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 REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 1995  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 204-213

Methods for teratogenicity testing-existing and future models



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Kotwani Anita


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Government agencies require that drugs and food additives be evaluated for their teratologic potential before these are released in the market. The presently available methods are (a) studies in rodents and (b) surveillance of human epidemiology. Rat is the species most often used for routine studies and in vivo data obtained from this animal makes up an important part of submission to government agencies with respect to teratogenic potential. However, the routine animal test systems have not proved particularly reliable predictors of hazards to the human fetus. The number of compounds which must be tested for teratogenicity has increased dramatically with the continuous development of therapeutic, cosmetic and food additive chemicals. It is unrealistic to attempt to perform complete in vivo teratogenicity tests on each and every one of these chemicals. Thus cheaper, quicker, more efficient, but nevertheless reliable tests must be developed. In the last few years, a number of other systems have been proposed as possible screening tests for teratogenicity. The available in vitro systems are - mammalian organ culture; vertebrate embryos e.g., chick, fish, and amphibian embryos; invertebrate system like, drosophila, cricket and hydra; organ culture e.g., limb bud and cell culture system. At present no single in vitro system is likely to supersede animal testing, but one can foresee the development of successful battery of tests for identifying compounds for further in vivo testing.






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