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Year : 1996  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 143-151

Progress made in non-invasive insulin delivery



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V P Patki


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Insulin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus. It is a small protein having a molecular weight of 5808. An ideal insulin delivery system should deliver insulin in a pulsatile manner, control the rate of insulin delivery depending on blood glucose concentration, should be delivered into the portal circulation. In addition there should be minimum intraindividual variation, it should be easy to administer and economical. The current insulin treatment does not meet these requirements, hence alternate routes are being developed. The oral delivery though the most convenient and acceptable route however is degraded by intestinal enzymes therefore. insulin was administered with enzyme inhibitors, coated with azoaromatic polymer in the form of nanocapsules, liposomes, microemulsions. But oral delivery showed variable responses and could lead to immunological problems. Increased absorption of insulin by the nasal mucosa was tried by adding various surfactants and by increasing the time of contact. However these surfactants caused irritation and could lead to anti-insulin antibodies. The advantage of pulmonary aerosol is that significant absorption of insulin takes place without the use of absorption promoting agents. The long term effects of this delivery has to be assessed. Besides these the other routes tried are ocular, transdermal. buccal, rectal and vaginal.






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