| RESEARCH ARTICLE
|Year : 2011 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 311-315
Improvement in endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with N-acetylcysteine and atorvastatin
Department of Pharmacology, Bhaskar Medical College, Yenkapally (V), Moinabad (M), R. R. District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Objective: To study the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and atorvastatin on endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Materials and Methods: Thirty-two SLE patients and age, sex-matched 10 healthy control subjects were studied. The patients were between 17 and 65 years of age and positive for diagnostic tests, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Photoplethysmogram (PPG) detects the changes in the amount of light absorbed by hemoglobin, which reflects changes in the blood volume. Pulse wave analysis was performed at rest, 30 s, 90 s after shear stress, and 10 min after 300 μm of salbutamol inhalation.
Results: Stiffness index (SI) of patients before the treatment was 8.46±2.78 cm/s and of controls was 6.07±1.4 cm/s (P = 0.002) and that of reflection index (RI) was 73±13 for patients and 65±7 for controls (P = 0.001). The percentage change in RI after salbutamol inhalation for controls and patients were -16±6 and -7±4 (P = 0.001), respectively, indicating the presence of endothelial dysfunction. The percentage decrease in RI after salbutamol inhalation was from -2.36±0.76 to ?7.92±1.46 in patients treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, P = 0.007). The percentage decrease in RI after salbutamol inhalation was from ?6.361.21 to -9.92±1.21 in patients treated with atorvastatin (P = 0.05). This indicated the improvement in endothelial function. There was decrease in C-reactive protein (CRP) from 1.03±0.72 mg/dL to 0.52±0.22 mg/dL and that of malondialdehyde (MDA) from 11.20±4.07 nmol/mL to 8.81±2.79 nmol/mL with N-acetylcysteine treatment (P < 0.05). The CRP was decreased from 1.11±0.92 mg/dL to 0.440.16 mg/dL (P = 0.05) and that of MDA was decreased from 9.37±3.29 nmol/mL to 8.51±3.27 nmol/mL after treatment with atorvastatin. It showed improvement in oxidative stress with these treatments.
Conclusion: The presence of arterial stiffness indicated endothelial dysfunction. There was reduction in RI and SI with treatment of N-acetylcysteine and atorvastatin suggesting improvement in endothelial dysfunction. There was decrease in CRP (a marker of inflammation) and MDA after treatment with N-acetylcysteine suggesting improvement in endothelial dysfunction. There was reduction in CRP after treatment with atorvastatin, suggesting improvement in endothelial function. Improvement in endothelial dysfunction is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents.
Department of Pharmacology, Bhaskar Medical College, Yenkapally (V), Moinabad (M), R. R. District, Andhra Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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