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 »  Introduction
 »  Materials and Me...
 »  Results
 »  Discussion
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RESEARCH PAPER
Year : 2005  |  Volume : 37  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 26-29
 

The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents


Department of Biomedical Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Date of Submission03-Aug-2004
Date of Decision27-Aug-2004
Date of Acceptance28-Aug-2004

Correspondence Address:
Dayang Fredalina Basri
Department of Biomedical Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300, Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
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DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.13851

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 » Abstract 

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracts from the galls of Q. infectoria at 10 mg/ml were screened against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCTC 12079 serotype O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium NCTC 74 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). The MIC of the extracts were then determined using the twofold serial microdilution technique at a concentration ranging from 5 mg/ml to 0.0024 mg/ml. The MBC values were finally obtained from the MIC microtiter wells which showed no turbidity after 24 hrs of incubation by subculturing method. RESULTS: Out of the six bacterial species tested, S. aureus was the most susceptible. On the other hand, the extracts showed weak inhibitory effect against S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa while there was no inhibition zone observed for E. coli O157. The MIC values of the extracts ranged from 0.0781 mg/ml to 1.25 mg/ml whereas the MBC values ranged from 0.3125 mg/ml to 2.50 mg/ml. The MBC values of aqueous extract against S. aureus and S. typhimurium were higher than their MIC values. The MBC value of acetone extract against S. aureus was also higher than its MIC value. Interestingly, however, the MIC and MBC values of acetone extract against S. typhimurium were the same (1.25 mg/ml). CONCLUSION: The aqueous and acetone extracts displayed similarities in their antimicrobial activity on the bacterial species and as such, the galls of Quercus infectoria are potentially good source of antimicrobial agents.


Keywords: MIC, MBC, Staphylococcus aureus, tannin


How to cite this article:
Basri DF, Fan S H. The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents. Indian J Pharmacol 2005;37:26-9

How to cite this URL:
Basri DF, Fan S H. The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents. Indian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2005 [cited 2014 Sep 18];37:26-9. Available from: http://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2005/37/1/26/13851



 » Introduction Top


Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae) is a small tree native of Greece, Asia Minor and Iran. The galls arise on young branches of this tree as a result of attack by the gall-wasp Adleria gallae-tinctoria.[1] The galls are locally known as manjakani in Malaysia, and are used in combination with other herbs as drinking remedy by women after childbirth to restore the elasticity of the uterine wall.[2] Majuphal, as it is widely known in Indian traditional medicine have been used as dental powder and in the treatment of toothache and gingivitis.[3],[4] The galls of Q. infectoria have also been pharmacologically documented to possess astringent, antidiabetic,[5] antitremorine, local anaesthetic,[6] antiviral,[7] antibacterial,[8] antifungal,[9] larvicidal[10] and anti-inflammatory[11] activities. The main constituents found in the galls of Q. infectoria are tannin (50-70%) and small amount of free gallic acid and ellagic acid.[12],[13],[14]

As a result of indiscrimate use of antimicrobial drugs in the treatment of infectious diseases, microorganisms have developed resistance to many antibiotics.[15] There is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial drugs. One approach is to screen local medicinal plants which represent a rich source of novel antimicrobial agents. The present study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial properties of the galls of Q. infectoria extracted by two solvents of different polarity.


 » Materials and Methods Top


Plant materials

The galls of Q. infectoria used in this study were obtained from the local market and were identified based on its physical characteristics. The galls were crushed to small pieces using pestle and mortar and powdered in an electric grinder.

Preparation of acetone extract

The acetone extract was prepared by immersing 100g of the dried material in 500 ml acetone for 24 h at room temperature. The mixture was then filtered and the process was repeated using the remaining residue with 300 ml acetone. The two filtrates were added and concentrated under reduced pressure using a rotary evaporator. The resulting pellet was finally pounded to dryness under hot air-dryer to produce a powdery crude acetone extract.

Aqueous extraction

In the preparation of aqueous extract, the powdered material was dissolved in distilled water for 24 hr at 45° C and centrifuged at 3000 rpm at 4° C. The supernatant was then filtered and the whole process repeated using the remaining residue with 300 ml distilled water. The filtrates were combined and freeze-dried at -50° C under vacuum for 12 h to produce a fine crystal-like crude aqueous extract. The extracts were stored in air-tight jars at 4° C until further use.

Preparation of extract solution

The extracts were dissolved in sterile distilled water to a final concentration of 10 mg/ml for disc diffusion assay and a 5 mg/ml concentration for broth microdilution technique. The choice of dose concentration was based on our previous finding[16] in which a crude antifungal extract isolated from sea cucumber species was capable of inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi at 10 mg/ml. All the extracts were sterilized by passing through a 0.45 µm membrane filter.

Microorganisms

The bacterial strains used in this study were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853,  Escherichia More Details coli NCTC 12079 (serotype O157:H7),  Salmonella More Details typhimurium NCTC 74 and local clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis. All the bacterial strains were grown and maintained on nutrient agar slants. The inoculum size of each test strain was 108 bacteria/ml for disc diffusion assay which was standardized by adjusting the optical density of the bacterial suspension to a turbidity corresponding to spectrophotometric absorbance = 0.08 (OD620 = 0.08) at 620 nm.

Screening for antibacterial activity

The disc diffusion method[17] was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. Mueller Hinton agar was prepared in the plates as the media for the test microorganisms. Sterile filter paper discs (Whatman No. 1, 6 mm) were impregnated with 100 µl of each of the extracts (10 mg/ml) to give a final concentration of 1 mg/disc and left to dry under the laminar flow cabinet overnight. The bacterial inoculum was spread evenly onto the surface of the Mueller Hinton agar plates using a sterile cotton bud before the extract discs were positioned on the inoculated agar surface. Each extract was assayed in triplicate. Sterile distilled water served as negative control. Gentamicin (10 µg/disc) was used as standard to confirm that all the microorganisms tested were inhibited by the antibiotic. All the plates were incubated for 24 hr at 37° C. The antibacterial activity was interpreted from the size of the diameter of zone inhibition measured to the nearest millimeter (mm) as observed from the clear zones surrounding the discs.

Determination of MIC and MBC values

The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts was determined for S. aureus and S. typhimurium using the twofold serial microdilution method with saline at a final concentration ranging from 5 mg/ml to 0.0024 mg/ml. The tested extracts were added to sterile Mueller Hinton broth into microtiter plates before the diluted bacterial suspension (final inoculum of 105 bacteria/ml) were added. Each extract was assayed in triplicate. The bacterial suspensions were used as positive control and extracts in broth were used as negative control. The MIC values were taken as the lowest concentration of the extracts in the wells of the microtiter plate that showed no turbidity after 24 hours of incubation at 37° C. The turbidity of the wells in the microtiter plate were interpreted as visible growth of the microorganisms. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by subculture of the well showing no apparent growth in a sterile agar plate. The least concentration showing no visible growth on agar subculture was taken as MBC value.


 » Results Top


Determination of MIC and MBC

The MIC values of the aqueous and acetone extracts from the galls of Q. infectoria against S. aureus and S. typhimurium are shown in [Table - 1]. The MIC values of the aqueous and acetone extracts were the same (0.0781 mg/ml) against S. aureus, whereas the MIC values of aqueous and acetone extracts against S. typhimurium were 0.6250 mg/ml and 1.25 mg/ml, respectively. The lower MIC values of both the extracts against S. aureus in comparison to S. typhimurium suggests that S. aureus showed greater sensitivity towards the extracts of the Q. infectoria galls.

[Table - 2] shows the result of MBC of the aqueous and acetone extracts from the galls of Q. infectoria against S. aureus and S. typhimurium. The MBC value of the aqueous extract against S. aureus was higher (0.3125 mg/ml) compared to its MIC value of 0.0781 mg/ml. This was also observed for S. typhimurium in which the MBC values of the aqueous extract was also higher (2.5 mg/ml) compared to its MIC value ie. 0.6250 mg/ml. As for the acetone extract against S. aureus, although its MBC value was also higher (0.1563 mg/ml) than its MIC value of 0.0781 mg/ml, it is interesting to note that the MIC and MBC values of the acetone extracts against S. typhimurium were the same (1.250 mg/ml). This means that the acetone extracts of the galls of Q. infectoria, may be considered bactericidal for S. typhimurium. As for S. aureus, both the aqueous and acetone extracts were bacteriostatic agents. The aqueous extracts, however, displayed consistent bacteriostatic activity against both bacterial species.


 » Discussion Top


Our study showed that the extracts from the galls inhibited the Gram-positive bacteria better than Gram-negative. Generally, plant extracts are usually more active against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria.[18] Our findings were also supported by other researchers who reported that the crude powder of the galls of Q. infectoria was found to be active against S. aureus and B. subtilis while both the methanol and aqueous extracts were active against S. epidermidis.[8] In the present study, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and B. subtilis were also inhibited by the acetone extract. In addition to these bacterial strains, P. aeruginosa was also found to be susceptible to both the extracts tested. This is in accordance with a study[19[ that one of the most susceptible bacteria to the effect of the ethanol extract from the galls of Q. infectoria was P. aeruginosa.

The range of MIC values for both S. aureus and S. typhimurium correlated well with the results obtained using the disc diffusion method. The MIC values for both extracts against S. aureus are lower when compared with Gram-negative bacteria. This shows that the Gram-positive bacteria is more susceptible to the effect of the extracts from the galls of Q. infectoria with respect to its Gram-negative counterpart.

The MBC values were higher than the MIC values of the extracts against both the bacteria tested except for acetone extract from the galls of Q. infectoria. The MIC and MBC values of acetone extract were the same against S. typhimurium while the MBC values of both the extracts were 2-4 times greater than their MIC values for S. aureus. This suggests that the bioactive compound in the extracts of the galls of Q. infectoria, was bacteriostatic against S. aureus rather than bactericidal as reported previously.[20]

It is well known that tannin is a phenolic compound which is soluble in water, alcohol and acetone, and gives precipitates with protein.[21] The similarity in the antimicrobial activity of both the aqueous and acetone extracts suggest that these extracts may have high total tannin content. The antimicrobial activity seemed to depend on the contents of tannin in the plant extracts.[22]

High amounts of tannin present in the galls of Q. infectoria[12],[13],[14] implied that tannin may be the active compound which may be responsible for the antibacterial activity in this study. Tannin in plant extracts was found to possess antibacterial activity.[23]

In conclusion, the extracts of the galls of Q. infectoria have high potential as antibacterial agent. This finding provides an insight into the usage of the galls of Q. infectoria in traditional treatment of wounds or burns associated with bacterial infections.

 
 » References Top

1.Samuelsson G. Drugs of Natural Origin. 4th Ed. Sweden: Swedish Pharmaceutical Press; 1999.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Muhamad Z, Mustafa AM. Traditional Malay Medicinal Plants. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn Bhd 1994. Chapter 6.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Kottakkal AVS. Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol 4. Orient Longman Ltd. 1995.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Bhattacharjee SK. Handbook of Medicinal Plants. India: Pointer Publishers; 2001.   Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Hwang JK, Kong TW, Baek NI, Pyun YR. α-Glycosidase Inhibitory Activity of hexagalloylglucose from the galls of Quercus infectoria. Planta Med 2000;66:273-4.  Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]  
6.Dar MS, Ikram M, Fakouhi T. Pharmacology of Quercus infectoria. J Pharm Sci 1976;65:1791-4.  Back to cited text no. 6  [PUBMED]  
7.Hussein G, Miyashiro H, Nakamura N, Hattori M, Kakiuchi N, Shimotohno K. Inhibitory effects of Sudanese medicinal plant extracts on hepatitis C virus protease. Phytother Res 2000;14:510-6.  Back to cited text no. 7  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
8.Fatima S, Farooqi AHA, Kumar R, Kumar TRS, Khanuja SPS. Antibacterial activity possessed by medicinal plants used in tooth powders. J Med Aromatic Plant Sci 2001;22:187-9.   Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Digraki M, Alma MH, Ilcim A, Sen S. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of various commercial plant extracts. Pharm Biol 1999;37:216-20.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Redwane A, Lazrek HB, Bouallam S, Markouk M, Amarouch H, Jana M. Larvicidal activity of extracts from Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.). J Ethnopharmacol 2002;79:261-3.  Back to cited text no. 10  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
11.Kaur G, Hamid H, Ali A, Alam MS, Athar M. Antiinflammatory evaluation of alcoholic extract of galls of Quercus infectoria. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;90:285-92.  Back to cited text no. 11  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
12.Ikram M, Nowshad F. Constituents of Quercus infectoria. Planta Med 1977;31: 286-7.  Back to cited text no. 12  [PUBMED]  
13.Evans WC. Pharmacopoeial and related drugs of biological origin. In: Trease and Evan's Pharmacognosy. London: WB Saunders Co. Ltd.; 1996.  Back to cited text no. 13    
14.Wiart C, Kumar A. Practical Handbook of Pharmacognosy. Malaysia: Pearson Education Malaysia Sdn Bhd; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 14    
15.Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999;12: 564-82.  Back to cited text no. 15  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
16.Khartini AW, Dayang Fredalina B, Kaswandi A, Hing HL, Oon KW, Sit NW. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Holothuria sp. and B. marmorata vitiensis. Malaysian J Biochem Mol Biol 2003;8:49-53.  Back to cited text no. 16    
17.Andrews JM. BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001. p. 48-57.  Back to cited text no. 17    
18.Lin J, Opaku AR, Geheeb-Keller M, Hutchings AD, Terblanche SE, Jäger AK, et al. Preliminary screening of some traditional Zulu medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;68:267-74.  Back to cited text no. 18    
19.Nimri LF, Meqdam MM, Alkofahi A. Antibacterial activity of Jordanian medicinal plants. Pharm Biol 1999;37:196-201.  Back to cited text no. 19    
20.Toda M, Okube S, Hiyoshi R, Shimamura T. The bactericidal activity of tea and coffee. Lett Appl Microbiol 1989;8:123-5.  Back to cited text no. 20    
21.Leach CK. The phenolic contents of some British cynipid galls. Cecidology 1986;1:10-2.  Back to cited text no. 21    
22.Djipa CD, Delmee M, Quetin-Leclercq J. Antimicrobial activity of bark extracts of Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 2000;71:307-13.  Back to cited text no. 22  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
23.Irobi ON, Moo-Young M, Anderson WA, Daramola SO. Antibacterial activity of bark extracts of Bridelia ferruginea (Euphorbiaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 1994;43:185-90.  Back to cited text no. 23  [PUBMED]  


Tables

[Table - 1], [Table - 2]

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[Pubmed]
44 Synergistic interactions of methanolic extract of Acacia mearnsii de wild. with antibiotics against bacteria of clinical relevance
Olajuyigbe, O.O. and Afolayan, A.J.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(7): 8915-8932
[Pubmed]
45 Extraction and pharmacological evaluation of flavonoids of sida acuta Burm. f.
Jindal, A. and Kumar, P. and Singh, G.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy. 2012; 6(3): 208-211
[Pubmed]
46 In vitro propagation and characterization of phenolic content along with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Cichorium pumilum Jacq
Al Khateeb, W. and Hussein, E. and Qouta, L. and Aluædatt, M. and Al-Shara, B. and Abu-zaiton, A.
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. 2012; 110(1): 103-110
[Pubmed]
47 Antifungal activity of flavonoids of Sida acuta Burm f. against Candida albicans
Alka, J. and Padma, K. and Chitra, J.
International Journal of Drug Development and Research. 2012; 4(3): 92-96
[Pubmed]
48 In vitro antimicrobial activity of Tribulus terrestris L
Jindal, A. and Kumar, P. and Singh, G.
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 4(SUPPL.3): 270-272
[Pubmed]
49 Identification and antibacterial evaluation of bioactive compounds from Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds
Seanego, C.T. and Ndip, R.N.
Molecules. 2012; 17(6): 6569-6584
[Pubmed]
50 Extraction and pharmacological evaluation of some extracts of Vitex negundo Linn
Gautam, K. and Kumar, P.
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 4(2): 132-137
[Pubmed]
51 Pharmacological assessment of the medicinal potential of Acacia mearnsii de wild: Antimicrobial and toxicity activities
Olajuyigbe, O.O. and Afolayan, A.J.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(4): 4255-4267
[Pubmed]
52 Evaluation of antigonorrhoeal activity of saponins extract of Sapindus mukorossi gaertn
Bhargava, D. and Shivapuri, J.N. and Kar, S. and Pandit, B.R. and Sidhiqie, A. and Upadhyay, A. and Thakur, S. and Mondal, K.C.
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2012; 3(2): 459-470
[Pubmed]
53 In vitro antibacterial and time-kill assessment of crude methanolic stem bark extract of Acacia mearnsii de wild against bacteria in shigellosis
Olajuyigbe, O.O. and Afolayan, A.J.
Molecules. 2012; 17(2): 2103-2118
[Pubmed]
54 In vitro antibacterial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against oral pathogens
Basri, D.F. and Tan, L.S. and Shafiei, Z. and Zin, N.M.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012; 2012(632796)
[Pubmed]
55 Antibacterial potential of alkaloids of withania somnifera l. & euphorbia hirta l
Singh, G. and Kumar, P.
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 4(1): 78-81
[Pubmed]
56 Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of alkaloids of Terminalia chebula Retz. against some multidrug-resistant microorganisms
Singh, G. and Kumar, P.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy. 2012; 6(1): 57-62
[Pubmed]
57 Effect of Quercus infectoria and Rosa damascena on lipid profile and atherosclerotic plaque formation in rabbit model of hyperlipidemia
Gholamhoseinian, A. and Shahouzehi, B. and Joukar, S. and Iranpoor, M.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2011; 15(1): 27-33
[Pubmed]
58 Screening of antigonorrhoeal activity of some medicinal plants in Nepal
Mondal, K.C. and Bhargava, D. and Kar, S. and Shivapuri, J.N. and Shakya, B. and Maity, C.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2011; 2(1): 203-212
[Pubmed]
59 In-vitro anti-bacterial activities of crude n-hexane extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds against some Vibrio bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents
Okoh, A.I. and Penduka, D.
Scientific Research and Essays. 2011; 6(29): 6132-6139
[Pubmed]
60 In vitro anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) seeds
Penduka, D. and Okoh, A.I.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(10): 6952-6965
[Pubmed]
61 Using bryophytes as a tool to cure European foulbrood disease of honey bee: An eco-friendly approach
Gahtori, D. and Chaturvedi, P. and Singh, S.
Current Science. 2011; 101(3): 420-423
[Pubmed]
62 Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of flavonoids of Withania somnifera L.
Singh, G. and Kumar, P.
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 73(4): 473-478
[Pubmed]
63 Damage of staphylococcal cytoplasmic membrane by Quercus infectoria G. Olivier and its components
Chusri, S. and Voravuthikunchai, S.P.
Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2011; 52(6): 565-572
[Pubmed]
64 In-vitro antagonistic activities of crude dichloromethane extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds against potentially pathogenic Vibrio species
Penduka, D. and Okoh, A.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2011; 5(10): 2071-2077
[Pubmed]
65 Antifungal and antibacterial potential of methanol and chloroform extracts of Marchantia polymorpha L.
Gahtori, D. and Chaturvedi, P.
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2011; 44(8): 726-731
[Pubmed]
66 Extraction and antibacterial evaluation of some extracts of Tridax procumbens
Jadhav, A.D. and Sawant Mahesh, T.B. and Chavadar, S.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 2011; 5(1): 343-347
[Pubmed]
67 In-Vitro antagonistic characteristics of crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds against some Vibrio bacteria
Penduka, D. and Okoh, O.O. and Okoh, A.I.
Molecules. 2011; 16(4): 2754-2765
[Pubmed]
68 Antimicrobial efficacy of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) spreng. root extracts
Malwal, M. and Sarin, R.
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. 2011; 2(1): 48-51
[Pubmed]
69 In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) Seeds
Dambudzo Penduka,Anthony I. Okoh
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(12): 6952
[Pubmed]
70 The role of natural dyes in the UV protection of fabrics made of vegetable fibres
Daniele Grifoni, Laura Bacci, Gaetano Zipoli, Lorenzo Albanese, Francesco Sabatini
Dyes and Pigments. 2011; 91(3): 279
[VIEW]
71 Antifungal and antibacterial potential of methanol and chloroform extracts of <i>Marchantia polymorpha</i> L.
Dheeraj Gahtori, Preeti Chaturvedi
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2011; 44(8): 726
[VIEW]
72 Search for antibacterial agents from Malaysian rainforest and tropical plants
Mukhrizah Othman, Sivaneswary Genapathy, Pit Sze Liew, Qin Ting Ch’ng, Hwei San Loh, Teng Jin Khoo, Christophe Wiart, Kang Nee Ting
Natural Product Research. 2011; : 1
[VIEW]
73 Damage of staphylococcal cytoplasmic membrane by Quercus infectoria G. Olivier and its components : Anti-MRSA mechanism of Quercus infectoria G. Olivier
S. Chusri, S.P. Voravuthikunchai
Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2011; : no
[VIEW]
74 Topical Treatment of Dermatophytic Lesion on Mice (Mus musculus) Model
Bindu Sharma, Padma Kumar, Suresh Chandra Joshi
Indian Journal of Microbiology. 2011;
[VIEW]
75 Growth Inhibition of Pathogenic Bacteriaby Extract of Quercus Infectoria Galls
C. Satirapathkul,T. Leela
International Journal of Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics. 2011; : 26
[Pubmed]
76 Interactions of antibiotics and extracts of Helichrysum pedunculatum against bacteria implicated in wound infections
O. A. Aiyegoro,A. J. Afolayan,A. I. Okoh
Folia Microbiologica. 2010; 55(2): 176
[Pubmed]
77 Inhibitory Effect of Some Plant Extracts on Pancreatic Lipase
A. Gholamhose, B. Shahouzehi, F. Sharifi-fa
International Journal of Pharmacology. 2010; 6(1): 18
[VIEW]
78 Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Nigeria
Okoro, I.O., Osagie, A., Asibor, E.O.
African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010; 9(20): 2989-2993
[Pubmed]
79 In vitro antibacterial activities of crude extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against wound sepsis associated Staphylococcus strains
Sibanda, T., Olaniran, A.O., Okoh, A.I.
Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2010; 4(8): 710-716
[Pubmed]
80 Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agent: Current methods and future trends
Das, K., Tiwari, R.K.S., Shrivastava, D.K.
Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2010; 4(2): 104-111
[Pubmed]
81 Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of traditional Thai herbal remedies for aphthous ulcers
Chantana Mekseepralard, Narisa Kamkaen, Jenny M. Wilkinson
Phytotherapy Research. 2010; 24(10): 1514
[VIEW]
82 Interactions of antibiotics and extracts of helichrysum pedunculatum against bacteria implicated in wound infections
Aiyegoro, O.A., Afolayan, A.J., Okoh, A.I.
Folia Microbiologica. 2010; 55(2): 176-180
[Pubmed]
83 Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Quercus persica jaub & spach fruitæs hidroalcoholic extract in disc diffusion method
Ebrahimi, A., Khayami, M., Nejati, V.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2010; 9(33): 26-34
[Pubmed]
84 Efficacy of Clerodendrum inerme L. (garden quinine) against some human pathogenic strains
Chahal, J.K. and Sarin, R. and Malwal, M.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2010; 1(4): 746-751
[Pubmed]
85 Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Nigeria
Okoro, I.O. and Osagie, A. and Asibor, E.O.
African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010; 9(20): 2989-2993
[Pubmed]
86 In vitro antibacterial activities of crude extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against wound sepsis associated Staphylococcus strains
Sibanda, T. and Olaniran, A.O. and Okoh, A.I.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2010; 4(8): 710-716
[Pubmed]
87 Interactions of antibiotics and extracts of helichrysum pedunculatum against bacteria implicated in wound infections
Aiyegoro, O.A. and Afolayan, A.J. and Okoh, A.I.
Folia Microbiologica. 2010; 55(2): 176-180
[Pubmed]
88 Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Quercus persica jaub & spach fruitæs hidroalcoholic extract in disc diffusion method
Ebrahimi, A. and Khayami, M. and Nejati, V.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2010; 9(33): 26-34
[Pubmed]
89 Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agent: Current methods and future trends
Das, K. and Tiwari, R.K.S. and Shrivastava, D.K.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2010; 4(2): 104-111
[Pubmed]
90 Inhibitory effect of some plant extracts on Pancreatic Lipase
Gholamhoseinian, A. and Shahouzebi, B. and Sharifi-far, F.
International Journal of Pharmacology. 2010; 6(1): 18-24
[Pubmed]
91 The role of methanolic extract of Quercus infectoria bark in lipemia, glycemia, gastric ulcer and bacterial growth
Khouzami, L. and Mroueh, M. and Daher, C.F.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2009; 3(4): 224-230
[Pubmed]
92 Synergistic interaction of Helichrysum pedunculatum leaf extracts with antibiotics against wound infection associated bacteria
Aiyegoro, O.A. and Afolayan, A.J. and Okoh, A.I.
Biological Research. 2009; 42(3): 327-338
[Pubmed]
93 Changes in cell surface properties of shiga toxigenic escherichia coli by quercus infectoria g. olivier
Voravuthikunchai, S.P. and Suwalak, S.
Journal of Food Protection. 2009; 72(8): 1699-1704
[Pubmed]
94 Antibacterial activity of methanolic crude extracts from selected plant against bacillus cereus
Muskhazli, M. and Dirnahayu, M. and Nor Azwady, A.A. and Nurhafiza, Y. and Nor, D.E. and Che Ku Nurshaira, C.K.N.
Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science. 2009; 32(2): 175-183
[Pubmed]
95 Antibacterial activity of methanolic crude extracts from selected plant against bacillus cereus
Muskhazli, M., Dirnahayu, M., Nor Azwady, A.A., Nurhafiza, Y., Nor, D.E., Che Ku Nurshaira, C.K.N.
Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science. 2009; 32(2): 175-183
[Pubmed]
96 The potential role of daucus carota aqueous and methanolic extracts on inflammation and gastric ulcers in rats
Wehbe, K., Mroueh, M., Daher, C.F.
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 2009; 6(1): art 7
[Pubmed]
97 Antibacterial activity of tea and coffee: Their extracts and preparations
Singh Arora, D., Jeet Kaur, G., Kaur, H.
International Journal of Food Properties. 2009; 12(2): 286-294
[Pubmed]
98 Bioefficacy of Lantana camara L. against some human pathogens
Sharma, B., Kumar, P.
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2009; 71(5): 589-593
[Pubmed]
99 Morphological and ultrastructural changes in the cell structure of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 following treatment with Quercus infectoria nut galls
S. Suwalak, S. P. Voravuthikunchai
Journal of Electron Microscopy. 2009; 58(5): 315
[VIEW]
100 Synergistic interaction of Helichrysum pedunculatum leaf extracts with antibiotics against wound infection associated bacteria
Aiyegoro, O.A., Afolayan, A.J., Okoh, A.I.
Biological Research. 2009; 42(3): 327-338
[Pubmed]
101 The role of methanolic extract of Quercus infectoria bark in lipemia, glycemia, gastric ulcer and bacterial growth
Khouzami, L., Mroueh, M., Daher, C.F.
Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2009; 3(4): 224-230
[Pubmed]
102 Medicinal plants with significant activity against important pathogenic bacteria
Surasak Limsuwan, Sanan Subhadhirasakul, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai
Pharmaceutical Biology. 2009; 47(8): 683
[VIEW]
103 Antibacterial Activity of Tea and Coffee: Their Extracts and Preparations
Daljit Singh Arora, Gurinder Jeet Kaur, Hardeep Kaur
International Journal of Food Properties. 2009; 12(2): 286
[VIEW]
104 Biological activity of alkaloids from <i>Solanum dulcamara</i> L.
Padma Kumar, Bindu Sharma, Nidhi Bakshi
Natural Product Research. 2009; 23(8): 719
[VIEW]
105 Changes in cell surface properties of shiga toxigenic escherichia coli by quercus infectoria g. olivier
Voravuthikunchai, S.P., Suwalak, S.
Journal of Food Protection. 2009; 72(8): 1699-1704
[Pubmed]
106 Medicinal plants with significant activity against important pathogenic bacteria
Limsuwan, S., Subhadhirasakul, S., Voravuthikunchai, S.P.
Pharmaceutical Biology. 2009; 47(8): 683-689
[Pubmed]
107 Biological activity of alkaloids from Solanum dulcamara L.
Kumar, P., Sharma, B., Bakshi, N.
Natural Product Research. 2009; 23(8): 719-723
[Pubmed]
108 Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens
Vermani, A., Navneet, Prabhat
Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2009; 20(3): 337-339
[Pubmed]
109 Antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activity off anthraquinone isolated from aloe vera (Liliaceae)
Lone, M.A., Malviya, D., Mishra, P., Dubby, A., Saxena, R.C.
Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2009; 21(3): 1807-1811
[Pubmed]
110 Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens
Vermani, A. and Navneet and Prabhat
Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2009; 20(3): 337-339
[Pubmed]
111 The potential role of daucus carota aqueous and methanolic extracts on inflammation and gastric ulcers in rats
Wehbe, K. and Mroueh, M. and Daher, C.F.
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 2009; 6(1)
[Pubmed]
112 Antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activity off anthraquinone isolated from aloe vera (Liliaceae)
Lone, M.A. and Malviya, D. and Mishra, P. and Dubby, A. and Saxena, R.C.
Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2009; 21(3): 1807-1811
[Pubmed]
113 Bioefficacy of Lantana camara L. against some human pathogens
Sharma, B. and Kumar, P.
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2009; 71(5): 589-593
[Pubmed]
114 Antibacterial activity of Centella asiatica against seven pathogenic bacteria isolated from the Urine of diabetic patients
Chauhan, P.K. and Pandey, I.P. and Awasthi, G. and Dhatwalia, V.K. and Singh, V.
Biomedicine (India). 2009; 29(1): 62-64
[Pubmed]
115 Comparative study on the in vitro antibacterial efficacy of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Quercus infectoria gallæs against Cellulosimicrobium cellulans
Muskhazli, M. and Nurhafiza, Y. and Nor Azwady, A.A. and Nor Dalilah, E. and Dirnahayu, M. and Che Ku Nurshaira, C.K.N.
Journal of Biological Sciences. 2008; 8(3): 634-638
[Pubmed]
116 Extraction and pharmacological evaluation of some extracts of tridax procumbens and capparis decidua
Sharma, B. and Kumar, P.
International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products. 2008; 1(4): 5-12
[Pubmed]
117 Antimicrobial activity of extracts of Marchantia polymorpha
Mewari, N. and Kumar, P.
Pharmaceutical Biology. 2008; 46(10-11): 819-822
[Pubmed]
118 Antimicrobial properties of tropical plants against 12 pathogenic bacteria isolated from aquatic organisms
Wei, L.S. and Musa, N. and Sengm, C.T. and Wee, W. and Shazili, N.A.M.
African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008; 7(13): 2275-2278
[Pubmed]
119 Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural compounds of plant origin: Current methods and future trends
Ncube, N.S. and Afolayan, A.J. and Okoh, A.I.
African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008; 7(12): 1797-1806
[Pubmed]
120 In vitro evaluation of the interactions between acetone extracts of Garcinia kola seeds and some antibiotics
Sibanda, T. and Okoh, A.I.
African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008; 7(11): 1672-1678
[Pubmed]
121 Antibacterial activities of semipurified fractions of Quercus infectoria against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its verocytotoxin production
Vuthikunchai, S.P.V. and Suwalak, S.
Journal of Food Protection. 2008; 71(6): 1223-1227
[Pubmed]
122 In vitro antibacterial regimes of crude aqueous and acetone extracts of Garcinia kola seeds
Sibanda, T. and Okoh, A.I.
Journal of Biological Sciences. 2008; 8(1): 149-154
[Pubmed]
123 Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of <i>Marchantia polymorpha</i>
Neelam Mewari, Padma Kumar
Pharmaceutical Biology. 2008; 46(10-11): 819
[VIEW]
124 In vitro Antibacterial Regimes of Crude Aqueous and Acetone Extracts of Garcinia kola Seeds
T. Sibanda ., A.I. Okoh .
Journal of Biological Sciences. 2008; 8(1): 149
[VIEW]
125 Comparative Study on the in vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Quercus infectoria Gall`s Against Cellulosimicrobium cellulans
M. Muskhazli, Y. Nurhafiza, A.A. Nor Azwady, E. Nor Dalilah
Journal of Biological Sciences. 2008; 8(3): 634
[VIEW]
126 Antimicrobial activity of extracts of Marchantia polymorpha
Mewari, N., Kumar, P.
Pharmaceutical Biology. 2008; 46(10-11): 819-822
[Pubmed]
127 Antimicrobial properties of tropical plants against 12 pathogenic bacteria isolated from aquatic organisms
Wei, L.S., Musa, N., Sengm, C.T., Wee, W., Shazili, N.A.M.
African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008; 7(13): 2275-2275
[Pubmed]
128 Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural compounds of plant origin: Current methods and future trends
Ncube, N.S., Afolayan, A.J., Okoh, A.I.
African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008; 7(12): 1797-1806
[Pubmed]
129 In vitro evaluation of the interactions between acetone extracts of Garcinia kola seeds and some antibiotics
Sibanda, T., Okoh, A.I.
African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008; 7(11): 1672-1678
[Pubmed]
130 Antibacterial activities of semipurified fractions of Quercus infectoria against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its verocytotoxin production
Vuthikunchai, S.P.V., Suwalak, S.
Journal of Food Protection. 2008; 71(6): 1223-1227
[Pubmed]
131 Evaluation of wound healing activity of galls of Quercus infectoria
Choudhary, G.P.
Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2007; 19(4): 3271-3273
[Pubmed]
132 Inhibitory activity of pine needle tannin extracts on some agriculturally resourceful microbes
G. Selvakumar, Supradip Saha, S. Kundu
Indian Journal of Microbiology. 2007; 47(3): 267
[VIEW]
133 Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Caralluma adscendens roxb. stem
Tatiya, A.U. and Patil, U.K. and Kulkarni, A.S. and Surana, S.J.
Indian Drugs. 2007; 44(8): 622-625
[Pubmed]
134 Evaluation of wound healing activity of galls of Quercus infectoria
Choudhary, G.P.
Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2007; 19(4): 3271-3273
[Pubmed]
135 The effect of water extract of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and lactic acid on decontamination and shelf life of raw broiler wings
Gulmez, M., Oral, N., Vatansever, L.
Poultry Science. 2006; 85(8): 1466-1471
[Pubmed]
136 The Effect of Water Extract of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and Lactic Acid on Decontamination and Shelf Life of Raw Broiler Wings
M. Gulmez,N. Oral,L. Vatansever
Poultry Science. 2006; 85(8): 1466
[Pubmed]



 

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