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RESEARCH LETTER
Year : 2005  |  Volume : 37  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 257-258
 

Hepatoprotective effect of Enliv® on paracetamol-induced liver damage in broiler chicks


Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Mohanpur Campus, Nadia, India

Correspondence Address:
A K Chakraborty
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Mohanpur Campus, Nadia
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.16576

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How to cite this article:
Bhar M K, Das S K, Chakraborty A K, Mandal T K, Roy S. Hepatoprotective effect of Enliv® on paracetamol-induced liver damage in broiler chicks. Indian J Pharmacol 2005;37:257-8

How to cite this URL:
Bhar M K, Das S K, Chakraborty A K, Mandal T K, Roy S. Hepatoprotective effect of Enliv® on paracetamol-induced liver damage in broiler chicks. Indian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2005 [cited 2019 Dec 6];37:257-8. Available from: http://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2005/37/4/257/16576


Enliv ® is a poly-herbal formulation that exists in a powder form. It contains the aqueous extract of eight potent medicinal plants: Aphanamixis polystachia, Phyllanthus niruri, Eclipta alba, Andrographis paniculata, Picrorhiza kurroa, Tinospora cordifolia, Naregamia alata, and Emblica officinalis. Some of these plants have been known to possess antihepatotoxic properties and have been used in the indigenous system of medicine.[1]-[2] In the present study, attempts are made to ascertain the hepato-protective effect of Enliv ® in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in broiler chicks.

Healthy, vaccinated, day-old broiler chicks (n=45) weighing 41- 42 g, were divided into three groups of 15 birds each and maintained under standard laboratory conditions. Group I served as the control group, while Groups II and III were considered as the experimental groups. Daily feed intake and weekly body weight gain of the chicks were recorded. Feed efficiency ratio (FER) was calculated by using the conventional formula.

Birds of Groups I, II and III were sacrificed, one at a time on the 24, 23 and 27th day respectively. A portion of the liver was collected from each bird immediately after sacrifice; from this, a small portion of it was preserved in 10% formalin for histopathological examination, while the remaining part was utilized to estimate biochemical assays such as, reduced glutathione content (GSH),[3] protein (microestimation),[4] aminotransferase acitivity,[5] lipid peroxidation[6] and protein (macroestimation).[7]

Liver samples, preserved in 10% formalin were processed, cut into 3-5 mm thick sections, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. P< 0.05 was considered significant.

Group I (Control), fed with starter feed mixed with Enliv ® 1 kg/ton feed (oral) followed by 50% ethanol (2.5 ml/kg) i.p., on 22nd day; Group II, fed with starter feed (oral) followed by paracetamol 250 mg/kg in 50% ethanol i.p., on 21st day; Group III, fed with starter feed mixed with Enliv ® 1 kg/ton feed (oral) followed by paracetamol 250 mg/kg in 50% ethanol i.p., on 25th day; Values with dissimilar superscript vary significantly (P< 0.01) from each other, n=15 in each group.

Enliv ®-treated birds (Group III) showed lower feed efficiency ratio (P< 0.01) compared to the feed efficiency ratio of the control group. [Table - 2] Paracetamol-treated birds (Group II) showed decreased activity of (P< 0.01) of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and reduced glutathione content and an increase (P< 0.01) of lipid peroxidation levels of liver tissue. Enliv ® pretreatment (Group III) significantly (P< 0.01) reversed the paracetamol-induced decrease of ALT, AST activities, GSH content and increase of lipid peroxidation level of liver tissue. [Table - 1]

Paracetamol-treated birds (Group II) showed evidence of coagulative necrosis, whereas liver sections of birds pretreated with Enliv ® followed by paracetamol treatment (Group III) showed evidences of mild congestion which was almost similar to that of the control chicks.

It has been reported that the simultaneous administration of ethanol and paracetamol may intensify the hepatotoxic action of the later in human beings.[8] Present experiment also indicates that paracetamol causes a decrease of GSH and an increase in lipid peroxidation level of liver tissue of chicks, and corroborates the findings of Kapur et al (1994)[9] in rat. Increase or decrease of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities depends upon the intensity of cellular damage. However, if the degenerative changes are intensive and continued, obviously the cellular enzyme activity will decrease because of the absence of de novo synthesis .

In this study, continuous feeding of Enliv ® alone showed a lower feed efficiency ratio in broiler chicks. In addition, pretreatment of Enliv ® reversed the paracetamol-induced decrease of glutathione and increase of lipid peroxidation level in liver tissue. Similarly, it also significantly blocked the paracetamol-induced decrease in alanine and aspartate aminotransferase enzymatic activities of liver tissue. These observations, coupled with histopathological findings in Enliv ®-treated chicks may be an indication of the capability of hepato-protection against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.


 » Acknowledgments Top


The authors are grateful to M/s. Amrit Feed, Lenin Sarani, Kolkata - 700 013 for supplying the animals as gift and to M/s. Sarabhai chemicals, Baroda, India for providing generous gift samples of Enliv ®.



 
 » References Top

1.Trivedi N, Rawal UM. Hepatoprotective and toxicological evaluation of Andrographis paniculata on severe liver damage. Indian J Pharmacol 2000;32:288-93.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Visen PKS, Saraswat B, Patnail GK, Agarwal DP, Dhawan BN. Protective activity of Picroliv isolated from Picrorhiza kurroa against ethanol toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes. Indian J Pharmacol 1996;28:98-101.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Moron MS, Depierre JW, Mannervik B. Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Biochem Biophys Acta 1979;582:67-78.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Fars AL, Randal RJ. Protein measurement with Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951;193:265-75.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Yatazidis H. Measurement of transaminase in serum. Nature 1960;18;79-80.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95:351-8.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Wooton IDP. Estimation of protein by Biuret method. In: Micro analysis in Medical Bio-chemistry. 5th ed. Edinburgh and London: Churchill Livingstone; 1974.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Smith CM, Reynard AM. Textbook of Pharmacology. Philadelphia; W.B. Saunders company; 1992.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Kapur V, Pillai KK, Hussain S Z, Balani DK. Hepatoprotective activity of 'Jigrine' on liver damage caused by alcohol: Carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 1994;26:35-40.  Back to cited text no. 9    


Tables

[Table - 1], [Table - 2]

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