability, could be a step in the right direction in addressing issues of treatment failure due to patient non-compliance.

RSP-3

A prospective comparative study of efficacy and tolerability of doxofylline over theophylline in mild to moderate persistent bronchial asthma in a tertiary care hospital

Shruthi R , Mamatha K.R, Raveendra K.R.

Department of Pharmacology, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore-560002.

Objectives: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of Doxofylline over Theophylline in mild to moderate persistent bronchial asthma patients. Methods: It is a comparative study conducted for 12 weeks among 60 patients of mild to moderate persistent bronchial asthma attending the out patient department of General Medicine, Victoria hospital, Bangalore. The study subjects were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 30 patients each, where in one group was treated with Doxofylline 400mg OD oral and the other with theophylline 200mg SR OD oral. Efficacy was measured objectively using Spirometric parameters like FEV 1 (Forced Expiratory Volume, end of 1 second), FVC (Forced Vital Capacity), FEV 1 /FVC and PEFR (Peak Expiratory Flow Rate); subjectively by the need for use of rescue medications like β2 agonist once in every 4 weeks. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring of adverse drug reactions. Relevant laboratory investigations were done at baseline and end of the study. Results: Doxofylline and Theophylline significantly increased spirometric parameters and reduced the need for β2 agonist consumption (P < 0.05), percentage increase in FEV 1 was 16% and 15% respectively. Doxofylline was better tolerated than Theophylline considering either the number of adverse drug reactions (doxofylline 8.2%; theophylline 28.4%) or the number of drop-outs due to side-effects (doxofylline 3%; theophylline 8%). Conclusions: Doxofylline with better tolerability profile and equivalent efficacy seemed to be a good alternative to theophylline in the treatment of chronic reversible airway obstruction

RSP-4

Free radical scavenging activity of montelukast

*Preetha Selva , K. Karthika, S. Seetha Lakshmi

Department of Pharmacology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College & Research Institute, Porur, Chennai-600116

*E-mail: balambbs@rediffmail.com

Objective: To study the effect of different doses of montelukast on free radical scavenging activity. Material and Methods: The free radical scavenging activity of montelukast was done using invitro DPPH method as formulated by Koleva et al.2002. The % in absorbance of test mixture was measured at 517 nm and % of inhibition calculated.The total antioxidant assay of montelukast was done using vitamin E as reference as formulated by Prieto et al 1999. The absorbance of aqueous solution of each was measured at 695 nm against the blank in a spectrophotometer. Results: At a concentration of 1.5 mcg/ml the percentage of inhibition is 7.64%.At 3 mcg/ml-44.34%,7 mcg/ml-67.94%,15 mcg/ml-30.51%,30 mcg/ml-24.19%,60 mcg/ml-14.82%, and at 125 mcg/ml-1%.The total anti oxidant assay -(Using vitamin E )of montelukast is 3.39%w/w. Discussion and Conclusion: The free radical scavenging property was measured by DPPH method and it showed that maximum percentage of inhibition occurs at 7 mcg/ml,whereas at higher doses the percentage of inhibition was reduced. The total anti oxidant assay of montelukast using vitamin E as reference is not very significant.

RSP-5

Drug utilisation study in adult patients with respiratory diseases in a tertiary care teaching hospital

N. Muralidhara, Amrutha Rai, Rajeshwari S.

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Light House Hill Road, Hampankatta Mangalore.

Objective: To evaluate drug utilization pattern and to assess the prevalence of poly-pharmacy in adult patients with respiratory diseases like bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), allergic rhinitis or bronchitis. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 6 months in the outpatient department of K.M.C hospital attavar, Mangalore, India. The medical records of 104 adult patients (age ≥18 years) with respiratory diseases like bronchial asthma, COPD, allergic rhinitis or bronchitis were reviewed. Drugs prescribed for other co-morbidities were also noted. Drugs prescribed at the time of their last visit, along with demographic data, age, and gender was recorded. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result: A total of 104 patient's prescriptions were collected, out of which 66(63.5%) were males and 38(36.5%) were females. Mean age was 50.27 years. Common respiratory diseases observed were bronchial asthma 63(60%), COPD 36(34.6%) and rhinitis 5(4.8%). Drugs prescribed for respiratory disorders were bronchodilators 66(63.5%), leukotriene antagonists 35(33.7%) and corticosteroids 20(19.2%). Among the bronchodilators salbutamol 27(26%) and formoterol 13(12.5%) were commonly used. Montelukast was the only leukotriene antagonist used. Of the corticosteroids budesonide 17(16.3%) and hydrocortisone 3(2.9%) were commonly used. Poly-pharmacy was observed in 17(16.3%) patients. Conclusions : Bronchodilators were the commonest drug prescribed for respiratory disorder followed by leukotriene antagonist. Poly-pharmacy was observed in 17(16.3%) patients.

RSP-6

Interactions of traditional and modern systems of medicine in bronchial asthma: A Unani experience


Sreemanti Guharthakurta, Nishant Rai, Kavita Gulati, Arunabha Ray

Department of Pharmacology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007

Objectives: Drug treatment of obstructive airway diseases like bronchial asthma are becoming increasingly steroid dependent and the use of herbal agents are being scientifically explored with a view to obtain viable adjuncts to increase the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy.UNIM-352, a polyherbal Unani formulation, is used in traditional medicine for bronchial asthma, and the present study was designed to evaluate its mechanism of action and validate its anti-asthma potential. Methods: The effects of oral administration of UNIM-352 (200 and 400 mg/kg) were studied on markers of inflammation, immunity and oxidative stress in immunized rats. Levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, MDA and GSH were measured in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, in vivo. Effects on bronchial hyper reactivity were assessed in vitro using the isolated guinea pig tracheal chain preparation. Results: UNIM-352 reduced TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA levels, whereas GSH levels were elevated in both blood and BAL fluid - when compared to the placebo treated group. Further, UNIM-352 markedly reduced antigen challenge induced degranulation of mast cells in immunized animals. In vitro studies showed that the polyherbal agent attenuated the spasmogenic effects of histamine in the guinea pig tracheal chain preparation in a dose related manner. Conclusions: The results indicate the involvement of anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant mechanisms in the effects of UNIM-352 for its beneficial effects in bronchial asthma.

RSP-7

Ayurvedic formulation Bresol® ameliorates experimental chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rats


Mohamed Rafiq, Suryakant DA , Sandeep R, Dhanush Krishna, Rangesh P, Patki PS

Department of Pharmacology, R&D Centre, The Himalaya Drug Company, Makali, Bangalore

Objectives: Present study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effect of an Ayurvedic formulation Bresol® in an experimental model of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced chronic obstructive airways disease (COPD). Materials and methods: Male wistar rats (200-250g), were randomized in to 4 groups (n=10) based on the body weight, all the animals except control group (G1) were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) daily for 10 mins to induce chronic bronchitis, as per the reported methods. After 15 days of starting of CS exposure, the animals of respective groups were treated daily with Bresol® (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) 2 hour post CS- exposure and this treatment schedule along with CS-exposure was continued for 5 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, all the animals were euthanized and broncho-alveolar fluid (BALF) was collected. The airway tissues, the lungs along with the trachea was collected for histopathological evaluation. Total protein and TNF-α was estimated in BALF. Results: The daily exposure of animals to CS showed significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α and total protein content in BALF, indicating the ongoing inflammatory process in the airway tissues. The histopathological findings further confirmed the presence of pathological lesions in the lungs of CS exposed rats. Treatment with Bresol® (250 and 500 mg/kg,p.o.) showed significant dose dependent anti-inflammatory effect against CS-induced airway inflammation, as indicated by reversal of TNF-α and total protein content in BAL fluid. Further the histological examination of airway tissues showed reversal of pathological histo-artchitectural changes brought about by CS in Bresol® treated animals. Conclusion: The present study indicates Bresol® , an ayurvedic formulation has protective effect against CS-induced histological changes of airway tissues and was found to reduce airway inflammation in an experimental model of cigarette smoke -induced COPD in rats.

RSP-8

Development and validation of an animal model of silicosis with slate pencil dust from Mandsaur region, Madhya Pradesh, India


Duseja Meenakshi, Kushwah Lokendra singh, Deshmukh Pradeep, Trivedi Rahul, Soni Rupesh, Srivastava D. N.

Department of Pharmacology, B. R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mandsaur - 458001 (M.P.)

Objective: Mandsaur nourishes nearly 110 slate pencil dust industries and uncountable silicosis patients. Silicosis is irreversible fibrosis of the lungs caused by inhalation of free silica dust and about 10 million workers in India are at risk of silicosis. It is a fatal disease, can be prevented if the inhalation of silica dust is minimised. Few research profiles are available over slate pencil dust induced silicosis animal model therefore present research work seeks to develop a new animal model of silicosis from Mandsaur's slate pencil dust. As silicosis caused due to inhalation of slate pencil dust; a very economic nose-only type-inhalation chamber was designed at laboratory level and was validated. Methods: Various validation parameters for nose only type inhalation chamber were performed by using Male wistar albino rats in four groups each having 7 animals for 30 days study. Various mechanical parameters like airflow, temperature, relative humidity and pathophysiological parameters like nitric oxide, hydroproline, ashcontent, preclinical signs, body weight, lactate dehydrogenase, various histopathological evaluations like lymphatic nodules and germinal tissue destructions, were studied and compared with validation parameters of Pauluhn et. al. (2007). Result: Increased level of inflammatory mediators in serum and lung tissue homogenate and histopathological investigations clearly concluded that 30 days exposure of slate pencil dust one hour twice a day up to 30 days is sufficient to produce alveolar fibrosis in experimental animals. Conclusion: Therefore on the basis of various validation parameters we can conclude that nose